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Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Dissecting intracranial vertebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R N; Menon, G; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    Dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial arteries are exceedingly rare vascular lesions that can produce acute cerebral or brain stem infarction in young healthy adults. They carry a high mortality rate. Two cases of dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms that presented with bleed, were successfully operated by trapping and excision of the dissecting segment. Both dissecting aneurysms were located distal to PICA origin. Both the patients developed post operative lower cranial nerve paresis and one developed lateral medullary syndrome, which improved subsequently. Dissecting aneurysms presenting with bleed should be surgically managed by trapping and excising the involved segment sparing the PICA origin or by interventional radiological techniques. Revascularisation procedures should be considered in addition to trapping of the main vertebral segment if PICA is involved in the trapped segment. The diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties associated with dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms and the controversies regarding their management have been reviewed. PMID:11799414

  2. Surgical reconstruction of the proximal vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I; de los Reyes, R A; Pearce, J; Shrontz, C; Pak, H; Turcotte, J

    1984-11-01

    The authors have reviewed their experience in the management of 55 patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital with symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and associated proximal vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. In 48 patients, the symptoms occurred as multiple repeated events, five of which resulted in permanent deficits. The remaining seven patients had single events, four of which caused permanent deficit. These patients had been treated unsuccessfully with antiplatelet agents (37 cases) and with anticoagulant drugs (15 cases) before surgery. Most patients had multiple angiographic abnormalities, including bilateral vertebral stenosis in 19 cases, unilateral vertebral stenosis and contralateral occlusion in 18, unilateral vertebral hypoplasia and contralateral stenosis in 10, subclavian artery stenosis with steal in seven, and bilateral vertebral artery occlusion in one case. Posterior communicating arteries could not be demonstrated angiographically in 18 patients. Thirty-four patients had associated stenotic or occlusive lesions of the internal carotid artery. Forty-eight underwent a vertebral-to-carotid artery transposition. Of these, 18 had an associated carotid endarterectomy and seven had a vertebral artery endarterectomy immediately before the transposition. Two patients had saphenous vein grafts, one from the subclavian and one from the common carotid artery to the vertebral artery. Other surgical procedures included vertebral artery ligation in one case, transposition of the vertebral artery to the thyrocervical trunk in two cases and to the subclavian artery in one case, and endarterectomy of the origin of the vertebral artery in one case. All but two patients had complete resolution of their symptoms: one had persistent dizziness and the other had syncopal episodes. Complications included transient Horner's syndrome (30 cases) which became permanent in four cases, vocal cord paralysis (three cases), elevated hemidiaphragm without respiratory difficulty (two cases), and superficial would infection (one case). There were no deaths. Although the presentation of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency is generally characteristic, we believe that a specific diagnosis can be established only by angiographic means. Anticoagulants have been used to alleviate symptoms in some cases but are ineffective in solving the primary hemodynamic problem. Surgical reconstruction of the affected area deserves further evaluation in the management of these patients. PMID:6491733

  3. The dural crossing of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J; Toussaint, P; Deramond, H; Gondry, C; Bruniau, A; Gontier, M-F; Le Gars, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the anatomic and macroscopic aspects of the vertebral artery at the level of the dural crossing. Twenty vertebral arteries in 10 cadavers were dissected. The preparations were photographed and all the samples at the level of the dural crossing were submitted to a histologic study. Macroscopic results allow specification of the relationships between the dural crossing of the vertebral artery and the nervous elements (C1 and C2 nerves, mixed nerves), the vascular elements (postero-inferior cerebellar artery), the dural sheath and the first two dentate ligament tips. Microscopic results show the intricate relationship of the different layers of the vertebral artery with the dura at its crossing. Dural fibers reinforce the adventitial fibers not only by continuing them in their contact, much as the pages of a book, but also by being encrusted into the adventitia up to the tunica media, thus creating a very efficient mooring system. This work provides some information for an understanding of the symptoms induced by foramen magnum meningiomas and the onset of clinical signs after the surgical excision of these tumors. It also explains why dissections of the suboccipital segment of the vertebral artery stop at the level of the dural crossing, and never spread towards the intracranial segment. PMID:12923664

  4. Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection: Posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Manoj; Wadhwa, Anju; Rajdeo, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is relatively rare but an important cause of posterior circulation stroke. A 46-year-male complaining of sudden onset headache, neck pain with right-sided neuro deficit in the form of hemiparesis was evaluated by contrast magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy computed tomography (CT) and brain neck angiography which revealed a short segment extracranial left-sided VAD, associated with acute infarct in the left occipital region. The patient was managed conservatively and followed up for 6 months. Follow-up CT angiography after a period of 6 months revealed the near complete resolution of the arterial dissection in left vertebral artery. PMID:26692700

  5. Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management. PMID:23024840

  6. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome due to compression of nondominant vertebral artery terminating in posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Noh, Young; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) is characterized by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal vertigo, nystagmus, and ataxia induced by head rotation. We report on a patient who developed atypical RVAS due to compression of the vertebral artery (VA) terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). A 59-year-old man suffered from vertigo and nystagmus induced by leftward head rotation and oculography showed right beating horizontal-torsional and downbeat nystagmus. Cerebral angiography showed hypoplastic right VA terminating in PICA without connection to the basilar artery. The basilar artery received its flow from the left VA only and branched out both anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Cerebral angiography revealed a complete occlusion of the right distal VA at the level of the C1-2 junction when the head was rotated to a leftward position. In contrast, the blood flow through the left vertebral and basilar arteries remained intact while turning the head to either side. The hemodynamic compromise observed in our patient with RVAS indicates that isolated vertigo and nystagmus may occur due to transient ischemia of the inferior cerebellum or lateral medulla. PMID:21416208

  7. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  8. Morphological characteristics of the first part of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Dodevski, A; Lazareska, M; Tosovska-Lazarova, D; Zhivadinovik, J; Aliji, V

    2011-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Because of their anatomical localization, vertebral arteries were neglected in research for a long period of time. Vertebral arteries are responsible for about 30% of the brain blood supply. The aim of this study was to examine the vertebral artery's course in the first segment, and to define the anatomic variations and percentage of their appearance in the adult population using CT angiography. The data derived from this study may find useful application in a wide range of medical fields, such as anatomy, radiology and surgery. For that purpose during a 6-month period we examined 30 patients with CT angiography. The origin of the vertebral artery in all 30 patients was from the subclavian artery. The diameter of the left vertebral artery was from 1.6-5.20 mm., average 3.35 mm. The diameter of the right vertebral artery was from 1.64-5.40 mm., average 3.19 mm. Hypoplasia of the vessel was found in four patients. We found no aplasia of the vessel in this series. A contorted course was found in 12 (40%) patients. In all 30 (100%) patients the vertebral artery entered the foramen transversum at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Although the incidence of anatomical varia-tions is rare, their presence is significant in the diagnostic and surgical procedures in the head and neck region. Insufficient knowledge can lead to serious iatrogenic injures. Key words: vertebral artery, anatomy, variations, origin, hypoplasia, tortuosity. PMID:21822186

  9. Endarterectomy of the vertebral artery from C2 to posterior inferior cerebellar artery intracranially.

    PubMed

    Ausman, J I; Diaz, F G; Pearce, J E; de los Reyes, R A; Leuchter, W; Mehta, B; Patel, S

    1982-12-01

    A new technical approach to endarterectomy of the vertebral artery at the cranial cervical junction is discussed. A patient had symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency on clinical examination. Angiography demonstrated a stenotic plaque in the vertebral artery at the level of C1, and an additional tandem lesion at the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. He underwent vertebral endarterectomy and was symptomatically improved postoperatively. The surgical approach used and possible alternatives will be discussed in detail. PMID:7163958

  10. [Spontaneous dissection and stenosis of the vertebral artery].

    PubMed

    Frauchiger, B; Bernays, D R

    1991-08-31

    The case of a 21-year-old female patient with neck pain and brain stem symptomatology after appendectomy is reported. Duplex sonographic findings were compatible with right vertebral artery dissection and occlusion of the vessel. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient recovered within weeks and was free of symptoms 6 months after the acute episode. Dissection of the vertebral artery can occur with or without minor trauma. Associations with fibromuscular dysplasia, arterial hypertension and the use of oral contraceptives have been reported. As in our own patient, dissection can appear without any vessel pathology or risk situation. The most dangerous complication of the disease is rupture of the adventitia with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Without this complication, prognosis of vertebral artery dissection is favourable with complete recovery within weeks. Clinical findings, diagnostic procedure and therapy are discussed. PMID:1925454

  11. Chiropractic Response to a Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tarola, Gary; Phillips, Reed B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which early detection and proper follow-up of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection led to satisfactory outcomes. Clinical Features A 34-year old white woman reported to a chiropractic clinic with a constant burning pain at the right side of her neck and shoulder with a limited ability to turn her head from side to side, periods of blurred vision, and muffled hearing. Dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, and balance difficulty abated within 1 hour of onset and were not present at the time of evaluation. A pain drawing indicated burning pain in the suboccipital area, neck, and upper shoulder on the right and a pins and needles sensation on the dorsal surface of both forearms. Turning her head from side-to-side aggravated the pain, and the application of heat brought temporary relief. The Neck Disability Index score of 44 placed the patient’s pain in the most severe category. Intervention and Outcome The patient was not treated on the initial visit but was advised of the possibility of a vertebral artery or carotid artery dissection and was recommended to the emergency department for immediate evaluation. The patient declined but later was convinced by her chiropractor to present to the emergency department. A magnetic resonance angiogram of the neck and carotid arteries was performed showing that the left vertebral artery was hypoplastic and appeared to terminate at the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. There was an abrupt moderately long segment of narrowing involving the right vertebral artery beginning near the junction of the V1 and V2 segments. The radiologist noted a concern regarding right vertebral artery dissection. Symptoms resolved and the patient was cleared of any medications but advised that if symptoms reoccurred she was to go for emergency care immediately. Conclusion Recognition and rapid response by the chiropractic physician provided the optimum outcome for this particular patient. PMID:26778932

  12. [The vertebral artery syndrome and patient management tactics].

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, E A

    2012-01-01

    The data of literature on vertebral artery syndrome, its clinical presentations, etiology and pathogenesis are summarized. Based on the own studies, the author considers possibilities for a pathogenetic treatment of this syndrome with sermion (nicergoline). Twenty-two patients, aged 21-71 years (a half of them were outpatients and another half were inpatients), were treated with sermion. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 6 months. The positive effect of sermion on the most frequent clinical symptoms of the vertebral artery syndrome, including headache, vertigo and persistent or sudden increase in the blood pressure, was noted. The long-term treatment with sermion revealed a significant improvement in patient's quality of life measured with SF-36. The treatment was effective in any variant of vertebral artery syndrome regardless of its causes. PMID:23388592

  13. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with monocular blindness and external carotid-vertebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Suo; Zhang, Hong T.; Zhang, Dao P.; Zhang, Shu L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present 2 rare cases of persistent embryonic anastomoses. In one case, the patient presented with persistent trigeminal artery along with multiple foci of cerebral infarction as well as central retinal artery thrombosis. In the other case, the patient had direct anastomosis of the vertebral artery with ipsilateral external carotid artery as well as pontine infarction, aneurysm, and unilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral artery. The findings in these cases may shed light on the clinical presentation of such persistent anastomoses and aid their detection in clinical settings. PMID:25935186

  14. Angioplasty and stenting in the carotid and vertebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, F.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A. G.

    1998-01-01

    Carotid and vertebral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting are new, experimental techniques. Their potential uses are discussed and the results and complications reported to date are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9538479

  15. Management strategy for bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Karagiozov, Kostadin L

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms (BCoVAAns) have no established strategy of management. We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unruptured BCoVAAns between January 2006 and December 2012. Considering surgical risks of lower cranial nerve (LCN) injuries and eventual growth of an opposite side lesion after unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion, we proposed a strategy of combined open and interventional treatment using revascularization. We applied the following several specific techniques: (1) proximal clipping and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) and/or superficial temporary artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses; (2) Distal blood pressure, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) monitoring after parent artery temporary occlusion for safe permanent occlusion of the proximal portions of VA and PICA; (3) V3 to V4 bypass using radial artery (RA) graft with proximal clipping or trapping, two of them combined with OA-PICA bypass; (4) VA fenestration as an opportunity to preserve the flow of the parent artery. Two patients were treated bilaterally and 3 unilaterally, with modified Rankin scale assessed at 39 months postoperatively in average 0 in 2, 1 in 2, and 2 in 1, respectively, and the untreated opposite side lesions without regrowth or bleeding. Two patients with patent V3-RA-V4 bypass complained of dysphagia due to LCN palsies. One of them however suffered a cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the OA-PICA bypass. When BCoVAAns require surgical treatment, revascularization or preservation of the VA should be considered at the first operation. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm can be effectively occluded by coil embolization, even with VA sacrifice if required. PMID:26564148

  16. Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

  17. Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy; Jones, Catherine; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

  18. Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeremy; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

  19. Multidetector computed tomography angiography: Application in vertebral artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Evelyn; Zampakis, Peter; Santosh, Celestine; Razvi, Saif

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is a minimally invasive radiological technique providing high-resolution images of the arterial wall and angiographic images of the lumen. We studied the radiological features of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a consecutive series of patients investigated for acute stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to confirm and define the diagnostic features of VAD on MDCTA. Patients and Methods: Review of patients identified prospectively over a 4-year period with VAD assessed by MDCTA was conducted. Radiological features of VAD on MDCTA were reanalyzed utilising previously reported criteria for VAD. Results: Thirty-five patients (25 males, mean age 49.6 years) with a total of 45 dissected vertebral arteries were reviewed. MDCTA features of VAD included increased wall thickness in 44/45 (97.7%) arteries and increased total vessel diameter in 42/45 arteries (93.3%). All dissected arteries had either lumen stenosis (21/45) or associated segmental occlusion (24/45). An intimal flap was detected in 6/45 (13.3 %) vessels. Twenty-five patients had follow-up imaging, 14/32 vessels returned to normal, 4 showed improvement in stenosis but did not return to normal and 14 demonstrated no change. The majority of non-occluded vessels became normal or displayed improved patency. Only 4/17 occluded arteries demonstrated re-establishment of flow. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusions: MDCTA is a safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of VAD. Increased wall thickness (97.7%) and increased vessel wall diameter (93.3%) were the most frequently observed features. PMID:21633613

  20. Vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass using a radial artery graft for hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms: surgical technique and report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Czabanka, Marcus; Ali, Muhammad; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter; Lawton, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    Endovascular occlusion of hemorrhagic dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VA) is not possible when the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) originates from the dissecting aneurysm or when the contralateral VA provides inadequate collateral blood flow to the distal basilar circulation. The authors introduce a VA-PICA bypass with radial artery interposition graft and aneurysm trapping as an alternative approach and describe 2 cases in which this bypass was used to treat hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysms. The VA-PICA bypass is performed via a standard far lateral approach. An end-to-side anastomosis between the radial artery graft and the PICA at the level of the caudal loop is performed first, and an end-to-side anastomosis is performed between the V(3) segment and the proximal end of the radial artery graft. A 56-year-old woman harbored a hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysm incorporating the origin of the PICA. Endovascular treatment failed, with aneurysm refilling on follow-up angiography. A 65-year-old man had a hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysm and a hypoplastic contralateral VA. Both patients were treated with the VA-PICA bypass and aneurysm trapping, with adequate filling of the PICA territory in the first patient and both the PICA territory and the basilar circulation in the second patient. Vertebral artery-PICA bypass with radial artery interposition graft and subsequent trapping of the dissected VA segment is an alternative to occipital artery-PICA and PICA-PICA bypass for the treatment of hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular occlusion. PMID:20540594

  1. Improvement of sudden bilateral hearing loss after vertebral artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hwa; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia. We report a case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion which dramatically improved after stenting. A 54-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset of bilateral deafness, vertigo, and drowsy mental status. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI showed acute infarction involving both the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and left posterior cerebral artery territory. Cerebral angiography showed bilateral distal VA occlusion, and emergency intracranial stenting was performed in the left VA. After reperfusion therapy his symptoms gradually improved, including hearing impairment. Endovascular stenting may be helpful in a patient with sudden deafness caused by bilateral VA occlusion. PMID:25712982

  2. Sudden cerebral infarction after interventional vertebral artery embolism for vertebral artery injury during removal of C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Liu, Hao; Ma, Litai; Zeng, Jiancheng; Song, Yueming; Xie, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury (VAI) is a rare but serious complication of cervical spine surgery. Instrumented posterior surgery of the upper cervical spine places the vertebral artery at the highest risk of injury. However, VAI during removal of cervical internal fixation is really rare and unexpected. We present a case of 52-year-old male patient who suffered VAI during removal of C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation. An interventional vertebral artery embolism was performed and the patient suffered a sudden cerebral infarction one day after interventional vertebral artery embolism. From this case, removal of upper cervical pedicle screws of malposition is not recommended if it is not really necessary for some other reasons. Interventional vertebral artery embolism is an effective and less invasive procedure than open ligation surgery in the treatment of haemorrhage resulted from VAI but potential risk of cerebral infarction should not be ignored. PMID:26629224

  3. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  4. Cerebellar hemorrhage after embolization of ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to PICA including parent artery

    PubMed Central

    Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Shima, Hiroshi; Seki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some complications related to vertebral artery occlusion by endovascular technique have been reported. However, cerebellar hemorrhage after vertebral artery occlusion in subacute phase is rare. In this report, we describe a patient who showed cerebellar hemorrhage during hypertensive therapy for vasospasm after embolization of a vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Case Description: A 56-year-old female with a ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery developed cerebellar hemorrhage 15 days after embolization of the vertebral artery, including the dissected site. In this patient, the preserved posterior inferior cerebellar artery fed by retrograde blood flow might have been hemodynamically stressed during hypertensive and antiplatelet therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusion: Although cerebellar hemorrhage is not prone to occur in the nonacute stage of embolization of the vertebral artery, it should be taken into consideration that cerebellar hemorrhage may occur during hypertensive treatment. PMID:24872921

  5. Injury of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, F; Caricato, A; Pennisi Mariano, A; Pappalardo, F; Piazza, O; Rollo, M

    1999-09-01

    Two case reports characterized by the complete occlusion of the basilar artery, secondary to dissection of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma are described. These lesions, often clinically silent in the beginning, were able to cause severe neurologic impairment, even after minor head trauma in healthy individuals without predisposing structural disorders. Early detection, based upon the knowledge of the modality of the trauma and upon a correct diagnostic approach, is mandatory to reduce secondary injury. The authors suggest an extensive use of cerebral angiography or angio-magnetic resonance in all cases where clinical conditions are more severe than the computed tomography scan, particularly if the trauma produced a cervical injury with a movement of flexo-extension of the neck. Therapeutic management is discussed. Anti-coagulants, thrombolytic agents or surgical ligation of the vessel has been proposed to prevent the extension of the lesion and to improve the outcome. PMID:10622393

  6. Vertebral artery dissection and cerebellar infarction following chiropractic manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W?L; Chern, C?H; Wu, Y?L; Lee, C?H

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) associated with chiropractic cervical manipulation is a rare but potentially disabling condition. In this report, we present a young patient manifesting with repeated vertigo. Owing to the initial misdiagnosis, the patient later developed cerebellar stroke with inability to stand or walk. Vertigo and disequilibrium are the usual presenting symptoms of this condition, which can result from inner ear or vestibular nerve dysfunction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and even lethal cerebellar infarction or haemorrhage; these last two, although rarely seen in young adults, can be caused by traumatic or spontaneous arterial injury, including injury secondary to chiropractic cervical manipulation. A number of cases of VAD associated with chiropractic cervical manipulation have been reported, but rarely in the emergency medicine literature. We present a case of this rare occurrence, and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:16373786

  7. Treatment of vertebral artery aneurysms with transposition of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to the vertebral artery combined with parent artery occlusion. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Tomitsuka, Nobuhiko; Sasoh, Masayuki; Otawara, Yasunari; Arai, Hirosmi; Ogawa, Akira

    2006-11-01

    The authors describe transposition of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to the vertebral artery (VA) combined with parent artery occlusion for the treatment of VA aneurysms in cases in which a clip could not be applied because of the origin of the ipsilateral PICA. The aneurysm is trapped through a lower lateral suboccipital craniectomy. The PICA is then cut just distal to the aneurysm, and the PICA and VA proximal to the aneurysm are anastomosed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion. The surgical procedure was successfully performed in two patients, each of whom had hypoplastic occipital arteries (OAs). The PICA contralateral to the lesion was hypoplastic in one patient and distant to the ipsilateral PICA in the other patient. Mild transient dysphagia developed postoperatively in one patient due to glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve palsy, and the other patient had an uneventful postoperative course. In both patients, postoperative cerebral angiography demonstrated good patency of the transposed PICA. These results show that transposition of the PICA to the VA is a useful procedure for the reconstruction of the PICA when parent artery occlusion is necessary to exclude a VA aneurysm involving the origin of the PICA and when OA-PICA anastomosis or PICA-PICA anastomosis cannot be performed. PMID:17121146

  8. Puerperal Extracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection and Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Garrard, James W; Simm, Renata F; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Nogueira, Ricardo C

    2016-02-01

    Previously reported only a few times before, we present a case of extracranial vertebral dissection and spontaneous frontoparietal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the puerperium, discussing possible mechanisms and difficulties in management. A 35-year-old woman presented 10 days postcaesarean section with neck pain and vertigo with normal initial investigations. Following recurrent vertigo, headache, and ataxia, imaging revealed a frontoparietal SAH and vertebral artery dissection. The patient was consequently treated with aspirin, and then following a return of symptoms 3 weeks later, warfarin therapy was continued for 6 months. The possible underlying mechanisms for this case are discussed, including reversible cervical vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, although neither was identified. The small SAH alongside recurrent posterior circulation symptoms resulted in the initiation of antithrombotic therapy. This report supports studies demonstrating higher incidence of cervicocephalic arterial dissection in the puerperium. Moreover, the heterogeneous presentation and manifestations of such cases require individualized treatment, and warrant studies into underlying mechanisms behind extracranial dissection and nonaneurysmal SAH. PMID:26696611

  9. A Novel Canine Model of Acute Vertebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Jin, Min; Du, Bin; Lin, Hao; Xu, Chengyong; Jiang, Weijian; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Background The extended time window and theoretic reduction in hemorrhage make mechanical strategies an attractive approach for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. However, a limited availability of suitable animal models of cerebrovascular thrombosis has hampered the study of novel endovascular interventions. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique for site-specific placement of a thrombus in a canine model that would allow for the evaluation of mechanical thrombectomy and clot retrieval methods and the visualization of thrombus dislocation or fragmentation during angiographic manipulation. Methods Angiography and embolization with a preformed thrombus were performed in 12 canines. Under fluoroscopic guidance, an embolism protection device (EPD) was anchored to the middle segment of the left vertebral artery (VA) via the left femoral arterial sheath. A preformed radiopaque clot was injected through the guide catheter into the left VA, via the contralateral femoral artery, proximal to the EPD. After 15 min of occlusion, the EPD was removed and persistent occlusion of the VA was documented angiographically. Results Angiography performed during the observation period confirmed the persistence of VA occlusion in each case, and displacement of the radiopaque clots did not occur during the 3-hour observation period. The technique allowed selective embolization of targeted vessels without thrombus fragmentation. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, a canine model of post-circulation embolism induced by autologous blood clot placement. This model can be rapidly formed and easily operated, and the site of thrombosis can be readily controlled. PMID:26545253

  10. Usefulness of Intraoperative Monitoring during Microsurgical Decompression of Cervicomedullary Compression Caused by an Anomalous Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Dong Mun; Lee, Kun Soo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of cervicomedullary compression by an anomalous vertebral artery treated using microsurgical decompression with intraoperative monitoring. A 68-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. MRI revealed multiple abnormalities, including an anomalous vertebral artery that compressed the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. Suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy was performed. The spinal cord was found to be compressed by the vertebral arteries, which were retracted dorsolaterally. At that time, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changed. After release of the vertebral artery, the SSEP signal normalized instantly. The vertebral artery was then lifted gently and anchored to the dura. There was no other procedural complication. The patient's symptoms improved. This case demonstrates that intraoperative monitoring may be useful for preventing procedural complications during spinal cord microsurgical decompression. PMID:25628814

  11. Vertebral artery dissection in evolution found during chiropractic examination.

    PubMed

    Futch, Dan; Schneider, Michael J; Murphy, Donald; Grayev, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented to an emergency department with sudden onset of transient loss of left peripheral vision. Owing to a history of migraine headaches, she was released with a diagnosis of ocular migraine. Two days later, she sought chiropractic care for the chief symptom of severe neck pain. The chiropractor suspected the possibility of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). No manipulation was performed; instead, MR angiography (MRA) of the neck was obtained, which revealed an acute left VAD with early thrombus formation. The patient was placed on aspirin therapy. Repeat MRA of the neck 3?months later revealed resolution of the thrombus, without progression to stroke. This case illustrates the importance for all healthcare providers who see patients with neck pain and headache to be attentive to the symptomatic presentation of possible VAD in progress. PMID:26564115

  12. Anatomical variations of the carotid-vertebral arteries: "double-vessel" sign on Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatih; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Gulsen, Fatih; Besirli, Kazim; Mihmanli, Ismail

    2011-10-01

    We describe the "double-vessel" sign and its relevance for the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial anatomical variations in a series of four patients with stroke. In these four patients, two arteries could be seen at the expected location of the common carotid artery (CCA), leading to the diagnosis of anatomical variations including separate origin of internal and external carotid artery from the aortic arch on the left side and from the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian artery on the right side, early bifurcation of the CCA on both sides, and an aberrant course of the vertebral artery on the left side. The presence of two arteries at the expected location of the CCA should raise the suspicion of carotid or vertebral arterial variations. PMID:21469149

  13. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  14. Deformity of subclavian artery as a cause of formation of vertebral subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirsanov, R I; Khorev, N G; Kulikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein are 3 clinical case reports concerning formation of vertebral subclavian steal syndrome in deformities of subclavian arteries. By means of duplex scanning, angiography and multispiral computed tomography it was shown that deformities of subclavian arteries in the first segment (proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery) with septal stenosing are accompanied by a typical dopplerographic picture_pattern of steal syndrome. PMID:26035564

  15. Giant serpentine vertebrobasilar aneurysm with vertebral artery hypoplasia and fenestration- a case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Pradeep; Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in paediatric age group is rare and association of the aneurysm with congenital vertebral artery anomaly is further rarer. We describe such a case in an 11-year-old male patient who consulted a paediatrician about headache and vertigo, and a noncontrast CT (NCCT) head revealed peripherally calcified hyperdense mass in prepontine and basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed partially thrombosed giant serpentine aneurysm of right vertebrobasilar artery and contralateral hypoplastic vertebral artery with fenestration. The nondominant left vertebral artery gave off the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, then became hypoplastic and joined with its counterpart to form the basilar artery. This pattern is called as type 9. The patient was kept on conservative management. The role of MRI in this congenital anomaly and its association with vertigo and aneurysm of vertebro-basilar artery is discussed. PMID:25954679

  16. Spatial Relationship between Hypoglossal Schwannoma and the Vertebral Artery Using the Far-Lateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Saeko; TAKAHASHI, Satoshi; SHIDOH, Satoka; YOSHIDA, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    In hypoglossal schwannoma removal via the far-lateral approach needs care as the vertebral arteries are usually adjacent to the tumors. Thus, it is important to understand their location respective to schwannoma to conduct a safe surgery. We reviewed the data of eight patients with hypoglossal schwannoma who underwent surgery in Keio University Hospital in 20052013. There were five males and three females (mean age at initial presentation was 48.6 years, range 3872 years). We especially focused on the spatial relationship between the vertebral artery and the tumor, and evaluated their spatial relationship from intraoperative findings. All eight hypoglossal schwannomas included in the current study were type B according to Kayes classification. As for spatial relationship between the tumor and the vertebral artery, in six out of eight cases, the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath the tumor; in contrast, in the other two cases, it was pushed out by the tumor and identified just after dural opening. Through the far-lateral approach, we found that the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath in most hypoglossal schwannoma; however, the vertebral artery was occasionally located on the tumor surface. From an anatomical perspective, we speculate this unique location of the vertebral artery in these cases is due to the unusual course of the hypoglossal nerve of tumor origin. PMID:26345663

  17. Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

    2014-03-01

    We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

  18. Vertebral Artery Injury during Routine Posterior Cervical Exposure: Case Reports and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Chimenti, Peter C.; Molinari, Robert; Gruhn, William

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Objective We report the unusual occurrence of vertebral artery injury (VAI) during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine. The importance of preoperative planning to identify the course of the bilateral vertebral arteries during routine posterior cervical spine surgery is emphasized. Methods VAI is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spinal surgery. Most reports of VAI are related to anterior surgical exposure or screw placement in the posterior cervical spine. VAI incurred during posterior cervical spinal exposure surgery is not adequately addressed in the existing literature. Two cases of VAI that occurred during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine in the region of C2 are described. Results VAI was incurred unexpectedly in the region of the midportion of the posterior C1–C2 interval during the initial surgical exposure phase of the operation. An aberrant vertebral artery course in the V2 anatomical section in the region between C1 and C2 intervals was identified postoperatively in both patients. A literature review demonstrates a relatively high incidence of vertebral artery anomalies in the upper cervical spine; however, the literature is deficient in reporting vertebral artery injury in this region. Recommendations for preoperative vertebral artery imaging also remain unclear at this time. Conclusions Successful management of this unexpected complication was achieved in both cases. This case report and review of the literature highlights the importance of preoperative vertebral artery imaging and knowledge of the course of the vertebral arteries prior to planned routine posterior exposure of the upper cervical spine. In both cases, aberrancy of the vertebral artery was present and not investigated or detected preoperatively. PMID:26682106

  19. Vertebral Artery Injury during Routine Posterior Cervical Exposure: Case Reports and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Robert W; Chimenti, Peter C; Molinari, Robert; Gruhn, William

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Case series. Objective We report the unusual occurrence of vertebral artery injury (VAI) during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine. The importance of preoperative planning to identify the course of the bilateral vertebral arteries during routine posterior cervical spine surgery is emphasized. Methods VAI is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spinal surgery. Most reports of VAI are related to anterior surgical exposure or screw placement in the posterior cervical spine. VAI incurred during posterior cervical spinal exposure surgery is not adequately addressed in the existing literature. Two cases of VAI that occurred during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine in the region of C2 are described. Results VAI was incurred unexpectedly in the region of the midportion of the posterior C1-C2 interval during the initial surgical exposure phase of the operation. An aberrant vertebral artery course in the V2 anatomical section in the region between C1 and C2 intervals was identified postoperatively in both patients. A literature review demonstrates a relatively high incidence of vertebral artery anomalies in the upper cervical spine; however, the literature is deficient in reporting vertebral artery injury in this region. Recommendations for preoperative vertebral artery imaging also remain unclear at this time. Conclusions Successful management of this unexpected complication was achieved in both cases. This case report and review of the literature highlights the importance of preoperative vertebral artery imaging and knowledge of the course of the vertebral arteries prior to planned routine posterior exposure of the upper cervical spine. In both cases, aberrancy of the vertebral artery was present and not investigated or detected preoperatively. PMID:26682106

  20. Spontaneous Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection During a Basketball Game: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mas Rodriguez, Manuel F; Berrios, Rafael Arias; Ramos, Edwardo

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection accounts for 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur as a consequence of sports events. We present an unusual case of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a 30-year-old male patient during a basketball game. He developed severe dysphagia, right hemiparesis, and balance dysfunction. We also present a review of the pathology, diagnosis, symptomatology, treatment, prognosis, and occurrence of this entity in sports. PMID:26733592

  1. Use of histomorphometry in the assessment of fatal vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C P; Lawler, W; Burns, J

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess morphometrically the structural changes, which occur with ageing, along the length of the vertebral artery. METHODS--A series of 36 vessels were removed at necropsy from subjects aged between 9 months and 86 years. Image analysis was used to measure the medial width, the circumference, the intimal: medial area ratio and the adventitial: medial area ratio along each artery. The artery from a case of fatal vertebral artery dissection, which occurred after a game of cricket and then chiropractic neck manipulation, was also examined in the same manner. The proteoglycan accumulation in the media was quantified using an eyepiece graticule. RESULTS--The vertebral arteries were, on average, larger around the origin of the vessel from the subclavian artery, and the adventitia were relatively thicker at this point, and also after piercing the dura mater. The media were much thinner within the intracranial segment and pronounced intimal thickening occurred with increasing age. The dissected artery showed undoubtable pre-existent structural abnormalities, in the form of massive proteoglycan accumulation, which predisposes an artery to dissection. CONCLUSIONS--These data should help pathologists faced with the task of assessing the underlying structural integrity of the vessel wall in cases of vertebral artery injury. Images PMID:8254085

  2. Duplicated Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery: A Case Report and Embryological Review

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    The duplicated origin of vertebral artery (VA) is a very rare condition. It could be easily misdiagnosed as an arterial dissection on selective catheter angiography, especially in a patient with acute cerebellar infarction of unknown etiology. We report a patient with an acute cerebellar infarction and duplicated origin of the left VA, which was found during the selective catheter angiography. PMID:26958414

  3. Anomalous Origin of Left Vertebral Artery from Carotid Bulb Seen as "Trifurcation" of Left Common Carotid Artery with Acute Infarct in Ipsilateral Thalamus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Parag V; Patil, Abhijit M; Apte, Abhang V; Attarde, Vinod Y

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous origin of vertebral arteries is not common and usually seen as an incidental finding on imaging. We report a case of anomalous origin of left vertebral artery from left carotid bulb ("trifurcation" of left common carotid artery) on magnetic resonance angiography in a 64-year old male who also had ipsilateral thalamic acute infarct. PMID:25291708

  4. Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Bora, Aydin; Yazmalar, Levent; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gülşen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Because loss of cervical lordosis leads to disrupted biomechanics, the natural lordotic curvature is considered to be an ideal posture for the cervical spine. The vertebral arteries proceed in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Considering that the vertebral arteries travel in close anatomical relationship to the cervical spine, we speculated that the loss of cervical lordosis may affect vertebral artery hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the vertebral artery values between subjects with and without loss of cervical lordosis. Material/Methods Thirty patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 30 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index were included in the study. Sixty vertebral arteries in patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 60 in controls without loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Vertebral artery hemodynamics, including lumen diameter, flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index, were measured, and determined values were statistically compared between the patient and the control groups. Results The means of diameter (p=0.003), flow volume (p=0.002), and peak systolic velocity (p=0.014) in patients were significantly lower as compared to controls. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of the end-diastolic velocity (p=0.276) and resistive index (p=0.536) parameters. Conclusions The present study revealed a significant association between loss of cervical lordosis and decreased vertebral artery hemodynamics, including diameter, flow volume, and peak systolic velocity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to investigate their possible clinical implications. PMID:26876295

  5. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Bani?, Tihomir; Bani?, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bili?, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavi?, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Koki?, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  6. Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

  7. A Case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Associated with Vertebral Artery Vasculitis Treated Successfully with Tocilizumab and Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kae; Rajderkar, Dhanashree A.; Modica, Renee F.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric polyarteritis nodosa is rare systemic necrotizing arteritis involving small- and medium-sized muscular arteries characterized by aneurysmal dilatations involving the vessel wall. Aneurysms associated with polyarteritis nodosa are common in visceral arteries; however intracranial aneurysms have also been reported and can be associated with central nervous system symptoms, significant morbidity, and mortality. To our knowledge extracranial involvement of the vertebral arteries has not been reported but has the potential to be deleterious due to fact that they supply the central nervous system vasculature. We present a case of a 3-year-old Haitian boy with polyarteritis nodosa that presented with extracranial vessel involvement of his vertebral arteries. After thorough diagnostic imaging, including a bone scan, ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Angiography, and Computed Tomography Angiography, he was noted to have vertebral artery vasculitis, periostitis, subacute epididymoorchitis, arthritis, and myositis. He met diagnostic criteria for polyarteritis nodosa and was treated with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and tocilizumab, which resulted in improvement of his inflammatory markers, radiographic findings, and physical symptoms after treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of vertebral artery vasculitis in polyarteritis nodosa as well as successful treatment of the condition using the combination cyclophosphamide and tocilizumab for this condition.

  8. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    PubMed

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome. PMID:25417970

  9. Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury.

    PubMed Central

    Auer, R N; Krcek, J; Butt, J C

    1994-01-01

    Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral artery thrombosis, superimposed on an old dissecting intramural haematoma of the right vertebral artery in the atlantoaxial region. Vertebrobasilar occlusion after minor head trauma, hyperextending or rotating neck injury, or neck manipulation is commonest in young people. Occult ligamentous injury to the cervical spine after trauma may be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of vertebral artery damage after injury to the neck. Images PMID:8164004

  10. Unusual Finding of Vertebral Artery Fenestration in Spontaneous Deep Nuclear Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Binod; Munakomi, Sunil; Chaudhary, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral artery fenestration is accidentally detected during angiography or autopsy. Spontaneous deep nuclear hemorrhage in association with vertebral artery fenestration is a very unusual finding in angiography. Such an unusual finding has not been reported in the English literature. Here, we report two cases of spontaneous deep nuclear hemorrhage that presented with features of raised intracranial pressure. Computed tomography revealed a deep nuclear acute bleed in both cases. Digital subtraction angiographic findings were normal other than the presence of a long segment vertebral artery fenestration. Both extracranial and intracranial variations were detected. Although the existence of vascular fenestration in the vertebrobasilar system produces less clinical importance, it may influence the management of cervical and intracranial pathologies to avoid iatrogenic injury.

  11. Successful treatment of a ruptured aneurysm at the vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery junction and simultaneous treatment of the stenotic vertebral artery with a single flow-diverting stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first report on the simultaneous successful treatment of a large ruptured saccular aneurysm and stenotic parent artery with a single flow-diverting stent. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man with occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery-left vertebral artery that was successfully treated by the deployment of a single flow-diverting stent in the stenotic left vertebral artery. Stent deployment was complicated by thrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery, which was successfully reopened. The patient recovered completely, and follow-up angiography at 4 months and 1 year showed patent vertebral artery with gradual shrinkage of the aneurysm. Conclusions This report contributes to the literature on treatment of large ruptured aneurysms localized in stenotic arteries and in areas of the endocranium where a mass of embolic material in the aneurysm (coils) might compromise the circulation in the parent blood vessel or compress vital brain structures. PMID:24886040

  12. Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries following cervical manipulation: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, J W; Conacher, G N; Khangure, M; Harper, C G

    1987-01-01

    Neck manipulation may uncommonly be associated with serious and even fatal vascular complications. Although well recognised, the nature of the vascular injury has only rarely been directly established by pathological examination. The case is reported of a 43-year-old man who died following neck manipulation, and in whom multiple dissecting aneurysms within both vertebral arteries were demonstrated radiologically and found at necropsy. Bilateral dissecting aneurysms were found both at the level of atlanto-axial articulation and close to the origins of the vertebral arteries. No predisposition was found, other than early atheroma consistent with the patient's age. Images PMID:3559616

  13. Combined microsurgical PICA-PICA bypass and endovascular parent artery occlusion for a ruptured dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert M; Ding, Dale; Durst, Christopher R; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms are difficult to obliterate when the parent artery cannot be safely occluded. In this video, we demonstrate a combined microsurgical and endovascular treatment technique for a ruptured, dissecting VA aneurysm incorporating the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We first performed a PICA-PICA side-to-side bypass to preserve flow through the right PICA. An endovascular approach was then utilized to embolize the proximal portion of the aneurysm from the right VA and the distal portion of the aneurysm from the left VA. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/dkkKsX2BiJI . PMID:25554844

  14. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug User

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Doriforou, Ortansia; Skiadas, Vasilios Koutoulidis, Vasilios; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros

    2006-08-15

    A 26-year-old drug abuser who presented with sepsis was found to have a pseudoaneurysm in the left vertebral artery. This aneurysm was presumed to be post-traumatic, since the patient reported multiple attempts to inject drugs in the left jugular vein 15 days prior to admission. The pseudoaneurysm was treated effectively with stent-graft placement.

  15. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  16. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.682.86 mm and 18.41.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.352.23 mm in the PB group and 18.132.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.642.67 mm in PB group and 29.232.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02046 mm and 4.250.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.540.44 mm and 4.470.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.41.13 mm in the PB group and 11.51.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

  17. Spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries--two case reports.

    PubMed

    Mas, J L; Goeau, C; Bousser, M G; Chiras, J; Verret, J M; Touboul, P J

    1985-01-01

    Two patients had acute spontaneous dissection of both internal carotid arteries and of one or both vertebral arteries. One had angiographic signs suggestive of fibro-muscular dysplasia and both were on oral contraceptives. They were treated with high dose heparin and made a good clinical recovery. A digital intravenous angiography performed two to three months later showed a complete recanalization of arteries involved. These patients are similar to those reported as "idiopathic regressing arteriopathy" and "reversible angiopathy" which probably correspond to the same entity. PMID:3966257

  18. Vertebral artery dissection as a rare cause of vertigo: case report.

    PubMed

    Bison, E; Artico, R

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral artery dissection is one of the more frequent cerebral-vascular disorders in the young adult. The initial symptoms rarely consist of vertigo with clinical characteristics of Selective Monolateral Acute Vestibular Deficit Syndrome. The case is described of a patient, who arrived with intense rotatory vertigo associated with neurovegetative symptoms and spontaneous nystagmus, which we initially diagnosed as right neuronitis. About 48 hours later, the symptoms of vertigo disappeared spontaneously, and prevalently nuchal cephalea appeared. Since the symptoms were atypical and the otoneurologic study revealed normal canalar and otholithic function, a cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance, with contrast, was carried out which showed the presence of multiple areas of cerebellar ischaemia, prevalently on the left, and at the level of the right occipital lobe. Study of the patient was completed with an intracranial angio-nuclear magnetic resonance of the neck arteries and cerebral angiography the findings of which were compatible with left vertebral artery dissection. It is important to emphasize, as reported in the literature, that in cases in which atypical evolution of the pathology appears, or instrumental data do not confirm initial suspicions, a more scrupulous study is always necessary in order to find a possible central cause. Among the central causes, it should not be forgotten that multiple small cerebellar strokes (more frequent in elderly patients) and even more rarely also vertebral artery dissection (which is typical of younger patients) may become evident in a clinical picture that is almost identical to that seen in selective monolateral acute vestibular deficit syndrome. PMID:15871610

  19. Congenital Spinal Malformation and Stroke: Aneurysmal Dilatations and Bilateral Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Patricia; Martínez-Zabaleta, Maria Teresa; Pardo, Edurne; Samprón, Nicolás; Mondragón-Rezola, Elisabet; Arruti González, Maialen; Larrea, Jose Ángel; Martí-Massó, José Félix

    2016-03-01

    A 30-year-old woman suffered from acute vertebrobasilar stroke. Cranial tomography (CT) scans showed multiple vertebral abnormalities suggestive of congenital spine malformation, and angiographic CT revealed aneurysmal dilatations (ADs) at segment V2 of both vertebral arteries (VAs). Dynamic neuroimaging tests including angiography and angio-CT were performed and showed occlusion of both VAs at the point of the ADs with contralateral rotation of the neck. The presence of a bony structure causing the artery compression was excluded and embolic phenomena originating at the AD was proposed as the likely source of stroke. Even if infrequent, the presence of craniocervical anomalies should be considered in vertebrobasilar stroke of indeterminate etiology. PMID:26679068

  20. Stenting of the vertebral artery origin with ostium dilation: technical note.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2013-09-01

    Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery (VA) origin stenosis typically requires placement of the proximal end of the stent within the lumen of the subclavian artery or aorta to provide complete coverage of the ostial lesion. This configuration may complicate subsequent endovascular access into the stented VA. We describe a technique modification of VA origin stenting and angioplasty with a monorail angioplasty balloon system designed specifically for dilation of the ostial origin which may be helpful in conforming the proximal portion of the stent to the VA origin. Simplified endovascular access to the VA origin after angioplasty is demonstrated. PMID:22935348

  1. Vertebral artery dissection in a patient practicing self-manipulation of the neck

    PubMed Central

    Mosby, John S.; Duray, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection. Clinical Features A 42-year-old female patient sought care for left shoulder pain with a secondary complaint of left lower neck pain. Twelve days prior, she had had the worst headache of her life, which began in her left lower cervical spine and extended to her left temporal region. The pain was sudden and severe, was described as sharp and burning, and lasted 3 hours. She reported nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Intervention and Outcome Initial history and examination suggested that the patient's head and neck pain was not musculoskeletal in origin, but vascular. She repeatedly requested that an adjustment be performed, but instead was referred to the local emergency department for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance angiogram revealed a dissection of the left vertebral artery from C6 to the C2-C3 interspace and a 3-mm dissecting pseudoaneurysm at the C3 level. She underwent stent-assisted percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combined with antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel) and experienced a good outcome. Conclusion This case suggests that careful history taking and awareness of the symptoms of VAD are necessary in cases of sudden head and neck pain. More research is needed on the relationship between vertebral artery dissection and self-manipulation of the neck. PMID:22654686

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  3. Outflow Occlusion with Occipital Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass for Growing Vertebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm with Ischemic Onset: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Ryuzaburo; Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Sato, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Shin-ichiro; Osawa, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-08-01

    Surgical treatments should be considered for vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms, which become symptomatic due to cerebral ischemia or mass effect. Ischemic complication is one of the major problems after surgical or endovascular trapping, which is associated with unfavorable outcomes. The authors present a case with growing vertebral artery (VA) fusiform aneurysm with ischemic onset successfully treated with outflow occlusion with occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) bypass. A 50-year-old woman presented with left PICA territory infarction. Left vertebral angiography (VAG) showed occlusion of the left VA at the proximal V4 segment. Right VAG revealed that the distal part of the left V4 segment with fusiform aneurysmal dilatation was reconstituted through vertebrobasilar junction, and the left PICA was the outlet of the blood flow from the fusiform aneurysm. Although the patient was treated conservatively, enlargement of the left VA fusiform aneurysm was observed 8 months after the initial presentation. Considering the potential risks for future stroke or bleeding, we performed clip occlusion of the origin of the left PICA, which could achieve outflow occlusion of the fusiform aneurysm with preservation of the perforators arising around the aneurysm. We created OA-PICA anastomosis for revascularization of the distal PICA. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the postoperative right VAG revealed occlusion of the fusiform aneurysm. Outflow occlusion instead of trapping is an effective surgical option for VA fusiform aneurysm to achieve obliterate the aneurysm with preservation of the perforator at the blind end. PMID:25979424

  4. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K.; Youssef, Ali A.; Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J.

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  5. Long-term observation of lateral medullary infarction due to vertebral artery dissection assessed with multimodal neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Koichi; Mishina, Masahiro; Okubo, Seiji; Suda, Satoshi; Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old man presented with a lateral medullary infarction, vertigo, and nausea. At the time of hospital admission, he had Wallenberg syndrome. Although initial magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities, subsequent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity area in the right lateral medulla oblongata. The right vertebral artery was shown to be dilated on basi-parallel anatomical scanning but to be stenosed on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography 7 days after onset showed the "pearl and string sign" in the right vertebral artery. Follow-up MRA showed gradual improvement of the stenosis in the right vertebral artery. Multiple neuroimaging studies, such as MRA, basi-parallel anatomical scanning, 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography, and cerebral angiography, should be performed soon after onset in suspected cases of cerebral artery dissection. In addition, serial imaging examinations increase diagnostic accuracy, and the medical history and neurological examination are important. PMID:25797880

  6. Bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection after a horse-riding injury.

    PubMed

    Keilani, Zeid M; Berne, John D; Agko, Mouchammed

    2010-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries, defined as blunt injuries to the internal carotid or vertebral arteries, are uncommon and usually occur in victims of high-speed deceleration motor vehicle crashes. A blunt cerebrovascular injury after an equestrian accident is an extremely unusual presentation. In recent years, advances in screening and treatment with pharmacologic anticoagulation before the onset of neurologic symptoms have improved outcomes for these patients. Endovascular stenting and embolization, although unproven, offer a new potential approach for these complex injuries. We present a unique case of four-vessel blunt cerebrovascular injuries after a horse-riding injury that required multidisciplinary management. PMID:20888534

  7. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rabellino, Martin; Garcia Nielsen, L.; Baldi, S.; Zander, T.; Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I.; Maynar, M.

    2009-01-15

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  8. An Infected Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery Treated with a Stent-graft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMOTO, Kenji; ISAKA, Fumiaki; YAMASHITA, Kohsuke

    2015-01-01

    In a 75-year-old man, a growing vertebral artery aneurysm at the C3/4 intervertebral level was found at postoperative evaluation of cervical abscess, which was diagnosed as a complication of sepsis subsequent to cholangitis. Even after a successful antibiotic treatment and a surgical drainage, the aneurysm grew enough to cause compression of esophagus and trachea. The aneurysm was judged to be infection-related, based on the clinical course and the anatomical vicinity to the abscess. Following a dual antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg and aspirin 100 mg per day) for a week, the patient underwent endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with a stent-graft. Postoperative angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with preserving patency of the vertebral artery. A dual antiplatelet treatment was continued for 6 months and was changed to a single antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg per day) thereafter. Neither recurrence of the aneurysm nor stent-graft infection was observed for 4 years of follow-up. This case illustrates the potential use of a stent-graft in the treatment of an infected aneurysm. PMID:26437795

  9. A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung-Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. PMID:24570816

  10. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  11. Spastic quadriparesis caused by anomalous vertebral artery compression of spinal cord at the cervico-medullary junction.

    PubMed

    Betgeri, Somsharan Shankerappa; Rajesh, S; Adkatalwar, Vijayendra; Shiva, Meyyappan; Agrawal, Nitesh; Ramakrishnan, K G

    2015-02-01

    Vascular compression of medulla or spinal cord at the cervico-medullary junction has been commonly described in the literature and is often attributed to dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar arteries. We describe a case of anomalous course of the cervical segments of the bilateral vertebral arteries which were seen entering the spinal canal directly after exiting the transverse foramen of axis and causing significant cord compression at the cervico-medullary region leading to spastic quadriparesis. PMID:25924176

  12. Spastic Quadriparesis Caused by Anomalous Vertebral Artery Compression of Spinal Cord at the Cervico-Medullary Junction

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Adkatalwar, Vijayendra; Shiva, Meyyappan; Agrawal, Nitesh; Ramakrishnan, K G

    2015-01-01

    Vascular compression of medulla or spinal cord at the cervico-medullary junction has been commonly described in the literature and is often attributed to dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar arteries. We describe a case of anomalous course of the cervical segments of the bilateral vertebral arteries which were seen entering the spinal canal directly after exiting the transverse foramen of axis and causing significant cord compression at the cervico-medullary region leading to spastic quadriparesis. PMID:25924176

  13. Delayed Vertebral Artery Dissection after Posterior Cervical Fusion with Traumatic Cervical Instability: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Hyeonseon; Jang, A Reum

    2015-01-01

    Vascular injury presented immediately after the penetration, but delayed onset of vascular symptom caused by an embolism or vessel dissection after cervical fusion or traumatic event is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who underwent an operation for cervical fusion for type II Odontoid process fracture. She presented symptoms of seizure with hemiparesis in 6 days after the operation. Multifocal acute infarction due to an embolism from the left VA (V3 segment) dissection was observed without a definite screw breach the transverse foramen. We hereby reported the instructive case report of delayed onset of vertebral artery dissection after posterior cervical fusion with type II odontoid process fracture patient. When a cervical operation performed in the cervical trauma patient, even if no apparent VA injury occurs before and during the operation, the surgeon must take caution not to risk cerebral infarction because of the delayed VA dissection. PMID:26217387

  14. Microvascular decompression of a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery producing trigeminal hypesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Al-Hafez, Baraa; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2014-10-01

    The authors report a case of trigeminal hypesthesia caused by compression of the spinal cord by a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery (VA) that was successfully treated with microvascular decompression. Aberrant intradural VA loops have been reported as causes of cervical myelopathy, some of which improved with microvascular decompression. A 52-year-old man presented with progressive complaints of headache, dizziness, left facial numbness, and left upper-extremity paresthesia that worsened when turning his head to the right. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed the left VA passing intradurally between the axis and atlas, foregoing the C-1 foramen transversarium, and impinging on the spinal cord. The patient underwent left C-1 and C-2 hemilaminectomies followed by microvascular decompression of an aberrant VA loop compressing the spinal cord. The patient subsequently reported complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:24972125

  15. Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

  16. Vertebral artery dolicoectasia with brainstem compression: role of microvascular decompression in relieving pyramidal weakness.

    PubMed

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral artery dolicoectasia (VAD) can cause brainstem compression and dysfunction. Reports of pyramidal tract involvement by brainstem compression and the surgical benefits and its long-term results are sparsely reported. We hereby report three cases of medullary compression by VAD causing pyramidal weakness. Two patients with bilateral compression with quadriparesis did not want surgical treatment and were still disabled at 58 months and 50 months of follow-up, respectively. One patient with unilateral medullary compression with hemiparesis underwent microvascular decompression using Teflon sling retraction. This patient was relieved of symptoms and is asymptomatic at 14-month follow-up. This report emphasizes the need of surgical decompression in cases of brainstem compression by VAD with caution about appropriate case selection. PMID:26821837

  17. The forgotten disease: Bilateral lemierre’s disease with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Parikh, Kaushal; Puri, Sonam; Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Sharma, Divakar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Lemierre’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • fever • headache • tachycardia • tachypnoe Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Lemierre’s disease, also known as the forgotten disease, postanginal sepsis, or necrobacillosis, was first reported in 1890 by Courmont and Cade, but it was Dr. Andre Lemierre, a professor of microbiology, who described this disease in 1936. The typical causative agent is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other organisms may be involved. The pathogenesis of Lemierre’s disease is not well understood. It is characterized by a primary oropharyngeal infection associated with septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and metastatic septic emboli. Case Report: We report a case of Lemierre’s disease with bilateral internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis and metastatic septic emboli to the lungs and brain, associated with epidural abscess and mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery, which is quite rare in Lemierre’s disease. This is the first report of a case of Lemierre’s disease associated with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Conclusions: Lemierre’s disease is a rare and perplexing medical entity. Clinical suspicion should be high in previously healthy young adults presenting with fever and neck pain following oropharyngeal infection. Dr. Lemierre stated that ‘symptoms and signs of Lemierre’s disease are so characteristic that it permits diagnosis before bacteriological examination’. The prognosis of patients with Lemierre’s disease is generally good, provided prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. PMID:24883173

  18. Imaging anatomy and variation of vertebral artery and bone structure at craniocervical junction

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shaomao; Ye, Feng; Lin, Qingchi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to display the vertebral artery and bone structure at the craniocervical junction (CJVA and C0-1-2) with three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA) and identify their anatomic features and variations. Eighty-eight subjects without pathology of vertebral artery (VA) and C0-1-2 were selected from head–neck CTA examination. 3D images were formed with volume rendering (VR) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). On the 3D images, CJVA and C0-1-2 were measured, and their variations were observed. CJVA goes along C0-1-2 with five curves, of which three curves are visibly away from C0-1-2, one is 0.0–8.3 mm away at the second curve with 0.0–11.2 mm in width, another is 0.0–9.2 mm away at the fourth with 2.8–14.8 mm and the other is 0.0–6.2 mm away at the fifth. Statistical comparisons show that there is no significant difference in the measurements between left and right, and that the curves become smaller and farther away from C0-1-2 with the increase of age. CJVA is not equal in size, with the biggest in the fourth curve and the smallest in the fifth. Statistical comparison shows the left CJVA is larger than the right in the fifth curve. Variations were found on CJVA in 16 cases and on C1 in 12 cases. The anatomy and variations of CJVA and C0-1-2 are complicated. It is of vital significance to identify their anatomic features in clinical practice. PMID:19288143

  19. Age related changes in the tunica media of the vertebral artery: implications for the assessment of vessels injured by trauma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C; Baugh, R; Wilson, C; Burns, J

    2001-01-01

    AimsTo provide an illustrated, detailed semiquantitative analysis of the important degenerative changes along the length of the vertebral artery so that pathologists faced with investigating a fatal arterial injury can identify important pre-existing wall abnormalities. MethodsTen transverse annuli were taken along 34 vertebral arteries from 17 subjects and stained sections were prepared using haematoxylin and eosin and the picro-sirius red method. After routine microscopy, the elastic fibres, collagen, and smooth muscle nuclei in the tunica media were quantified using an eyepiece graticule. An estimate of the severity and extent of elastic tissue fragmentation, collagenous scarring, and intimal thickening/atheroma was then undertaken. ResultsSmooth muscle counts remained constant along the artery but collagen counts were higher and elastic counts substantially lower within the intracranial segment. Elastic fibre fragmentation was recognised in infancy and was moderately advanced by early adulthood but considerable collagenous scarring developed later in life. Some individuals demonstrated severe fragmentation and scarring before the age of 35 years. The degenerative changes were often focal and spared the intracranial segment almost completely. Atheroma increased with age but was rarely severe and appeared not to worsen appreciably beyond the age of 40 years. An unusual arrangement of the collagenous tissue was described within the upper cervical loops. ConclusionDamaged vertebral arteries need to be sampled extensively to allow a proper histological assessment. The picro-sirius red method was successful in delineating the fine connective tissue structure of the wall and early degenerative changes. An understanding of the age and site specific changes should allow the pathologist to recognise important pre-existing abnormalities more easily. Key Words: vertebral artery picro-sirius red degenerative change injury PMID:11215283

  20. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  1. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm. PMID:7611084

  2. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  3. Anomalous Right Vertebral Artery Originating from the Aortic Arch Distal to the Left Subclavian Artery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Case, David; Seinfeld, Joshua; Folzenlogen, Zach; Kumpe, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Present a case report of an anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian along with a review of cases reported to date in the literature. METHODS Provide background information on this rare anomaly, present the case report, review the literature using PubMed, summarize previously reported cases to date, and discuss the underlying embryologic development of this anomaly along with its significance. RESULTS We report a 54-year-old man presenting with a subarachnoid hemorrhage referred for diagnostic cerebral arteriography who was found to have an anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery in conjunction with a bovine arch. We also report 13 previously reported cases along with their other associated variant anatomy. CONCLUSIONS Based upon our present case and previously documented cases to date, this anomaly is a rare finding. An understanding of aberrant anatomy and its embryologic basis is paramount to avoiding inadvertent vascular injury during diagnostic cerebral angiography. Therefore, this abnormality must be considered if selective vertebral artery catheterization is difficult or unsuccessful. PMID:26301027

  4. Detection of anomalous vertebral arteries by ultrasound as an alternative to radiological methods.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Beckerman, Inessa; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2011-12-01

    In order to examine 'ultrasound' approach in detecting the course of the vertebral artery (VA) and its anomalies important for neck surgery. An observational study with retrospective analysis of ultrasound images. 500 VAs on 250 3D CT angiographies and 500 ultrasound images performed on the same set of patients were analyzed. The relationship between the extraosseous portions of the VA to the neck organs with a special emphasis to the thyroid gland area, and the abnormal position of the VA were detected. Ultrasound and CT 3D images were compared. Ultrasound detected that 29 out of 500 VAs were anomalous (5.8%), 3D CT detected 30 cases. These anomalies were found in 22 patients (8.8%) (23 for 3D CT; 9.2%), in 7 (31.8%) of them bilaterally. An abnormal level of entrance (C3, C4, and C5) was observed in all anomalous cases. An additional case detected by 3D CT indicated C7 level of entrance. The ultrasound data correspond the CT data in 96.7% of cases. In ten cases (33.3%) the anomalous VA run close to the thyroid gland even touching the lower pole (16.7%; n = 5) or the upper pole (10.0%; n = 3) of the gland. In ten cases (33.3%) the anomalous VA crossed common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein by a way of a median loop. The incidence of anatomic variations of the VA is significant. Preoperative ultrasound investigation allows precise identification of anomalous VAs. Radiation-free ultrasound investigation of blood vessels is as precise as CT 3D imaging. PMID:21400128

  5. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound: A Novel Approach for Luschkas Joint and Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ying; Qin, Xiaoxia; Huang, Rongzhong; Xu, Jing; Li, Yamei; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical vertigo has been a controversial diagnosis for several years, and the lack of a diagnostic test is a critical problem. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is a real-time dynamic approach that is used to investigate the musculoskeletal and vascular systems. Material/Methods In this study, MSUS was used to examine whether there is a relationship among vertigo, the vertebral artery (VA), and Luschkas joint proliferation in patients with cervical vertigo. Results MSUS clearly revealed the size, shape, and characteristics of the Luschkas joint, the VA, and the surrounding structures. The Luschkas joint proliferation was not distributed uniformly, but the predilection sites were C4/5 (50.5%) and C5/6 (32.3%). The proliferation from C4/5 and C5/6 Luschkas joints was the major cause of the grade 2/3 VA tortuosity. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between VA compression from Luschkas joint proliferation and the symptoms of cervical vertigo. Conclusions MSUS is a real-time and noninvasive technique that can be used to locate and observe Luschkas joint and the VA during research and clinical applications. In future practice MSUS could be used as a diagnostic approach for patients with suspected cervical vertigo. PMID:26749333

  6. Completely reversed flow in the vertebral artery does not always indicate subclavian steal phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Fan, Liang-Hao; Guan, Li-Jie

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the causes, differential diagnosis and clinical significance of completely reversed flow (CRF) in the vertebral artery (VA). Twenty-three patients diagnosed with CRF in the VA by Doppler ultrasound were studied retrospectively. CRF was divided into intermittent CRF and continuous CRF. The peak reversed velocity (PRV) and ratio of time in intermittent CRF to one cardiac cycle (tICRF/CC) were calculated. Causes of CRF were determined on the basis of previous angiography results. The results indicated that subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP) caused all cases of continuous CRF (n = 8). Intermittent CRF was caused by SSP (n = 6) or proximal VA occlusion (n = 9). PRV and tICRF/CC were increased in SSP as compared with VA occlusion (p < 0.05). Using a cutoff of tICRF/CC = 0.30, we achieved excellent accuracy in predicting the cause of intermittent CRF (100%) and posterior circulatory infarction (91%). Thus, analysis of CRF patterns and measurements of VA parameters can be used in differential diagnosis of the causes of CRF and in prediction of posterior circulatory infarction. PMID:24486238

  7. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound: A Novel Approach for Luschka's Joint and Vertebral Artery.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Qin, Xiaoxia; Huang, Rongzhong; Xu, Jing; Li, Yamei; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cervical vertigo has been a controversial diagnosis for several years, and the lack of a diagnostic test is a critical problem. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is a real-time dynamic approach that is used to investigate the musculoskeletal and vascular systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, MSUS was used to examine whether there is a relationship among vertigo, the vertebral artery (VA), and Luschka's joint proliferation in patients with cervical vertigo. RESULTS MSUS clearly revealed the size, shape, and characteristics of the Luschka's joint, the VA, and the surrounding structures. The Luschka's joint proliferation was not distributed uniformly, but the predilection sites were C4/5 (50.5%) and C5/6 (32.3%). The proliferation from C4/5 and C5/6 Luschka's joints was the major cause of the grade 2/3 VA tortuosity. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between VA compression from Luschka's joint proliferation and the symptoms of cervical vertigo. CONCLUSIONS MSUS is a real-time and noninvasive technique that can be used to locate and observe Luschka's joint and the VA during research and clinical applications. In future practice MSUS could be used as a diagnostic approach for patients with suspected cervical vertigo. PMID:26749333

  8. Effect of acute hypoxia on blood flow in vertebral and internal carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2013-03-01

    Hypoxia changes the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow and stimulates the ventilatory chemoreflex, thereby reducing CO2 tension. We examined the effects of both hypoxia and isocapnic hypoxia on acute changes in internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow. Ten healthy male subjects underwent the following two randomly assigned respiratory interventions after a resting baseline period with room air: (i) hypoxia; and (ii) isocapnic hypoxia with a controlled gas mixture (12% O2; inspiratory mmHg). In the isocapnic hypoxia intervention, subjects were instructed to maintain the rate and depth of breathing to maintain the level of end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ( ) during the resting baseline period. The ICA and VA blood flow (velocity × cross-sectional area) were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. The was decreased (-6.3 ± 0.9%, P < 0.001) during hypoxia by hyperventilation (minute ventilation +12.9 ± 2.2%, P < 0.001), while was unchanged during isocapnic hypoxia. The ICA blood flow was unchanged (P = 0.429), while VA blood flow increased (+10.3 ± 3.1%, P = 0.010) during hypoxia. In contrast, isocapnic hypoxia increased both ICA (+14.5 ± 1.4%, P < 0.001) and VA blood flows (+10.9 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Thus, hypoxic vasodilatation outweighed hypocapnic vasoconstriction in the VA, but not in the ICA. These findings suggest that acute hypoxia elicits an increase in posterior cerebral blood flow, possibly to maintain essential homeostatic functions of the brainstem. PMID:23143991

  9. Anatomical vertebral artery hypoplasia and insufficiency impairs dynamic blood flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kohei; Yoneya, Marina; Otsuki, Aki; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that vertebral artery (VA) hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for posterior cerebral stroke. We examined whether anatomical vertebrobasilar ischemia, i.e., unilateral VA hypoplasia and insufficiency, impairs dynamic blood flow regulation. Twenty-eight female subjects were divided into three groups by defined criteria: (i) unilateral VA hypoplasia (n = 8), (ii) VA insufficiency (n = 6), and (iii) control (n = 14). Hypoplastic VA criterion was VA blood flow of 40 ml min(-1) , whereas VA insufficiency criterion was net (left + right) VA blood flow of 100 ml min(-1) or less. We evaluated left, right, and net VA blood flows by ultrasonography during hypercapnia, normocapnia, and hypocapnia to evaluate VA CO2 reactivity. The unilateral VA hypoplasia group showed lower CO2 reactivity at hypoplastic VA than at non-hypoplastic VA (2.65 0.58 versus 3.00 0.48% per mmHg, P = 0.027) and net VA CO2 reactivity was preserved (Unilateral VA hypoplasia, 2.95 0.48 versus Control, 2.93 0.42% per mmHg, P = 0.992). However, the VA insufficiency group showed a lower net VA CO2 reactivity compared to the control (2.29 0.55 versus 2.93 0.42% per mmHg, P = 0.032) and the unilateral VA hypoplasia (P = 0.046). VA hypoplasia reduced CO2 reactivity, although non-hypoplastic VA may compensate this regulatory limitation. In subjects with VA insufficiency, lowered CO2 reactivity at the both VA could not preserve normal net VA CO2 reactivity. These findings provide a possible physiological mechanism for the increased risk of posterior cerebral stroke in subjects with VA hypoplasia and insufficiency. PMID:24980216

  10. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI) occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008), all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clnicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de So Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 14.84 years. Car crash (49%) and car-pedestrian accidents (24%) were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4%) presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8%) presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III). Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality. PMID:20579381

  11. The influence of arm ischaemia and arm hyperaemia on subclavian and vertebral artery blood flow in patients with occlusive disease of the subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk. A peroperative study.

    PubMed

    Magaard, F; Ekeström, S

    1975-01-01

    A peroperative study of blood flow and flow direction was performed in series of patients with occlusive disease of the subclavian artery. Particular attention was focused on the flow variations caused by arm ischaemia and postischaemic hyperaemia and on the effect of injection of a vasodilator into the distal subclavian artery. The effect on blood flow and flow direction was measured with the aid of an electromagnetic flowmeter. During arm ischaemia induced by an inflated cuff on the arm, the subclavian flow diminished, as did the vertebral artery flow when it was retrograde. If the vertebral artery flow was anterograde, it increased during arm ischaemia. The postischaemic hyperaemia caused an increase of the subclavian flow and of reversed vertebral flow. If the vertebral flow was anterograde, it diminished during the postischaemic hyperaemia. Similar findings were obtained with intra-arterial injection of a vasodilator. The large amount of blood flow passing through the vertebral artery, as well as the flow variations caused by reactive arm hyperaemia, emphasize the role of this artery as a collateral vessel to the upper limb in cases of the subclavian steal phenomenon. PMID:1855

  12. Effect of rheological property on blood flow in vertebral artery branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Taegee; Kim, Myungjoon; Kim, Taesung; Kwon, O.-Ki

    2011-11-01

    Blocking of an artery is one of mechanisms for cerebral stroke development. If an important cerebral artery is occluded by any reason and if there is no sufficient collaterals, tissue ischemia occurs at brain tissues distal to the occluded artery, which is a well known clinical situation. However, in practice, ischemia or hypoperfusion has also been observed through the branches proximal to the occluded artery. The unexpected ``proximal ischemia'' is not yet known, from which patients could suffer serious complications. In the present study, two patient cases are presented to elucidate this phenomenon from the view point of fluid dynamics, especially with emphasis on the role of rheology in hemodynamics.

  13. Sensorimotor C5 and C6 radiculopathy caused by thrombosed vertebral artery dissection and successfully treated with limited oblique corpectomy - Case report.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Przemys?aw; Prokopienko, Marek; Czernicki, Tomasz; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Marchel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of an exceptional presentation of vertebral artery dissection. A 44-year-old man who presented with left shoulder weakness, radicular pain and numbness of the left forearm and thumb was admitted to our hospital with an initial diagnosis of cervical disc herniation. Due to the inconsistency between the levels of radiculopathy (C5 and C6) and discopathy (C6-C7), neuroimaging examinations were extended. Based on MRI, MRA, CTA and DSA, left vertebral artery dissection with intramural hematoma was diagnosed. The patient underwent surgical decompression of the affected nerve roots using the anterolateral approach described by Bernard George. The radicular pain resolved immediately and sensorimotor deficit completely disappeared within 4 months. MRI/MRA performed 6 months after surgery showed the normal image of the vertebral artery. There were no ischemic events within 2.5 years of follow-up. PMID:26851690

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms That Cause Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Consideration of Therapeutic Approaches Relevant to the Angioarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koh, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intracranial ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAns) are associated with high morbidity and mortality when left untreated due to the high likelihood of rebleeding. The present study aimed to establish an endovascular therapeutic strategy that focuses specifically on the angioarchitecture of ruptured VADAns. Methods Twenty-three patients with ruptured VADAn received endovascular treatment (EVT) over 7 years. The patient group included 14 women (60.9%) and 9 men (39.1%) between the ages of 39 and 72 years (mean age 54.2 years). Clinical data and radiologic findings were retrospectively analyzed. Results Four patients had aneurysms on the dominant vertebral artery. Fourteen (61%) aneurysms were located distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Six (26%) patients had an extracranial origin of the PICA on the ruptured VA, and 2 patients (9%) had bilateral VADAns. Eighteen patients (78%) were treated with internal coil trapping. Two patients (9%) required an adjunctive bypass procedure. Seven patients (30%) required stent-supported endovascular procedures. Two patients experienced intra-procedural rupture during EVT, one of which was associated with a focal medullary infarction. Two patients (9%) exhibited recanalization of the VADAn during follow-up, which required additional coiling. No recurrent hemorrhage was observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion EVT of ruptured VADAns based on angioarchitecture is a feasible and effective armamentarium to prevent fatal hemorrhage recurrence with an acceptable low risk of procedural complications. Clinical outcomes depend mainly on the pre-procedural clinical state of the patient. Radiologic follow-up is necessary to prevent hemorrhage recurrence after EVT. PMID:26539258

  15. Differences in anatomical relationship between vertebral artery and internal jugular vein in children and adults measured by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Katsuyuki; Yamaura, Ken; Karashima, Yuji; Akiyoshi, Kozaburo; Hoka, Sumio

    2016-04-01

    Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) under ultrasound guidance can reduce complications, such as common carotid artery (CCA) puncture, accidental vertebral artery (VA) puncture. However, these complications still occur, especially in pediatric patients probably due to anatomical predisposition of VA. This study compared differences in anatomical location of VA and IJV between pediatric and adult patients. Children with body weight <20 kg (n = 16) and adults who required central venous or pulmonary arterial pressure monitoring (n = 21) were enrolled. After induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, patients were positioned for IJV cannulation. Images of the right CCA, IJV and VA were recorded by ultrasonography. The size of each vessel, anatomical relationship of other vessels, distance between vessels and between each vessel and skin were measured. The size of VA relative to IJV was significantly larger in children than in adults (14 vs 7 %, P < 0.001). The absolute and relative distance between IJV and VA were significantly shorter in children than those in adults (P < 0.01). The anatomical relationships between IJV and CCA and that between IJV and VA were not different between children and adults. In children, VA was relatively larger and located closer to IJV than adults. The results call for careful attention to the position of VA during ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation especially in children. PMID:26018456

  16. Combined reconstruction of the vertebral and carotid artery in one single procedure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I; de los Reyes, R A; Pearce, J; Shrontz, C; Mehta, B; Patel, S; Dujovny, M

    1983-06-01

    Patients suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency frequently have multiple areas of involvement in the extracranial circulation. Eight patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital had symptoms suggestive of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and angiograms showing multiple abnormalities. A combined operation that reconstructed the carotid and vertebral circulations in one single procedure was completed in all patients with minimal morbidity and no mortality. The surgical procedure is described in detail. PMID:6877544

  17. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:25657727

  18. Effectiveness of Doppler Image of the Vertebral Artery as an Anatomical Landmark for Identification of Ultrasound-Guided Target Level in Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Park, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A prospective sonographic study. Purpose To verify the effectiveness of simultaneous application of two landmarks, Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the transverse tubercle of the seventh cervical (C7) vertebra. Overview of Literature Counting upwards from the C7 vertebra which only has a posterior tubercle of the transverse process is a commonly used method for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. However, each transverse process has a different shape. Methods Sonograms of 20 volunteers were examined. At first, we identified the C7 transverse process based on the presence of the vertebral artery without the anterior tubercle. The C5 and C6 transverse processes were identified based on the presence of anterior tubercle without the vertebral artery. Subsequently, we placed needles on the C5, C6, and C7 transverse processes and the location and direction of needles were confirmed by fluoroscopy. Results In the 120 segments, 93.3% of needles were placed correctly as desired; 97.5% of needles were placed on the 5C transverse process; 97.5% of needles were placed on the C6 transverse process; and 85.0% of needles were placed on the C7 transverse process, respectively. Both sides showed the same accuracy of 93.3%. Conclusions Simultaneous application of Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the C7 transverse tubercle showed 93.3% accuracy in identifying the target cervical level. Therefore, Doppler image of the vertebral artery can be considered to be a useful landmark for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. PMID:26435784

  19. Fluid structure interaction analysis reveals facial nerve palsy caused by vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoaki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kambayashi, Yukinao; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Shinohara, Sho; Fujiwara, Hidemoto; Nakazato, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Dahmani, Chiheb; Yamamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko; Murayama, Yuichi

    2015-11-01

    Cranial nerve palsy caused by aneurysmal compression has not been fully evaluated. The main causes of symptoms are considered to be direct mechanical compression and aneurysm pulsations. Recent studies indicate that nerve dysfunction is mainly induced by pulsation rather than by direct compression, and successful cases of endovascular surgery have been reported. We describe a patient with an unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysm compressing the facial nerve at the root exit zone (REZ). The patient presented with peripheral facial nerve palsy but not hemifacial spasm and was successfully treated by coil embolization. To investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral facial nerve palsy, fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis can approximate displacement and the magnitude of aneurysmal wall motion due to hemodynamic forces. In our case, maximum mesh displacement was observed at the aneurysmal wall attached to the facial nerve inside the pons rather than the REZ, which explains the clinical manifestation of facial nerve palsy in the absence of hemifacial spasm. This preliminary report demonstrates the utility of FSI analysis for investigating cranial nerve neuropathy. PMID:26453756

  20. Infrequent life-threatening complication of descending necrotizing mediastinitis; vertebral artery, internal jugular and subclavian vein rupture.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis; Vucetic, Borki

    2008-12-01

    We present a case of left proximal vertebral artery (PVA), internal jugular and subclavian vein rupture after descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) initially treated in another surgical institution with antibiotic therapy and left-sided cervicotomy, collar incision and drainage of the left thorax. On day 23 followed by surgical intervention due to the disease propagation, after daily dressing exchange of wound healed on second intention, a life-threatening complication of mixed, massive arterial and venous bleeding developed. The patient was emergency transferred to University Clinic and undergo prompt surgical repair. The jugular and subclavian veins destroyed by suppurative process were sutured. Vein bypass to the PVA was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged home on the 30th postoperative day. We performed the evaluation of DNM-literature review. The articles were collected from 1970 to 2005 (44 reports). Our search did not find any adequate published studies of the relationship between vascular complications described in these case and DNM. We report this case because there have been no previous reports in the literature. PMID:19059137

  1. Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of a Wide-Neck Aneurysm at the Vertebral Artery Terminus Using a Contralateral Approach: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Ibeh, Chinwe; Shah, Qaisar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are especially uncommon but carry a significant risk of hemorrhage and historically have been difficult to treat. In recent years, however, advancements in stent-assisted embolization have allowed better access and stabilization of complicated posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods We describe a novel approach in the treatment of a wide-neck aneurysm at the terminus of the left vertebral artery by a contralateral approach in a patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion. Results A complex, wide-neck aneurysm at the verterbrobasilar junction hindered by ipsilateral subclavian occlusion can successfully be treated with stent-assisted coil embolization using a contralateral approach. Conclusion Contralateral U-shaped stenting offers a viable endovascular option for patients with complex aneurysms of the vertebral basilar junction but should be reserved for appropriate cases with favorable anatomy when the ipsilateral approach from the subclavian artery is unobtainable. PMID:26060520

  2. First implantation of Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft in the right vertebral artery for cerebral debranching in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wipper, Sabine; Ahlbrecht, Oliver; Klbel, Tito; Pflugradt, Axel; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Debus, E Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    A 53-year-old woman with Loeys-Dietz syndrome developed progressive subclavian artery aneurysm and common carotid artery dissection. She was treated successfully by plugging and coiling of the subclavian aneurysm and its side branches after combined cervical debranching using standard carotid-axillary bypass and Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft for vertebral revascularization. Follow-up control (4 weeks) documented patent debranching, and only minimal residual flow in the subclavian aneurysm. The described off-label use for sutureless cerebral revascularisation of the vertebral artery might be a fast, simple, and reliable solution for cervical debranching in selective challenging patients. Further studies are necessary to evaluate side effects and durability. PMID:24239520

  3. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society update. Examination of extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Elwertowski, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    The role of a standard is to describe examination techniques, recommended norms as well as principles necessary to obtain results and draw appropriate conclusions, rather than a description of pathologies. The paper presents a technique for carotid artery examination as well as currently recommended standards. According to San Francisco Consensus from 2003, a significant stenosis of 70% may be detected when systolic velocity in the internal carotid artery stenosis is >230 cm/s, and the diastolic velocity is >100 cm/s. The common carotid artery velocity is also taken into account. Hemodynamic evaluation is therefore the primary method for the assessment of the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis. It is important that the examination is performed at an insonation angle of 60 as measurements at higher angles result in an exponential increase in measurement error. Also, an extended version of standards involving measurements performed behind stenosis, which are used in some clinics, is included in the paper. The paper further presents guidelines for the description of the identified pathologies, which ensure that the findings prove unambiguous for clinicians, especially when stenosis eligible for surgical intervention is detected. Morphological measurement of stenosis (according to NASCET criteria) is only of supplementary character (confirming morphological grounds for the increase of velocity) and has no critical importance, especially due to high measurement divergence. Description of atherosclerotic plaques, especially hypoechoic ones, which are considered potentially unstable and may lead to a raised risk of stroke, is a very important element of examination. The paper is based on Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society and updated based on the latest literature reports. PMID:26673158

  4. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

  5. The importance of the origin of vertebral arteries in cerebral ischemia in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether experimentally induced total cerebral ischemia in rabbits actually corresponds to total ischemia on the basis of the origin of certain vessels. We observed morphological variations in the origin and course of the arteria vertebralis as one of the vessels supplying the brain with blood. Investigations were carried out on 50 adult New Zealand rabbits. We prepared corrosion casts of the arterial system using Duracryl Dental. We found that in 86% of cases (43 animals) the arteria vertebralis sinistra originated directly from the arteria subclavia sinistra, in 10% of cases (5 animals) it originated from the arcus aortae as an independent branch, and in 4% of cases (2 animals) it arose from the arcus aortae as a common trunk with the arteria scapularis descendens. The arteria vertebralis dextra originated from the arteria subclavia dextra in 98% (49 animals) of cases. In one case we observed two arteria vertebralis dextra with two different origins. Bilateral variability in the origin of the arteria vertebralis was observed in 12% of cases (6 animals). Our results show that ligation of the truncus brachiocephalicus and of the arteria subclavia sinistra do not necessarily cause total cerebral ischemia. PMID:19902322

  6. Bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction resulting from vertebral artery injury following cervical trauma without radiographic damage of the spinal column: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Hideki; Sato, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury can be a complication of cervical spine injury. Although most cases are asymptomatic, the rare case progresses to severe neurological impairment and fatal outcomes. We experienced a case of bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction with fatal outcome resulting from vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine trauma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of tetraplegia after falling down the stairs and hitting his head on the floor. Marked bony damage of the cervical spine was not apparent on radiographs and CT scans, so the injury was initially considered to be a cervical cord injury without bony damage. However, an intensity change in the intervertebral disc at C5/C6, and a ventral epidural hematoma were observed on MRI. A CT angiogram of the neck showed the right vertebral artery was completely occluded at the C4 level of the spine. Forty-eight hours after injury, the patient lapsed into drowsy consciousness. The cranial CT scan showed a massive low-density area in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and brain stem. Anticoagulation was initiated after a diagnosis of the right vertebral artery injury, but the patient developed bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction. The patient's brain herniation progressed and the patient died 52h after injury. We considered that not only anticoagulation but also treatment for thrombosis would have been needed to prevent cranial embolism. We fully realize that early and appropriate treatment are essential to improve the treatment results, and constructing a medical system with a team of orthopedists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons is also very important. PMID:24061492

  7. Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Ross; Smith, Linda W.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented to a chiropractic physician for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Clinical features A 45-year-old otherwise healthy female presented for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Within minutes, non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms progressed to neurological deficits, including limb ataxia and cognitive disturbances. Suspicion was raised for cerebrovascular ischemia and emergent referral was initiated. Intervention and outcome Paramedics were immediately summoned and the patient was transported to a local hospital with a working diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular ischemia. Multiplanar computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed vertebral artery dissection of the V2 segment in the right vertebral artery. Anticoagulation therapy was administered and the patient was discharged without complications after 5 days in the hospital. Conclusion This case highlights the potential for patients with vertebral artery dissection to present with nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints. Neurological symptoms may not manifest initially, but their sudden onset indicates the possibility of an ischemic cerebrovascular event. We suggest that early recognition and emergent referral for this patient avoided potential exacerbation of an evolving pre-existing condition and resulted in timely anticoagulation treatment. PMID:25685116

  8. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes. PMID:27017772

  9. Serial angiographic appearance of segmental arterial mediolysis manifesting as vertebral, internal mammary and intra-abdominal visceral artery aneurysms in a patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Daniel L; Meisel, Karl M; Kim, Warren T; Stout, Charles E; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T

    2013-09-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic vasculopathy typically affecting the abdominal arteries although it may also affect the great vessels and cerebral vasculature. Diseased vessels manifest with aneurysms and/or dissections, often presenting clinically with catastrophic thromboembolic injury and less frequently with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The etiology of SAM remains indeterminate although there is evidence it may be an endogenous pathological response to vasospasm. The SAM literature is reviewed and a case of SAH related to a ruptured dissecting-type vertebral artery aneurysm is described. In addition to furthering awareness of SAM, this unique case offers insight into the acute phase of the disease and the potential role of vasospastic induction. PMID:22693248

  10. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  11. A Novel Approach to Overcome Stent Strut Entrapment of the Distal Filter Retrieval Catheter during Vertebral Artery Stenting: The "Olive-Tipped" Technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Hu, Chang; Wang, Qian; Long, Whitney; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We developed an "olive-tipped" technique for preventing the distal filter retrieval catheter from entrapment in the stent struts during retrieval procedures after stent deployment and which we used in 2 vertebral artery stenting cases. A new wire entry port was made in the catheter at the transition of larger and smaller lumen to permit passage of a low-profile balloon into the lumen of the retrieval catheter. When the balloon was inflated across the retrieval catheter tip, a smoother profile was created which eliminated the sharp step between the catheter tip and the filter wire. The retrieval catheter could then be advanced easily through the stent struts using this modified system. PMID:26522582

  12. Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis. PMID:21697983

  13. Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected. PMID:24363853

  14. Vertebral Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sharon H; Vokes, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no agreement about the criteria by which to arrive at an imaging diagnosis of a vertebral fracture. Because high-grade fractures result in alterations in vertebral shape, 1 possible avenue of diagnosis has been to quantitate changes in vertebral shape. The result has been a variety of methods for the relative and absolute measurements of vertebral dimensions. Such measurements have also lent themselves to automated computed analysis. The number of techniques reflects the absence of any consensus about the best. The semiquantitative technique proposed by Genant has become the most widely used and has served the field well for comparative purposes. Its use in higher grade fractures has been widely endorsed, if some concepts (e.g., short vertebral height-vertebrae) are at variance with lower grades of fracturing. Vertebral morphometry may be the only recourse in high volume epidemiological and interventional studies. PMID:26349790

  15. Characterization of the time course of the superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, internal carotid and vertebral arteries blood flow response to the oral glucose challenge test using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Totman, J J; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Campbell, E; Hoad, C L; Macdonald, I A; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2009-10-01

    Blood flow to the splanchnic circulation increases postprandially which may cause a reduction in systemic and cerebral perfusion leading to postprandial syncope in the elderly who lack adequate cardiovascular reserve. We used multi-station 2D phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) with the aim of characterizing the time course of the haemodynamic response to an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) in the large arteries perfusing the splanchnic, systemic and cerebral circulations (superior mesenteric artery SMA, abdominal aorta AA, internal carotid arteries, ICA and vertebral arteries VA). In this study nine fasted healthy volunteers were studied. Separate cine PC-MRI scans were acquired in the neck and in the abdomen every 88 s, these two measurements being interleaved for ten baseline scans at each station with the scanner automatically moving the subject between the two stations. After ingestion of the OGCT, a further 30 cine PC-MRI scans were acquired at each station. Using this technique we were able to characterize with frequent sampling of volumetric blood flow the time course of blood flow response to the OGCT of the SMA, AA and both VA and ICA. We found a substantial variation between individuals in the amplitude and the time to the peak of the SMA blood flow response to the OGCT which correlated positively with body mass index. MRI provides a robust, non-invasive method of studying normal physiology that could be valuable in studies of diseases such as postprandial hypotension. PMID:19759401

  16. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  17. Stent fracture and restenosis after placement of a drug-eluting device in the vertebral artery origin and treatment with the stent-in-stent technique. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Rim; Baik, Min-Woo; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Park, Ik-Seong; Kim, Sang-Don; Kim, Moon-Chan

    2007-05-01

    The authors report two cases of stent fracture and restenosis after placement of a drug-eluting device in the vertebral artery (VA) origin, and describe management of restenosis with the stent-in-stent technique. Two women, one 62 and the other 67 years of age, underwent stent placement in the VA origin to treat symptomatic and angiographically significant stenosis in this vessel. Sirolimus-eluting coronary stents (Cypher) were used in both cases. Four months after placement of the devices, the symptoms recurred. Follow-up angiography performed 5 months after insertion of the devices revealed a transverse stent fracture with separation of the fragments and severe in-stent restenosis in both cases. The restenoses were treated with reinsertion of coronary stents (Cypher and Jostent FlexMaster) by using the stent-in-stent technique. After stent reinsertion, the patients exhibited relief of symptoms. This paper is the first report of fracture in a drug-eluting stent and restenosis after stent placement in the VA origin. Restenosis caused by such a fracture can be managed successfully by performing the stent-in-stent maneuver. The physical properties of metallic devices, stent strut geometry, and anatomical peculiarities of the subclavian artery may be associated with stent fractures. Earlier follow-up angiography studies (within 6 months) are warranted. PMID:17542539

  18. Intradural vertebral endarterectomy with nonautologous patch angioplasty for refractory vertebrobasilar ischemia: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Uschold, Timothy; Abla, Adib A.; Wilson, David A.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: The natural history of patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms due to chronic bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease is progressive, and poses significant challenges when refractory to medical therapy. Surgical treatment options depend largely on location and characteristics of the atheroma (s), and generally include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement, posterior circulation revascularization (bypass), extracranial vertebral artery reconstruction, or vertebral artery endarterectomy. Case Description: We present the case of a 56-year-old male with progressive vertebrobasilar ischemia due to tandem lesions in the right vertebral artery at the origin and intracranially in the V4 segment. The contralateral vertebral artery was occluded to the level of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and posterior communicating arteries were absent. Following PTA and stent placement at the right vertebral artery origin, the patient was successfully treated with intradural vertebral artery endarterectomy (V4EA) and patch angioplasty via the far lateral approach. Distal endovascular intervention at the V4 segment proved not technically feasible after multiple attempts. Conclusions: V4EA is an uncommonly performed procedure, but may be considered for carefully selected patients. The authors’ techniques and indications are discussed. Historical outcomes, relevant anatomic considerations, and lessons learned are reviewed from the literature. PMID:25558424

  19. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  20. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire

  1. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Cali, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  2. [Cardiotoxicity of vertebrates venoms].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Targosz, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    Vertebrate species (fish, amphibians and reptiles) with cardiotoxic venoms properties are described in the paper. A regulatory problems related to breeding of venomous animals are also included. PMID:14569883

  3. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact : Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  4. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral fracture are discussed in this article. PMID:26435923

  5. Carotid artery stenosis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure. Blood-thinning medicines , such as aspirin or clopidogrel , decrease the chance of blood clots forming and ... of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: ... Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the ...

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stenting trials. Lancet . 2010;376(9746):1028-31. PMID: 20870079 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20870079 . ... Vertebral Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2011. PMID: 23281092 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23281092 . ...

  7. The hydrophobicity of vertebrate elastins.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, G W; Gosline, J M; Lillie, M A

    1999-02-01

    An evolutionary trend towards increasing hydrophobicity of vertebrate arterial elastins suggests that there is an adaptive advantage to higher hydrophobicity. The swelling and dynamic mechanical properties of elastins from several species were measured to test whether hydrophobicity is associated with mechanical performance. Hydrophobicity was quantified according to amino acid composition (HI), and two behaviour-based indices: the Flory-Huggins solvent interaction parameter (chi1), and a swelling index relating tissue volumes at 60 and 1 degrees C. Swelling index values correlated with chi1 and, for most species studied, with HI, suggesting that the different approaches used to quantify hydrophobicity are equally valid. Dynamic mechanical properties were measured both in a closed system, to control the effects of water content, and in an open system, to determine whether the increased swelling of hydrophobic materials at low temperatures offsets the direct stiffening effect of cold. There were no biologically significant differences in mechanical behaviour in either open or closed systems that could be attributed to hydrophobicity. Therefore, although the original function of hydrophobicity in an ancestral elastin may have been to produce molecular mobility, mechanical performance did not drive a subsequent increase in hydrophobicity. Higher hydrophobicities may have arisen to facilitate the manufacture of the elastic fibre. PMID:9882642

  8. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  9. Were vertebrates octoploid?

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Rebecca F; Holland, Peter W H

    2002-01-01

    It has long been suggested that gene and genome duplication play important roles in the evolution of organismal complexity. For example, work by Ohno proposed that two rounds of whole genome doubling (tetraploidy) occurred during the evolution of vertebrates: the extra genes permitting an increase in physiological and anatomical complexity. Several modifications of this 'two tetraploidies' hypothesis have been proposed, taking into account accumulating data, and there is wide acceptance of the basic scheme. In the past few years, however, several authors have raised doubts, citing lack of direct support or even evidence to the contrary. Here, we review the evidence for and against the occurrence of tetraploidies in early vertebrate evolution, and present a new compilation of molecular phylogenetic data for amphioxus. We argue that evidence in favour of tetraploidy, based primarily on genome and gene family analyses, is strong. Furthermore, we show that two observations used as evidence against genome duplication are in fact compatible with the hypothesis: but only if the genome doubling occurred by two closely spaced sequential rounds of autotetraploidy. We propose that early vertebrates passed through an autoautooctoploid phase in the evolution of their genomes. PMID:12028790

  10. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

  11. Transient Cortical Blindness Following Vertebral Angiography: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony KT

    2015-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented. PMID:25763297

  12. Subclavian artery aneurysm in a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shota; Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Uranaka, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-02-01

    We describe our experience of surgical treatment in a 28-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A right subclavian artery aneurysm was detected. The right vertebral artery arose from the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography showed interruption of the left vertebral artery. The aneurysm was excised and the right vertebral artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the right common carotid artery under deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The patient remained very well 4 years after surgery, with no late vascular complication. PMID:25293415

  13. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  14. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  15. What's new in vertebral cementoplasty?

    PubMed

    Muto, Mario; Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Giurazza, Francesco; Manfr, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Vertebral cementoplasty is a well-known mini-invasive treatment to obtain pain relief in patients affected by vertebral porotic fractures, primary or secondary spine lesions and spine trauma through intrametameric cement injection. Two major categories of treatment are included within the term vertebral cementoplasty: the first is vertebroplasty in which a simple cement injection in the vertebral body is performed; the second is assisted technique in which a device is positioned inside the metamer before the cement injection to restore vertebral height and allow a better cement distribution, reducing the kyphotic deformity of the spine, trying to obtain an almost normal spine biomechanics. We will describe the most advanced techniques and indications of vertebral cementoplasty, having recently expanded the field of applications to not only patients with porotic fractures but also spine tumours and trauma. PMID:26728798

  16. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25772659

  17. Catheter interventions for "double steal" from isolation of the subclavian artery associated with patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Koneti, Nageswara R; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2014-02-01

    Isolation of the subclavian artery is associated with "steal" of blood from the carotid circulation to the arm, through the circle of Willis and the vertebral artery. When associated with a patent arterial duct, there is an additional "steal" of blood from the arm to the lungs, through the arterial duct because of the lower pulmonary vascular resistance. When this combination manifests clinically with arm ischaemia on the side of the isolated subclavian artery, closure of the arterial duct will prevent the "steal" of blood from the subclavian artery to the pulmonary artery and may improve the blood flow to the arm. We report three patients with this unusual combination of the "steal" phenomenon that improved after interventional closure of the arterial duct. This report discusses the embryological basis of the defect, clinical and echocardiographic clues to diagnose this unusual anomaly, angiographic findings, and transcatheter management options. PMID:23462023

  18. Pheromonal communication in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Zufall, Frank

    2006-11-16

    Recent insights have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of chemical signals in influencing vertebrate behaviour. Previously unknown families of pheromonal signals have been identified that are expanding the traditional definition of a pheromone. Although previously regarded as functioning independently, the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems have been found to have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect and the effects that they mediate. Studies using gene-targeted mice have revealed an unexpected diversity of chemosensory systems and their underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Future developments could show how the functions of the different chemosensory systems are integrated to regulate innate and learned behavioural and physiological responses to pheromones. PMID:17108955

  19. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  20. Blood flow distribution in cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Zarrinkoob, Laleh; Ambarki, Khalid; Whlin, Anders; Birgander, Richard; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can now assess flow in proximal and distal cerebral arteries. The aim of this study was to describe how total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) is distributed into the vascular tree with regard to age, sex and anatomic variations. Forty-nine healthy young (mean 25 years) and 45 elderly (mean 71 years) individuals were included. Blood flow rate (BFR) in 21 intra- and extracerebral arteries was measured. Total cerebral blood flow was defined as BFR in the internal carotid plus vertebral arteries and mean cerebral perfusion as tCBF/brain volume. Carotid/vertebral distribution was 72%/28% and was not related to age, sex, or brain volume. Total cerebral blood flow (717 123 mL/min) was distributed to each side as follows: middle cerebral artery (MCA), 21%; distal MCA, 6%; anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 12%, distal ACA, 4%; ophthalmic artery, 2%; posterior cerebral artery (PCA), 8%; and 20% to basilar artery. Deviating distributions were observed in subjects with 'fetal' PCA. Blood flow rate in cerebral arteries decreased with increasing age (P<0.05) but not in extracerebral arteries. Mean cerebral perfusion was higher in women (women: 61 8; men: 55 6 mL/min/100 mL, P<0.001). The study describes a new method to outline the flow profile of the cerebral vascular tree, including reference values, and should be used for grading the collateral flow system. PMID:25564234

  1. Mixing during intravertebral arterial infusions in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Robert J; Warren, Kathy; Balis, Frank; Patronas, Nicholas; Dedrick, Robert L

    2002-06-01

    Regional delivery of drugs can offer a pharmacokinetic advantage in the treatment of localized tumors. One method of regional delivery is by intra-arterial infusion into the basilar/vertebral artery network that provides local access to infratentorial tumors, which are frequent locations of childhood brain cancers. Proper delivery of drug by infused solutions requires adequate mixing of the infusate at the site of infusion within the artery lumen. Our mixing studies with an in vitro model of the vertebral artery network indicate that streaming of drug solution is likely to occur at low, steady infusion rates of 2 ml/min. Streaming leads to maldistribution of drug to distal perfused brain regions and may result in toxic levels in some regions while concurrently yielding subtherapeutic levels in adjacent regions. According to our model findings, distribution to both brain hemispheres is not likely following infusion into a single vertebral artery even if the infusate is well-mixed at the infusion site. This outcome results from the unique fluid flow properties of two converging channels, which are represented by the left and right vertebral branches converging into the basilar. Fluid in the model remains stratified on the side of the basilar artery served by the infused vertebral artery. Careful thought and planning of the methods of intravertebral drug infusions for treating posterior fossa tumors are required to assure proper distribution of the drug to the desired tissue regions. Improper delivery may be responsible for some noted toxicities or for failure of the treatments. PMID:12164691

  2. The ISCD and Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Vokes, Tamara; Lentle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Some 30 years ago the diagnosis of osteoporosis relied primarily on the measurement of bone mineral density by DXA. More recently, however, it was recognized that vertebral fractures are an important predictor of future fractures and that they reflect some aspect of bone fragility not captured by BMD measurement. In response to that, DXA manufacturers developed VFA, spine imaging on the densitometer, which allowed integration of BMD with information on vertebral fractures obtained at the same visit. ISCD has been instrumental in several aspects of VFA use such as developing and teaching courses for VFA or more broadly, for recognition of vertebral fractures; in developing guidelines for performance, interpretation and reporting of the VFA; and in advocating for reimbursement for VFA tests performed in the clinical practice. ISCD is poised to continue as a leader in vertebral fracture recognition and application of VFA to clinical practice and research. PMID:26346362

  3. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  4. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ≈450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  5. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  6. The Incidence of New Vertebral Fractures Following Vertebral Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Wan, Chao; Ding, Jinyong; Zhang, Shuncong; Jiang, Xiaobing; Xu, Jixi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed that compares the relationship between percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) and conservative treatments with the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Using meta-analytic techniques, this study compares PVA and conservative treatment for incidence of new vertebral fractures, particularly incidence of adjacent fractures that occur following treatment. A focus of clinicians has been on whether PVA increases the risk of new vertebral fractures. Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to retrieve literature published from the establishment of the databases until April 28, 2015. Literature of related areas was searched manually. The main outcome indicator was the incidence of new vertebral fractures at final follow-up appointment. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of new vertebral fractures in different follow-up periods and the incidence of adjacent fractures. The RevMan 5.3 software program of the Cochrane Collaboration was used to analyze the data. For dichotomous variables, the risk ratio (RR) and a confidence interval (CI) of 95% were used to express the heterogeneity of the effect size. Seven randomized controlled trial studies were selected from the literature. The studies include 871 patients, 436 of whom received PVA treatment and the rest received conservative treatment. Combined analysis of the 7 studies showed that the numbers of new vertebral fractures in the 2 groups are not significantly different. Six studies reported the numbers of new adjacent fractures. Considering the heterogeneity among the studies, 2 subgroups were formed. The 5 studies in the European group showed that the incidence of new adjacent fractures in the PVA-treated group is higher than that in the conservatively treated group, and the difference is statistically significant. The one study in the Asian group showed no significant difference between the incidences of adjacent fractures in the 2 groups. PVA treatment does not increase the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Most studies reported that PVA increases the incidence of adjacent fractures, yet it is rarely stated that both PVA and conservative treatment lead to the same incidence of adjacent fractures. PMID:26376401

  7. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  8. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  9. [Control of respiration in teleostean fishes: existence of chemoreceptors, physiologically analogous to those of higher vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Eclancher, B; Dejours, P

    1975-01-27

    Injection of NaCN or lobeline into the ventral aorta of the trout or carp provokes hyperventilation and bradycardia within 5 seconds, responses which are the weaker the higher the oxygen tension of the ambient water. The reactions, precisely similar to the chemoreflexes of higher vertebrates, suggest that these fish also possess arterial chemoreceptors. PMID:806384

  10. Subclavian artery intervention with a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter via the ipsilateral brachial artery without an introducer sheath.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Nakajima, S; Endo, H; Takahashi, T; Nozaki, E

    2015-04-01

    To protect against a distal embolism in the vertebral artery, subclavian artery stenting can be achieved by positioning a filter device or balloon in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. However, treatment with these devices is not easy, and it is also an inaccurate method for cerebral protection. We developed a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter (Optimo() occlusion catheter) without an introducer sheath, which allowed us to perform the minimally invasive endovascular therapy (EVT). Herein, we report two EVT cases for subclavian artery disease treated with an Optimo() occlusion catheter via the ipsilateral brachial artery. This method is effective for distal protection of both cerebral and brachial artery embolism, and also enables EVT procedure retrogradely as well. PMID:24935071

  11. Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

  12. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common causes of arterial insufficiency is atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries." Fatty material (called ... Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular ... Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: ...

  13. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The arterial catheter allows accurate, second-to-second measurement of the blood pressure; repeated meas- urement is ... pressure must be lowered gradually in steps, and measurements with an arterial catheter help guide the treatment. ■ ...

  14. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every

  15. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  16. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  17. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

  18. Cardiac regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Claudia; Morrison, Jamie Ian

    2014-02-01

    The heart is a robust organ, capable of pumping nutrients and transferring oxygen throughout the body via a network of capillaries, veins and arteries, for the entirety of a human's life. However, the fragility of mammalian hearts is also evident when it becomes damaged and parts of the organ fail to function. This is due to the fact that rather than replenishing the damaged areas with functional cellular mass, fibrotic scar tissue is the preferred replacement, resulting in an organ with functional deficiencies. Due to the mammalian hearts incapability to regenerate following damage and the ever-increasing number of people worldwide suffering from heart disease, tireless efforts are being made to discover ways of inducing a regenerative response in this most important organ. One such avenue of investigation involves studying our distantly related non-mammalian vertebrate cousins, which over the last decade has proved to us that cardiac regeneration is possible. This review will highlight these organisms and provide insights into some of the seminal discoveries made in the heart regeneration field using these amazing chordates. PMID:23933519

  19. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  20. Arterial embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

  1. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  2. Vertebral Fractures: Clinical Importance and Management.

    PubMed

    Kendler, D L; Bauer, D C; Davison, K S; Dian, L; Hanley, D A; Harris, S T; McClung, M R; Miller, P D; Schousboe, J T; Yuen, C K; Lewiecki, E M

    2016-02-01

    Vertebral fractures are common and can result in acute and chronic pain, decreases in quality of life, and diminished lifespan. The identification of vertebral fractures is important because they are robust predictors of future fractures. The majority of vertebral fractures do not come to clinical attention. Numerous modalities exist for visualizing suspected vertebral fracture. Although differing definitions of vertebral fracture may present challenges in comparing data between different investigations, at least 1 in 5 men and women aged >50 years have one or more vertebral fractures. There is clinical guidance to target spine imaging to individuals with a high probability of vertebral fracture. Radiology reports of vertebral fracture need to clearly state that the patient has a "fracture," with further pertinent details such as the number, recency, and severity of vertebral fracture, each of which is associated with risk of future fractures. Patients with vertebral fracture should be considered for antifracture therapy. Physical and pharmacologic modalities of pain control and exercises or physiotherapy to maintain spinal movement and strength are important components in the care of vertebral fracture patients. PMID:26524708

  3. Identification of vertebral fractures: an update.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, L; Jiang, G; Adams, J; Eastell, R

    2005-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fracture is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. As a powerful predictor of future fracture risk, the identification of vertebral fracture helps target individuals who will benefit from anti-fracture therapy. The identification of vertebral fractures is problematic because (1) "normal" radiological appearances in the spine vary greatly both among and within individuals; (2) "normal" vertebrae may exhibit misleading radiological appearances due to radiographic projection error; and (3) "abnormal" appearances due to non-fracture deformities and normal variants are common, but can be difficult to differentiate from true vertebral fracture. Various methods of vertebral fracture definition have been proposed, but there is no agreed gold standard. Quantitative methods of vertebral fracture definition are objective and reproducible, but the major limitation of these methods is their inability to differentiate between vertebral deformity and vertebral fracture. The qualitative visual approach draws on the expertise of the reader, but it is a subjective method with poor interobserver agreement. Semiquantitative assessment of vertebral fracture is a standardized visual method, which is commonly applied in research studies as a surrogate gold standard. This method is more objective and reproducible than a purely qualitative approach, but can be difficult to apply. The established methods focus primarily on the identification of "reduced" or short vertebral height as an indication of vertebral fracture, but this is also a feature of some non-fracture deformities and normal variants. A modified visual approach known as algorithm-based qualitative assessment of vertebral fracture (ABQ) has recently been introduced, and this focuses on radiological evidence of change at the vertebral endplate as the primary indicator of fracture. Preliminary testing of the ABQ method has produced promising results, but the method requires further evaluation. Vertebral imaging by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner produces images of near-radiographic quality at a fraction of the radiation dose incurred by conventional radiography. There is growing interest in vertebral fracture assessment using this technique as a means of assessing a patient's fracture risk. Given the increasing availability of new technology and the importance of accurate diagnosis of vertebral fracture, there is an urgent need for better awareness of and training in the definition of vertebral fracture. Methods of vertebral fracture definition should be validated by testing the association with clinical outcomes of vertebral fracture, in particular the prediction of incident fractures. PMID:15868071

  4. Subclavian steal and rest pain in a case of brachiocephalic artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kapa, Suraj; Adams, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    A patient with multiple vessel disease presented with symptoms of significant bilateral upper extremity pain and weakness that was more significant on the right side. On carotid duplex scanning, brachiocephalic artery occlusion with retrograde flow was noted through the right common carotid and right vertebral arteries at rest. Furthermore, 50% to 90% occlusion of the left internal carotid was noted. Filling of the right subclavian artery was noted to be through the right vertebral and right common carotid arteries. Unlike isolated subclavian steal syndrome, brachiocephalic artery occlusion induces significant hemodynamic alterations in extracranial arterial flow, which normally produces no symptoms at rest, but may produce symptoms with exercise. The occurrence of subclavian steal phenomenon in the presence of brachiocephalic occlusion is extremely rare. The present case is the first to report a patient presenting with bilateral upper extremity rest pain in the presence of brachiocephalic artery occlusive disease. PMID:22477423

  5. Variance in the treatment of vertebral haemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Sheh; Nangia, S; Ezhilalan, R B; Bansal, A K; Ghosh, D

    2007-01-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas constitute an infrequently encounterd entity in clinical practice. Although x-ray, computerised tomography scan and magnetic resonance Imaging scan provide a pathognomic picture confirming the diagnosis of vertebral haemangiomas, angiography constitutes an important tool for diagnosis and helps in deciding and execution of treatment. Various treatment modalities like surgery, radiotherapy, pre-operative embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty and intralesional ethanol have been discussed in the setting of asymptomatic vertebral haemangiomas to those presenting with features of cord compression. PMID:17802977

  6. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  7. Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates. PMID:19443856

  8. Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

  9. Arterial stick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... within the body. Blood also helps control body temperature, fluids, and the balance of chemicals. Blood is ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ...

  10. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  11. [Subclavian steal-carotid recovery phenomenon due to innominate artery occlusion: Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography findings and endovascular treatment].

    PubMed

    Birgi, Erdem; Ergun, Onur; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; z?nar, Evren; Conkbay?r, I??k

    2014-06-01

    Innominate artery occlusion is a rare condition that can cause symptoms in the anterior cerebral circulation, vertebrobasilar system and upper extremity, while it can also be asymptomatic. We report the Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings of the right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery flow by retrograde flow from the ipsilateral vertebral artery due to innominate artery occlusion. We aimed to discuss the results of primary stenting together with the technical and clinical success. PMID:24899484

  12. Internal carotid artery fibromuscular dysplasia in arterial hypertension: management in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Zamboni, Sergio; Cuppini, Stefano; Zattoni, Luca; Ravenni, Roberta; Sacco, Alberto; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2008-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) reminds of a rare form of secondary arterial hypertension occurring in young people and involving the renal arteries. FMD may also involve vertebral, subclavian, mesenteric, iliac arteries and carotid arteries. FMD of internal carotid arteries is a rare finding that is frequently incidental and asymptomatic. It usually occurs in middle-aged women and is secondary to media-intima fibrodysplasia. The carotid artery may be elongated or kinked and associated cerebral aneurysms have been reported. Symptoms including transient ischaemic attack or stroke are uncommon and are related to decrease of blood flow or embolization by platelet aggregates. At the onset, differential diagnosis with vasculitis must be placed. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography demonstrates bilateral high-grade stenosis with the characteristic "string of beads" pattern. Antiplatelet medication is the accepted therapy for asymptomatic lesions. Graduated endoluminal surgical dilation is an outmoded therapy, no longer used in most medical centres. Current percutaneous angioplasty is the preferred treatment for symptomatic carotid FMD, but no randomized controlled trials comparing this methodology with surgery is available. The management of a case of arterial systemic FMD in a 52-year-old women, diagnosed after a hypertensive crysis, is discussed. Imaging methods disclosed stenoses of carotid arteries, of celiac tripod and of superior mesenteric artery. Because of high risk associated to endovascular surgery, medical therapy was started. In the first year of follow-up, no events have been reported. PMID:18825547

  13. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods. PMID:23334417

  14. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  15. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  16. Lamprey Dlx genes and early vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Neidert, Adam H.; Virupannavar, Vikrant; Hooker, Gillian W.; Langeland, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Gnathostome vertebrates have multiple members of the Dlx family of transcription factors that are expressed during the development of several tissues considered to be vertebrate synapomorphies, including the forebrain, cranial neural crest, placodes, and pharyngeal arches. The Dlx gene family thus presents an ideal system in which to examine the relationship between gene duplication and morphological innovation during vertebrate evolution. Toward this end, we have cloned Dlx genes from the lamprey Petromyzon marinus, an agnathan vertebrate that occupies a critical phylogenetic position between cephalochordates and gnathostomes. We have identified four Dlx genes in P. marinus, whose orthology with gnathostome Dlx genes provides a model for how this gene family evolved in the vertebrate lineage. Differential expression of these lamprey Dlx genes in the forebrain, cranial neural crest, pharyngeal arches, and sensory placodes of lamprey embryos provides insight into the developmental evolution of these structures as well as a model of regulatory evolution after Dlx gene duplication events. PMID:11172008

  17. [Neonatal cervical artery dissection secondary to birth trauma].

    PubMed

    Hamida, N; Hakim, A; Fourati, H; Ben Thabet, A; Walha, L; Bouraoui, A; Mnif, Z; Gargouri, A

    2014-02-01

    Cervical artery dissection is rare in the neonatal period and is most often caused by birth injury during dystocic labor. The severity of this pathology is due to the possibility of serious neurological complications. We report a case of a male newborn who was born vaginally after shoulder dystocia. The extraction was difficult, resulting in a fracture of the right humerus. On the second day of life, the child presented generalized clonic convulsions. Computed tomography of the brain showed an ischemic stroke in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery, the territory of the right posterior cerebral artery, and the right lenticulostriate and capsular regions. Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral carotid artery thrombosis and dissection at the left common carotid artery and its two branches and the right vertebral artery. We discuss the mechanisms of this pathology and we emphasize preventive measures. PMID:24290182

  18. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  20. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  1. The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Fr?ckowiak, Hieronim; Kie?tyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. PMID:24106047

  2. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S19-S36, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26808105

  3. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  4. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  5. Immunosenescence in vertebrates and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as “immunosenescence”. Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and the evolutionary emergence of adaptive and innate immunity? The immune system is assumed to have evolved to protect the organism against pathogens, but the way in which this is accomplished is different in the innate-vs-adaptive arms, and it is unclear why the latter is necessary. Are there special characteristics of adaptive immunity which might make the system more susceptible to age-associated dysfunction? Given recent accumulating findings that actually there are age-associated changes to innate immunity and that these are broadly similar in vertebrates and invertebrates, we suggest here that it is the special property of memory in the adaptive immune system which results in the accumulation of cells with a restricted receptor repertoire, dependent on the immunological history of the individual’s exposures to pathogens over the lifetime, and which is commonly taken as a hallmark of “immunosenescence”. However, we further hypothesize that this immunological remodelling per se does not necessarily convey a disadvantage to the individual (ie. is not necessarily “senescence” if it is not deleterious). Indeed, under certain circumstances, or potentially even as a rule, this adaptation to the individual host environment may confer an actual survival advantage. PMID:23547999

  6. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirki??o-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, W?odzimierz; Jab?o?ski, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare. PMID:25988288

  7. Are Spinal or Paraspinal Anatomic Markers Helpful for Vertebral Numbering and Diagnosing Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae?

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Kilic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Materials and Methods Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. Results The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. Conclusion The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels. PMID:24644411

  8. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory B; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin H; O'Brien, Mary Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and growing awareness of this has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly, which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiological beaking, or spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid's bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  9. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (~420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ~505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. PMID:26095697

  10. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:26069429

  11. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:26069429

  12. Vertebrate eye development as modeled in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, S; Maas, R L

    2000-04-12

    Pax6, a member of the paired-box family of transcription factors, is critical for oculogenesis in both vertebrates and insects. Identification of potential vertebrate Pax6 targets has been guided by studies in Drosophila, where the Pax6 homologs eyeless ( ey ) and twin of eyeless ( toy ) function within a network of genes that synergistically pattern the developing fly eye. These targets, which share homology with the fly genes sine oculis, eyes absent and dachshund, exist in mice and humans as the Six, Eya and Dach gene families. Members of these gene families are present in the developing vertebrate eye, and preliminary studies suggest that they may function in a network analogous to that in the fly. Thus, despite radically different architecture, a similar molecular scaffold underlies both vertebrate and fly eye patterning, suggesting that the considerable power of Drosophila genetics can be harnessed to study mammalian ocular development. PMID:10767315

  13. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  14. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  15. What is a vertebrate pigment cell?

    PubMed

    Schartl, Manfred; Larue, Lionel; Goda, Makoto; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kelsh, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of discussions emerging from a workshop and discussions at the 7th meeting of the European Society for Pigment Cell Research in Geneva in 2012, this manuscript outlines useful criteria for defining the bona fide pigment cells as a functional entity of the vertebrate body plan and differentiating them from 'pigmented' cells in general. It also proposes a nomenclature for various types of pigment cells of vertebrates. PMID:26247887

  16. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  17. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  18. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

  19. Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

    1998-01-01

    We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

  20. Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

  1. [Long-term results of PTA of degenerative supra-aortic arterial changes].

    PubMed

    Kachel, R; Basche, S; Kassel, I; Grossmann, K

    1991-01-01

    We present our experience with 129 patients in whom PTA was performed in 135 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Angioplasty was successful in 44 stenoses of the carotid artery, 19 stenoses of the vertebral artery, 5 stenosis of the innominate artery, 53 stenoses of the subclavian artery and 4 occlusions of the subclavian artery. There were only 4 minor-complications (2 haematomas, 1 TIA, 1 small thrombus of the internal carotid artery which was detected by 111-indium platelet scintigraphy) and 1 major-complication (permanent hemiparesis). During the observations period of 1 to 116 months (average 61 m) there were only two cases with re-stenosis after subclavian angioplasty. The results suggest that angioplasty of supra-aortic arteries is an effective method. PMID:1838628

  2. Transverse subisthmic course of the innominate artery in an adult: detailed anatomy and additional variation.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Boşcu, A L

    2010-11-01

    A rare morphology of an aberrant innominate artery (IA) is reported here, together with additional arterial variation encountered in the respective specimen. The IA originated in the aortic arch on the left side of the trachea, coursed on that side of the trachea to reach the left thyroid lobe, turned in at a right angle to pass anterior to the trachea and immediately inferior and parallel to the thyroid isthmus, and finally it divided inferior to the right thyroid lobe into the right subclavian and common carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery immediately turned at a right angle to ascend in the neck. Thus the terminal branches of the IA had origins in a higher position than is usually expected. This aberrant course of the IA determined a step-like morphology in the sagittal plane of the left common carotid artery. Additional variations were also encountered: (a) a lateralised right external carotid artery with the superior thyroid artery initially coursing over the internal carotid artery; (b) the right vertebral artery coursing over the inferior thyroid artery and entering the transverse process of the fifth cervical vertebra; (c) the left subclavian and vertebral arteries were tortuous. Knowledge of the presence of this IA variant, with a transverse subisthmic segment, appears to be important in various surgical approaches, such as tracheostomies, thyroidectomies, and mediastinoscopies; in addition, the variations of the IA and the vertebral arteries are relevant for lower cervical spine approaches. Nevertheless, the lateralised external carotid artery may lead, if unidentified, to hemorrhagic complications during carotid space approaches. It is important for surgeons to be aware that if an aberrant IA is identified it may not be the only variation in that patient. PMID:21120815

  3. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Anas; Abduljabbar, Fahad H.; Abduljabbar, Ahmed H.; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism. PMID:26221556

  4. Gravity, blood circulation, and the adaptation of form and function in lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, H B

    Gravitational force influences musculoskeletal systems, fluid distribution, and hydrodynamics of the circulation, especially in larger terrestrial vertebrates. The disturbance to hydrodynamics and distribution of body fluids relates largely to the effects of hydrostatic pressure gradients acting in vertical blood columns. These, in turn, are linked to the evolution of adaptive countermeasures involving modifications of structure and function. Comparative studies of snakes suggest there are four generalizations concerning adaptive countermeasures to gravity stress that seem relevant to lower vertebrates generally. First, increasing levels of regulated arterial blood pressure are expected to evolve with some relation to gravitational stresses incurred by the effects of height and posture on vertical blood columns above the heart. Second, aspects of gross anatomical organization are expected to evolve in relation to gravitational influence incurred by habitat and behavior. Third, natural selection coupled to gravitational stresses has favored morphological features that reduce the compliance of perivascular tissues and provide an anatomical "antigravity suit." Fourth, natural selection has produced gradients or regional differences of vascular characteristics in tall or elongated vertebrates that are active in high gravity stress environments. Consideration or awareness of these principles should be incorporated into interpretations of structure and function in lower vertebrates. PMID:8676096

  5. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  6. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation treated by percutaneous closure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jos E; Moshe Gomori, J; Anner, Haim; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    Accidental arterial puncture occurs in around 1% and 2.7% of jugular and subclavian approaches, respectively. When a line has been inadvertently inserted into an artery at a noncompressible site, there is an increased risk for serious complications. This complication can be treated by either surgical or endovascular intervention or a combination; however, in critically ill patients or in those with impaired coagulation, therapeutic options are more limited. We describe successful endovascular management of inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation during insertion of a triple lumen central line catheter in a 35-year-old man suffering from leukemia, with sepsis and multi-organ failure. He was hypotensive and hemodynamically unstable, with severe coagulopathy. The catheter had entered the artery at the level of the origin of the internal mammary artery, just above the origin of the vertebral artery. The tip was lying in the aortic arch. The artery was successfully closed by endovascular deployment of an 8 French Angio-Seal device (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). The device is licensed for use in femoral arterial puncture sites but provided safe and effective closure of the subclavian artery puncture in our patient. PMID:24913929

  7. Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: an unreported association.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2016-01-01

    Rete mirabile is a fine meshwork of anastomosing vessels that replace the parent artery. A 30-year-old woman complained of slurring of speech, right eye proptosis, recurrent vomiting, and loss of bladder and bowel control, followed by drowsiness lasting 30-40?min, for the past 6?months. On cross sectional imaging and angiography, the patient was found to have a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered both endovascular and open surgical options but she refused any form of surgical treatment and opted for conservative management. At the 6 month follow-up, she continued to have occasional episodes of headache and vomiting but was otherwise normal. We describe the clinical, cross sectional, and angiographic features of this patient. A comparison with other patients with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile is also reported. PMID:25428448

  8. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  10. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  11. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  12. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  13. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path ...

  14. Coronary artery fistula (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A coronary artery fistula generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries fails to form properly during the development of the baby. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

  15. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  16. [Amphioxus: how to become a vertebrate].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stphanie; Camasses, Alain; Escriva, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Evo-devo is a young disciplin, which aims to explain the morphological evolution of organisms through developmental mechanisms and genes networks. A major question within this discipline is the origin of vertebrates. It seems now admitted that vertebrates derive from an invertebrate chordate ancestor. Several models among living chordate representatives are used today to answer this question. The small world of evo-evo interested in the emergence of vertebrates is ebullient about the advent of several totally sequenced genomes allowing comparative analyses to become evermore reliable. Furthermore "non classical" models are developed which can be submitted to refined developmental analysis. One of these is amphioxus (genus Branchyostoma), "a peaceful anchory fillet to illuminate chordate evolution" (Garcia-Fernandez, 2006a, b). The features of this model are described in this review. PMID:17762824

  17. Navigation in Evolving Robots: Insight from Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponticorvo, Michela; Miglino, Orazio

    Mobile robots navigation is a broad topic, covering many different technologies and applications. It is possible to draw inspiration for robot navigation from vertebrates. Reviewing literature on vertebrates, it seems clear that they navigate by elaborating substantially two kinds of spatial information: geometric (environmental shape, distance from landmarks) and non geometric (colors, smells). In this paper we try to understand how these cues can be used by small populations of mobile robots in environments reproducing the main features of experimental settings used with vertebrates. The robots are controlled by neural networks, whose evolution determines robot navigation behaviour. We analyze how the artificial systems use these information, separately or jointly, and how is it possible to obtain mobile robots that exploit effectively geometric and non-geometric information to navigate in specific environments.

  18. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  19. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles. PMID:26165811

  20. Subclavian steal syndrome secondary to subclavian artery thrombosis in a patient with homocysteinemia and its successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Marium; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain; Tariq, Muhammad; Hanif, Hashim Muhammed

    2012-10-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is a rare condition. It results from subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. It is characterized by cerebral ischaemia with associated symptoms of vertebrobasilar hypoperfusion and/or symptoms of brainstem or arm ischaemia. We describe a case of a 35 year old male who presented with persistent vertigo for two months, blue discoloration and pain in the left fingers for two weeks. A diagnosis of SSS was made and patient was treated with a gortex graft from the arch of the aorta to the second portion of the left subclavian artery. Treatment is aimed at restoring permanent antegrade blood flow to the affected vertebral artery. This abolishes vertebral basilar symptoms and other manifestations of SSS. Several modalities exist, however surgical correction is the treatment of choice. PMID:23866465

  1. The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these living fossils, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  3. Renal-vertebral index in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Bacopoulos, C; Papahatzi-Kalmadi, M; Karpathios, T; Thomaidis, T; Matsaniotis, N

    1981-01-01

    The renal-vertebral index is a simple method of evaluating the renal length in children and is convenient for everyday clinical work. The results of 822 normal children aged between 3 days and 14 years are reported. Infants of up to 1 year were found to have an index of about 4 to 5, pre-school children are an index of 3 1/2 to 4 1/2, and schoolchildren an index of 3 1/2 to 4. There was no significant difference in renal-vertebral index between boys and girls. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7259261

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  5. Molecular evolution of the vertebrate hexokinase gene family: Identification of a conserved fifth vertebrate hexokinase gene.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David M; Tan, Huanran

    2008-03-01

    Hexokinases (HK) phosphorylate sugar immediately upon its entry into cells allowing these sugars to be metabolized. A total of four hexokinases have been characterized in a diversity of vertebrates-HKI, HKII, HKIII, and HKIV. HKIV is often called glucokinase (GCK) and has half the molecular weight of the other hexokinases, as it only has one hexokinase domain, while other vertebrate HKs have two. Differing hypothesis has been proposed to explain the diversification of the hexokinase gene family. We used a genomic approach to characterize hexokinase genes in a diverse array of vertebrate species and close relatives. Surprisingly we identified a fifth hexokinase-like gene, HKDC1 that exists and is expressed in diverse vertebrates. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of HKDC1 suggests that it may function as a hexokinase. To understand the evolution of the vertebrate hexokinase gene family we established a phylogeny of the hexokinase domain in all of the vertebrate hexokinase genes, as well as hexokinase genes from close relatives of the vertebrates. Our phylogeny demonstrates that duplication of the hexokinase domain, yielding a HK with two hexokinase domains, occurred prior to the diversification of the hexokinase gene family. We also establish that GCK evolved from a two hexokinase domain-containing gene, but has lost its N-terminal hexokinase domain. We also show that parallel changes in enzymatic function of HKI and HKIII have occurred. PMID:20483211

  6. [Intra-arterial thrombolysis of a basilar vascular accident during coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Battikh, K; Rihani, R; Lemahieu, J M; Mokahal, M; Houchaymi, Z; Cornaert, P; Dutoit, A

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 67 year old man with a previous history of aortobifemoral arterial graft who had unstable angina after carotid endarterectomy. Coronary angiography by the right brachial artery was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident with a reactive coma, convulsions and respiratory problems. Selective angiography of the right vertebral artery showed an image of occlusive thrombosis of the basilar artery. In view of the clinical state and angiographic appearances, the authors decided on immediate intra-arterial thrombolysis with Urokinase which dissolved the clot and reestablished flow in the basilar artery, the cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries. The outcome was favourable with immediate and good recovery of consciousness and hospital discharge on the sixth day without neurological or radiological sequellae. Cerebrovascular accident is a rare and potentially serious complication of left heart catheterisation which requires immediate cerebral angiography to determine the mechanism and propose an appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:11603067

  7. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species

  8. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.

  9. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Aisa; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Mizuno, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi causes bacteremia, cellulitis, and gastroenteritis. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by H. cinaedi in an elderly man with low back pain and fever. The pathogen was detected in blood and lumbar disc, and the infection was successfully treated with oral doxycycline for 11 weeks. PMID:26109448

  10. Ancestral vertebrate complexity of the opioid system.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina; Sundstrm, Grel

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the opioid peptides and nociceptin/orphanin as well as their receptors has been difficult to resolve due to variable evolutionary rates. By combining sequence comparisons with information on the chromosomal locations of the genes, we have deduced the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate predecessor had one opioid precursor gene and one receptor gene. The two genome doublings before the vertebrate radiation resulted in three peptide precursor genes whereupon a fourth copy arose by a local gene duplication. These four precursors diverged to become the prepropeptides for endorphin (POMC), enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin, respectively. The ancestral receptor gene was quadrupled in the genome doublings leading to delta, kappa, and mu and the nociceptin/orphanin receptor. This scenario is corroborated by new data presented here for coelacanth and spotted gar, representing two basal branches in the vertebrate tree. A third genome doubling in the ancestor of teleost fishes generated additional gene copies. These results show that the opioid system was quite complex already in the first vertebrates and that it has more components in teleost fishes than in mammals. From an evolutionary point of view, nociceptin and its receptor can be considered full-fledged members of the opioid system. PMID:25677769

  11. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  12. Haemophilus aphrophilus discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, J C; Keene, G S; Weinbren, M J; Johnson, A P; Palepou, M F; George, R C

    1995-01-01

    An unusual case of discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus is described. Infections due to this organism have usually responded to treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics. However, our isolate was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins which has not been reported previously in the world literature. The patient made a good clinical response to ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:8539556

  13. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  14. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index.

  15. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called vertebral body stenting (VBS) was tested invitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n=12) or by VBS (n=12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (meanSD in %, p<0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.76.2; VBS: 3.73.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.09.4; VBS: 13.37.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation. PMID:20191393

  16. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type I Misdiagnosed as a Giant Aneurysm *

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, G.; Assmann, U.; Bender, A.; Lehmann, T. N.; Lanksch, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Summary A 59-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with bruits and neck pain due to a space occupying lesion in the right neck tissue. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the right extracranial vertebral artery (VA) with a giant venous pouch and an intracranial berry aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). First, the MCA aneurysm was surgically clipped, then the patient was treated by embolisation with coils. The coils were placed transarterially from the left VA resulting in a partial thrombosis of the venous pouch. Complete closure was achieved secondarily by retrograde transvenous catheterization. Etiology and treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:20667184

  17. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  18. Combined external counterpulsation and endovascular stenting treatment for symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li; Chen, Xiang Yan; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis has a poor prognosis. Intravascular stents provide a new therapeutic approach, but the long-term outcome of stenting compared with medical outcome is controversial. External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method to improve perfusion of vital organs. We report two cases of this combination with ECP treatment in addition to receiving endovascular stenting. Two patients experienced posterior ischemic stroke. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a severe basilar or vertebral artery stenosis. Computed tomographic perfusion revealed significantly decreased perfusion of posterior artery territories. Both of them underwent combined ECP treatment and endovascular stenting of the stenosed basilar or vertebral artery, without recurrent stroke within 30 days after stenting. The two patients were independent (modified Rankin scale ?2) at the 12-month follow-up time. Combined ECP treatment and endovascular stent placement may be effective and safe for patients with symptomatic VBA stenosis who failed aggressive medical treatment. PMID:26568838

  19. [On the anatomical terms used for description of brain arteries and discrepancy between them and anatomical nomenclature].

    PubMed

    Vavilov, V N; Kosourov, A K

    2004-01-01

    The following terms are used in Russian literature to designate arteries, which carry blood into the brain: brachiocephalic arteries, aortic arch branches, main cerebral arteries (arteries of the head), extra- and intracranial cerebral arteries, precerebral arteries. All terms either have substantial drawbacks or conflict with the adopted anatomical terminology. These discrepancies become far more significant in view of publication of "Terminologia Anatomica" (New York, 1998). We suggest to discuss the possibility to use universal terminology for the designation of the system of the arteries, supplying the brain. We propose to designate truncus brachiocephalicus, common carotid and subclavian arteries, internal carotid and vertebral arteries with their branches including arterial network on the brain surface by the term "the conducting arteries", whereas small branches, which pierce the brain matter are to be named "the penetrating arteries" (T.M. Sundt et al., 1976). Considering the Greek word "encephalon", which means "the brain", all the arteries of the brain could be designated as encephalic, while conducting arteries--as preencephalic, and intracerebral (penetrating) arteries--as intraencephalic. PMID:15359710

  20. Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

  1. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  2. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  4. The shifting of the aortic origin of the brachial arteries in the metamorphosing eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), with remarks on the shifting mechanisms in arterial junctions in general.

    PubMed

    Willemse, J J; Markus-Silvis, L

    1985-01-01

    In silver eels the arteries supplying the pectoral girdles and fins, arise from a common trunk which branches off from the dorsal aspect of the dorsal aorta, while the origin of this trunk is found at the ventral aspect of the aorta in the leptocephalus larva. The rearrangement of the origin of this trunk is mainly accomplished during metamorphosis, and is related to the rearrangement of the junction of the epibranchial arteries and the aorta. The processes of remodelling the wall of the vessels involved in these rearrangements are discussed against the background of data on similar remodelling, accompanying the rearrangement of arterial junctions during the development of higher vertebrates. PMID:4013636

  5. Arterial-venous specification during development.

    PubMed

    Swift, Matthew R; Weinstein, Brant M

    2009-03-13

    The major arteries and veins of the vertebrate circulatory system are formed early in embryonic development, before the onset of circulation, following de novo aggregation of "angioblast" progenitors in a process called vasculogenesis. Initial embryonic determination of artery or vein identity is regulated by variety of genetic factors that work in concert to specify endothelial cell fate, giving rise to 2 distinct components of the circulatory loop possessing unique structural characteristics. Work in multiple in vivo animal model systems has led to a detailed examination of the interacting partners that determine arterial and venous specification. We discuss the hierarchical arrangement of many signaling molecules, including Hedgehog (Hh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Notch, and chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) that promote or inhibit divergent pathways of endothelial cell fate. Elucidation of the functional role of these genetic determinants of blood vessel specification together with the epigenetic factors involved in subsequent modification of arterial-venous identity will allow for potential new therapeutic targets for vascular disorders. PMID:19286613

  6. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cazama-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcn, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  7. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-28

    Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 182n - 6 to produce 183n - 6 that is elongated to 203n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 183n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 225n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 225n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

  8. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Copes gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with nave (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to nave larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the nave gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogens persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  9. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Fishbach, Ronald S.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Dahlgren, James G.

    1973-01-01

    The diagnosis of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis was made in seven narcotic addicts between 1967 and 1972. Vertebrae involved were either cervical or lumbar. Bacteriologic diagnosis was made in each case by percutaneous needle biopsy and aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in two patients. Five patients had infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter. All patients were cured by treatment with antibiotics and immobilization. PMID:4199351

  10. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cazama-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcn, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  11. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification

    PubMed Central

    O?Guinn, Devon J.; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Discussion Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. PMID:26692163

  12. Comparative genomics of vertebrate Fox cluster loci

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, Karl R; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2006-01-01

    Background Vertebrate genomes contain numerous duplicate genes, many of which are organised into paralagous regions indicating duplication of linked groups of genes. Comparison of genomic organisation in different lineages can often allow the evolutionary history of such regions to be traced. A classic example of this is the Hox genes, where the presence of a single continuous Hox cluster in amphioxus and four vertebrate clusters has allowed the genomic evolution of this region to be established. Fox transcription factors of the C, F, L1 and Q1 classes are also organised in clusters in both amphioxus and humans. However in contrast to the Hox genes, only two clusters of paralogous Fox genes have so far been identified in the Human genome and the organisation in other vertebrates is unknown. Results To uncover the evolutionary history of the Fox clusters, we report on the comparative genomics of these loci. We demonstrate two further paralogous regions in the Human genome, and identify orthologous regions in mammalian, chicken, frog and teleost genomes, timing the duplications to before the separation of the actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages. An additional Fox class, FoxS, was also found to reside in this duplicated genomic region. Conclusion Comparison of loci identifies the pattern of gene duplication, loss and cluster break up through multiple lineages, and suggests FoxS1 is a likely remnant of Fox cluster duplication. PMID:17062144

  13. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  14. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  15. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  16. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  17. Cortex-sparing infarction in triple cervical artery dissection following chiropractic neck manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Melikyan, Gayane; Kamran, Saadat; Akhtar, Naveed; Deleu, Dirk; Miyares, Francisco Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multivessel cervical dissection with cortical sparing is exceptional in clinical practice. Case presentation: A 55-year-old man presented with acute-onset neck pain with associated sudden onset right-sided hemiparesis and dysphasia after chiropractic manipulation for chronic neck pain. Results and Discussion: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral internal carotid artery dissection and left extracranial vertebral artery dissection with bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarctions and large cortical-sparing left middle cerebral artery infarction. This suggests the presence of functionally patent and interconnecting leptomeningeal anastomoses between cerebral arteries, which may provide sufficient blood flow to salvage penumbral regions when a supplying artery is occluded. Conclusion: Chiropractic cervical manipulation can result in catastrophic vascular lesions preventable if these practices are limited to highly specialized personnel under very specific situations. PMID:26835412

  18. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  19. Unusual aortic arch variation: distal origin of common carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Sparks, C D

    2001-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the aortic arch and its branches were removed en bloc at autopsy from men of Japanese ancestry born in Hawaii. Of the 193 arterial trees examined, 182 (94.3%) had a typical branching pattern (e.g., brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, in that order). Two specimens had only two branches arising from the aortic arch, a common trunk uniting the brachiocephalic and left common carotid arteries and a left subclavian artery. Nine individuals (4.6%) had four branches off the aortic arch; in eight of these cases (4.1%), the left vertebral artery originated directly off the aortic arch just proximal to, or as a common trunk with, the left subclavian artery. A unique aortic arch branching pattern was found in one of these men. The four arteries arising from the arch of the aorta were, in sequence: right subclavian, left subclavian, right common carotid, and left common carotid. The literature on aortic arch variations is reviewed and the possible embryonic development of these branching patterns and their clinical significance is discussed briefly. PMID:11135402

  20. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa; Shin, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Woo

    2006-04-15

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  1. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography of aberrant subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Trkvatan, Aysel; Bykbayraktar, Fatma Gl; Oler, Tlay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of 16-slice multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography for identifying anatomic features of aberrant subclavian arteries. Seventeen patients with aberrant subclavian arteries were assessed by MDCT angiography. The aortic arch position, the presence of a Kommerell's diverticulum, aneurysm, vascular compression of trachea and oesophagus and associated cardiovascular abnormalities were evaluated. MDCT findings were confirmed by surgery in eight patients but in the other nine patients no further evaluation or management was warranted as the aberrant subclavian artery had no significant clinical consequence. Eleven patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery arising from the left aortic arch and six patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from the right aortic arch. Kommerell's diverticulum was identified in three patients with an aberrant right subclavian artery and in five patients with an aberrant left subclavian artery. In two patients it was aneurysmal. Oesophageal compression was detected in eight patients, and tracheal compression was identified in only one paediatric patient. An aberrant subclavian artery was associated with complex congenital heart disease in one patient, intracardiac defects in two patients, aortic coarctation in two patients, patent ductus arteriosus in two patients and an aberrant vertebral artery in one patient. In conclusion, MDCT angiography is superior to digital subtraction angiography for the assessment of aberrant subclavian arteries since digital subtraction angiography has only a poor ability to visualize adjacent structures completely and is invasive in nature. MDCT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography are the current standard in the initial evaluation of thoracic vascular anomalies. PMID:19144774

  2. Early Bone Marrow Edema Pattern of the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture : Can Be Predictor of Vertebral Deformity Types and Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Kim, Sung Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an early bone marrow edema pattern predicts vertebral deformity types and prognosis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 64 patients with 75 acute OVCFs who underwent early MRI and followed up MRI. On early MRI, the low SI pattern of OVCF on T1WI were assessed and classified into 3 types (diffuse, globular or patchy, band-like). On followed up MRI, the vertebral deformity types (anterior wedge, biconcave, crush), degree of vertebral body height loss, incidence of vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis were assessed for each vertebral fracture types. Results According to the early bone marrow edema pattern on T1WI, 26 vertebrae were type 1, 14 vertebrae were type 2 and 35 vertebrae were type 3. On followed up MRI, the crush-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 1 OVCFs, the biconcave-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 2 OVCFs and the anterior wedge-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 3 OVCFs (p<0.001). In addition, type 1 early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI were associated with higher incidence of severe degree vertebral body height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis on the follow up MRI. Conclusion Early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI, significant correlated with vertebral deformity types on the follow up MRI. The severe degree of vertebral height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis, and spinal stenosis were more frequent in patients with diffuse low SI pattern. PMID:26962419

  3. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  4. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  5. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  6. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent other blood vessel (vascular) diseases, such as coronary artery disease , may decrease the risk of retinal artery occlusion. These include: Eating a low-fat diet Exercising Stopping smoking Losing weight if you are ...

  7. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus (womb). During the procedure, the blood supply of ... uterine artery. This artery supplies blood to the uterus. Small plastic or gelatin particles are injected through ...

  8. Radial artery graft vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Gabe, E D; Figal, J C; Wisner, J N; Laguens, R

    2001-01-01

    We report an unusual case of vasospasm of a grafted radial artery complicated with ventricular fibrillation during the postoperative course of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of a radial artery graft spasm leading to a severe arrhythmia. The arrhythmia resolved spontaneously. Radial artery graft spasm was demonstrated by angiography and was successfully resolved by intravenous nitroglycerin administration. PMID:11163573

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  10. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    PubMed

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  12. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  13. A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

  14. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  15. A dual embryonic origin for vertebrate mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Collazo, A; Fraser, S E; Mabee, P M

    1994-04-15

    Neuromasts, the mechanoreceptors of the lateral line system of fishes and aquatic amphibians, have previously been thought to develop exclusively from embryonic epidermal placodes. Use of fate mapping techniques shows that neuromasts of the head and body of zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and Xenopus are also derived from neural crest. Neural crest migrates away from the neural tube in developing vertebrates to form much of the peripheral nervous system, pigment cells, and skeletal elements of the head. The data presented here demonstrate that neuromasts are derived from both neural crest and epidermal placodes. PMID:8153631

  16. Scoliosis after termination of vertebral growth.

    PubMed Central

    Risser, J. C.; Iqbal, Q. M.; Nagata, K.

    1977-01-01

    A follow-up study of 34 cases shows that scoliosis after termination of vertebral growth is commonly a progressive condition. In the increase of scoliosis disc degeneration is the most important single factor. Further increase may result from lateral subluxation of the vertebra. Once disc degeneration is initiated further increase is inevitable. The results of the study also suggest that change in the disc is possibly more closely related to the nutritional and metabolic condition of the individual than to any other factor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:843044

  17. Signaling filopodia in vertebrate embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Prls, Felicitas; Sagar; Scaal, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Next to classical diffusion-based models, filopodia-like cellular protrusions have been proposed to mediate long range signaling events and morphogen gradient formation during communication between distant cells. An increasing wealth of data indicates that in spite of variable characteristics of signaling filopodia in different biological contexts, they represent a paradigm of intercellular crosstalk which is presently being unraveled in a growing literature. Here, we summarize recent advances in investigating the morphology, cellular basis and function of signaling filopodia, with focus on their role during embryonic development in vertebrates. PMID:26621670

  18. Basilar artery thrombosis after reduction of cervical spondyloptosis: a cautionary report.

    PubMed

    Tumialán, Luis M; Theodore, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a rare clinical entity typically associated with complete neurological deficit. The inherent mechanics of this fracture-dislocation pattern contorts the vertebral arteries in such a way that it may result in dissection or compromised flow through those vessels. Thus, intimal injury or thrombus from stasis of flow may result. Reduction of the spondyloptosis restores flow to the vertebral arteries, but it also may mobilize thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection within the previously contorted vessel. The authors review their experience in the care of a 43-year-old man who sustained C4-5 spondyloptosis while riding an all-terrain vehicle. On arrival, the patient demonstrated no motor function below C-4 but had sensation to the nipple line (American Spinal Injury Association Spinal Cord Injury Classification B). The patient's cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated complete spondyloptosis at C4-5. The patient was immediately placed in cervical traction and taken to the operating room for open reduction of the fracture dislocation, decompression of the spinal cord, and stabilization with an interbody graft and cervical plate. Preoperative cervical traction was successful in only partial reduction of the fracture dislocation. Open reduction was achieved with exposure of the C-4 and C-5 bodies and sequential distraction. After anatomical alignment was achieved, an interbody graft was placed and a cervical plate secured. A subsequent decline in the patient's level of consciousness prompted CT of the head, which showed evidence of a basilar artery thrombosis. A CT angiographic study demonstrated patency of the vertebral arteries, but a mid-basilar artery thrombosis. The patient progressed to brain death 24 hours after reduction of the fracture dislocation. The degree of contortion of the vertebral arteries in cervical spondyloptosis in the upper cervical spine may result in stasis of flow with subsequent formation of thrombus or intimal injury. After anatomical reduction, restoration of flow within the vertebral arteries may mobilize the thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection and result in subsequent embolic events. Endovascular evaluation may be warranted immediately after anatomical reduction of a high cervical spondyloptosis for evaluation of the vertebral arteries and possible thrombus dissolution or retrieval. PMID:22385083

  19. Ischemia as a potential etiologic factor in idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Analysis of posterior circulation arteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Jang, Min Uk; Hong, Sung-Kwang; Lee, Joong-Seob; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Hui-Chul; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and the radiologic characteristics of the vertebrobasilar artery is unclear. We hypothesized that the degree and direction of vertebrobasilar artery curvature in the posterior circulation contribute to the occurrence of ISSNHL. We consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL in two tertiary hospitals. Magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients to exclude specific causes of ISSNHL, such as vestibular schwannoma, chronic mastoiditis, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct. We measured the following parameters of posterior circulation: vertebral and basilar artery diameter, the degree of basilar artery curvature (modified smoker criteria), and vertebral artery dominance. Pure tone audiometries were performed at admission and again 1 week and 3 months later. A total of 121 ISSNHL patients (mean age, 46.017.3 years; 48.8% male) were included in these analyses. The proportion of patients with the left side hearing loss was larger than the proportion with the right side hearing loss (left, 57.9%; right, 42.1%). The majority of patients were characterized by a left dominant vertebral artery and right-sided basilar artery curvature. The direction of the basilar artery curvature was significantly associated with hearing loss lateralization (p=0.036). Age and sex matched multivariable analyses revealed the absence of diabetes and right-sided basilar artery curvature as significant predictors for left sided hearing loss. There was no statistical difference between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk score (high versus low) and hearing outcomes at 3 months. In ISSNHL, the laterality of hearing loss was inversely associated with the direction of basilar artery curvature. Our results, therefore, indicate the importance of vascular assessment when evaluating ISSNHL. PMID:26368028

  20. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  1. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  2. The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

  3. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  4. Genome size and chromatin condensation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2005-02-01

    Cell membrane-dependent chromatin condensation was studied by flow cytometry in erythrocytes of 36 species from six classes of vertebrates. A positive relationship was found between the degree of condensation and genome size. The distribution of variances among taxonomic levels is similar for both parameters. However, chromatin condensation varied relatively more at the lower taxonomic levels, which suggests that the degree of DNA packaging might serve for fine-tuning the 'skeletal' and/or 'buffering' function of noncoding DNA (although the range of this fine-tuning is smaller than the range of genome size changes). For two closely related amphibian species differing in genome size, change in chromatin condensation under the action of elevated extracellular salinity was investigated. Condensation was steadier and its reaction to changes in solvent composition was more inertial in the species with a larger genome, which is in agreement with the buffering function postulated for redundant DNA. The uppermost genome size in vertebrates (and in living beings in general) was updated using flow cytometry and was found to be about 80 pg (78,400 Mb). The widespread opinion that the largest genome occurs in unicellular organisms is rejected as being based on artifacts. PMID:15647899

  5. On the blue coloration of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Joseph T; Fernandez, Philip J; Fujii, Royozo

    2007-02-01

    Although the various vertebrate classes, from fishes to mammals are each distinctive, they possess many common features making it important to understand their comparative biology. One general feature that has long commanded interest is the integumental pigmentary system. Thus, much is known about particular pigment cells; however, the basis for some specific colors, such as blue, has escaped the scrutiny of the comparative approach. Regardless of Class, blue is almost always a structural color based upon incoherent or coherent scatter of blue wavelengths from the animal surface. The source of scatter may be intracellular or extra-cellular. A main intracellular scatterer is the surface of reflecting platelets of iridophores of lower vertebrates. Extra-cellular scatter is widespread and thought to occur from ordered dermal collagen arrays in primitive fishes, birds and mammals including humans. Among birds, feather structures provide major means for extra-cellular light scatter. There is only one known example of blue color deriving from a blue pigment found within a pigment cell. For amphibians, reptiles and birds, the scatter of blue wavelengths, together with the presence of yellow pigmentation, is fundamental for the expression of green coloration. PMID:17250544

  6. Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Stachura, David L; Machoňová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Jiří; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bartůněk, Petr

    2014-07-10

    In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

  7. Identification of vertebrate deep brain photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Foster, R G; Grace, M S; Provencio, I; Degrip, W J; Garcia-Fernandez, J M

    1994-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century evidence has accumulated which demonstrates that nonmammalian vertebrates possess photoreceptors situated deep within the brain. These photoreceptors have been implicated in several different areas of physiology, but in all species examined, they play a critical role in the regulation of circadian and reproductive responses to light. Many attempts have been made to localize these sensory cells over the past 50 years, but until recently all attempts have failed. As a result, this important sensory system remains largely unexplored. Recent attempts to localize these photoreceptors, in a range of vertebrates, using combined antibody and biochemical approaches has met with some success. However, inconsistencies have emerged. Published and preliminary data raise the possibility of several types of encephalic photoreceptor photopigment (cone-like, rod-like or different from both), and depending on species at least two types of photoreceptor cell: CSF-contacting neurons (larval lamprey, reptiles and birds) and classical neurosecretory neurons within the nucleus magnocellularis preopticus (NMPO)(fish and amphibians). PMID:7708367

  8. A Membrane-Bound Vertebrate Globin

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Miriam; Wollberg, Jessica; Gerlach, Frank; Reimann, Katja; Roesner, Anja; Hankeln, Thomas; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E.; Burmester, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O2 binding with a variable affinity (P50∼1.3–12.5 torr), depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein. PMID:21949889

  9. Haematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Belzunegui, J; Intxausti, J J; De Dios, J R; Del Val, N; Rodrguez Valverde, V; Gonzlez, C; Queiro, R; Figueroa, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the characteristics of haematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) in the elderly. A retrospective comparative analysis of the medical records of 72 patients (38 younger than 63 years, group 1, and 34 aged 63 years and over, group 2) with haematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis of confirmed aetiology was carried out. Intravenous drug addiction and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus were seen in 4/38 (10%) and 5/38 (13%) patients from group 1 and 0/34 patients (0%) from group 2 (P = 0.05 and 0.035, respectively). Seven of 34 elderly (20%) and 0/38 (0%) young individuals had recently had surgery (P = 0.0036). Escherichia coli was isolated in 7/34 elderly (20%) and 0/38 (0%) young patients (P = 0.0036). The remaining studied data did not reach statistical significance. Recent surgery is a risk factor for developing HVO in the elderly, the urinary tract being the source of the pathogen in a large number of elderly patients with spinal infection. PMID:11055821

  10. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  11. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  12. Flexible device for vertebral body replacement.

    PubMed

    Main, J A; Wells, M E; Spengler, D M; Strauss, A M; Keller, T S

    1989-03-01

    A novel vertebral prosthesis is presented. The prosthesis was developed for surgical procedures requiring the resection of a complete vertebral body and the adjacent intervertebral discs, the design objective being to develop a flexible implant that would be robust enough to withstand the in vivo stress environment of the human spine. In theory, a flexible implant should preserve a more normal range of motion and apply less stress to surrounding tissue than a rigid implant. A prototype implant was constructed so as to combine a rigid stainless steel structure with flexible silicon rubber elements in order to form an implant with static and dynamic mechanical characteristics similar to those of the anterior spinal column. Implant flexibility characteristics were determined from ex vivo stress-strain behaviour during bending and compressive creep testing. Results from the bending tests indicated good agreement for the lateral and sagittal bending characteristics in comparison with in vitro bending tests of human lumbar motion segments. Comparison of the implant compressive creep response with similar in vitro tests on human lumbar intervertebral discs also demonstrated similarities in the time-dependent mechanical parameters. PMID:2704210

  13. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution. PMID:22537233

  14. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Toma; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a RS-exon that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5? splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5? splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  15. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Toma; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  16. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  17. Early jawless vertebrates and cyclostome origins.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Undoubted fossil lampreys are recorded since the Late Devonian (358 Ma), and probable fossil hagfishes since the Late Carboniferous (300 Ma), but molecular clock data suggest a much earlier divergence times for the two groups. In the early 20(th) century, hagfishes and lampreys were generally thought to have diverged much later from unknown ancestral cyclostomes, in turn derived through 'degeneracy' from some Paleozoic armored jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms.' However, current vertebrate phylogenies suggest that most, if not all, 'ostracoderms' are in fact jawless stem gnathostomes, which retain certain features that were once regarded as unique to the cyclostomes, such as gill pouches or lack of horizontal semicircular canal. The dorsal, median, nasohypophysial complex of osteostracans has been regarded as identical and homologous to that of lampreys, but recent investigation (notably on the galeaspid braincase) now suggests that this resemblance is in fact a convergence. The anatomy and physiology of lampreys and hagfishes are so different that it is difficult to reconstruct an ancestral morphotype of the cyclostomes, assuming that they are a clade, and there is no clear evidence of any fossil taxon that is neither a fossil hagfish nor a fossil lamprey, but would be more closely related to the cyclostomes than to the gnathostomes. A possible exception is the Silurian-Devonian euphaneropids (or 'naked anaspids'). PMID:19267641

  18. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  19. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourqui, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. PMID:26283362

  20. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G.; Prosser, Haydn M.; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P.; Tabin, Clifford J.; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-01-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3′ UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. PMID:26283362

  1. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  2. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. PMID:25943906

  3. Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.

    PubMed

    Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

    1992-05-29

    From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago). PMID:1598573

  4. Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

    2002-01-01

    Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

  5. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  6. Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun Jun; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

  7. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

  8. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

  9. A rare marginal tentorial artery to ophthalmic artery anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, Daniel A; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Ducruet, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    We report a patient with a marginal tentorial artery to ophthalmic artery anastomosis. A middle-aged man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent angiography, where selective microcatheter injection of the meningohypophyseal trunk and marginal tentorial artery revealed a collateral to the distal ophthalmic artery. The radiological findings, embryology behind ophthalmic artery anastomoses and the neurosurgical and neurovascular relevance are discussed. PMID:25669118

  10. Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

  11. Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

  12. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  13. The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-05-15

    The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue. PMID:19401333

  14. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  15. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  16. De Novo Genesis of Enhancers in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Eichenlaub, Michael P.; Ettwiller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary innovation relies partially on changes in gene regulation. While a growing body of evidence demonstrates that such innovation is generated by functional changes or translocation of regulatory elements via mobile genetic elements, the de novo generation of enhancers from non-regulatory/non-mobile sequences has, to our knowledge, not previously been demonstrated. Here we show evidence for the de novo genesis of enhancers in vertebrates. For this, we took advantage of the massive gene loss following the last whole genome duplication in teleosts to systematically identify regions that have lost their coding capacity but retain sequence conservation with mammals. We found that these regions show enhancer activity while the orthologous coding regions have no regulatory activity. These results demonstrate that these enhancers have been de novo generated in fish. By revealing that minor changes in non-regulatory sequences are sufficient to generate new enhancers, our study highlights an important playground for creating new regulatory variability and evolutionary innovation. PMID:22069375

  17. Occurrence of plant sterols in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Takagi, T; Sakai, A; Hayashi, K; Itabashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Plant sterols were found by gas liquid chromatography in the sterols of five species of aquatic vertebrates; mackerel (Scomber japonicus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), smelt (Osmerus dentex), sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) and chimera (Chimera phantasma). The sterols of chimera liver, sardine flesh and sardine viscera contained 9.0, 2.4 and 3.1% of C28 and C29 sterols in addition to 86.7, 96.6 and 95.2% of cholesterol. The occurrence of norcholestandienol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and C28 stanol was shown by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) sterols consisted of more than 99% cholesterol with only traces of 22-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:423710

  18. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

  19. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits.

  20. Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

    2008-03-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

  1. Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carrillo, Maira; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates. PMID:20037653

  2. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is "typical" (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an "atypical" appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots ("aggressive" VHs). These "atypical" and "aggressive" VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. PMID:25348558

  3. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish

  4. Numerical variations in human vertebral column: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cimen, M; Elden, H

    1999-03-01

    Numerical increases in the elements of the vertebral column probably do not occur. In this case, 25 presacral vertebrae (PSV) were determined in the vertebral column of a 22-years-old male skeleton. Their distribution was as follows; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 1 thoraco-lumbar, 5 lumbar. Sacrum contained 5 vertebrae. In addition, sacralization or lumbarization was not seen. PMID:10217947

  5. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  6. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and

  7. Ruptured visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. PMID:26054246

  8. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  9. Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.590.08) cm, (1.680.08) cm, and (1.660.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.000.09) cm, (1.870.04) cm, and (1.990.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.100.07) cm, (1.980.09) cm, and (2.000.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); and group A and group B had no significant difference (P=0.157). Conclusions The nitinol memory alloy stents can effectively support and reduce the compression of vertebral endplates and can be used to treat vertebral compression fractures without neurological symptoms. PMID:24869792

  10. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  11. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Ctia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  12. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Ctia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  13. Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

  14. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes. PMID:24533544

  15. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  16. "To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alzimami, Khalid S; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Almagli, Babikir; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of to-and-fro waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of to-and-fro waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of to-and-fro waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and to-and-fro flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional to-and-fro waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the to-and-fro waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative. PMID:26029351

  17. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Mller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  18. Termination of the vertebral veins: Evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Miyake, H; Kiyosue, H; Tanoue, S; Goto, Y; Mori, H; Fujikura, Y

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the topographic anatomy of the vertebral vein (VV) in the lower neck and thoracic inlet using CT scans. Enhanced CT scans using 32-MDCT were obtained for 199 consecutive patients. Reconstructed images with 1-mm section thickness/intervals were evaluated by two radiologists examining the drainage point, number, and route of VVs using frame forwarding and the rewind function on the DICOM viewer. The VV was classified into four types as follows: Type A (80.6%), a VV that descended ventral to the subclavian artery (SA) and drained into the upper portion of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV); Type B (5.8%), a VV that descended dorsal to the SA and drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV; Type C (8.3%), a doubled VVs that crossed both sides of the SA and drained into the upper portion of the BCV and formed a common trunk; Type D (5.3%), a VV ventral to the SA that drained into the upper portion of the BCV and another VV dorsal to the SA drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV. Some variations were observed in regard to the drainage point, number, and route of the VVs. Classification of the VV may be useful for interpreting chest CT scans and in better understanding the embryologic development of the vertebral vein. PMID:20533515

  19. Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.

    PubMed

    Smith, M M; Hall, B K

    1990-08-01

    This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

  20. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  1. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  2. Bilateral Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenosis Presenting as Recurrent Prolonged Presyncopal Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Banu; Moonis, Majaz; Wakhloo, Ajay; Puri, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Amongst various mechanisms of presyncopal events, posterior circulation disease needs to be considered. This particular mechanism has been underrecognized. We describe a case of a 76-year-old patient with recurrent posterior circulation TIAs, presenting as recurrent prolonged presyncopal events. PMID:26421200

  3. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  4. Safer arterial access.

    PubMed

    Santhirapala, R; Carter, J J; Young, P J

    2009-10-01

    Intra-arterial injection of drugs intended for intravenous delivery is a frequent and potentially devastating consequence of placing an arterial line in a patient. A system is described here that prevents this complication from occurring and its use is advocated in intensive care and operating theatre settings. PMID:20302143

  5. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  6. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  7. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral

  8. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  9. Vertebral fracture after aircraft ejection during Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Osborne, R G; Cook, A A

    1997-04-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, 21 United States and 2 Italian military personnel were held in Iraq as prisoners of war. Of these, 18 had ejected from fixed-wing, ejection seat-equipped, combat aircraft prior to their capture. Of the 18, 6 (33%) had sustained vertebral fractures; 4 of these were compression fractures. This fracture rate is comparable to that of previously studied groups. Fractures were noted to be at several different vertebral sites and after ejecting from a variety of aircraft. Apart from contusions and abrasions, vertebral fractures were the most common injuries discovered in this repatriated population. None of the vertebral fractures produced recognizable neurological disability. The development of vertebral fractures was neither associated with the use of any particular ejection system or aircraft nor did the development of vertebral fractures appear dependent on the age, height or length of service of the affected personnel. Ejected aircrew with low altitude mission profiles seemed more predisposed to vertebral fracture than those at high altitudes, but with a small sample population, this relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.25). Reliable data were unavailable on aircrew positioning and preparation time for ejection. PMID:9096832

  10. Observer agreement in pediatric semi-quantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary-Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Genant semi-quantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults, but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in pediatrics. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. Objective To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Materials and methods Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. Results An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohens kappa (?) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver ? for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver ? for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver ? for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Conclusion Most ? values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. PMID:24323185

  11. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental lightdark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23?kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of lightdark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish. PMID:26257705

  12. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  13. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  14. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  15. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  16. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  17. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  18. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  19. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of soft cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

  20. Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

  1. Explaining large-scale patterns of vertebrate diversity.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J

    2015-07-01

    The major clades of vertebrates differ dramatically in their current species richness, from 2 to more than 32,000 species each, but the causes of this variation remain poorly understood. For example, a previous study noted that vertebrate clades differ in their diversification rates, but did not explain why they differ. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogenetic comparative methods, I show that most variation in diversification rates among 12 major vertebrate clades has a simple ecological explanation: predominantly terrestrial clades (i.e. birds, mammals, and lizards and snakes) have higher net diversification rates than predominantly aquatic clades (i.e. amphibians, crocodilians, turtles and all fish clades). These differences in diversification rates are then strongly related to patterns of species richness. Habitat may be more important than other potential explanations for richness patterns in vertebrates (such as climate and metabolic rates) and may also help explain patterns of species richness in many other groups of organisms. PMID:26202428

  2. GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

  3. The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2012-12-21

    How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

  4. Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nithianantharajah, J.; Komiyama, N.H.; McKechanie, A.; Johnstone, M.; Blackwood, D. H.; St Clair, D.; Emes, R.D.; van de Lagemaat, L. N.; Saksida, L.M.; Bussey, T.J.; Grant, S.G.N.

    2014-01-01

    The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 My ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in all four Dlg paralogs show simple associative learning required Dlg4, while Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to play opposing roles in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed Dlg2s role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 My. Dlg family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders suggesting genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

  5. Duplications of hox gene clusters and the emergence of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soshnikova, Natalia; Dewaele, Romain; Janvier, Philippe; Krumlauf, Robb; Duboule, Denis

    2013-06-15

    The vertebrate body plan is characterized by an increased complexity relative to that of all other chordates and large-scale gene amplifications have been associated with key morphological innovations leading to their remarkable evolutionary success. Here, we use compound full Hox clusters deletions to investigate how Hox genes duplications may have contributed to the emergence of vertebrate-specific innovations. We show that the combined deletion of HoxA and HoxB leads to an atavistic heart phenotype, suggesting that the ancestral HoxA/B cluster was co-opted to help in diversifying the complex organ in vertebrates. Other phenotypic effects observed seem to illustrate the resurgence of ancestral (plesiomorphic) features. This indicates that the duplications of Hox clusters were associated with the recruitment or formation of novel cis-regulatory controls, which were key to the evolution of many vertebrate features and hence to the evolutionary radiation of this group. PMID:23501471

  6. Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

  7. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. PMID:20399726

  8. VERTEBRATE CHEMICAL DEFENSE: SECRETED AND TOPICALLY ACQUIRED DETERRENTS OF ARTHROPODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropods profoundly affect the fitness of terrestrial vertebrates. Some arachnids, centipedes, and insects opportunistically prey on small tetrapods. Some social hymenopterans launch massive foraging swarms and fiercely defend their colonies via stinging or biting attacks. Pelage- or plumage-degr...

  9. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... significant complications involving cement leakage following vertebroplasty. Some stud- ies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been ... physi- cal role, vitality, and bodily pain. Other stud- 10 ies also cite significant improvement in qual- ...

  10. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes. PMID:26616198

  11. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  12. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  13. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

  14. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  15. Structural conservation of interferon gamma among vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Savan, Ram; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R.; Sakai, Masahiro; Young, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), being the hallmark of the T cell TH1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian and piscine species and we have identified the gene in the frog genome. Based on these identified DNA sequences, we have constructed an evolutionary history of IFN-γ that shows this molecule can be traced back more than 450 million years ago. Our analysis shows that type II interferon (IFN-γ) function evolved before the tetrapod-fish split, a finding that contrasts earlier studies showing its origins in tetrapods. The IFN-γ gene has undergone a further duplication event in teleosts after the tetrapod-fish split suggesting a specific-evolutionary adaptation in fish. The analyses of IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-26 genomic region in mammals, chicken, frog and fish reveal an evolutionary conservation of the loci and several regulatory elements controlling IFN-γ gene transcription. Furthermore, across the vertebrata, the first intron of IFN-γ gene contains a polymorphic microsatellite that has been closely correlated with disease susceptibility. Comparative-modeling of IFN-γ structure revealed differences among the representative species but with an overall conservation of the fold, dimer interface and some interactions with the receptor. The structural and functional conservation of IFN-γ suggests the presence of an innate, natural killer (NK) like response or even an adaptive TH1 immune response in lower vertebrates. PMID:19268624

  16. [Coronary artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Favero, Luca; Sacc, Salvatore; Caico, Salvatore Ivan; Cernetti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms are defined as coronary dilations as greater than 1.5 times the largest diameter of the adjacent coronary segment. They are a relatively rare finding on coronary angiography, with prevalence ranging from 0.3% to 5% depending on case series. The identification of a coronary artery aneurysm is often a dilemma for both the clinician and the interventionist in terms of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. This review summarizes the etiologic, pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of coronary artery aneurysms in the light of the latest research on this topic. PMID:26228610

  17. The vertebrate urinary bladder: osmoregulatory and other uses.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The bladder may serve more biological uses than simple storage. The importance of bladder functions can be inferred from its presence among vertebrates, its anatomy and histology. From an evolutionary perspective, bladders have evolved at least twice in the vertebrates. The variability of permeability of the urinary bladder to water and solutes among species is discussed. Finally, the urinary bladder may play an osmoregulatory role. PMID:538956

  18. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

  19. Epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear (EVE) dysplasia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, J.; Cormier-Daire, V.; Journeau, P.; Mussat, P.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the association of epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia in two sisters with normal stature and psychomotor development born to distantly related, healthy parents. This distinctive association has not been reported previously and is likely to represent a new condition with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. For this syndrome, we propose the acronym EVE standing for epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia.???Keywords: epiphyseal; verterbal; and ear (EVE) dysplasia; new syndrome PMID:10424819

  20. Claudication pain in the left arm of a coronary artery bypass graft patient using crutches: Coronary subclavian steal syndrome a case report

    PubMed Central

    pa?ek, Miloslav; Veselka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old male former smoker with hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery three years before admission and right carotid endarterectomy four years before admission, presented with recent-onset exertional chest pain. His medical history revealed that the chest pain was preceded by gradually worsening exertional claudication pain in his left arm when he was using crutches. The chest pain was similar to the pain he experienced before the coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed. Coronary angiography and bypass graft imaging showed significant stenosis of the left subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the left internal mammary artery bypass, decreased flow in the left internal mammary artery with partial retrograde filling from the left anterior descending artery, and severe narrowing of the left vertebral artery with preserved centrifugal flow. Percutaneous stent implantation into the left subclavian artery was performed together with proximal balloon angioplasty of the left vertebral artery. The patient has been symptom free since the stent implantation. PMID:22477574

  1. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated. PMID:24618553

  2. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 25 All About Peripheral Arterial Disease What is peripheral arterial disease? Peripheral (puh-RIF-uh-rul) arterial (ar-TEER-ree-ul) ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  3. Endovascular Stenting under Cardiac and Cerebral Protection for Subclavian Steal after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Due to Right Subclavian Artery Origin Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal (CSS) can occur after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the internal thoracic artery (ITA). Subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the ITA graft causes CSS. We describe a technique for cardiac and cerebral protection during endovascular stenting for CSS due to right SA origin stenosis after CABG. A 64-year-old man with a history of CABG using the right ITA presented with exertional right arm claudication. Angiogram showed a CSS and retrograde blood flow in the right vertebral artery (VA) due to severe stenosis of the right SA origin. Endovascular treatment of the right SA stenosis was planned. For cardiac and cerebral protection, distal balloon protection by inflating a 5.2-F occlusion balloon catheter in the SA proximal to the origin of the right VA and ITA through the right brachial artery approach and distal filter protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) through the left femoral artery (FA) approach were performed. Endovascular stenting for SA stenosis from the right FA approach was performed under cardiac and cerebral protection by filter-protection of the ICA and balloon-protection of the VA and ITA. Successful treatment of SA severe stenosis was achieved with no complications. PMID:25874182

  4. Endovascular Stenting under Cardiac and Cerebral Protection for Subclavian Steal after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Due to Right Subclavian Artery Origin Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal (CSS) can occur after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the internal thoracic artery (ITA). Subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the ITA graft causes CSS. We describe a technique for cardiac and cerebral protection during endovascular stenting for CSS due to right SA origin stenosis after CABG. A 64-year-old man with a history of CABG using the right ITA presented with exertional right arm claudication. Angiogram showed a CSS and retrograde blood flow in the right vertebral artery (VA) due to severe stenosis of the right SA origin. Endovascular treatment of the right SA stenosis was planned. For cardiac and cerebral protection, distal balloon protection by inflating a 5.2-F occlusion balloon catheter in the SA proximal to the origin of the right VA and ITA through the right brachial artery approach and distal filter protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) through the left femoral artery (FA) approach were performed. Endovascular stenting for SA stenosis from the right FA approach was performed under cardiac and cerebral protection by filter-protection of the ICA and balloon-protection of the VA and ITA. Successful treatment of SA severe stenosis was achieved with no complications. PMID:25874182

  5. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of ?-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate ?-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of ?-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact ?-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ?-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of ?-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact ?-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The ?-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of ?-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate ?-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how ?-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  6. The role of the notochord in vertebral column formation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A; Keynes, R J; Tannahill, D

    2001-01-01

    The backbone or vertebral column is the defining feature of vertebrates and is clearly metameric. Given that vertebrae arise from segmented paraxial mesoderm in the embryo, this metamerism is not surprising. Fate mapping studies in a variety of species have shown that ventromedial sclerotome cells of the differentiated somite contribute to the developing vertebrae and ribs. Nevertheless, extensive studies in amniote embryos have produced conflicting data on exactly how embryonic segments relate to those of the adult. To date, much attention has focused on the derivatives of the somites, while relatively little is known about the contribution of other tissues to the formation of the vertebral column. In particular, while it is clear that signals from the notochord induce and maintain proliferation of the sclerotome, and later promote chondrogenesis, the role of the notochord in vertebral segmentation has been largely overlooked. Here, we review the established role of the notochord in vertebral development, and suggest an additional role for the notochord in the segmental patterning of the vertebral column. PMID:11523820

  7. The role of the notochord in vertebral column formation

    PubMed Central

    FLEMING, ANGELEEN; KEYNES, ROGER J.; TANNAHILL, DAVID

    2001-01-01

    The backbone or vertebral column is the defining feature of vertebrates and is clearly metameric. Given that vertebrae arise from segmented paraxial mesoderm in the embryo, this metamerism is not surprising. Fate mapping studies in a variety of species have shown that ventromedial sclerotome cells of the differentiated somite contribute to the developing vertebrae and ribs. Nevertheless, extensive studies in amniote embryos have produced conflicting data on exactly how embryonic segments relate to those of the adult. To date, much attention has focused on the derivatives of the somites, while relatively little is known about the contribution of other tissues to the formation of the vertebral column. In particular, while it is clear that signals from the notochord induce and maintain proliferation of the sclerotome, and later promote chondrogenesis, the role of the notochord in vertebral segmentation has been largely overlooked. Here, we review the established role of the notochord in vertebral development, and suggest an additional role for the notochord in the segmental patterning of the vertebral column. PMID:11523820

  8. A central role for the notochord in vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Keynes, Roger; Tannahill, David

    2004-02-01

    The vertebrates are defined by their segmented vertebral column, and vertebral periodicity is thought to originate from embryonic segments, the somites. According to the widely accepted 'resegmentation' model, a single vertebra forms from the recombination of the anterior and posterior halves of two adjacent sclerotomes on both sides of the embryo. Although there is supporting evidence for this model in amniotes, it remains uncertain whether it applies to all vertebrates. To explore this, we have investigated vertebral patterning in the zebrafish. Surprisingly, we find that vertebral bodies (centra) arise by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord rather than somites; centra do not form via a cartilage intermediate stage, nor do they contain osteoblasts. Moreover, isolated, cultured notochords secrete bone matrix in vitro, and ablation of notochord cells at segmentally reiterated positions in vivo prevents the formation of centra. Analysis of fss mutant embryos, in which sclerotome segmentation is disrupted, shows that whereas neural arch segmentation is also disrupted, centrum development proceeds normally. These findings suggest that the notochord plays a key, perhaps ancient, role in the segmental patterning of vertebrae. PMID:14736741

  9. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  10. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. PMID:26258298

  11. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2013-10-24

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

  12. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  13. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of β-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate β-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of β-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact β-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the β-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of β-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact β-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The β-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of β-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate β-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how β-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  15. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to use during an episode of chest pain. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this condition worse, and may be ...

  16. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  18. Flow diverter placement for management of dissecting ruptured aneurysm in a non-fused basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Saliou, Guillaume; Power, Sarah; Krings, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial vertebral artery dissection can be associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Dissecting aneurysms have a high risk of rebleeding in the acute phase. To our knowledge, the management of an acute vertebrobasilar junction dissecting aneurysm associated with a basilar non-fusion has not been previously reported. We report here a case of SAH due to rupture of a dissecting aneurysm involving the vertebrobasilar junction and extending to involve the right limb and proximal junction of a non-fused basilar artery, managed by insertion of a flow-diverting stent with excellent clinical outcome and long-term patency of the flow diverter. PMID:26628453

  19. An aberrant subclavian artery exhibiting the partial steal phenomenon in a patient with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Starcevic, Katarina; Bielen, Ivan; Demarin, Vida

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian man with known vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac defects, renal and limb anomalies (VACTERL) association who presented with a headache and vertigo following the sudden and temporary loss of consciousness while attending a concert four days before admission to the hospital. On a physical examination, the following findings were found: a low body height, low-set ears, thoracic scoliosis and a mild holosystolic heart murmur. A neurosonological examination revealed a partial subclavian steal phenomenon. CT angiography of the neck vessels and aortic arch confirmed an anomalous right subclavian artery -known as the lusorian artery. Further studies are warranted in patients with VACTERL in order to identify possible links between the prevalence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (lusorian artery) and possible congenital subclavian steal syndrome or dysphagia lusoria. In addition, duplex ultrasound of the carotid and vertebral arteries may be performed as part of screening examinations in patients with congenital syndromes. PMID:25130125

  20. Conservative management of a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the artery of cervical enlargement-anterior spinal artery junction.

    PubMed

    Boeris, Davide; Mortimer, Alex; Sakthithasan, Mathuri; Evins, Alexander Ian; Sandeman, David; Renowden, Shelly

    2016-04-01

    A 22-year-old man suffered severe sudden onset head and neck pain after being pushed from behind during an assault. Physical examination was normal. Cervical MRI demonstrated an intradural hematoma, anterior to the cord, between C2-4. Subsequent contrast enhanced MR angiography and digital subtraction vertebral angiography confirmed that the cause of the hemorrhage was a fusiform (presumed dissecting) pseudoaneurysm of the artery of the cervical enlargement at its junction with the anterior spinal artery. The aneurysm was managed conservatively. Follow-up angiography demonstrated that the aneurysm had spontaneously thrombosed within 10 days and remained occluded at 2 months. The patient remained occluded at 6 months following the initial injury. Anterior spinal aneurysms represent a management dilemma and options are discussed. PMID:25817516

  1. Postpartum coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, P J; Carrig, T F; Baker, W P

    1978-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman experienced anterior myocardial infarction three weeks after the delivery of her second child. Coronary arteriography subsequently showed primary dissection of the left coronary artery. This patient is believed to be the second reported survivor of angiographically proven peripartal left coronary artery dissection and the only such patient to achieve and maintain asymptomatic status for a prolonged period without operative intervention. Images PMID:626669

  2. The pulmonary artery catheter.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) has been widely used for monitoring of critically ill patients over the years, but with advances in less invasive monitoring techniques, notably echocardiography, there are fewer indications for PAC insertion. Nevertheless, the PAC provides simultaneous monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac filling, cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation, and still has an important role in complex cases. Adequate and continued training are required to ensure that PAC-derived data are correctly interpreted and applied. PMID:22886686

  3. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-Li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-Fa; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Jiang-Jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000?cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  4. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates. PMID:26419477

  5. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  6. Time, space and the vertebrate body axis.

    PubMed

    Durston, A J

    2015-06-01

    Anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the vertebrate main body axis regulated by timing. Anterior structures are specified early, posterior late. (1) Timing involves timed decision points as emphasised by the Wnt studies of Sokol and colleagues. It also involves complex timers, where large parts of the axis are patterned sequentially by a common upstream mechanism (articles by Durston et al., Mullins et al., Oates et al.,). (2) A gastrula BMP-anti BMP dependent time-space translation (TST) mechanism was demonstrated for the trunk section of the axis (Durston). (3) Thisses' studies emphasise the importance of BMP-anti BMP and the organiser inducing factor nodal for A-P patterning. (4) Meinhardt's interesting studies on the organiser and A-P patterning are reviewed in relation to TST. (5) Mullins' investigations show that anti-BMP dependent TST starts earlier (at the blastula stage) and extends further anteriorly (to the anterior head). Sive's studies imply it may extend further still to the "extreme anterior domain" (EAD). (6) The somitogenesis timer (clock) is presented. Stern's and Oates' findings are discussed. (7) Relations between somitogenesis and axial TST are discussed. (8) Relations of classical axial patterning pathways to TST decision points and somitogenesis are inventarised. In conclusion, all of these findings point to an integral BMP-anti BMP dependent A-P TST mechanism, running from cement gland in the EAD, Six3 and the anterior tip of the forebrain at blastula stages to Hox13 and the tip of the tail by the mid neurula stage. TST acts via sequential timed transitions between ventral (unstable, timed) and dorsal (stabilised) states. In the trunk-tail, the timer is thought to be Hox temporal collinearity and TST depends on Hox function. In the head, TST is under investigation. The somitogenesis clock is upstream of the TST timer, providing precision in the posterior part of the axis at least. Classical A-P signalling pathways: retinoids, FGFs and Wnts, change behaviour at functional decision points on the axis. PMID:26003049

  7. Health Care Associated Hematogenous Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis. Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987–1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000–2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases. Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05). Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  8. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  9. Novel Pulmonary Artery Reduction Plasty for Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Suh, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old female with pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) associated with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There is no standard therapeutic approach for PAA at the present time. We performed a novel surgical repair of a 67-mm PAA consisting of internal plication of the pulmonary artery to reduce the diameter and approximation of remnant unfolding pulmonary artery to reinforce the stability of the pulmonary artery and prevent bleeding. PMID:26715001

  10. Rate and circumstances of clinical vertebral fractures in older men

    PubMed Central

    S. S., Freitas; Barrett-Connor, E.; Ensrud, K. E.; Fink, H. A.; Bauer, D. C.; Cawthon, P. M.; Lambert, L. C.; Orwoll, E. S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We examined the rate of clinical vertebral fractures, and the circumstances associated with the fractures, in a cohort of 5,995 US older men. Fractures were more common in the most elderly men, and were usually associated with falls and other low-energy trauma. Introduction Little is known about clinical vertebral fractures in older men. We postulated that clinical vertebral fractures occur with falls, affect men with osteoporosis, and are more common as age increases. Methods Five thousand nine hundred and ninety-five men aged ?65 years were followed prospectively for an average of 4.7 years. Men with incident clinical vertebral fractures were compared to controls. Results One percent (n=61) sustained incident clinical vertebral fractures (2.2/1,000 person-years). The rate of fracture rose with age (0.7% in men 6569 years and 5% ?85 years). Fractured men were more likely frail (8.2% vs. 2.2%), more often fell (36.1% vs. 21%) and had lower total hip and lumbar spine BMD (all p values ?0.002). In 73.8% of cases fractures were precipitated by no known trauma or by low-energy trauma, including falls in 57.3% Fractures were thoracic in 33% and lumbar in 56%. Men with an incident vertebral fracture were more likely to be osteoporotic (13% vs. 2%, p<0.0001), but most men with incident fractures did not have osteoporosis. Conclusions Incident clinical vertebral fractures were relatively common in older men and the rate increased after age 80 years. Fractures were usually associated with minimal trauma, most commonly a fall. PMID:18038109

  11. Effect of Denosumab Administration on Lumbar Vertebral Strength of Patients with Vertebral Bony Metastases: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Wakao, Norimitsu; Murotani, Kenta; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Sato, Keiji; Deie, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of administration of denosumab (antibody against tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11) as a preventative therapy for skeletal-related events (SREs), such as fracture or paralysis, by computed-tomography (CT)-based on the finite element method (FEM). Patients who had undergone treatment for vertebral metastases with denosumab administration from December 2013 to August 2015 at our Institution were reviewed. We investigated patient data at the time before denosumab administration and at 1, 3 and 6 months using CT. A total of six patients were eligible; four males and two females, with ages ranging from 35 to 73 years, with a mean age of 56 years. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant increase (p=0.0055, F=10.67). To our knowledge, this is the first article to substantiate the effects of the SRE-preventative drug denosumab. PMID:26976994

  12. [Color duplex sonography of extracranial brain-supplying arteries].

    PubMed

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, G; Clevert, D-A

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasound examination of extracranial blood-supplying arteries allows the simultaneous acquisition of morphologic and hemodynamic information with high spatial and temporal resolution. For detection and quantification of stenoses in the carotid and vertebral arteries, an intrastenotic peak systolic velocity of more than 120 cm/s is the threshold value for a diameter reduction of >50%. In addition there are further direct and indirect stenosis parameters (intrastenotic and poststenotic circulation disturbance, increased pulsatility in the prestenotic common carotid artery, intracranial or extracranial collateral pathways) which together with diameter and area reduction in the B-scan, lead to a high reliability of color duplex sonography for stenoses of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Sonographic and patho-anatomic comparative studies have shown a high agreement (r >0.9) by using a battery of several ultrasound criteria. Following stenting of the ICA the blood flow velocity in the stent is generally increased so that a > or =70% in-stent restenosis is present in case of a peak systolic velocity of 300-450 cm/s. For the description of arteriosclerotic plaques in the B-scan, ultrasound terminology but not histological terms should be used to describe the internal, surface and motion structure of plaques as well as the sonic shadow formation. PMID:19756464

  13. Lung Transplant for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension After Arterial Switch Operation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Adachi, Osamu; Suzuki, Yasuto; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Niikawa, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Yasushi; Noda, Masafumi; Sado, Tetsu; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Akiba, Miki; Tatebe, Shunsuke; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Okada, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries is an infrequent but life-threatening complication. We report successful lung transplantation in a case of pulmonary hypertension after arterial switch operation. Cardiopulmonary bypass outflow was established through the right subclavian and femoral arteries because of the previous arterial switch operation. Abnormal anatomy and severe pleural and pericardial adhesions as a result of previous operations resulted in prolonged graft ischemic and operation times. Despite delayed left heart adaptation and primary graft dysfunction requiring prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the recipient was eventually discharged without activity limitations. PMID:26652570

  14. [A case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pulmonary infection with vertebral osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Asuka; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Matsutake, Toyoji; Soejima, Yoshifumi; Naito, Shinji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-09-01

    A 78-year-old woman seen in June 2005 for chest abnormal shadows after 3 months of steroid therapy for vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies was found in chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bronchiectasis and small nodules in the right middle lobe and left lingula. Sputum cultures were positive for Mycobacterium intracellulare. Based on a diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the woman underwent antimycobacterial therapy with clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 months. She was then admitted in June 2009 with right chest pain. Chest CT showed consolidation shadows with bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe and the left lingula and left pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that Th7-Th8 vertebral bodies had collapsed. A vertebral body specimen obtained by CT-guided biopsy was positive for M. intracellulare. Based on a diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis due to M. intracellulare, she underwent antimycobacterial therapy with clarithromycin (800 mg), rifampicin (450 mg), ethambutol hydrochloride (750 mg), and streptomycin (750 mg). After 4 weeks of antimycobacterial therapy, she underwent radical debridement and decompression surgery with anterior and posterior spinal fusion. Four weeks postoperatively, streptomycin was discontinued. We continued clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol hydrochloride for 18 months, and no recurrence was detected. Although vertebral osteomyelitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria is rare, clinicians should consider the combination of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis and vertebral osteomyelitis in cases such at these. PMID:22117384

  15. Transient Ischemic Attack in the Setting of Carotid Atheromatous Disease with a Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery Successfully Treated with Stenting: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Moisi, Marc; Zwillman, Michael E; Volpi, John J; Diaz, Orlando; Klucznik, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Fetal brain perfusion is supplied by the primitive dorsal aorta anteriorly, longitudinal neural arteries posteriorly, and anastomotic transverse segmentals. Most notable of these connections are the primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal arteries. With cranial-cervical circulatory maturation and development of the posterior communicating segments and vertebro-basilar system, these primitive segmental anastomoses normally regress. Anomalous neurovascular development can result in persistence of these anastomoses. Due to its territory of perfusion, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is associated with vertebral artery and posterior communicating artery hypoplasia or aplasia. As a consequence, primary blood supply to the hindbrain comes chiefly from this single artery. Although usually clinically silent, PPHA is susceptible to common cerebrovascular disorders including athero-ischemic disease and saccular aneurysmal dilation to name a few. We present a case of transient ischemic attack in a patient with a PPHA and proximal atherosclerotic disease treated by endovascular stenting. PMID:26929891

  16. Transient Ischemic Attack in the Setting of Carotid Atheromatous Disease with a Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery Successfully Treated with Stenting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moisi, Marc; Zwillman, Michael E; Volpi, John J; Diaz, Orlando; Klucznik, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Fetal brain perfusion is supplied by the primitive dorsal aorta anteriorly, longitudinal neural arteries posteriorly, and anastomotic transverse segmentals. Most notable of these connections are the primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal arteries. With cranial-cervical circulatory maturation and development of the posterior communicating segments and vertebro-basilar system, these primitive segmental anastomoses normally regress. Anomalous neurovascular development can result in persistence of these anastomoses. Due to its territory of perfusion, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is associated with vertebral artery and posterior communicating artery hypoplasia or aplasia. As a consequence, primary blood supply to the hindbrain comes chiefly from this single artery. Although usually clinically silent, PPHA is susceptible to common cerebrovascular disorders including athero-ischemic disease and saccular aneurysmal dilation to name a few. We present a case of transient ischemic attack in a patient with a PPHA and proximal atherosclerotic disease treated by endovascular stenting.

  17. Cerebral arterial fenestrations.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms "fenestration" or "fenestrated" with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

  18. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  19. Popliteal artery war injuries.

    PubMed

    Davidovi?, L; Lotina, S; Kosti?, D; Velimirovi?, D; Duki?, P; Cinara, I; Vranes, M; Markovi?, M

    1997-02-01

    The early postoperative results of 44 surgically treated popliteal arterial injuries from the Yugoslav civil war are reported. Of these patients, 41 (93%) were males and three (7%) were females, average age was 28 (range 6-45) years. Twenty patients (45%) had gunshot wounds and 24 (55%) explosive wounds. Twelve (28%) suffered isolated vascular damage, while 32 (72%) suffered concomitant bone fractures. Isolated arterial lesions were found in 24 (55%) cases, and concomitant arterial and venous lesions in 20 (45%). Twenty-four (55%) had primary reconstructions after haemostasis in the initial war hospital, and 20 (45%) secondary reconstructions after inadequate primary reconstruction in a regional war hospital. Artery procedures included 19 reverse saphenous vein graft interpositions, 10 reverse saphenous vein bypasses, 12 'in situ' saphenous vein bypasses and five lateral subcutaneous saphenous vein bypasses. The early graft patency rate was 100%, and limb salvage 72%. Major amputation was performed in 28%. Concomitant bone fractures, secondary reconstructions, secondary haemorrhage from an infected graft, and explosion wounds significantly increased the amputation rate (P < 0.01). Eleven amputations were performed after an anatomic, and only one after an extra-anatomic reconstruction (P < 0.01). The authors recommend an in situ or lateral subcutaneous reconstruction in cases of complicated popliteal artery injuries, such as concomitant bone fractures accompanied by massive soft tissue damage, and this type of reconstruction should also be used if infection is present or the procedure is delayed. PMID:9158121

  20. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  1. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  2. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2015-09-01

    The embryonic and early fetal human brain is known to undergo extraordinary expansion of its cellular population during embryonic and early fetal life, and is critically dependant on a steady supply of nutrients and oxygen for proper brain development. Quantitative analysis of the internal radius of the aorta and cerebral arteries in a range of eutherian mammals has been used to compare arterial flow to the developing human brain with that to the brains of non-human eutherians. Human embryos showed a much steeper rise of internal radius of the aorta with increasing body size than the embryos of non-human eutherians, but the thickness of the aorta rose at the same pace relative to body size in both humans and non-humans, suggesting that aortic pressure is similar in all eutherian embryos of a similar size. The sums of internal radii of both the internal carotids and vertebral arteries of human embryos raised to the fourth power were much lower at embryonic stages (less than 22 mm body length) than in non-human eutherians, were similar between humans and non-humans at 22-30 mm body length, and exceeded the non-humans at body lengths of more than 30 mm. The relative size of the internal calibre of the cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) to the aorta did not change between embryonic and fetal sizes in either humans or non-humans. The findings suggest that the developing human brain may actually receive less blood flow at embryonic sizes (less than 22 mm body length) than do other mammalian embryos of a similar body size, but that internal carotid and vertebral flow is higher in human fetuses (body length greater than 30 mm) than in developing non-humans of the same body size. Increased flow to the developing human brain relative to non-humans is achieved by simultaneous increases in both aortic and cerebral feeder artery internal calibre. PMID:26183939

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  4. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  5. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in metatherians and monotremes with non-human eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of the internal diameters of cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) and the aorta in developing non-human eutherians, metatherians and monotremes has been made, with the aim of determining if there are differences in cerebral arterial flow between the three infraclasses of mammals such as might reflect differences in metabolism of the developing brain. There were no significant differences between eutherians and metatherians in the internal radius of the aorta or the thickness of the aortic wall, but aortic internal radius was significantly smaller in developing monotremes than therians at the vertebral arteries were significantly lower in metatherians as a group and monotremes compared with non-human eutherians at body lengths up to 20?mm and in metatherians at >?20?mm body length. The internal calibre of the internal carotids relative to the sum of all cerebral feeder arteries was also significantly lower in monotremes at arterial calibre and aortic internal calibre. The findings suggest that: (i) both aortic outflow and cerebral arterial inflow may be lower in developing monotremes than in therians, particularly at small body size (arteries possibly related to the extreme immaturity and small size at which they are born. The findings have implications for nutritional sourcing of the developing brain in the three infraclasses of mammals. PMID:26644330

  6. Morphological Assessment of Cadaveric Radial, Brachial and Subclavian Arteries: A Neurointerventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ali; Ozkul, Ayca; Shin, Dong Seong; Im, Soo-Bin; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transradial catheterization (TRC) is becoming widespread, primarily for neurointerventions. Therefore, the evaluation of radial artery puncture in clinical practice and a better understanding of the anatomy are important to improve the safety of neuroendovascular surgery. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult Korean cadavers were dissected to expose radial artery (RA), brachial artery (BrA) and subclvian artery (ScA), bilaterally. Vessel lengths and diameters were meaured using a caliper and distance between the specific point of vessels and the anatomical landmarks including the radial styloid process, the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the sternoclavicular joint, and the vertebral artery orifice were also measured. Results The average length between the radial (RAPS) and the BrA puncture sites (BrAPS) and between the vertebral artery orifice (VAO) and the BrA bifurcation (BrAB) did not differ between sides (p>0.05). The average length between the radial styloid process (RSP) and the RAPS was 13.41±2.19 mm, and the RSP was 26.85±2.47 mm from the median nerve (MN). The mean length between the medial epicondyle (ME) and the BrAPS as 44.23±5.47 mm, whereas the distance between the ME and the MN was 42.23±4.77 mm. The average VAO-ScA angle was 70.94±6.12°, and the length between the ScA junction (SCJ) and the VAO was 60.30±8.48 mm. Conclusion This study provides basic anatomical information about the radial artery and the brachial route and can help improving new techniques, selection of size and shape of catheters for TRC. This can help neurointerventionists who adopt a transradial neuroendovascular approach and offers comprehensive and safe care to their patients. PMID:26819682

  7. Conserved and Divergent Patterns of DNA Methylation in Higher Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a global methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called CpG islands. Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

  8. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M; Aars, Jon; Fort, Jrme; Gauthier, Gilles; Grmillet, David; Ims, Rolf A; Meltofte, Hans; Moreau, Jrme; Post, Eric; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Yannic, Glenn; Bollache, Loc

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have already been documented. Changes in phenology and range will occur for most species but will only partly mitigate climate change impacts, which are particularly difficult to forecast due to the many interactions within and between trophic levels. Even though Arctic species richness is increasing via immigration from the South, many Arctic vertebrates are expected to become increasingly threatened during this century. PMID:22329928

  9. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  10. Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.

    PubMed

    Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

  11. Vertebral burst fractures: CT analysis of the retropulsed fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J. Jr.; Garfin, S.R.; Resnick, D.

    1984-12-01

    Ten cases of retropulsed thoracolumbar vertebral body fragments that had been documented by CT were reviewed to define and characterize the nature, appearance, and position of the retropulsed fragment. All of the retropulsed fragments arose from the superior aspect of the vertebral body. Five of ten patients had a vertical fracture within the retropulsed fragment. Six of ten patients had an associated vertical or Y-shaped fracture originating from the region of the basivertebral foramen and passing into the inferior one-half of the vertebral body. The presence of a retropulsed fragment is nearly pathognomonic of an axial compression injury. Characteristics of this lesion that may hinder surgical reduction are the intra-fragment fracture, rotation, and craniocaudad movement.

  12. Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25084791

  13. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  14. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

  15. Genome duplication and the origin of the vertebrate skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuangJun; Cohn, Martin J

    2008-08-01

    During vertebrate embryonic development, tissue patterning and differentiation are regulated by members of multigene families. Evolutionary expansion of these families is thought to have played a role in the evolution of anatomical complexity, including the origins of new cell and tissue types. A defining feature of vertebrates is an endoskeleton, the primary components of which are cartilage and bone. The molecular control of skeletal patterning has been the subject of intensive investigation for over two decades. More recently, comparative studies of organisms at key phylogenetic positions have highlighted the importance of gene duplication in the evolutionary diversification of connective tissues. Understanding the natural histories of gene families involved in skeletogenesis is therefore central to the issue of vertebrate skeletal evolution. PMID:18721879

  16. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  17. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. PMID:26476056

  18. Formation of cardiovascular tubes in invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strili?, Boris; Kucera, Toms; Lammert, Eckhard

    2010-10-01

    The cardiovascular system developed early in evolution and is pivotal for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products within the organism. It is composed of hollow tubular structures and has a high level of complexity in vertebrates. This complexity is, at least in part, due to the endothelial cell lining of vertebrate blood vessels. However, vascular lumen formation by endothelial cells is still controversially discussed. For example, it has been suggested that the lumen mainly forms via coalescence of large intracellular vacuoles generated by pinocytosis. Alternatively, it was proposed that the vascular lumen initiates extracellularly between adjacent apical endothelial cell surfaces. Here we discuss invertebrate and vertebrate cardiovascular lumen formation and highlight the possible modes of blood vessel formation. Finally, we point to the importance of a better understanding of vascular lumen formation for treating human pathologies, including cancer and coronary heart disease. PMID:20490602

  19. GONAD MORPHOGENESIS IN VERTEBRATES: DIVERGENT MEANS TO A CONVERGENT END

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    A critical element of successful sexual reproduction is the generation of sexually dimorphic adult reproductive organs, the testis and ovary, which produce functional gametes. The examination of different vertebrate species shows that the adult gonad is remarkably similar in its morphology across different phylogenetic classes. Surprisingly, however, the cellular and molecular programs employed to create similar organs are not evolutionarily conserved. We highlight the mechanisms used by different vertebrate model systems to generate the somatic architecture necessary to support gametogenesis. In addition, we examine the different vertebrate patterns of germ cell migration from their site of origin to colonize the gonad, and highlight their roles in sex-specific morphogenesis. We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology. PMID:19807280

  20. Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling.

    PubMed

    Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

  1. Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

  2. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C

    2015-07-21

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  3. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.

    PubMed

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  4. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  5. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  6. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  7. Does hair cell differentiation predate the vertebrate appearance?

    PubMed

    Burighel, Paolo; Caicci, Federico; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Gasparini, Fabio; Degasperi, Valentina; Manni, Lucia

    2008-03-18

    It is generally accepted that the three main chordate groups (tunicates, cephalochordates and vertebrates) originated from a common ancestor having the basic features of the chordate body plan, i.e. a neural tube and a notochord flanked by striated musculature. There is now increasing evidence that tunicates, rather than cephalochordates, are the vertebrate sister-group. Correlated with this, tunicates have sensory structures similar to those derived from placodes or neural crest in vertebrates. In this context, we discuss here whether the precursors of vertebrate hair cells, which are placodal in origin, were present in ancestral chordates. The ascidian tunicates possess a coronal organ, consisting of a row of mechanosensory cells that runs around the base of the oral siphon. Its function is to monitor the incoming water flow. The cells are secondary sensory cells, i.e. they lack axons and synapse with neurons whose somata lie in the cerebral ganglion. They are accompanied by supporting cells and, as in vertebrates, have varying morphologies in the species so far examined: in one order (Enterogona), they are multiciliate; in the other (Pleurogona), they may possess an apical apparatus, consisting of one or two cilia accompanied by stereovilli, that are graded in length. Coronal cells thus resemble vertebrate hair cells closely in their morphology, embryonic origin and arrangement, which suggests they originated early in ancestral chordates. We are continuing our study of the coronal organ in other ascidian species, and report new data here on Botrylloides leachi, which conforms with the pattern of Pleurogona and, in particular, with previously published results on other botryllid ascidians. PMID:18331894

  8. Do Global Diversity Patterns of Vertebrates Reflect Those of Monocots?

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F. Andrew; Orme, C. David L.; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Chase, Mark W.; Govaerts, Rafal; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

  9. Renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. PMID:25439331

  10. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Al-Fares, Fatin; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation.

  11. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  12. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a no-touch technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  13. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2015-04-23

    Fossils of early gnathostomes (or jawed vertebrates) have been the focus of study for nearly two centuries. They yield key clues about the evolutionary assembly of the group's common body plan, as well the divergence of the two living gnathostome lineages: the cartilaginous and bony vertebrates. A series of remarkable new palaeontological discoveries, analytical advances and innovative reinterpretations of existing fossil archives have fundamentally altered a decades-old consensus on the relationships of extinct gnathostomes, delivering a new evolutionary framework for exploring major questions that remain unanswered, including the origin of jaws. PMID:25903631

  14. Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  15. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  16. Cyclostome studies in the context of vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    McCauley, David W; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-10-01

    The proceedings in this volume follow from the 15(th) Center for Developmental Biology meeting on "Advances in Cyclostome Research" that we organized. The meeting was held at the CDB RIKEN Kobe Institute on 24 and 25 January 2008 with support from the CDB. Jawless vertebrates have been of interest to embryologists and comparative morphologists for more than a century. While the comparative morphology among lampreys, hagfishes, and gnathostomes has long been recognized in contributing to understanding the origin of jaws and other gnathostome traits, the availability of modern molecular methods has rekindled interest in these topics, and evolutionary developmental biology coupled with paleontology has opened new avenues into the study of gnathostome origins. Within the last decade, because of renewed interest in evolutionary developmental biology, the importance of lampreys and hagfishes to our understanding of vertebrate evolution has undergone resurgence in interest, as evidenced by the sea lamprey genome project currently underway at the National Human Genome Research Institute. As new molecular and imaging techniques become available, both paleontological and neontological questions are being readdressed and are providing new insights and speculation into vertebrate evolution. Thus, we determined the timing was optimal to bring together many of the researchers currently contributing to our understanding of the biology of agnathans. The diversity of speakers at the meeting included evolutionary developmental biologists, phylogenetics and genomics investigators, paleontologists, and endocrinology researchers, because as we move into the 21(st) century, integration among these disciplines has encouraged synergistic activities to develop. The goal of this meeting was to highlight in a single setting the most recent advances in this important basal group of vertebrates to facilitate interactions among the cyclostome community. Secondarily, we also hope that this gathering will enhance the visibility of jawless vertebrates as important models in the vertebrate "evo-devo" community. Several topics for further discussion emerged at this symposium, including: genomic data that have spurred renewed interest in gene duplications and their contribution to our understanding of cyclostome phylogeny and vertebrate evolution; the use of paleontology coupled with modern imaging techniques to clarify vertebrate phylogeny; and the evolution of the neuroendocrine and adaptive immune systems. These were among the topics that led to fruitful discussion. Here we summarize key research topics from the symposium that continue to advance as we move forward in the 21(st) century. PMID:19267629

  17. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  18. [Seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus after prostate brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Wagner, W; Willich, N; Radmard, A; Christ, A; Fleig, P W; Krukemeyer, M G

    2010-11-01

    We report on seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus after low dose rate prostate brachytherapy with (125)I. A 74-year-old man with T1c N0 M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate with a Gleason score of 6 (3+3) and prostate-specific antigen level of 14.94 ng/ml underwent interstitial prostate brachytherapy. Six weeks after treatment at the follow-up to determine aftercare a migrated seed was detected in the vertebral venous plexus and a second one in the right lung. No tissue damage around the migrated seeds was documented and the patient exhibited no clinical symptoms. PMID:20835698

  19. Continuum theory of gene expression waves during vertebrate segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörg, David J.; Morelli, Luis G.; Soroldoni, Daniele; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The segmentation of the vertebrate body plan during embryonic development is a rhythmic and sequential process governed by genetic oscillations. These genetic oscillations give rise to traveling waves of gene expression in the segmenting tissue. Here we present a minimal continuum theory of vertebrate segmentation that captures the key principles governing the dynamic patterns of gene expression including the effects of shortening of the oscillating tissue. We show that our theory can quantitatively account for the key features of segmentation observed in zebrafish, in particular the shape of the wave patterns, the period of segmentation and the segment length as a function of time.

  20. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  1. Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

    2010-05-01

    Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

  2. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  3. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final ...

  4. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  5. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  6. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  7. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Brauner, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  8. Credentialing for carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darren B; Rapp, Joseph H

    2005-06-01

    Endovascular treatment of cervical carotid artery stenosis is a rapidly expanding area of clinical competence, and physicians from various subspecialties are already performing carotid artery stenting. As a result of the diverse specialty backgrounds of physicians performing carotid artery stenting, consensus regarding the establishment of credentialing standards remains elusive. In the following manuscript we review the physician credentialing process, published data, and national society position statements applicable to carotid artery stenting. PMID:16110377

  9. Endoscopic radial artery harvesting procedure for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Gabriel; Ehasz, Paul; Gillinov, A. Marc; Svensson, Lars G.; Brozzi, Nicolas; Lytle, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Development and adoption of endoscopic minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting prompted its application to the radial artery in an effort to minimize surgical trauma. Recently, we reported that endoscopic radial artery harvesting was associated with better wound appearance and it proved to be safe and effective, with less pain and fewer wound complications than the open surgical technique. Based on this positive experience, our institution adopted endoscopic radial artery harvesting, hence the aim of this manuscript is to describe the minimally invasive endoscopic radial artery harvesting for coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:23977636

  10. The clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and the prevention of new vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weifeng; Jia, Yongwei; Wang, Jianjie; Cheng, Liming; Zeng, Zhili; Yu, Yan; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty and the precautions against adjacent vertebral refractures in the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) with multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from July 2007 to December 2013 treated with percutaneous kyphoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. 36 cases of them suffered from bi-segment vertebral fractures, 16 cases with tri-segment vertebral fractures and 2 cases with quadri-segment vertebral fractures. The operative effect was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) score and oswestry disability index (ODI) score. Then the reasons for adjacent vertebral refractures were analyzed and the precautions were proposed. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) were admitted with percutaneous kyphoplasty successfully. No pulmonary embolism, spinal cord injury and other serious complications were found. The follow-up took 3-33 months with the average of 12 months. There was significant difference of VAS scores and ODI scores between pre-operation and post-operation (P<0.05). Bone cement leakage occurred in 23 vertebrae, and the incidence rate was 18.0%. 8 cases sustained adjacent vertebral refractures including 3 cases in the contiguous vertebral bodies and 5 cases in the interval vertebral bodies, and the incidence rate was 14.8%. 5 cases gained fracture healing after additional percutaneous kyphoplasty procedures while the other 3 cases were healed basically after conservative treatment for three months. In conclusion, percutaneous kyphoplasty is safe and effective to treat multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the risk of new adjacent vertebral fractures in the multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures is higher than that in the single osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Timely and proper treatment can reduce refractures. PMID:26550284

  11. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sbastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. PMID:23913504

  12. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also decrease the amount of oxygen getting to your brain. What are the Symptoms of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension? ... hypertension are treated differently, it is important that your health care provider takes the time and orders the necessary tests to nd out what kind of pulmonary ...

  13. Coronary artery steal via large coronary artery to bronchial artery anastomosis successfully treated by operation.

    PubMed Central

    St John Sutton, M G; Miller, G A; Kerr, I H; Traill, T A

    1980-01-01

    We report a patient with a large coronary artery to bronchial artery anastomosis causing angina by coronary steal. Angina was refractory to medical treatment, but successfully relieved by surgical ligation of the anastomosis. Images PMID:7426209

  14. Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Podhajsky, Patricia A.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate systematically the various associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities in different types of retinal artery occlusion (RAO). Design Cohort study. Participants 439 consecutive untreated patients (499 eyes) with RAO, first seen in our clinic from 1973 to 2000. Methods At first visit, all patients had a detailed ophthalmic and medical history, and comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. Visual evaluation was done by recording visual acuity, using the Snellen visual acuity chart, and visual fields with a Goldmann perimeter. Initially they also had carotid Doppler/angiography and echocardiography. The same ophthalmic evaluation was performed at each follow-up visit. Main Outcome Measures Demographic features, associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities and sources of emboli in various types of RAO. Results RAO was classified into various types of central (CRAO) and branch (BRAO) artery occlusion. In both nonarteritic CRAO and BRAO the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular accidents were significantly higher compared to the prevalence of these conditions in the matched US population (all p<0.0001). Smoking prevalence, compared to the US population, was significantly higher for males (p=0.001) with nonarteritic CRAO and for females with BRAO (p=0.02). Ipsilateral internal carotid artery had ?50% stenosis in 31% of nonarteritic CRAO patients and 30% of BRAO, and plaques in 71% of nonarteritic CRAO and 66% of BRAO. Abnormal echocardiogram with embolic source was seen in 52% of nonarteritic CRAO and 42% of BRAO. Neovascular glaucoma developed in only 2.5% of nonarteritic CRAO eyes. Conclusion This study showed that in CRAO as well as BRAO the prevalence of various cardiovascular diseases and smoking was significantly higher compared to the prevalence of these conditions in the matched US population. Embolism is the most common cause of CRAO and BRAO; plaque in the carotid artery is usually the source of embolism and less commonly the aortic and/or mitral valve. The presence of plaques in the carotid artery is generally of much greater importance than the degree of stenosis in the artery. Contrary to the prevalent misconception, there is no cause-and-effect relationship between CRAO and neovascular glaucoma. PMID:19577305

  15. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  16. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  17. Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Kpyl, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

  18. Testing the evolutionary conservation of vocal motoneurons in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Albersheim-Carter, Jacob; Blubaum, Aleksandar; Ballagh, Irene H; Missaghi, Kianoush; Siuda, Edward R; McMurray, George; Bass, Andrew H; Dubuc, Réjean; Kelley, Darcy B; Schmidt, Marc F; Wilson, Richard J A; Gray, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    Medullary motoneurons drive vocalization in many vertebrate lineages including fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The developmental history of vocal motoneuron populations in each of these lineages remains largely unknown. The highly conserved transcription factor Paired-like Homeobox 2b (Phox2b) is presumed to be expressed in all vertebrate hindbrain branchial motoneurons, including laryngeal motoneurons essential for vocalization in humans. We used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to examine Phox2b protein and mRNA expression in caudal hindbrain and rostral spinal cord motoneuron populations in seven species across five chordate classes. Phox2b was present in motoneurons dedicated to sound production in mice and frogs (bullfrog, African clawed frog), but not those in bird (zebra finch) or bony fish (midshipman, channel catfish). Overall, the pattern of caudal medullary motoneuron Phox2b expression was conserved across vertebrates and similar to expression in sea lamprey. These observations suggest that motoneurons dedicated to sound production in vertebrates are not derived from a single developmentally or evolutionarily conserved progenitor pool. PMID:26160673

  19. Modeling vertebrate diversity in Oregon using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cablk, Mary Elizabeth

    Vertebrate diversity was modeled for the state of Oregon using a parametric approach to regression tree analysis. This exploratory data analysis effectively modeled the non-linear relationships between vertebrate richness and phenology, terrain, and climate. Phenology was derived from time-series NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery for the year 1992 using two methods: principal component analysis and derivation of EROS data center greenness metrics. These two measures of spatial and temporal vegetation condition incorporated the critical temporal element in this analysis. The first three principal components were shown to contain spatial and temporal information about the landscape and discriminated phenologically distinct regions in Oregon. Principal components 2 and 3, 6 greenness metrics, elevation, slope, aspect, annual precipitation, and annual seasonal temperature difference were investigated as correlates to amphibians, birds, all vertebrates, reptiles, and mammals. Variation explained for each regression tree by taxa were: amphibians (91%), birds (67%), all vertebrates (66%), reptiles (57%), and mammals (55%). Spatial statistics were used to quantify the pattern of each taxa and assess validity of resulting predictions from regression tree models. Regression tree analysis was relatively robust against spatial autocorrelation in the response data and graphical results indicated models were well fit to the data.

  20. Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, Jess; Komiyama, Noboru H; McKechanie, Andrew; Johnstone, Mandy; Blackwood, Douglas H; St Clair, David; Emes, Richard D; van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Grant, Seth G N

    2013-01-01

    The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions, including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions, are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 million years ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in each of the four Dlg paralogs showed that simple associative learning required Dlg4, whereas Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to have opposing functions in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed that Dlg2's role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 million years. Dlg-family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders, suggesting that genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

  1. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Grant, Seth G N

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  2. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra. PMID:26588498

  3. NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

  4. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

  5. The Vertebral Fracture Cascade: Etiology and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Broy, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    A vertebral fracture is a marker of bone fragility and is associated with a downward spiral of recurrent fractures known as the vertebral fracture cascade. Etiology of this unfortunate cascade includes bone and muscle loss from immobility, changes in spinal mechanics causing increased loading on adjacent vertebrae, and the development of an increased thoracic kyphosis (hyperkyphosis [HK]). Degenerative disc disease, common in osteoporotic patients,can also cause HK. HK of any etiology has been associated with decreased thoracic extensor muscle strength, unstable gait, increased body sway, decreased physical and pulmonary functions, chronic pain, and increased spinal loads contributing to the vertebral fracture cascade. Preventing this downward spiral requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes early identification, consideration of pharmacologic treatment, early mobilization of the fracture patient, appropriate exercise, and back protection. Exercise should include weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening activities, but caution is needed to avoid undue stress on the back. Physical therapy can be particularly helpful by teaching the patient how to safely perform daily activities and can assist the patient in establishing a safe exercise program that avoids flexion but promotes back extension and weight-bearing activities. Hopefully, these measures will decrease pain, prevent falls, improve posture, prevent additional bone and muscle loss, and potentially abort the devastating downward spiral of the vertebral fracture cascade. PMID:26363627

  6. Vertebrate cranial placodes as evolutionary innovations--the ancestor's tale.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations often arise by tinkering with preexisting components building new regulatory networks by the rewiring of old parts. The cranial placodes of vertebrates, ectodermal thickenings that give rise to many of the cranial sense organs (ear, nose, lateral line) and ganglia, originated as such novel structures, when vertebrate ancestors elaborated their head in support of a more active and exploratory life style. This review addresses the question of how cranial placodes evolved by tinkering with ectodermal patterning mechanisms and sensory and neurosecretory cell types that have their own evolutionary history. With phylogenetic relationships among the major branches of metazoans now relatively well established, a comparative approach is used to infer, which structures evolved in which lineages and allows us to trace the origin of placodes and their components back from ancestor to ancestor. Some of the core networks of ectodermal patterning and sensory and neurosecretory differentiation were already established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians and were greatly elaborated in the bilaterian ancestor (with BMP- and Wnt-dependent patterning of dorsoventral and anteroposterior ectoderm and multiple neurosecretory and sensory cell types). Rostral and caudal protoplacodal domains, giving rise to some neurosecretory and sensory cells, were then established in the ectoderm of the chordate and tunicate-vertebrate ancestor, respectively. However, proper cranial placodes as clusters of proliferating progenitors producing high-density arrays of neurosecretory and sensory cells only evolved and diversified in the ancestors of vertebrates. PMID:25662263

  7. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  8. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to coccobacilli of the HB group.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, M; Eykyn, S J; Walker, M; Warren, R E

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurred in which unusual, fastidious, Gram negative coccobacilli belonging to the "HB" group were isolated. The organisms were Haemophilus aphrophilus in case 1, intermediate between H aphrophilus and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in case 2, and Eikenella corrodens in case 3. All HB bacteria are sensitive to a wide range of antibiotics. PMID:6416539

  9. Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrate fauna, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, W.A.; Allison, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Closely related terrestrial vertebrates in Cretaceous mid-latitude (30/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/) faunas of North America and Asia as well as scattered occurrences of footprints and skin impressions suggested that in the Late Mesozoic the Alaskan North Slope supported a diverse fauna. In 1961 abundant skeletal elements of Cretaceous, Alaskan dinosaurs (hadrosaurids) were discovered by the late R.L. Liscomb. This material is being described by K.L. Davies. Additional fossils collected by E.M. Brouwers and her associates include skeletal elements of hadrosaurid and carnosaurian (.tyrannosaurid) dinosaurs and other vertebrates. The fossil locality on the North Slope is not at about 70/sup 0/N. In the Late Cretaceous the members of this fauna were subject to the daylight regime and environment at a paleolatitude closer to 80/sup 0/N. Current hypotheses attributing extinctions of dinosaurs and some other terrestrial vertebrates to impact of an extraterrestrial object cite periods of darkness, decreased temperature (possibly followed by extreme warming) and acid rain as the direct causes of their demise. Unless members of this North Slope fauna undertook long-distance migrations, their high latitude occurrence indicates groups of dinosaurs and other terrestrial vertebrates regularly tolerated months of darkness.

  10. Interpreting indices of physiological stress in free-living vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D; Lill, Alan

    2012-10-01

    When vertebrate physiological ecologists use the terms 'stress' or 'physiological stress', they typically mean the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activation. Measurements of stress hormone concentrations (e.g. glucocorticoids in blood, urine or faeces), leukocytes (e.g. the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio or heterophil equivalent), immunofunction (e.g. innate, cell-mediated or humoral immunity measures) and regenerative anaemia (e.g. mean erythrocyte volume and red blood cell distribution width) have all been used to estimate HPA-axis activity in free-living vertebrates. Stress metrics have provided insights into aspects of autecology or population regulation that could not have been easily obtained using other indices of population wellbeing, such as body condition or relative abundance. However, short- and long-term stress (often problematically termed acute and chronic stress, respectively) can interact in unpredictable ways. When animals experience trapping and handling stress before blood, faeces and/or urine is sampled, the interaction of short- and long-term stress can confound interpretation of the data, a fact not always acknowledged in studies of stress in free-living vertebrates. This review examines how stress metrics can be confounded when estimates of HPA-axis activation are collected for free-living vertebrates and outlines some approaches that can be used to help circumvent the influence of potentially confounding factors. PMID:22415475

  11. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, C; Genovesi, P; Jeschke, J M

    2016-01-27

    Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence on biodiversity, and if so, which taxonomic groups are threatened and where they are threatened. We found that centres of IAS-threatened vertebrates are concentrated in the Americas, India, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. The areas in which IAS-threatened species are located do not fully match the current hotspots of invasions, or the current hotspots of threatened species. The relative importance of biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss clearly varies across regions and taxa, and changes over time, with mammals from India, Indonesia, Australia and Europe are increasingly being threatened by IAS. The chytrid fungus primarily threatens amphibians, whereas invasive mammals primarily threaten other vertebrates. The differences in IAS threats between regions and taxa can help efficiently target IAS, which is essential for achieving the Strategic Plan 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26817767

  12. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  13. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  14. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds. PMID:24709390

  15. Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Strckens, Felix; Gntrkn, Onur

    2013-01-01

    Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research is necessary. The analysis shows that there is evidence for lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in several mammalian orders (e.g., Primates) and also evidence for lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in some avian species (e.g., within the Passeriformes order). While the primate data in particular suggest that human language lateralisation could have resulted from an inherited dominance of the left hemisphere for those neural properties of language that are shared with the sensory or motor aspects of vocalisations in other vertebrate species, it becomes clear that this conclusion is presently supported by only sparse empirical evidence. The majority of vertebrate orders, especially among non-amniotes, still need to be explored. PMID:23231542

  16. DNA Methylation, Epigenetics, and Evolution in Vertebrates: Facts and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

  17. Function-structure relationship of elastic arteries in evolution: from microfibrils to elastin and elastic fibres.

    PubMed

    Faury, G

    2001-05-01

    Evolution of species has led to the appearance of circulatory systems including blood vessels and one or more pulsatile pumps, typically resulting in a low-pressurised open circulation in most invertebrates and a high-pressurised closed circulation in vertebrates. In both open and closed circulations, the large elastic arteries proximal to the heart damp out the pulsatile flow and blood pressure delivered by the heart, in order to limit distal shear stress and to allow regular irrigation of downstream organs. To achieve this goal, networks of resilient and stiff proteins adapted to each situation--i.e. low or high blood pressure--have been developed in the arterial wall to provide it with non-linear elasticity. In the low-pressurised circulation of some invertebrates, the mechanical properties of arteries can almost be entirely microfibril-based, whereas, in high-pressurised circulations, they are due to an interplay between a highly resilient protein, an elastomer in the octopus and elastin in most vertebrates, and the rather stiff protein collagen. In vertebrate development, elastin is incorporated in elastic fibres, on a earlier deposited scaffold of microfibrils. The elastic fibres are then arranged in functional concentric elastic lamellae and, with the smooth muscle cells, lamellar units. The microfibrils may also play a direct functional role in all mature arteries of high- and low-pressurised circulations. Finally, since blood pressure regularly increases with developmental stages, it appears possible that the early deposition of microfibrils, which are highly-conserved in evolution, corresponds, at least in part, to an early microfibril-driven elasticity in low-pressurised arteries, present across species. In vertebrates, when pressure developmentally rises above a threshold value, the vascular wall stress may turn on the expression of other resilient protein genes, including the elastin gene. Elastin would then be deposited on microfibrils and resulting in the elastic fibre network and elastic lamellae whose mechanical properties are adapted to allow for proper arterial work at higher pressures. PMID:11428167

  18. Aneurysms of the foot arteries.

    PubMed

    Alhaizaey, Abdullah; Hussain, Mohamad A; Aljabri, Badr; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Aneurysms of the foot arteries are uncommon but can lead to devastating complications such as acute foot ischemia or arterial rupture if left untreated. In this case series, we present four cases of aneurysms of the foot: one true dorsalis pedis artery aneurysm and three cases of post-traumatic plantar artery pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistulas. All four patients were successfully managed with surgical excision of the aneurysm with or without arteriovenous fistulas ligation. Our case series is followed by discussion on the etiology, clinical presentation and management strategy of patients with aneurysms of the foot arteries. PMID:26232389

  19. Relevance of Basilar Artery Study in Patients with Subclavian Steal Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Antelo, Maria Jose; Puy-Nuez, Alfredo; Ayo-Martin, Oscar; Segura, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    A 72-year-old male presented to the emergency department with gait instability and unclear speech. Computed tomography of the brain showed old lacunar infarcts in basal ganglia. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography was normal. Extracranial Duplex sonography showed indirect hemodynamic signs of bilateral subclavian artery stenosis and both vertebral arteries also showed delayed systolic flow increase. A bilateral subclavian steal phenomenon was suspected, and arm compression tests was performed. The tests promoted reverse flow in the right VA, loss of diastolic flow in the left VA and interestingly, the normal anterograde BA flow became retrograde. Although subclavian steal is likely to be an innocuous phenomenon for the majority of our patients, it is probable that the presence of a hemodynamic effect on the basilar artery may identify those who are at special risk of neurologic symptoms. So, we recommend TCD study in all patients suffering SSP to rule out the possibility of a BA steal phenomenon. PMID:21643537

  20. Comparison of Ultra-Conserved Elements in Drosophilids and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, Igor V.; Shloma, Viktor V.; Stephen, Stuart J.; Pheasant, Michael; Belyakin, Stepan N.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan genomes contain many ultra-conserved elements (UCEs), long sequences identical between distant species. In this study we identified UCEs in drosophilid and vertebrate species with a similar level of phylogenetic divergence measured at protein-coding regions, and demonstrated that both the length and number of UCEs are larger in vertebrates. The proportion of non-exonic UCEs declines in distant drosophilids whilst an opposite trend was observed in vertebrates. We generated a set of 2,126 Sophophora UCEs by merging elements identified in several drosophila species and compared these to the eutherian UCEs identified in placental mammals. In contrast to vertebrates, the Sophophora UCEs are depleted around transcription start sites. Analysis of 52,954 P-element, piggyBac and Minos insertions in the D. melanogaster genome revealed depletion of the P-element and piggyBac insertions in and around the Sophophora UCEs. We examined eleven fly strains with transposon insertions into the intergenic UCEs and identified associated phenotypes in five strains. Four insertions behave as recessive lethals, and in one case we observed a suppression of the marker gene within the transgene, presumably by silenced chromatin around the integration site. To confirm the lethality is caused by integration of transposons we performed a phenotype rescue experiment for two stocks and demonstrated that the excision of the transposons from the intergenic UCEs restores viability. Sequencing of DNA after the transposon excision in one fly strain with the restored viability revealed a 47 bp insertion at the original transposon integration site suggesting that the nature of the mutation is important for the appearance of the phenotype. Our results suggest that the UCEs in flies and vertebrates have both common and distinct features, and demonstrate that a significant proportion of intergenic drosophila UCEs are sensitive to disruption. PMID:24349264