Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

    2008-01-01

    Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

  2. Carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Dumont, Travis M; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Levy, Elad I

    2013-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with stroke symptoms. It is also a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing evaluation as part of a routine examination in the outpatient setting. Several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently available. Treatment strategies include medical and surgical management. Multiple randomized trials conducted over the past decade have laid a foundation for guidelines on the management of extracranial carotid disease. Evaluation and treatment of patients with vertebral artery stenosis is less understood. We review the evidence for the detection and treatment of patients with extracranial carotid artery and vertebral artery disease. PMID:23402465

  3. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  4. Subclavian and Vertebral Arterial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hülsbeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of supra-aortic atherosclerotic arterial stenoses and occlusions using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement is an accepted first-choice procedure. Technical success, primary success, and midterm patency after PTA and stent placement for the treatment of stenosed or obstructed brachiocephalic arteries are promising and complication rates are low. Permanent miniaturization and device improvement makes treatment of atherosclerotic obstructive disease by endovascular means in brachial and cephalic arteries a safe procedure showing promising midterm patency rates. PMID:21326803

  5. Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Han

    2013-11-01

    The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

  6. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vilela, P; Goulão, A

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. PMID:15657789

  7. [Hemodynamic studies on the vertebral artery system during the vertebral arterial surgery].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Shima, T; Nishida, M; Yamada, T; Yamane, K; Fukui, T; Yoshida, A

    1990-06-01

    Few hemodynamic studies on the vertebral artery system in the human can be seen. The authors measured the vertebral arterial blood flow (VAF) with an electromagnetic flow meter in 45 patients who obtained vertebral arterial surgeries. The patients showing vertebrobasilar insufficiency such as vertigo and drop attack had serious kinking and stenosis at the first portion of the vertebral artery. The effects of induced hypotension by trimethaphan camsilate, induced hypertension by phenylephrine, cervical epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia on the VAF were investigated. During the control state, mean systemic arterial blood pressure (SABP), mean VAF were 97 mmHg and 54 ml/min, respectively. The effects of varied SPBP were analyzed by (delta mean VAF/mean VAF)/(delta mean SABP/mean SABP), (delta V/delta S). The delta mean VAF and delta mean SABP indicated varied mean values of VAF and SABP, respectively. Mean SABP was varied significantly by about 25% in each method. The delta V/delta S in induced hypotension, induced hypertension, epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia were -0.05, 0.07, 0.90 and 0.61, respectively, on the average. Induced hypotension by epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia presented significant changes in mean VAF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2206644

  8. Aberrant right vertebral artery from descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Mukkannavar, Shivaprasad Babu; Kuthe, Sachin Anant; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-01

    We present a case of an abnormal origin of right subclavian artery and right vertebral artery distal to the origin of left subclavian artery in a 2-year-old patient who presented with cyanotic congenital heart disease with single ventricle physiology. The anomalous origin of a right vertebral artery from the proximal descending thoracic aorta is very rare. We have described the cine-angiographic identification of its origin and course, its embryologic development, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23992705

  9. Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Parenti; Giovanni Orlandi; Mariacristina Bianchi; Maria Renna; Antonio Martini; Luigi Murri

    1999-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented a sudden left occipital headache and a posterior circulation stroke after cervical manipulation\\u000a for neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a left intracranial vertebral artery occlusive dissection associated\\u000a with an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection with vessel stenosis in its prepetrous tract. This is the first reported\\u000a case showing an associate vertebral and carotid artery dissection

  10. Transradial approach for vertebral artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Tekieli, ?ukasz; Kab?ak-Ziembicka, Anna; Paluszek, Piotr; Trystu?a, Mariusz; Wójcik-P?dziwiatr, Magdalena; Machnik, Roman; Pieni??ek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introductuion Symptomatic severe vertebral artery (VA) stenosis may be treated safely with stent supported angioplasty via femoral access. There is limited clinical data on transradial approach for VA angioplasty in case of peripheral artery disease. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transradial angioplasty of symptomatic VA stenosis. Material and methods Fifteen patients (age 66 ±7.4 years, 73% men, with VA > 80% stenosis, 11 right-side, all symptomatic from posterior circulation (history of stroke, TIA, or chronic ischaemia symptoms)) with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or unsuccessful attempt via femoral approach were scheduled for VA angioplasty by radial access. Clinical and duplex ultrasound (DUS) follow-up were performed before discharge and 1, 12, and 24 months after VA angioplasty. Results The technical success rate was 100%. In all cases VA angioplasty was performed with the use of single balloon-mounted stent (9 bare metal stents, 6 drug-eluting stents). The mean NASCET VA stenosis was reduced from 85.3% to 5.3% (p < 0.001). No periprocedural death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or transient ischaemic attack occurred. During 24-months follow-up, in 12 of 15 patients chronic ischaemia symptoms release was observed, and no new acute ischaemic neurological symptoms were diagnosed in all patients. One patient died 20 months after intervention from unknown causes. There was one symptomatic borderline VA in-stent stenosis 12 months after angioplasty. Conclusions Transradial VA stenting may be a very effective and safe procedure, and it may constitute an alternative to the femoral approach in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis.

  11. Direct transposition of the distal cervical vertebral artery into the internal carotid artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer; Gérald Rancurel; Amine Bahnini; Carlo Ruotolo; Giulio Illuminati

    1995-01-01

    From January 1979 to December 1991, 92 revascularizations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery were performed in 91 patients through a direct transposition of this artery into the internal carotid artery (ICA). These cases represented 15.1% of 610 vertebral revascularizations and 38.8% of 280 distal vertebral revascularizations performed during this period at our institution. The sex ratio of

  12. Multiple hereditary exostoses and stroke due to vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Arauz, Antonio; Hernández-Curiel, Bernardo; Colin-Luna, Jonathan; Dávila-Ortiz de Montellano, David J.; Barboza, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular complications related to multiple hereditary exostoses are uncommon. We present a 39-year-old male patient with multiple exostoses in the upper and lower limbs with an associated positive familial history of such lesions. He experienced a sudden onset of left-side ataxia and hypoesthesia secondary to a left lateral medullary infarction, which was due to a stenotic-pattern vertebral artery dissection (V1-V4). This complication is very rare as a differential diagnosis in the vertebro-basilar dissection spectrum, and a nonspecific relation has been found. Abbreviations MHE Multiple hereditary exostoses AT angiotomography VAD vertebral artery dissection CAD cervical artery dissection OI osteogenesis imperfecta PMID:25825632

  13. Extracranial Vertebral Artery Involvement in Neurofibromatosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, V.M.; Geiprasert, S.; Krings, T.; Caldas, J.G.M.P.; Toulgoat, F.; Ozanne, A.; Mercier, P.; Lasjaunias, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is one of the most common inherited diseases and as an autosomal dominant genetic disorder results from NF-1 gene mutation with 100% penetration and wide phenotypic variability. The disease can involve a wide variety of tissues derived from all three embryonic layers. NF-1 vasculopathy has been described primarily in peripheral arteries, but arteries supplying the CNS may also be involved. Of those, extracranial vertebral involvement is the commonest and most important. A series of four patients with NF-1 and vascular disease of the vertebral artery is described with a review of the pathophysiology, vascular phenotypes, their management and the pertinent literature. PMID:20566100

  14. Endovascular interventional therapy and classification of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YIHUA; ZHAO, CUIPING; HAO, XIAOGUANG; WANG, CHENGWEI; WANG, ZHIGANG

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to summarise the clinical features and classifications of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to optimise strategies for endovascular interventional therapy. The clinical features and results of 31 inpatients with VADA were retrospectively analysed. The aneurysms were classified according to their location and association between the aneurysm and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and into subtypes according to the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral artery. Different endovascular interventional therapy strategies were selected for each classification. Three types of aneurysm with two subtypes each were identified. An aneurysm located distally to the PICA was termed type I (10/31 patients). Aneurysms with a contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype a (type Ia, 6/31 patients) and aneurysms with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype b (type Ib, 4/31 patients). An aneurysm located at the origin of the PICA was termed type II (13/31 patients), with seven cases classified as IIa and six cases as IIb. An aneurysm located proximally to the PICA was termed type III (8/31 patients), with five cases classified as IIIa and three cases as IIIb. Among the 31 patients, 18 received stent-assisted coiling, two received coiling, 10 received coiling with parent artery occlusion and one patient received conservative treatment. Among the 31 patients with VADA, 21 were occluded completely, nine were partially occluded and one was not occluded. One patient developed a coma following coiling; however, the other 30 patients recovered well. Thus, the classification of an aneurysm based on its location and the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral arteries appears to be an effective and safe approach for the selection of appropriate endovascular interventional therapy strategies. PMID:25289031

  15. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders

    PubMed Central

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  16. Non-invasive imaging of aberrant right subclavian artery pathologies and aberrant right vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M KARCAALTINCABA; M HALILOGLU; E OZKAN; M KOCAK; D AKINCI; M ARIYUREK

    2009-01-01

    Here, we review the CT and MR angiography findings of aberrant right subclavian and right vertebral arteries, with emphasis on the differences between these structures. In addition, non-invasive imaging findings of aberrant right subclavian artery pathologies, including arteritis, aneurysm and dissection, are discussed.

  17. Spontaneous Thrombolysis of Multiple Thrombi at Distal Region of Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery After Stent-assisted Angioplasty on Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis: Angiographic Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Huh, Choon-Woong; Kim, Dal-Soo; Mok, Jin-Ho; Kim, In-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) can be easily overlooked if the contralateral side vertebral artery is intact, because of compensation by the contralateral artery or cerebral collateral network. The clinical relevance and hemodynamic impact of VAH is still controversial. However, VAH has recently been considered a risk factor for posterior circulation ischemia. Ischemic stroke is seldom caused by free floating thrombi (FFT) in the artery. Pathophysiology of FFT has not yet been clarified. The state of reduced blood flow such as a vertebral artery origin stenosis may cause FFT. Their instability may make them sources of recurrent artery to artery embolism. Patients with FFT will require appropriate medical and endovascular treatment. The current case illustrates a short-term angiographic change of spontaneous thrombolysis of VAH and multiple thrombi at the distal region of the stenosed lesion after stent-assisted angioplasty for a vertebral artery origin stenosis. PMID:25340032

  18. Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

  19. Left hemibody myoclonus due to anomalous right vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel; Marti, Maria J; Valls-Solé, Josep; Pujol, Teresa; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with sporadic, sudden, brief, and involuntary jerks of his left limbs and trunk muscles. The electromyographic recordings showed short-lasting highly synchronized bursts, compatible with myoclonus limited to the left hemibody. Blink reflex, masseter silent period, cortical and spinal magnetic stimulation, somatosensory cortical evoked potentials, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal; the EEG back-averaging showed no spikes preceding the myoclonus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography showed the presence of an anomalous nonectasic right vertebral artery compressing the right side of ventral medulla oblongata. We hypothesize that the aberrant right vertebral artery induced abnormal activation of descending motor tracts responsible for the myoclonus. PMID:15390038

  20. Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy; Jones, Catherine; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

  1. Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized. PMID:25317310

  2. Crossover balloon technique for vertebral artery thrombus: a novel method

    PubMed Central

    Huded, Vikram; Ellajosyula, Ratnavalli; de Souza, Romnesh; Zafer, Syed Moeed

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with recurrent episodes of transient ischemic attacks and acute stroke secondary to a floating thrombus in the right vertebral artery (VA) with narrowing of the right VA. He was initially treated medically with anticoagulation, antiplatelets and statins but developed multiple fresh infarcts. He was then referred for endovascular treatment, which was performed in a novel way. PMID:23386534

  3. Multidetector computed tomography angiography: Application in vertebral artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Evelyn; Zampakis, Peter; Santosh, Celestine; Razvi, Saif

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is a minimally invasive radiological technique providing high-resolution images of the arterial wall and angiographic images of the lumen. We studied the radiological features of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a consecutive series of patients investigated for acute stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to confirm and define the diagnostic features of VAD on MDCTA. Patients and Methods: Review of patients identified prospectively over a 4-year period with VAD assessed by MDCTA was conducted. Radiological features of VAD on MDCTA were reanalyzed utilising previously reported criteria for VAD. Results: Thirty-five patients (25 males, mean age 49.6 years) with a total of 45 dissected vertebral arteries were reviewed. MDCTA features of VAD included increased wall thickness in 44/45 (97.7%) arteries and increased total vessel diameter in 42/45 arteries (93.3%). All dissected arteries had either lumen stenosis (21/45) or associated segmental occlusion (24/45). An intimal flap was detected in 6/45 (13.3 %) vessels. Twenty-five patients had follow-up imaging, 14/32 vessels returned to normal, 4 showed improvement in stenosis but did not return to normal and 14 demonstrated no change. The majority of non-occluded vessels became normal or displayed improved patency. Only 4/17 occluded arteries demonstrated re-establishment of flow. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusions: MDCTA is a safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of VAD. Increased wall thickness (97.7%) and increased vessel wall diameter (93.3%) were the most frequently observed features. PMID:21633613

  4. Vertebral artery aneurysm--a unique hazard of head banging by heavy metal rockers. Case report.

    PubMed

    Egnor, M R; Page, L K; David, C

    A 15-year-old drummer in a neighborhood rock music band suffered a traumatic true aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery from violent head and neck motion. He underwent excision of the aneurysm after distal and proximal ligation of the artery. He is neurologically normal 1 year after surgery. The mechanisms of injury caused by extremes of cervical motion, as well as 5 previously reported cases of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm from closed trauma, are discussed. Excision of vertebral artery aneurysms in patients with emboli from a mural thrombus is recommended. The consequences of vertebral artery ligation and the indications for distal reconstruction are discussed. PMID:1819327

  5. A Vertebral Artery Dissection with Basilar Artery Occlusion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services. PMID:25587466

  6. Improvement of sudden bilateral hearing loss after vertebral artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hwa; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia. We report a case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion which dramatically improved after stenting. A 54-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset of bilateral deafness, vertigo, and drowsy mental status. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI showed acute infarction involving both the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and left posterior cerebral artery territory. Cerebral angiography showed bilateral distal VA occlusion, and emergency intracranial stenting was performed in the left VA. After reperfusion therapy his symptoms gradually improved, including hearing impairment. Endovascular stenting may be helpful in a patient with sudden deafness caused by bilateral VA occlusion. PMID:25697296

  7. Doppler studies evaluating the effect of a physical therapy screening protocol on vertebral artery blood flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Arnold; R. Bourassa; T Langer; G Stoneham

    2004-01-01

    General and isolated cervical positional tests are used to screen for potential vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI). There is limited research evaluating vertebral artery blood flow in these positions to justify the rationale of progressive mechanical stress occurring to the arteries. The purpose of the study was to determine vertebral artery blood flow in six cervical positions used in clinical practice. A

  8. Accuracy of Color-Doppler in the Quantification of Proximal Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. de Bray; A. Pasco; F. Tranquart; X. Papon; C. Alecu; B. Giraudeau; F. Dubas; J. Emile

    2001-01-01

    Background: Vertebrobasilar (VB) strokes appear to have the same causes as carotid strokes. Obstructive lesions of proximal vertebral arteries probably occur in about 30% of stroke patients. Purpose: Our aim was to assess the validity of color Doppler sonography compared to selective intra-arterial angiography in the quantification of proximal vertebral artery stenoses. Materials and Methods: A prospective blind study of

  9. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  10. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with bilateral carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Yong; N. S. Heran

    2005-01-01

    Summary Carotid and vertebral artery dissections from blunt cervical trauma are uncommon injuries that in recent years are becoming increasingly recognized as a result of angiographic screening protocols in trauma patients. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas are even less common events, but represent the most common intracranial vascular anomaly after head injury. The present report details the unique case of a

  11. A case of traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury presenting with life-threatening symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Seiji; Kanaji, Kenji; Doi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of loss of consciousness after hitting his head. After immediate resuscitation, he showed quadriplegia and absence of spontaneous breathing. Brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atlantoaxial subluxation, fractured C2 odontoid process, left vertebral artery occlusion, and bilateral extensive ischemia in the medulla oblongata and high cervical spinal cord. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated left vertebral artery dissection just below the level of vertebral body C2. PMID:23754919

  12. Simultaneous bilateral stenosis of the vertebral arteries treated by unilateral decompression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hoon; You, Seung Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Hwang, In Seok; Lee, Sang-Youl

    2015-02-15

    A 56-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of progressive dizziness. His dizziness was aggravated when his head was rotated to the right side. Diagnostic angiography showed that a normal right-sided vertebral artery in the neutral position became an abnormal vertebral artery with two stenotic lesions at the C3-4 and C5-6 levels when the patient's head was turned to the right. A normal left-sided vertebral artery also showed a stenotic lesion at the C2 level when the patient's head was turned right. The axialdimensions of the bilateral vertebral arteries were similar. The patient was successfully treated withdecompression of only one level (C5-6). We conclude that if a bilateral stenosis is found upon one directional head rotation and the bilateral vertebral arteries are similarly sized, a one-sided treatment may suffice. PMID:24390179

  13. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting in a patient after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Lex A; Santarelli, Justin G; Singh, Inder Paul; Do, Huy M

    2013-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset thunderclap headache and focal neurologic deficits. Once thought to be a rare syndrome, more advanced non-invasive imaging has led to an increase in RCVS diagnosis. Unilateral vertebral artery dissection has been described in fewer than 40% of cases of RCVS. Bilateral vertebral artery dissection has rarely been reported. We describe the case of a patient with RCVS and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting with an intramedullary infarct treated successfully with medical management and careful close follow-up. This rare coexistence should be recognized as the treatment differs. PMID:23354867

  15. Extensive bilateral vertebral artery remodeling following treatment of dissection using pipeline embolic device

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Bartley; Momin, Eric; Jou, Liang-Der; Shaltoni, Hashem; Morsi, Hesham; Mawad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral artery dissection remains a significant cause of stroke, and the mainstay of treatment has been medical management with anticoagulation, although flow-diverting stents have been used in some cases of arterial dissection resistant to medical management. Methods We present a case report of bilateral vertebral artery stenting using pipeline embolic device flow-diverting stents, after failed medical management of the dissection. Results This case demonstrated substantial subsequent vertebral arterial remodeling and good clinical outcome with maintenance of posterior circulation. The patient did not suffer any further strokes or posterior circulation symptoms following vertebral artery remodeling. Conclusion In cases where traditional management of arterial dissection has not been efficacious, flow-diverting stents may be useful in treating dissections of the posterior cerebral circulation, even with bilateral involvement. PMID:25566334

  16. Stenting for Abrupt Closure of the Intracranial Vertebral Artery Complicating Balloon Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, T.; Tsukahara, T.; Araki, K.

    2000-01-01

    Summary We report a case of stenting for abrupt closure of the intracranial vertebral artery complicating balloon angioplasty. A 58-year-old man with symptomatic restenosis of the intracranial vertebral artery underwent balloon angioplasty, which was complicated by acute occlusion due to wall dissection. The acute occlusion of the lesion was completely recanalized by implanting a balloon-expandable stent designed for the coronary artery. Follow-up angiography 15 months after stenting did not show severe restenosis and the patient's symptoms disappeared after stenting. This therapeutic option may be useful as a means to bail out from acute occlusion of the intracranial artery caused by endovascular procedures. PMID:20667202

  17. Ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct percutaneous puncture for basilar artery mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke: a technical report

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Jamsheed A; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Hill, Michael D; Goyal, Mayank; Eesa, Muneer

    2013-01-01

    A middle aged patient presented with acute ischemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion. The patient clinically deteriorated despite intravenous thrombolysis and was referred for mechanical thrombectomy. The right vertebral artery was occluded and could not be accessed despite attempting various shaped catheters, even when a radial artery access was used. The left vertebral artery ended in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Eventually, ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct puncture was successfully done and the procedure was completed. No access related complications were encountered. Direct cervical arterial puncture can be safely used by experienced operators as a last resort in acute stroke cases with difficult access. PMID:23536646

  18. Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2014-10-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

  19. A pitfall of neck vessels Doppler ultrasound: left subclavian artery occlusion without vertebral steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verbeeck, N

    2000-12-01

    In most cases, ostial occlusion of the subclavian artery induces a reversal of the blood flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. This hemodynamic diversion is obviously brought out by Doppler ultrasound of the neck vessels. Nevertheless, when the subclavian ostial lesions are less severe or in case of anatomical variations, the alterations of the vertebral flux are more discrete. An accurate Doppler examination is then required to avoid pitfalls. In the light of a particularly complex case, we reviewed the Doppler signs of vertebral blood flow in normal conditions and in patent or less obvious subclavian steals. PMID:11210682

  20. Vertebral Artery Anomaly and Injury in Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert; Bessette, Matthew; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Molinari, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?The purpose of this review is to further define the published literature with respect to vertebral artery (VA) anomaly and injury in patients with degenerative cervical spinal conditions. Objectives?In adult patients with cervical spine or degenerative cervical spine disorders receiving cervical spine surgery, what is the incidence of VA injury, and among resulting VA injuries, which treatments result in a successful outcome and what percent are successfully repaired? Materials and Methods?A systematic review of pertinent articles published up to April 2013. Studies involving traumatic onset, fracture, infection, deformity or congenital abnormality, instability, inflammatory spinal diseases, or neoplasms were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?From a total of 72 possible citations, the following met our inclusion criteria and formed the basis for this report. Incidence of VA injuries ranged from 0.20 to 1.96%. None of the studies reported using preoperative imaging to identify anomalous or tortuous VA. Primary repair and ligation were the most effective in treating VA injuries. Conclusion?The incidence of VA injuries in degenerative cervical spinal surgery might be as high as 1.96% and is likely underreported. Direct surgical repair is the most effective treatment option. The most important preventative technique for VA injuries is preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography angiographic imaging to detect VA anomalies. The overall strength of evidence for the conclusions is low. PMID:24715869

  1. Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A.M. [University Hospital Essen, Essen, Department of Radiology andInterventional Radiology (Germany); Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D. [Klinikum Dortmund, Dortmund, Department ofRadiology (Germany)

    2004-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

  2. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

  3. Endovascular Management of Pediatric High-Flow Vertebro-Vertebral Fistula with Reversed Basilar Artery Flow

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, A.R.; Ansari, S.A.; Alden, T.D.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Hurley, M.C.; Rahman, O.; Shaibani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

  4. Waveform patterns and peak reversed velocity in vertebral arteries predict severe subclavian artery stenosis and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the value of analyzing spectral Doppler waveform patterns and measuring the peak reversed velocity (PRV) of the vertebral artery (VA) in predicting proximal severe subclavian artery (SA) stenosis and occlusion. Fifty-one patients with proximal SA stenosis were studied retrospectively. Based on the depth of the mid-systolic notch, the Doppler waveforms of the ipsilateral VA were divided into five subtypes (type I, n = 8; type II, n = 8; type III, n = 6; type IV, n = 13; and type V, n = 16). PRV was also measured. PRV receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to obtain the best cutoff value for predicting severe SA stenosis or complete SA occlusion. The results indicated that both VA Doppler waveform and PRV were associated with the degree of SA stenosis (p < 0.05). PRV and the Doppler waveform in the VA had similar accuracy in predicting SA occlusion (84.3%, 43/51). PRV was more accurate than VA waveforms in predicting severe SA stenosis (98%, 50/51 vs. 94.1%, 48/51). However, no significant differences between the two methods in predicting severe SA stenosis were observed (p = 0.84). Thus, with severe obstruction of the SA, typical Doppler waveform patterns of the VA could be observed. PRV is a helpful criterion in predicting severe stenosis and occlusion of the SA. PMID:25638312

  5. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection in an adult with brachial plexus injury and cervical spinal fractures.

    PubMed

    Motsitsi, Silas N S; Steyn, Rian R

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of a 32 year-old right-hand dominant woman who sustained a right brachial plexus injury, ipsilateral fractures of the cervical spine transverse processes, and vertebral artery dissection. She presented to us four days following the initiating accident. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed normal brachial plexus along with vertebral artery dissection with intramural thrombus and vascular lumen occlusion. The dissection was managed conservatively. A repeat CAT-SCAN Angiography three months later showed healing of the dissection plus vascular lumen re-canalization. There were no sequelae due to the dissection. The details of the case are discussed in this report. PMID:17822530

  6. The relation between the spatial distribution of vertebral artery compromise and exposure to cervical manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory N. Kawchuk; Gian S. Jhangri; Eric L. Hurwitz; Shari Wynd; S. Haldeman; Michael D. Hill

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose\\u000a   The vertebral artery is made up of four segments, one of which (V3) is connected to highly mobile cervical vertebrae. This\\u000a connection underlies the common assumption that persons with pre-event histories of mechanical neck movements, such as cervical\\u000a spine manipulation (cSMT), should experience increased V3 dissection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Two of the largest case series of vertebral artery dissection

  7. Two case reports of bilateral vertebral artery tortuosity and spiral twisting in vascular vertigo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tortuous blood vessels are commonly seen in the cerebral arteries. The association between vertebrobasilar artery tortuosity and vascular vertigo remains obscure. Case presentation We describe two patients with vascular vertigo who had bilateral curving and spiral looping in multiple segments of the vertebral arteries and also exhibited basilar artery tortuosity. Both patients had cerebrovascular risk factors and exhibited clinical features of vertigo with high severity, slow recovery, and recurrent tendencies. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed bilateral tortuosity in the V2 segments and spiral twisting in the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries, and basilar artery curving. No obvious sign of atherosclerotic stenosis was found in the vertebrobasilar arteries and no abnormalities were observed in the internal carotid arteries. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound showed decreased blood flow in tortuous vertebrobasilar arteries. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials showed that the interpeak latencies (IPL) of waves III-IV were prolonged, with a ratio of IPL III-V/IPL I-III?>?1. Conclusions Vertebrobasilar tortuosity in combination with cerebrovascular risk factors may lead to vascular vertigo in these patients. PMID:24428889

  8. Vertebral artery dissection presenting with ispilateral acute C5 and C6 sensorimotor radiculopathy: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghazaleh Tabatabai; Wolfgang Schöber; Ulrike Ernemann; Michael Weller; Rejko Krüger

    2008-01-01

    Spinal manifestations of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) are rare events and are typically symptomatic with neck pain and ischemic brain injury. We report a patient presenting with unusual peripheral paresis of the right upper limb due to an intramural hematoma of the right vertebral artery with local compression of C5 and C6 as the cause of cervical radiculopathy. These symptoms

  9. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  10. Vertigo as Manifestation of Vertebral Artery Dissection after Chiropractic Neck Manipulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Vibert; Josette Rohr-Le Floch; Gèrard Gauthier

    1993-01-01

    We recently observed a case of vertebral artery (VA) dissection following chiropractic neck manipulations. The first manifestation was unusual; in the form of vertigo. Therefore, the patient was referred to the otoneurologist. A VA dissection should be suspected in a case of vertigo following chiropractic neck manipulations, and vestibular tests should be done carefully, avoiding Rose’s positions. In our case,

  11. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

  12. Palatal myoclonus secondary to vertebral artery compression of the inferior olive.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M A; David, C E; Chahin, N S

    2000-10-01

    A 47-year-old male with a 5-year history of palatal myoclonus was found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination to have an ectatic dominant left vertebral artery that compressed the left inferior olive. Microvascular decompression effectively eliminated his symptoms. This case and a similar case presented here with an ectatic vertebral-basilar system illustrate the value of standard MRI in conjunction with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating palatal myoclonus, and they suggest a potential role for decompressive surgery when persistent, highly symptomatic inferior olivary ischemia or compression occurs. PMID:11147401

  13. Vertebral artery origin angioplasty and primary stenting: safety and restenosis rates in a prospective series

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, G; Crawley, F; Clifton, A; McCabe, D; Brown, M; Markus, H

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To report a single centre ongoing experience of endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic vertebral artery origin stenosis in a series of symptomatic patients, with follow up imaging to determine the incidence of restenosis. Methods: 14 patients with vertebral artery origin stenosis on catheter angiography were treated. Angioplasty without stenting was undertaken in the first four patients, all of whom had follow up catheter angiography at one year. Subsequently, patients were treated by primary stenting and followed up with colour Doppler ultrasound examination. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all treated arteries, with no immediate complications. The degree of stenosis was reduced from (mean (SD)) 73 (18)% before treatment to 21 (26)% immediately after treatment in the angioplasty alone group (p = 0.059). In the primary stenting patients, the severity of stenosis was reduced from 82 (8)% to 13 (13)% immediately after treatment (p < 0.001). Restenosis to 70% or greater occurred at one year in all four patients initially treated by angioplasty without stenting. One patient subsequently developed further symptoms and was retreated by stenting. One of the 10 patients treated by primary stenting developed restenosis. None of the remaining patients had further posterior circulation ischaemic symptoms during a mean follow up period of 33.6 months (range 1 to 72 months). Conclusions: Restenosis occurs often after vertebral artery origin balloon angioplasty without stenting but is uncommon after stenting. Primary stenting is therefore recommended to maintain patency at this site, and had a low complication rate in this series. PMID:12700299

  14. Partially thrombosed vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm presenting as delayed bulbar compression after lateral medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuji; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kohyama, Shinya; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Uchino, Akira; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man experienced lateral medullary infarction resulting from spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Minimal fusiform dilatation was noted on basi-parallel anatomic scanning-magnetic resonance imaging; therefore, the patient was treated conservatively. Eight months later, he experienced deterioration of dysphagia and the onset of gait ataxia. Repeated imaging studies showed enlargement of the VA aneurysm with bulbar compression. Parent artery occlusion on the proximal side of the VA affected by the dissection relieved the patient's symptoms. Although the majority of dissected lesions stabilize within a few months, studies with longer observation periods and more frequent neuroimaging examinations are required. PMID:25748961

  15. Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Nadgir; L. A. Loevner; T. Ahmed; G. Moonis; J. Chalela; K. Slawek; S. Imbesi

    2003-01-01

    Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation.

  16. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Youssef, Ali A. [Suez Canal University Hospital, Cardiology Department (Egypt); Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China)], E-mail: tang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  17. During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a second flow route with veins paralleling the arteries (cis-trans configuration) emerges when the tissue extends. Between the cis-cis and cis-trans configurations, all configurations are in principle possible, and self-organization of the vessels contributes to determining their exact pattern. However, the global aspect depends on the size at which the growth stops and on the growth rate.

  18. During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors.

    PubMed

    Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a second flow route with veins paralleling the arteries (cis-trans configuration) emerges when the tissue extends. Between the cis-cis and cis-trans configurations, all configurations are in principle possible, and self-organization of the vessels contributes to determining their exact pattern. However, the global aspect depends on the size at which the growth stops and on the growth rate. PMID:18643107

  19. Endovascular Management of Complete Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lenthall, R.K.; White, B.D.; Mcconachie, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection may involve the intradural segment of the VA and result in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). These lesions are frequently associated with recurrent SAH, and have a high mortality. Prior to the development of endovascular techniques the majority of these lesions were treated surgically. In cases where the dissection involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin surgery was associated with significant complications including recurrent SAH from retrograde VA flow into the dissected segment above the surgical clip. We describe two cases of complete VA dissection in which the entire intradural VA was sacrificed to prevent recurrent SAH. The first case tolerated planned left PICA occlusion without developing a significant neurological deficit. The second case had infarcted the right PICA territory at presentation. PMID:20670506

  20. Cerebral Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Relation to Asymptomatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Schoos, Mikkel; Sillesen, Henrik; Thomsen, Carsten; Hassager, Christian; Steinbrüchel, Daniel; Schroeder, Torben; Clemmensen, Peter; Kelbæk, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) are associated with cerebral infarction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). It remains unclear whether this association is causal. We investigated the associations between neurologically asymptomatic CAS and VAS and the occurrence of subclinical cerebral lesions after CABG verified by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: CABG patients were included and CAS and VAS were identified by magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify new post-operative subclinical cerebral lesions. The associations between CAS/VAS post-operative cerebral lesions were investigated. Results: Forty-six patients were included in the study. 13% had significant CAS and 11% had significant VAS. Thirty-five percent had new cerebral infarction postoperatively. We found a significant association between the presence of cerebral vessel stenosis and acute cerebral infarction (67% vs. 27%, p = 0.047). However none of the patients with stenosis had isolated cerebral lesions in the ipsilateral vascular territory. Conclusion: Asymptomatic CAS and VAS is common in CABG patients and is associated with an increased risk of postoperative cerebral infarction. Our study suggests that asymptomatic CAS and VAS primarily are risk markers rather than causal factors for cerebral infarction after CABG.

  1. Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of spinal artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Morio; Kondo, Rei; Mouri, Wataru; Sato, Atsushi; Ito, Miiko; Sato, Shinji; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Yamaki, Tetsu; Nagahata, Satoko; Saito, Shinjiro; Kayama, Takamasa

    2013-01-01

    Rete mirabile (or carotid rete) is a normal structure that plays physiological roles in the lower mammals. However, the rete does not exist in the normal carotid circulation of humans. Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare condition compensating for congenital dysplastic internal carotid artery. Arterial plexus at the cavernous region, which supplies intradural internal carotid artery instead of the aplastic cavernous portion of internal carotid artery, looks like the "rete mirabile" seen in the lower mammals, and is a characteristic angiographical finding of CRM. In addition to the CRM, existence of segmental occlusion and tortuous collaterals of vertebral artery, so-called carotid and vertebral rete mirabile (CVRM), is a very rare condition. We report a 70-year-old female patient with bilateral CVRM presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by the rupture of a cervical spinal artery aneurysm. Our patient is the oldest, compared with the previously reported four patients with CVRM. Moreover, this is the first report of ruptured spinal artery aneurysm as a cause of SAH associated with CRM/CVRM. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patients by performing coil embolization of the remaining spinal aneurysms. In patients with CVRM, aneurysm formation of the cervical spinal artery may be a reasonable consequence because of the hemodynamic stress on the spinal artery as a collateral pathway. Detailed evaluation of the cervical spinal arteries should be performed to detect or to rule out ruptured aneurysm in patients with SAH associated with CVRM. PMID:23903351

  2. The distribution of blood flow in the carotid and vertebral arteries during dynamic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kohei; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism underlying the plateau or relative decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during maximal incremental dynamic exercise remains unclear. We hypothesized that cerebral perfusion is limited during high-intensity dynamic exercise due to a redistribution of carotid artery blood flow. To identify the distribution of blood flow among the arteries supplying the head and brain, we evaluated common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow during dynamic exercise using Doppler ultrasound. Ten subjects performed graded cycling exercise in a semi-supine position at 40, 60 and 80% of peak oxygen uptake () for 5 min at each workload. The ICA blood flow increased by 23.0 ± 4.6% (mean ± SE) from rest to exercise at 60% . However, at 80% , ICA blood flow returned towards near resting levels (9.6 ± 4.7%vs. rest). In contrast, ECA, CCA and VA blood flow increased proportionally with workload. The change in ICA blood flow during graded exercise was correlated with end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (r = 0.72). The change in ICA blood flow from 60% to 80% was negatively correlated with the change in ECA blood flow (r = ?0.77). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between forehead cutaneous vascular conductance and ECA blood flow during exercise (r = 0.79). These results suggest that during high-intensity dynamic exercise the plateau or decrease in ICA blood flow is partly due to a large increase in ECA blood flow, which is selectively increased to prioritize thermoregulation. PMID:21486813

  3. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elmadag, Mehmet; Güzel, Yunus; Uzer, Gokcer; Tuncay, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy. PMID:25685576

  4. The forgotten disease: Bilateral lemierre’s disease with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Parikh, Kaushal; Puri, Sonam; Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Sharma, Divakar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Lemierre’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • fever • headache • tachycardia • tachypnoe Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Lemierre’s disease, also known as the forgotten disease, postanginal sepsis, or necrobacillosis, was first reported in 1890 by Courmont and Cade, but it was Dr. Andre Lemierre, a professor of microbiology, who described this disease in 1936. The typical causative agent is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other organisms may be involved. The pathogenesis of Lemierre’s disease is not well understood. It is characterized by a primary oropharyngeal infection associated with septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and metastatic septic emboli. Case Report: We report a case of Lemierre’s disease with bilateral internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis and metastatic septic emboli to the lungs and brain, associated with epidural abscess and mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery, which is quite rare in Lemierre’s disease. This is the first report of a case of Lemierre’s disease associated with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Conclusions: Lemierre’s disease is a rare and perplexing medical entity. Clinical suspicion should be high in previously healthy young adults presenting with fever and neck pain following oropharyngeal infection. Dr. Lemierre stated that ‘symptoms and signs of Lemierre’s disease are so characteristic that it permits diagnosis before bacteriological examination’. The prognosis of patients with Lemierre’s disease is generally good, provided prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. PMID:24883173

  5. Acute subdural hematoma following halo pin tightening in a patient with bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Medhkour, A; Massie, L; Horn, M

    2012-12-01

    We report the first case of acute subdural hematoma (SDH) developing after tightening the halo of an osteoporotic 61-year-old woman on warfarin therapy for bilateral traumatic vertebral artery dissection. We discuss literature relevant to this case with an emphasis on identifying warning signs, including recurrent pin loosening, especially in patients with compromised bone structure and high risk of bleeding. Our 61-year-old patient presented to neurosurgery clinic for a 2-month follow-up of a type-III odontoid fracture sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient had repeatedly loosened halo pins, and shortly after the pins were tightened, the patient had a syncopal event and struck her head. An emergent computed tomography scan revealed acute SDH requiring emergent craniotomy and evacuation. SDH following pin penetration in a patient with bilateral vertebral artery dissection, osteoporosis, and anticoagulation has not been reported as a complication of the use of the halo vest for stabilization of the cervical spine. The risk of this serious complication can be minimized by giving special consideration to patients with comorbidities and by repositioning problematic pins. This case demonstrates the importance of special attention to bone strength, bleeding risk, and recurrent minor complaints with use of the halo vest. PMID:22989701

  6. Differential blood flow responses to CO2 in human internal and external carotid and vertebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kohei; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2012-01-01

    Arterial CO2 serves as a mediator of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and its relative influence on the regulation of CBF is defined as cerebral CO2 reactivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there are differences in CBF responses to physiological stimuli (i.e. dynamic exercise and orthostatic stress) between arteries in humans. These findings suggest that dynamic CBF regulation and cerebral CO2 reactivity may be different in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. The aim of this study was to identify cerebral CO2 reactivity by measuring blood flow and examine potential differences in CO2 reactivity between the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood flow responses by duplex ultrasonography (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery (BA) by transcranial Doppler (Vivid-7, GE healthcare) during two levels of hypercapnia (3% and 6% CO2), normocapnia and hypocapnia to estimate CO2 reactivity. To characterize cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, we used both exponential and linear regression analysis between CBF and estimated partial pressure of arterial CO2, calculated by end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. CO2 reactivity in VA was significantly lower than in ICA (coefficient of exponential regression 0.021 ± 0.008 vs. 0.030 ± 0.008; slope of linear regression 2.11 ± 0.84 vs. 3.18 ± 1.09% mmHg?1: VA vs. ICA, P < 0.01). Lower CO2 reactivity in the posterior cerebral circulation was persistent in distal intracranial arteries (exponent 0.023 ± 0.006 vs. 0.037 ± 0.009; linear 2.29 ± 0.56 vs. 3.31 ± 0.87% mmHg?1: BA vs. MCA). In contrast, CO2 reactivity in ECA was markedly lower than in the intra-cerebral circulation (exponent 0.006 ± 0.007; linear 0.63 ± 0.64% mmHg?1, P < 0.01). These findings indicate that vertebro-basilar circulation has lower CO2 reactivity than internal carotid circulation, and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation, which may explain different CBF responses to physiological stress. PMID:22526884

  7. Preoperative visualization of the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery: A 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracranial–intracranial arterial bypass surgery is rarely performed for recurrent or progressing stroke due to vertebrobasilar artery steno-occlusive disease. Non-enhanced 7.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging reveals cerebral arteries more clearly than 3.0-T or less MR imaging. Case Description: A 45-year-old man developed recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to hemodynamic ischemia caused by occlusion of bilateral vertebral arteries despite antiplatelet therapy. MR angiography with a 7.0-T imager demonstrated that each marginal tentorial artery ran along the tentorial edge and anastomosed with each posterior cerebral artery (PCA) as collateral circulation. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–superior cerebellar artery (SCA) or PCA bypass surgery was planned through a subtemporal approach. During surgery, the SCA was not visible when the tentorial edge was elevated. The tentorium was not cut, and the STA was anastomosed with the P2 segment of the PCA. Ischemic symptoms completely resolved after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative 7.0-T MR imaging visualized the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery. PMID:25422785

  8. Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent

    PubMed Central

    Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  9. Delayed Brain Infarction due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Occlusion Which Occurred 5 Days after Cervical Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) injuries usually accompany cervical trauma. Although these injuries are commonly asymptomatic, some result in vertebrobasilar infarction. The symptoms of VA occlusion have been reported to usually manifest within 24 hours after trauma. The symptoms of bilateral VA occlusions seem to be more severe and seem to occur with shorter latencies than those of unilateral occlusions. A 48-year-old man had a C3-4 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord compression that resulted from a traffic accident. After surgery, his initial quadriparesis gradually improved. However, he complained of sudden headache and dizziness on the 5th postoperative day. His motor weakness was abruptly aggravated. Radiologic evaluation revealed an infarction in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. Cerebral angiography revealed complete bilateral VA occlusion. We administered anticoagulation therapy. After 6 months, his weakness had only partially improved. This case demonstrates that delayed infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion can occur at latencies as long as 5 days. Thus, we recommend that patients with cervical traumas that may be accompanied by bilateral VA occlusion should be closely observed for longer than 5 days. PMID:25328652

  10. Spontaneous atraumatic vertebral artery occlusion due to physiological cervical extension: case report.

    PubMed

    Safain, Mina G; Talan, Jordan; Malek, Adel M; Hwang, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) occlusion is a serious and potentially life-threatening occurrence. Bow hunter's syndrome, a mechanical occlusion of the VA due to physiological head rotation, has been well described in the medical literature. However, mechanical VA compression due to routine flexion or extension of the neck has not been previously reported. The authors present the unique case of a woman without any history of trauma who had multiple posterior fossa strokes and was found to have dynamic occlusion of her right VA visualized via cerebral angiogram upon extension of her neck. This occlusion was attributed to instability at the occipitocervical junction in a patient with a previously unknown congenital fusion of both the occiput to C-1 and C-2 to C-3. An occiput to C-3 fusion was performed to stabilize her cervical spine and minimize the dynamic vascular compression. A postoperative angiogram showed no evidence of restricted flow with flexion or extension of the neck. This case emphasizes the importance of considering symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency as a result of physiological head movement. The authors also review the literature on VA compression resulting from physiological head movement as well as strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24438424

  11. Vertebral artery dissection due to an esophageal foreign body migration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, Najib; Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmlih, Amine; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional foreign bodies' swallowing is a fairly common occurrence in ENT consultation especially among children. They usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. It represents about 1% to 4% of all cases of foreign bodies' ingestion. A 16 year's old female patient has presented to ENT emergency with a painful dysphagia following an accidental ingestion of a metallic pin. Cervical X ray confirmed the presence of the pin while endoscopic investigations have shown no foreign body. Cervical CT scan revealed the migration of the foreign body through the esophageal wall with left vertebral artery dissection. Endoscopic management has been sufficient with an uneventful post operative follow up. Esophageal foreign bodies are very diverse mainly dominated by fish bones (60%) and chicken bones (16%). Metallic pins are rare. The major risks of migration of those foreign bodies are cervical abscess, mediastinitis and oeso-vascular fistulae. Cases of self extrusion through the skin have been reported. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. Endoscopic management has been sufficient. PMID:25018833

  12. [Algorithm for the diagnosis of the vertebral artery compression syndrome based on sensitivity of ultrasound and angiographic methods].

    PubMed

    Sulik, V V

    2014-01-01

    The results of sensitivity analysis and ultrasonic techniques hagiographic 150 patients with vertebral artery syndrome caused by compression extravasal (ECVA) segment V(p), who underwent surgery on clinical. In assessing the sensitivity by a static cross-vertebral artery, vessel diameter, the condition of the lumen--Ultrasonic and hagiographic (SAG and MRA) techniques showed the same high sensitivity in the range 85-89% (P > 0.05), and according to such criteria as the dynamic permeability (89.2% vs. 34.2 and 45.5%), the value of ripple vascular (86.3% vs. 58 and 67%), the state of the perivascular tissue USDG figures were significantly higher than the data angiography (82.2% vs. 0 and 29%) (P < 0.05 for all tests). Comparative analysis of selective angiography, enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and ultrasound proposed method allowed us to determine their sensitivity. Thus, the sensitivity of selective angiography in extravasal vertebral artery compression is 57.1%, magnetic resonance angiography--88% and triplex ultrasound-- 91.3%. PMID:25286599

  13. The vertebral artery and the cervical pedicle: morphometric analysis of a critical neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Andre; Parikh, Karishma; Koller, Heiko; Zink, Walter; Tsiouris, A John; Steinberger, Jeremy; Härtl, Roger

    2010-07-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantify the anatomical relationship between the vertebral artery (VA), the cervical pedicle, and its surrounding structures, including the incidence of irregularities. Additionally, data delineating a "safe zone," and these data's application during instrumentation with transpedicular cervical screw fixation were considered. The anatomical proximity of the VA to the cervical pedicle prevents spine surgeons from preferring cervical pedicle screws (CPSs) over lateral mass screws at levels C3-6. Accurate placement of CPSs is often difficult to determine, because this definition can vary between 1 and 4 mm of lateral "noncritical" and "critical" pedicle breaches. No previous study in a western population has investigated the VA's proximity to the cervical pedicle, its percentage of occupancy in the transverse foramen (TF), and the incidence of irregular VA pathways. METHODS One hundred twenty-seven consecutive patients who underwent CT angiography of the neck were enrolled in this study. The measurements included the following: medial pedicle border to VA; lateral pedicle border to VA; pedicle diameter (PD); sagittal diameter of the VA; coronal diameter of the VA; sagittal diameter of the TF; and coronal diameter of the TF. The cross-sections of the VA and the TF were measured to determine the occupation ratio of the VA. In addition, a safe zone was defined based on all lateral pedicle border to VA measurements in which the VA was within the TF. The level of entry of the VA into the TF as well as irregularities of the VA and the cervical pedicles were recorded. RESULTS Vertebral artery dominance on the left side was seen in 69.3% of cases. The mean PD increased from 4.9 to 6.5 mm (from C-3 to C-7, respectively). Statistically significantly bigger PDs were seen in males. The mean PD at C-2 was 5.6 mm. Entry of the VA at C-6 was seen in approximately 80% of cases. The TF occupation ratio of the VA was found to be the greatest in C-4 and C-7 (37.1 and 74.2%, respectively). The safe zone increased from C-2 to C-6 (1.1 to 1.7 mm, respectively), but was only 0.65 mm at C-7. In 23.6% of cases, an irregular pathway of the VA or irregular anatomy of a cervical pedicle was seen, with the highest incidence of irregularities found at C-2. CONCLUSIONS Computed tomography angiography is a valuable tool that can help determine the relationships between cervical pedicles and the VA as well as irregular VA pathways. Pedicle diameter, safe zone, and occupational ratio of the VA in the foramen determine the risk associated with instrumentation and should be assessed individually. Based on the authors' measurements, C-4 and C-7 can be considered critical levels for CPS placement. Because of this and the high incidence of irregular VA pathways and different entry points, it may be helpful to review neck CT angiography studies before considering posterior instrumentation procedures in the cervical spine. PMID:20594018

  14. Long-term outcome of vertebral artery origin stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery origin (VAO) stenosis is occasionally observed in patients who have acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the long-term outcomes and clinical significance of VAO stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We performed a prospective observational study using a single stroke center registry to investigate the risk of recurrent stroke and vascular outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and VAO stenosis. To relate the clinical significance of VAO stenosis to the vascular territory of the index stroke, patients were classified into an asymptomatic VAO stenosis group and a symptomatic VAO stenosis group. Results Of the 774 patients who had acute ischemic stroke, 149 (19.3%) of them had more than 50% stenosis of the VAO. During 309 patient-years of follow-up (mean, 2.3 years), there were 7 ischemic strokes, 6 hemorrhagic strokes, and 2 unknown strokes. The annual event rates were 0.97% for posterior circulation ischemic stroke, 4.86% for all stroke, and 6.80% for the composite cardiovascular outcome. The annual event rate for ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation was significantly higher in patients who had symptomatic VAO stenosis than in patients who had asymptomatic stenosis (1.88% vs. 0%, p?=?0.046). In a multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio, per one point increase of the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS) for the composite cardiovascular outcome, was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.02-2.08, p?=?0.036). Conclusions Long-term outcomes of more than 50% stenosis of the VAO in patients with acute ischemic stroke were generally favorable. Additionally, ESRS was a predictor for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Asymptomatic VAO stenosis may not be a specific risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation. However, VAO stenosis may require more clinical attention as a potential source of recurrent stroke when VAO stenosis is observed in patients who have concurrent ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation. PMID:24215371

  15. Extracranial Segments of the Vertebral Artery: Insight in the Developmental Changes up to the 21st Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Ljiljana, Vasovi?; Ivan, Jovanovi?; Sla?ana, Ugrenovi?; Slobodan, Vlajkovi?; Predrag, Jovanovi?; Gordana, Dor?evi?

    2014-01-01

    The vertebral artery (VA) bilaterally arises usually from the subclavian artery and courses within the bony canals of cervical vertebrae, and then it reverses directions on the first vertebra before piercing the dura to enter the cranium.The aim was to follow (ab)normal developmental changes of extracranial VA from prenatal status to age 21. This chapter included a brief description of the arterial embryology and morphofunctional specificity of the VA in prevertebral, cervical, and atlantic parts, during prenatal and postnatal period.The authors concluded that the subclavian origin of the VA was in most of fetal and adult cases. The incidences of variable VA origins and domination of one of the VAs were different from one series of human specimens to the second one. Although in most of cases, anomalous origin and/or variable course of the extracranial VA had little or did not result in clinical symptoms in infants and young adults, the true value of their discovery is in the diagnostic gain before vascular surgery of supra-aortic arteries. PMID:24265044

  16. High prevalence of vertebral artery tortuosity of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in comparison with Marfan syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi K. Kono; Masahiro Higashi; Hiroko Morisaki; Takayuki Morisaki; Yoshiaki Tsutsumi; Koichi Akutsu; Hiroaki Naito; Kazuro Sugimura

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the transforming growth\\u000a factor-? receptor (TGFBR). LDS is associated with aneurysms or dissections of the aorta similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS) as\\u000a well as arterial tortuosity and aneurysms in the peripheral arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the arterial\\u000a diseases of LDS

  17. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:25657727

  18. Is cervical spine rotation, as used in the standard vertebrobasilar insufficiency test, associated with a measureable change in intracranial vertebral artery blood flow?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette Mitchell; David Keene; Craig Dyson; Lyndsay Harvey; Christopher Pruvey; Rita Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Cervical spine rotation is used by manual therapists as a premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) test to identify patients at risk of developing VBI post-manipulation. Investigations of the effect of rotation on vertebral artery blood flow have yielded conflicting results, the validity of the test being debated. It was the aim of this study, therefore, to investigate the effects of cervical

  19. Vertebral artery transposition for revascularization of the posterior circulation: a critical assessment of temporary and permanent complications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Kalani, M Yashar S; Cronk, Katherine; Zabramski, Joseph M; Russin, Jonathan J; Spetzler, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT Despite advances in medical management and endovascular therapies, including the introduction of statins, antiplatelet agents, and drug-eluting stents, some patients experience medically refractory vertebrobasilar insufficiency and may benefit from robust surgical revascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate such patients after surgical revascularization, emphasizing long-term outcomes and rates of complications. METHODS The authors retrospectively identified 22 patients (5 women and 17 men) whose mean age was 69.1 years (range 48-81 years) who underwent revascularization of the posterior circulation via a proximal vertebral artery-carotid artery transposition between 2005 and 2013. The patients' conditions before surgery were clinically summarized, and long-term outcomes and complication rates after surgery were evaluated. RESULTS All the patients were symptomatic before surgery although they received the best medical therapy as defined by their primary care physician. Presenting symptoms consisted of stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and/or findings attributable to posterior circulation hypoperfusion. There were no deaths associated with revascularization surgery. The postoperative complication rate was 45.5%, which included 3 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, 1 case of thoracic duct injury, 2 cases of TIA, and 4 cases of Horner's syndrome. The thoracic duct injury was identified intraoperatively and ligated without sequelae, all the TIAs resolved within 24 hours of surgery, all 4 sympathetic plexus injuries resolved, and all but 1 of the recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies resolved, resulting in a 4.5% complication rate in a mean follow-up period of 8.8 months. All the patients had resolution of their presenting symptoms, and a single patient had symptomatic restenosis that required stenting and angioplasty, resulting in a restenosis rate of 4.5%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the optimization of medical therapies and lifestyle modifications, a select subset of patients with posterior vascular circulation insufficiency remains. In the authors' experience, vertebral artery-carotid artery transposition provides a surgical option with relatively low long-term complication and restenosis rates that are comparable or lower than those reported with endovascular treatment. PMID:25397367

  20. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  1. Intraoperative Vertebral Artery Angiography to Guide C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation in a Patient with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Chul; Park, Ki Seok; Ha, Ho Gyun

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of an athetoid cerebral palsy with quadriparesis caused by kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, severe spinal stenosis at the cervicomedullary junction, and atlantoaxial instability. The patient improved after the first surgery, which included a C1 total laminectomy and C-arm guided righ side unilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. C1-2 fixation was not performed on the other side because of an aberrant and dominant vertebral artery (VA). Eight months after the first operation, the patient required revision surgery for persistent neck pain and screw malposition. We used intraoperative VA angiography with simultaneous fluoroscopy for precise image guidance during bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Intraoperative VA angiography allowed the accurate insertion of screws, and can therefore be used to avoid VA injury during C1-2 transarticular screw fixation in comorbid patients with atlantoaxial deformities. PMID:22639719

  2. Bilateral inverted vertebral arteries (V3 segment) in a case of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: Distinct entity or a lateral variant of persistent first intersegmental artery?

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K.; Ghuman, Mandeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs), commonly involving the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). Here we describe an unusual variant consisting of bilateral VAs with normal loops but passing below the C1 (inverted VA) arch, distinctly different from the FIA. Case Description: A 9-year-old boy presented with a spastic quadriparesis. Preoperative radiographic studies showed an irreducible AAD with an occipitalized CO-C1 and C2-3 fusion. Although both VAs exhibited proximal and distal loops like normal VA, the distal loops did not pass through the C1 transverse foramina and coursed inferior to the C1 arch instead. With this critical preoperative information, both VAs could be better safeguarded during dissection of the C1-2 facets. Conclusion: In the case presented, although the course of the inverted VAs is similar, the norm, they coursed inferior to both C1 arches. Careful evaluation of the preoperative radiological studies allowed for careful dissection of the inverted VA (horizontal loop) while opening the C1-2 joint for subsequent alignment (e.g. reduction) and bony fusion. This information also facilitates safer insertion of lateral mass screws (e.g. choosing the appropriate C1 screw length to gain adequate bony purchase without compromising anomalous VA). PMID:25024882

  3. First implantation of Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft in the right vertebral artery for cerebral debranching in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wipper, Sabine; Ahlbrecht, Oliver; Kölbel, Tito; Pflugradt, Axel; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Debus, E Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    A 53-year-old woman with Loeys-Dietz syndrome developed progressive subclavian artery aneurysm and common carotid artery dissection. She was treated successfully by plugging and coiling of the subclavian aneurysm and its side branches after combined cervical debranching using standard carotid-axillary bypass and Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft for vertebral revascularization. Follow-up control (4 weeks) documented patent debranching, and only minimal residual flow in the subclavian aneurysm. The described off-label use for sutureless cerebral revascularisation of the vertebral artery might be a fast, simple, and reliable solution for cervical debranching in selective challenging patients. Further studies are necessary to evaluate side effects and durability. PMID:24239520

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms: Follow up Angiographic and Clinical Results of Endovascular Treatment in Serial Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Gi Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report angiographic and clinical results of endovascular treatment in 45 intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs). Materials and Methods From July 2002 to September 2013, a total of 42 patients with 45 VADAs received endovascular treatment. Endovascular treatment consisted of internal trapping with detachable coils, stent-assisted coiling, and stenting only. Immediate and follow-up angiographic findings and clinical outcome were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were 17 ruptured VADAs and 28 unruptured VADAs. Overall, 26 VADAs were treated with internal trapping, 14 with stent-assisted coil embolization, and 5 with stenting only. Immediate angiographic results revealed complete occlusion in 31 cases and incomplete occlusion in 14 cases. Follow-up imaging studies were available in 31 cases. On follow-up imaging, antegrade recanalization occurred in 2 of 16 cases treated with internal trapping. Aneurysmal recurrence occurred in one case treated with stent-assisted coiling. Procedural complications occurred in 8 patients. In cases of unruptured VADA, favorable outcome (mRS 0 and 1) was achieved in 26 cases and poor outcome (mRS 2-5) in 2 cases. There was no mortality in patients with unruptured VADAs. Conclusion Endovascular treatment of intracranial VADA appears to be safe and effective. Follow-up angiographic study is needed because parent artery recanalization or aneurysmal recurrence can occur.

  5. Retreatment and Outcomes of Recurrent Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms after Stent Assisted Coiling: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Wang, Yang; Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yanmin; Mu, Shiqing; Yang, Xinjian

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The retreatment of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) after stent assisted coiling (SAC) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategies and outcomes for retreatment of recurrent VADAs after SAC. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2013, six consecutive patients presenting with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were enrolled in this study. They were all male with age ranging from 29 to 54 years (mean age, 46.2 years). The procedures of treatments and angiographic and clinical follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Retreatment modalities were selected individually according to the characteristics of recurrence. The outcomes of retreatment were evaluated by angiographic and clinical follow-up. Results Six patients with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were retreated, with second SAC in three patients, coil embolization, double overlapping stents placement and endovascular occlusion with aneurysm trapping in one patient, respectively. Immediate angiographic outcomes of retreatment were: complete occlusion in three patients, nearly complete occlusion in two patients, and contrast medium retention in dissecting aneurysm in one patient. All cases were technically successful. No complications related to endovascular procedures occurred. Angiographic follow-up was available in all five patients treated with second SAC or double overlapping stents, which was complete occlusion in four patients, obliteration of parent artery in one patient, showing no recurrence at 4–11 months (mean: 8.6 months). Clinical follow-up was performed in all six patients at 11–51 months after initial endovascular treatment and at 9–43 months after retreatment. The mRS of last clinical follow-up was excellent in five patients and mild disability in only one patient. Conclusions Endovascular retreatment is feasible and effective for recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC. Individualized strategies of retreatment should be enacted according to the characteristics and reasons for the recurrence. PMID:25393341

  6. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

  7. The baroreflex, or pressure reflex, is the primary mechanism in adult vertebrates for rapid regulation of arterial pressure

    E-print Network

    Altimiras, Jordi

    regulation of arterial pressure through changes in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Such a mechanism is important for buffering fluctuations in arterial pressure, to maintain tissue perfusion pressure and manipulation of arterial pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. The results demonstrated

  8. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara, E-mail: f_ferrara@virgilio.it; Francesco, Meli [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Angiology (Italy); Francesco, Raimondi [University Medical Hospital, University of Palermo, Associated Professor, Department of Angiology (Italy); Corrado, Amato [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Angiology (Italy); Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Giuseppina, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Salvatore, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Full Professor of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  9. Fatal outcome after brain stem infarction related to bilateral vertebral artery occlusion - case report of a detrimental complication of cervical spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after blunt cervical trauma occurs more frequently than historically believed. The symptoms due to vertebral artery (VA) occlusion usually manifest within the first 24 hours after trauma. Misdiagnosed VAI or delay in diagnosis has been reported to cause acute deterioration of previously conscious and neurologically intact patients. Case presentation A 67 year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) sustaining multiple injuries. Initial evaluation by the emergency medical response team revealed that he was alert, oriented, and neurologically intact. He was transferred to the local hospital where cervical spine computed tomography (CT) revealed several abnormalities. Distraction and subluxation was present at C5-C6 and a comminuted fracture of the left lateral mass of C6 with violation of the transverse foramen was noted. Unavailability of a spine specialist prompted the patient's transfer to an area medical center equipped with spine care capabilities. After arrival, the patient became unresponsive and neurological deficits were noted. His continued deterioration prompted yet another transfer to our Level 1 regional trauma center. A repeat cervical spine CT at our institution revealed significantly worsened subluxation at C5-C6. CT angiogram also revealed complete occlusion of bilateral VA. The following day, a repeat CT of the head revealed brain stem infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion. Shortly following, the patient was diagnosed with brain death and care was withdrawn. Conclusion Brain stem infarction secondary to bilateral VA occlusion following cervical spine trauma resulted in fatal outcome. Prompt imaging evaluation is necessary to assess for VAI in cervical trauma cases with facet joint subluxation/dislocation or transverse foramen fracture so that treatment is not delayed. Additionally, multiple transportation events are risk factors for worsening when unstable cervical injuries are present. Close attention to proper immobilization and neck position depending on the mechanism of injury is mandatory. PMID:21756312

  10. A clinical study on the effect of Yinxing Damo combined with Betahistine Hydrochloride Injection on vertebral basilar artery ischemic vertigo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng Yan; Zhu Hai-qing; Deng Guo-bao; Tan Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Yinxing Damo (YXDM) combined with Betahistine Hydrochloride Injection (BHI) on vertebra\\u000a basilar artery ischemic vertigo (VBIV).Methods: Ninety patients with VBIV were randomly divided into two groups; 45 patients (the treated group) were treated with YXDM\\u000a and BHI intravenous dripping, once a day for 14 days. Another 45 patients (control group) were treated with

  11. Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis. PMID:21697983

  12. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level 1 trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT Screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 3 and 4 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) remain controversial. These high-grade BCAIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs were identified. The authors define Grade 3 injuries as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50%, or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, imaging findings, number of images obtained per individual, length of radiographic follow-up examination, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up period, treatment(s), and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-three Grade 3 BCAIs in 44 patients and 5 Grade 4 BCAIs in 5 patients were identified and had available follow-up information. The mean follow-up duration for Grade 3 BCAIs was 113 days, and the mean follow-up for Grade 4 BCAIs was 78 days. Final imaging of Grade 3 BCAIs showed that 53% of cases were radiographically stable, 11% had resolved, and 11% were improved, whereas 25% had radiographically worsened. In terms of treatment, 75% of patients received aspirin (ASA) alone, 5% received various medications, and 2% received no treatment. Eighteen percent of the patients in the Grade 3 BCAI group underwent endovascular intervention, and in all of these cases, treatment with ASA was continued after the procedure. Final imaging of the Grade 4 BCAIs showed that 60% remained stable (with persistent occlusion), whereas the remaining arteries improved (with recanalization of the vessel). All patients in the Grade 4 BCAI follow-up group were treated with ASA, although in 1 patient treatment was transitioned to Coumadin. There were 3 cases of cerebral infarction that appeared to be related to Grade 3 BCAIs (7% of 44 patients in the Grade 3 group), and 1 case of stroke that appeared to be related to a Grade 4 BCAI. All identified cases of stroke developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS Although the posttraumatic cerebral infarction rate may be overestimated, the results of this study suggest that the Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs carry the highest stroke risk of the blunt cerebrovascular injuries, and those infarctions were identified on or shortly after hospital admission. Despite a 40% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 BCAI group and an 89% rate of persistent pseudoaneurysm in the Grade 3 BCAI group, follow-up imaging showed progressive worsening without radiographic improvement in only a small number of patients, and these findings alone did not correlate with adverse clinical outcome. Follow-up protocols may require amending; however, further prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes as they relate to management. PMID:25526279

  13. Vertebrate Taphonomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Goodwin

    In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

  14. Treatment of a Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm with a Balloon-Expandable Stent and Guglielmi Detachable Coils

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, T.; Kurisu, K.; Yano, T.; Sakoda, K.

    1999-01-01

    Summary A 43-year-old man with dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The vertebral angiography showed a fusiform dilatation at the right intracranial vertebral artery between the origin of posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the vertebral union. After failing conservative therapy, a balloon-expandable stent was placed at intracranial vertebral artery; in a manner such that the entire dissecting aneurysm was covered. On follow-up angiogram, we recognized regrowth of theresidual aneurysm and stent deformation. The parent artery was occluded completely with several Guglielmi detachable coils. Brainstem dysfunction or rebleeding of the aneurysm were not encountered. Recently stenting therapy was deployed for a patient with dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial carotid or vertebral artery who was not a candidate for surgical treatment. We discuss the feasibilities and limitations of stent therapy. PMID:20670508

  15. Hemifacial spasm caused by the cross-compression of the vertebral artery loop--a case-centered report of a stitched sling retraction technique.

    PubMed

    Swi?tnicki, W; Heleniak, M; Komu?ski, P

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is one of the neurovascular compression syndromes caused by the compression of the facial nerve outgoing from the brainstem by an artery, a vein or both. The treatment of choice of this disorder is a microvascular decompression (MVD). As initially described, MVD is a technique based on the application of the small prostheses that are placed between a cranial nerve and an imposing vessel. Neurovascular compression syndromes have relatively high rate of incidence. Therefore, many modifications of surgical technique have been described in order to minimize the risk of complications and increase the effectiveness and permanence of the vascular transposition as the success of the MVD most of all depends on the latter. The authors of this paper describe one of the aforementioned modifications that provides a complete and permanent vascular transposition together with its advantages and limitations in the treatment of the hemifacial spasm. Moreover, many aspects of different technical approaches are widely discussed and a case-centered stitched sling retraction technique is presented. PMID:25571674

  16. L1 burst fracture with associated vertebral angioma.

    PubMed

    Armaganian, G; Adetchessi, T; Pech-Gourg, G; Blondel, B; Dufour, H; Fuentes, S

    2013-04-01

    Vertebral angioma is a common bone tumor. We report a case of L1 vertebral angioma revealed by type A3.2 traumatic pathological fracture of the same vertebra. Management comprised emergency percutaneous osteosynthesis and, after stabilization of the multiple trauma, arterial embolization and percutaneous kyphoplasty. PMID:23453277

  17. Preoperative Percutaneous Injection of Methyl Methacrylate and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in Vertebral Hemangiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Cotten; Bernard Cortet; Jean-Paul Lejeune; Xavier Leclerc; Patrick Chastanet; Jacques Clarisse

    PURPOSE: To investigate the usefulness of preoperative percutaneous injections in vertebral hemangiomas. METHODS: Four patients presented with complicated vertebral hemangioma (spi- nal cord compression in three cases, intermittent spinal claudiction in one case). A three-part treatment was performed: initially, arterial embolization in three cases; 1 day later, percutaneous injections of methyl methacrylate into the vertebral body to strengthen it and

  18. Intradural vertebral endarterectomy with nonautologous patch angioplasty for refractory vertebrobasilar ischemia: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Uschold, Timothy; Abla, Adib A.; Wilson, David A.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: The natural history of patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms due to chronic bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease is progressive, and poses significant challenges when refractory to medical therapy. Surgical treatment options depend largely on location and characteristics of the atheroma (s), and generally include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement, posterior circulation revascularization (bypass), extracranial vertebral artery reconstruction, or vertebral artery endarterectomy. Case Description: We present the case of a 56-year-old male with progressive vertebrobasilar ischemia due to tandem lesions in the right vertebral artery at the origin and intracranially in the V4 segment. The contralateral vertebral artery was occluded to the level of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and posterior communicating arteries were absent. Following PTA and stent placement at the right vertebral artery origin, the patient was successfully treated with intradural vertebral artery endarterectomy (V4EA) and patch angioplasty via the far lateral approach. Distal endovascular intervention at the V4 segment proved not technically feasible after multiple attempts. Conclusions: V4EA is an uncommonly performed procedure, but may be considered for carefully selected patients. The authors’ techniques and indications are discussed. Historical outcomes, relevant anatomic considerations, and lessons learned are reviewed from the literature. PMID:25558424

  19. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  20. Selective arteriography as a means of studying major arteries in the cat

    E-print Network

    Smallwood, James Edgar Lee

    1972-01-01

    -tipped spring guide. Arteriograms were obtained for the common carotid, vertebral, axil'ary, right coronary, celiac, cranial mesenteri. c, phren coabdominal, renal, left ovarian, anc caudal mescnteric arteries. The animals were cathe- terized as terminal... Coronary Artery Celiac Artery Cranial Mesenteric Artery Phreniccabdominal Artery Renal Arteries Left Ovarian Artery Caudal Mesenteric Artery DISCUSSION REFERENCES VITA 18 21 22 23 25 31 32 35 36 39 48 LIST OF FIGURHS Figure Page Hook...

  1. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  2. Menopause causes vertebral endplate degeneration and decrease in nutrient diffusion to the intervertebral discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Xiang J. Wang; James F. Griffith

    2011-01-01

    The vasculature in the outer annulus supplies only the periphery of the disc so that nutrition to the bulk of the disc, including all the inner annulus and nucleus pulposus, is derived from the vertebral epiphyseal end arteries where nutrients diffuse across the cartilaginous endplate to reach the disc. In this regard the vertebral endplate plays an important role in

  3. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

  4. VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

  5. Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

  6. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  7. Detection of basilar artery dissection by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Evguenia; Getsov, Plamen; Vavrek, Evgenii; Daskalov, Marin

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with unusual headache 1 week before admission. After cerebrovascular ultrasound, a basilar artery dissection was supposed despite the normal neurologic, cerebrospinal fluid, and computed tomography findings. On a follow-up color-coded duplex sonography (1 month after the onset), reperfusion was detected in the vertebral and basilar arteries, but residual high-grade stenosis of the basilar artery was also present. PMID:25817628

  8. [Bites by terrestrial vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Henry, F; Martalo, O; Claessens, N; Piérard, G E

    2000-06-01

    Bites by terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles or mammals, represent a special risk in tropical regions. Envenomation is possible by a few lizards and many snakes. For mammals, tissular destructions due to the bite can be severe. Whatever is the offending animal, bites can further become infected by transmitted viruses or bacteria. PMID:10992781

  9. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    ; ID Quiz 11 FEB Fish III 14 FEB Life on Land I 19 Feb Amphibians 18 FEB Life on Land II 21 FEB Review 26 Feb Amphibians 25 FEB EXAM 1, overview thru life on land 28 FEB Vertebrate Sounds 4 MARCH Amphibians I 5 Mar Amphibians; ID Quiz 7 MARCH Amphibians II 11 MARCH Turtles and Crocodiles 12 March Lizards

  10. Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis Clarissa L. Waites,1 Ann Marie Craig,2 and Craig C. Garner1 system is a complex process that occurs over a protracted period of devel- opment. Recent work has begun of these molecules act at a distance, steering axons to their correct receptive fields and promoting neu- ronal

  11. Transient Cortical Blindness Following Vertebral Angiography: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony KT

    2015-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented.

  12. Blood flow distribution in cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Zarrinkoob, Laleh; Ambarki, Khalid; Wåhlin, Anders; Birgander, Richard; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can now assess flow in proximal and distal cerebral arteries. The aim of this study was to describe how total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) is distributed into the vascular tree with regard to age, sex and anatomic variations. Forty-nine healthy young (mean 25 years) and 45 elderly (mean 71 years) individuals were included. Blood flow rate (BFR) in 21 intra- and extracerebral arteries was measured. Total cerebral blood flow was defined as BFR in the internal carotid plus vertebral arteries and mean cerebral perfusion as tCBF/brain volume. Carotid/vertebral distribution was 72%/28% and was not related to age, sex, or brain volume. Total cerebral blood flow (717±123?mL/min) was distributed to each side as follows: middle cerebral artery (MCA), 21%; distal MCA, 6%; anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 12%, distal ACA, 4%; ophthalmic artery, 2%; posterior cerebral artery (PCA), 8%; and 20% to basilar artery. Deviating distributions were observed in subjects with 'fetal' PCA. Blood flow rate in cerebral arteries decreased with increasing age (P<0.05) but not in extracerebral arteries. Mean cerebral perfusion was higher in women (women: 61±8; men: 55±6?mL/min/100?mL, P<0.001). The study describes a new method to outline the flow profile of the cerebral vascular tree, including reference values, and should be used for grading the collateral flow system. PMID:25564234

  13. Kugel's Artery

    PubMed Central

    Nerantzis, Christos E.; Marianou, Soultana K.; Koulouris, Spyridon N.; Agapitos, Emmanouil B.; Papaioannou, John A.; Vlahos, Lampros J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we tried to resolve the confusion in the literature regarding the existence and course of Kugel's artery. With the aid of a new technique, we studied 100 human hearts ex vivo by radiography and by direct observation through dissection, to demonstrate anatomical and postmortem angiographic findings of Kugel's artery. Kugel's artery was found in only 6 hearts out of 100 (6%). It originated from the proximal left circumflex artery and ended in the right coronary artery in 2 cases; from the right coronary artery and ended in the same artery in 2 cases; from the left circumflex artery and ended in the same artery in 1 case; and from the right coronary artery through the sinus node artery, ending in the left circumflex artery, in 1 case. In all 100 hearts, an anastomotic network of small atrial branches was found in the same area (lower portion of the interatrial septum), connecting the large vessels indirectly. Branches of the sinus node artery in all hearts, and of the atrioventricular node artery in 66 hearts, participated in this network. Our procedure showed the detailed course of Kugel's artery and its course independent from the atrioventricular node artery and from the anastomotic network. In conclusion, in all cases an anastomotic network of small atrial branches courses through the lower interatrial septum and connects indirectly the proximal and distal ends of the larger coronary arteries. Kugel's artery provides an additional direct arterial anastomosis in the same area in 6% of the hearts. PMID:15562847

  14. Arterial stick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteris. Abnormal results may point to ...

  15. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Pourquié

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose

  16. Non-vertebrate melatonin.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2003-05-01

    Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

  17. Functional similarities in the mechanical design of the aorta in lower vertebrates and mammals.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C A; Shadwick, R E

    1989-12-01

    The mechanical properties of the aorta from the toad Bufo marinus, the lizard Gekko gecko and the garter snake Thamnophis radix were compared to those of the rat, by inflation of vessel segments in vitro. The arteries of the lower vertebrates, like those of mammals, were compliant, highly resilient, and non-linearly elastic. The elastic modulus of the artery wall was similar in the lower vertebrates and mammals, at their respective mean physiological pressures. We conclude that the aorta in each of these animals is suitably designed to function effectively as an elastic pulse smoothing component in the circulation; differences in the pressure wave transmission characteristics of lower vertebrates and mammals do not result from dissimilarities in arterial elastic properties, but from substantial differences in heart rate of these two groups. PMID:2513219

  18. Aging changes in vertebral morphometry.

    PubMed

    Diacinti, D; Acca, M; D'Erasmo, E; Tomei, E; Mazzuoli, G F

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39-74 years. Vertebral heights and the anterior height/posterior height ratio are significantly lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Vertebral anterior height decreases about 1.5 mm/year, whereas middle and posterior height decreases about 1.3 and 1.2/mm year, respectively. A statistically significant reduction of vertebral heights by around 1 mm/vertebra was observed in postmenopausal (n = 16) compared with premenopausal women (n = 20) of the same age (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that vertebral heights are lower with advancing age and menopause and that the vertebral heights difference in elderly people is not only the consequence of a cohort effect. The results also contribute to better defining the reference population to be chosen for evaluating vertebral deformation. PMID:8581874

  19. Arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan; Petrovova, Eva; Luptakova, Lenka; Radonak, Jozef; Schusterová, Ingrid

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in rabbit because it has been used widely to examine the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. The study was carried out on 20 adult New Zealand White rabbits. We prepared corrosion casts of the arterial system of the cervical spinal cord. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as a casting medium. The origin of the ventral spinal artery from the right vertebral artery was found on average in 40 % of cases. The origin from the left vertebral artery was found on average in 35 % of cases. The ventral spinal artery raised from the anastomosis of two ventral spinal arteries on average in 25 % of cases. The presence of spinal arteries entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 46.2 % of cases on the right side and in 53.8 % of cases on the left side. On the dorsal surface we found two irregular dorsal spinal arteries receiving dorsal branches of spinal arteries or they were absent. Until the cervical spinal cord arterial arrangement in species of laboratory animals is described in detail, it will be very difficult to determine the appropriate species for experiments in this field. Variations in arterial arrangement can produce biased or erroneous results in studies. PMID:22689147

  20. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  1. Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries.

    PubMed

    Uz, Aysun

    2007-02-01

    The anatomy of the thalamoperforating arteries located in the interpeduncular fossa must be well understood by surgeons to enable safe surgical treatment of basilar and posterior cerebral artery aneurysms. Therefore, we studied 30 posterior cerebral arteries obtained from 15 fresh adult cadaver brains. By filling the vertebral and internal carotid arteries of the brains with coloured latex, we found thalamoperforating arteries in 97% of the brains studied. The average number of arteries was two (range 0-5). Thalamoperforating arteries were classified into four different types according to their origin at the P1 segment: type I (bilateral multiple), 20%; type II (unilateral multiple, unilateral single), 33%; type III (bilateral single), 40%; type IV (one side multiple, the other side with no branches), 7%. In conclusion, it is important to bear in mind that these arteries can be the unilateral single type, and that they may be absent on the other side. Unilateral single arteries are very significant for surgical technique. PMID:17113294

  2. Cervical artery dissection—clinicalfeatures, risk factors, therapy and outcome in 126patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Dziewas; Carsten Konrad; Bianca Dräger; Stefan Evers; Michael Besselmann; Peter Lüdemann; Gregor Kuhlenbäumer; Florian Stögbauer; E. Bernd Ringelstein

    2003-01-01

    The highly variable clinical course of cervical artery dissections still poses a major challenge to the treating physician. This study was conducted (1) to describe the differences in clinical and angiographic presentation of patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissections (CAD, VAD), (2) to define the circumstances that are related to bilateral arterial dissections, and (3) to determine factors that

  3. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a clot. Emboli means there is more than one clot or piece of plaque. When the clot travels ... embolism. An arterial embolism may be caused by one or more clots. The clots can get stuck in an artery ...

  4. Cement Embolization of a Segmental Artery after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: a Potentially Catastrophic Vascular Complication

    PubMed Central

    Matouk, C.C.; Krings, T.; Ter Brugge, K.G.; Smith, R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Serious complications related to percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are rare and most often result from local cement leakage or venous embolization. We describe an adult patient who underwent multi-level, thoracic percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures for painful osteoporotic compression fractures. The patient’s percutaneous vertebroplasty performed at the T9 level was complicated by the asymptomatic, direct embolization of the right T9 segmental artery with penetration of cement into the radicular artery beneath the pedicle. We review the literature regarding the unusual occurrence of direct arterial cement embolization during vertebral augmentation procedures, discuss possible pathomechanisms, and alert clinicians to this potentially catastrophic vascular complication. PMID:22958778

  5. Arterial Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed. PMID:23508642

  6. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  7. Primary vertebral osteosarcoma: five cases.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Guillaume; Renaud, Armelle; Rocourt, Nathalie; Cortet, Bernard; Ceugnart, Luc; Cotten, Anne

    2013-10-01

    Primary vertebral osteosarcoma is a rare type of osteosarcoma, differing from the appendicular forms by an incidence peak occurring at a higher age and a poorer prognosis, due to the difficulties of the surgical treatment. We present five cases of histologically proven primary vertebral osteosarcomas followed in our institution between 2004 and 2012. They allow to illustrate some essential radiologic features, useful to evoke this rare entity. PMID:23746785

  8. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  9. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  10. In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates, crustaceans and cephalopod

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates is an exquisite mechanical one that seems to be common to all circulatory systems examined so far: distensible is a profoundly important determinant of blood flow dynamics in any circulatory system. Arteries must have non

  11. Age-related changes in vertebral height ratios and vertebral fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sone; T. Tomomitsu; M. Miyake; N. Takeda; M. Fukunaga

    1997-01-01

    Because no gold standard for the definition of vertebral fracture exists, there has been controversy about whether mild vertebral deformities are truly fractures or simply normal variation in vertebral size and shape. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of mild variations of vertebral height ratios to definite vertebral fractures. In 479 Japanese women (age 53.9±9.1 years)

  12. Pediatric traumatic carotid, vertebral and cerebral artery dissections: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin M. Mortazavi; Ketan Verma; R. Shane Tubbs; Mark Harrigan

    Traumatic cerebral dissections are rare but potentially dangerous conditions that through improved diagnostics have recently\\u000a gained increased interest. However, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the natural history, as well as on the\\u000a best treatment options. Most of the literature on this topic consists of case reports and retrospective studies with no prospective\\u000a randomized controlled studies. In

  13. Vertebral Artery Injuries Following Chiropractic Cervical Spine Manipulation —Case Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Raskind; Charles M. North

    1990-01-01

    Four patients undergoing cervical spinal manipulations for nonneurologic diseases and with no previous neurologic signs or symptoms all developed significant neurologic deficits, one fatal, following manipulations of the cervical spine. Both the literature and the authors' series show that a number of patients have a prodrome prior to the onset of neurologic changes. There is no established therapy for the

  14. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

  15. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  16. Arterial calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Arterial calcifications as found with various imaging techniques, like plain X-ray, computed tomography or ultrasound are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of arterial calcification increases with age and is stimulated by several common cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, the clinical importance of arterial calcification and the currently known proteins involved are discussed. Arterial calcification is the result of a complex interplay between stimulating (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 [BMP-2], RANKL) and inhibitory (matrix Gla protein, BMP-7, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, osteopontin) proteins. Vascular calcification is especially prevalent and related to adverse outcome in patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We address the special circumstances and mechanisms in these patient groups. Treatment and prevention of arterial calcification is possible by the use of specific drugs. However, it remains to be proven that reduction of vascular calcification in itself leads to a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:20716128

  17. Occlusion of internal carotid artery and formation of anterior communicating artery aneurysm in cervicocephalic fibromuscular dysplasia--follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Itoyama, Y; Fujioka, S; Takaki, S; Morioka, M; Hide, T; Ushio, Y

    1994-08-01

    A 44-year-old female with cervicocephalic-fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage 10 years after presenting with left impaired extraocular movement. Carotid and vertebral angiography had shown string-of-beads sign in the left external carotid artery and fusiform aneurysms in the left carotid cavernous portion and in the left vertebral artery. On admission, the left carotid angiogram showed complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the right carotid angiogram showed a new anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The territory of the left middle cerebral artery was supplied from the right internal carotid artery via the anterior communicating artery and from the basilar artery via the posterior communicating artery. Occlusion of the main arteries is rare in the clinical course of FMD. We suggest that hemodynamic stress due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery contributed to formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, possibly associated with intrinsic changes of the arterial wall induced by FMD. PMID:7526242

  18. Ectodermal Patterning in Vertebrate Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Sasai; Eddy M. De Robertis

    1997-01-01

    Recent molecular insights on how the ectodermal layer is patterned in vertebrates are reviewed. Studies on the induction of the central nervous system (CNS) by Spemann's Organizer led to the isolation of noggin and chordin. These secretory proteins function by binding to, and inhibiting, ventral BMPs, in particular BMP-4. Neural induction can be considered as the dorsalization of ectoderm, in

  19. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  20. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

  1. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

  2. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts Roberto Brenes1 *, Matthew J. Gray2 ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla

  3. Direct cervical arterial access for intracranial endovascular treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Blanc; M. Piotin; C. Mounayer; L. Spelle; J. Moret

    2006-01-01

    Introduction  Tortuous vasculature is a cause of failure of endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular lesions. We report our experience of direct cervical accesses in patients in whom the arterial femoral route was not attainable.Methods  In this retrospective study, 42 direct punctures of the carotid or the vertebral arteries at the neck were performed in 38 patients. The vessel harboring the intracranial lesion

  4. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE BRAIN BASE ARTERIES IN CAPYBARA (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sueli Hoff Reckziegel; Tânia Lindemann; Rui Campos

    Thirty specimens of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were injected with neoprene latex in order to study the distribu- tion of vessels which compose the vertebro-basilar system and its derived branches in the encephalon. The right and left vertebral arteries anastomosed on the ventral surface of the encephalon to form the basilar artery, which gave rise to the caudal cerebellar (left and right,

  5. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  6. Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail. PMID:22623120

  7. Severe hyperthermia caused by four-vessel occlusion of main cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Konaka, Kuni; Miyashita, Kotaro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a comatose patient with acute large infarction of posterior cerebral and cerebellar areas and severe hyperthermia (max. 40.4 degrees C). Angiography demonstrated four-vessel occlusion of the main cerebral arteries, suggesting the possibility that both internal carotid and left vertebral arteries were already occluded and he became unconscious following additional occlusion of the right vertebral artery. Autopsy findings revealed bilateral ischemic damage of the hypothalamus in addition to the above infarct areas. Sudden ischemic involvement of both hypothalamic regions may have caused the extremely high fever in this case. PMID:20009408

  8. The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Fr?ckowiak, Hieronim; Kie?tyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. PMID:24106047

  9. May 2012 Arterial

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    May 2012 Arterial Transitway Corridors Study: Results and Conclusions about Arterial Bus Rapid Transit #12;Arterial Transitway Corridors Study of "Arterial BRT" concept from Met Council TPP ­ Concept/feasibility study led by Metro

  10. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows how P.A.D. can ... artery. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup that's partially blocking blood flow. The inset image ...

  11. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to the brain. The carotid artery brings needed ... these arteries on each side of your neck. Blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally ...

  12. Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdo?an

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

  13. Noncontiguous lumbar vertebral hemangiomas treated by posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Wu, Desheng; Shen, Bin; Zhao, Weidong; Huang, Yufeng; Zhu, Jianguang; Qi, Dongduo

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions and are often asymptomatic. Most vertebral hemangiomas that cause cord compression and neurological symptoms are located in the thoracic spine and involve a single vertebra. The authors report the rare case of lumbar hemangiomas in a 60-year-old woman presenting with severe back pain and rapidly progressive neurological signs attributable to 2 noncontiguous lesions. After embolization of the feeding arteries, no improvement was noted. Thus, the authors performed open surgery using a combination of posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation. The patient experienced relief from back and leg pain immediately after surgery. At 3 months postoperatively, her symptoms and neurological deficits had improved completely. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of 2 noncontiguous extensive lumbar hemangiomas presenting with neurological symptoms managed by such combined treatment. The combined management seems to be an effective method for treating symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. PMID:24236666

  14. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to better monitor blood pressure and/or blood gases. ? Blood clots— If blood clots form on the tips of arterial catheters, the clots can block blood flow. If another blood vessel does not carry blood to the area beyond the clot, this can cause the loss ...

  15. Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3?years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

  16. Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates. PMID:23277534

  17. Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Duprez

    \\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift

  18. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods. PMID:23334417

  19. VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS R.D.M. PAGE, J.A. COTTON Division-mail: r.page@bio.gla.ac.uk Ancient gene duplication events have left many traces in vertebrate genomes. Rec- onciled trees represent the differences between gene family trees and the species phylogeny those

  20. Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Minor Keith

    A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

  1. Vertebral hemangioma presenting with intermittent claudication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yazici; O. L. Iyigun; B. Gulman; C. Rakunt; O. Cizmeli

    1996-01-01

    The case of a patient with vertebral hemangioma and unusual clinical presentation is reported, with an attempt to explain these unusual clinical complaints. Vertebral hemangioma is a common and often asymptomatic tumor. Neurologic symptoms may appear due to pressure on the neural tissue caused by extraosseous extension. The patient reported here presented with intermittent claudication. Conventional radiography CT, and MRI

  2. [Complex therapy of patients with vertebral radiculopathies].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, V M

    2009-01-01

    The author determined efficiency of application of no-steroid anti-inflammatory medication, Revmoxicam as well as phonophoresis with Khondrasil ointment in the complex therapy of patients with vertebral radiculopaties. The use of the proposed complex treatment enables the regression of neurological symptoms and allows improving considerably results of the treatment of patients with vertebral radiculopaties. PMID:20455450

  3. Life of a Vertebrate Fossil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

  4. Are Spinal or Paraspinal Anatomic Markers Helpful for Vertebral Numbering and Diagnosing Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae?

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Kilic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Materials and Methods Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. Results The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. Conclusion The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels. PMID:24644411

  5. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory B; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin H; O'Brien, Mary Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and growing awareness of this has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly, which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiological beaking, or spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid's bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  6. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  7. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  8. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affected artery or arteries for moderate-to-severe cases that are not candidates for surgery. Medicine to ... Most cases of peripheral artery disease of the legs can be controlled without surgery. Although surgery provides good symptom ...

  9. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, if ...

  10. Vertebral body innervation: Implications for pain.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Michelangelo; Aloisi, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Massimo; Gatti, Anna Maria; Bonezzi, Cesare

    2010-03-01

    Vertebral fractures often cause intractable pain. To define the involvement of vertebral body innervation in pain, we collected specimens from male and female patients during percutaneous kyphoplasty, a procedure used for reconstruction of the vertebral body. Specimens were taken from 31 patients (9 men and 22 women) suffering high-intensity pain before surgery. In total, 1,876 histological preparations were obtained and analysed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to locate the nerves in the specimens. The nerve fibres were labelled by indirect immunofluorescence with the primary antibody directed against Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a pan-neuronal marker; another primary antibody directed against type IV collagen (Col IV) was used to identify vessels and to determine their relationship with vertebral nerve fibres. The mean percentage of samples in which it was possible to identify nerve fibres was 35% in men and 29% in women. The percentages varied depending on the spinal level considered and the sex of the subject, nerve fibres being mostly present around vessels (95%). In conclusion, there is scarce innervation of the vertebral bodies, with a clear prevalence of fibres located around vessels. It seems unlikely that this pattern of vertebral body innervation is involved in vertebral pain or in pain relief following kyphoplasty. PMID:20020509

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; iliac artery-angioplasty; fermoral artery-angioplasty; popliteal artery-angioplasty; tibial artery-angioplasty; peroneal artery- ...

  12. Brain base arteries: pattern and variation in the European otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, W

    2012-10-01

    The pattern and variation of the brain base arteries were investigated in 30 specimens of European otter. It was found that the vascular pattern in this species is similar to the vascular pattern found in other Carnivora. A very well-developed basilar artery, which was formed as a result of the anastomosis of equally well-developed vertebral arteries and the ventral spinal artery, was demonstrated to be characteristic of the species. Most of the variation in the pattern of origin concerned the origin of the middle cerebral arteries and labyrinthine arteries. In a single individual, a double middle cerebral artery was observed. Overall, the specimens demonstrated a clear regularity in the pattern of vessels in the base of the brain and a small range of variation. PMID:22414248

  13. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

  14. Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  15. Other non-vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Non-vertebral non-hip (NVNH) fractures account for 90% of all fractures in patients up to 80 years of age and for 59% thereafter. There is a significant relationship between reductions in peripheral bone mineral density and the risk of fractures at various NVNH sites except for the face. Fractures of the clavicle, upper arm, forearm, spine, ribs, hip, pelvis, upper leg and lower leg elevate the risk of future fractures. Among NVNH fractures in women aged 80 years or over, forearm fractures have the highest incidence, and proximal humerus fractures have the second highest incidence. There is a large variation in incidence across geographical regions, with incidence higher in Northern Europe and lower in Asia and Africa. NVNH fractures are associated with higher mortality and significantly higher health-care costs than controls with osteoporosis. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with major NVNH fractures are of a similar magnitude as reductions for women with incident hip fractures; however, forearm fractures do not significantly affect HRQOL. Therapeutic options for NVNH fractures differ by fracture location. The recent development of implants for internal fixation made it a more popular choice for treating distal radius and proximal humerus fractures; however, treatment decisions should take into account patient age, activity levels, co-morbidities and injury characteristics. The recent increase in the number of patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures is drastic, although they can generally be treated non-surgically with pain management and mobilisation. PMID:24836332

  16. Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

  17. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  18. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  19. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  20. Painless vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sohatee, Mark Andrew; Shields, David William

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis or discitis is a condition characterised by inflammation to the vertebral disc space and is often related to infection. It usually involves the discovertebral junction, and may extend to the epidural space, posterior vertebral elements and paraspinal tissues. This is an unusual case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented to hospital confused and unwell with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Clinical examination and routine investigations revealed no obvious source of infection. Despite thorough examination of his spine, no back pain or focal neurology were elicited, but with no obvious source of infection MRI of the spine was carried out which revealed a vertebral osteomyelitis with paravertebral abscess formation. PMID:23505083

  1. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  2. VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS

    E-print Network

    Lowe, Winsor H.

    VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS Contents Amphibians Birds Fish, Characteristics Fish, Populations Fish, Productivity Fish, Systematics and Evolution Mammals Reptiles Amphibians W. Introduction The basic physiology of all amphibians makes these organisms dependent on sources of freshwater

  3. [Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with epidural block].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Esper, R; Cruz-Bautista, I

    2001-01-01

    Infectious complications after epidural anesthesia are infrequent and the most common are epidural and subdural abscess. We report one rare case of vertebral osteomyelitus associated with an epidural catheter and review the literature. PMID:11381807

  4. Sleep and orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Although a precise definition of "sleep" has yet to be established, sleep-like behaviors have been observed in all animals studied to date including mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of many physiological functions, including feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular control, as well as the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. To date, the knowledge on the functions of orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates is still limited, but the similarity of the structures of orexins and their receptors among vertebrates suggest that they have similar conserved physiological functions. This review describes our current knowledge on sleep in nonmammalian vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and the possible role of orexins in the regulation of their energy homeostasis and arousal states. PMID:22640621

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Cherie

    2015-01-01

    A healthy spine is an integral part of an individual's overall well-being. The spinal column's essential role in physiological and neurological function can be compromised when disease or trauma causes a vertebra to compress under the body's weight, producing a vertebral compression fracture. This is a common ailment among adults older than 65 years of age, especially for those with low bone mass or osteoporosis. This article describes vertebral compression fractures, with a special emphasis on medical imaging. PMID:25739109

  6. Modular Evolution of PGC1? in Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe M. R. LeMoineStephen; Stephen C. Lougheed; Christopher D. Moyes

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a central regulator of mitochondrial\\u000a gene expression, acting in concert with nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the PPARs. Its role as a “master regulator”\\u000a of oxidative capacity is clear in mammals, but its role in other vertebrates is ambiguous. In lower vertebrates, although\\u000a PGC-1? seems to play a role

  7. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  8. Cilia in vertebrate development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction. PMID:22223675

  9. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  10. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  11. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

  12. Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

    1998-01-01

    We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

  13. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... away from the heart to the head and brain. Located on each side of the neck, these arteries can easily be felt pulsating by ... arteries, are located along the back of the neck adjacent to the spine, and supply blood to the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease ...

  15. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your limbs, especially your legs. Just like clogged arteries in the heart, clogged

  16. Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

  17. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  18. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  19. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  20. Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

  1. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  2. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  3. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  4. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

    2015-03-30

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

  5. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  6. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you. What is carotid artery stenosis? Carotid artery stenosis is the narrowing of the arteries that run along each side of the neck. These arteries provide blood flow to the brain. Over time, plaque (a fatty, ...

  7. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shcha123@naver.com; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Seung [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Woo [KonKuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  8. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  9. Wnt Signaling in Vertebrate Axis Specification

    PubMed Central

    Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

  10. Benign vertebral hemangioma: MR-histological correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Baudrez; Christine Galant; Bruno C. Vande Berg

    2001-01-01

    .?\\u000a Objective:   To explain the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of benign vertebral hemangioma by correlating MR and histological findings\\u000a from autopsy specimens. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design:   Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in 83 spine specimens. Focal lesions consistent with vertebral\\u000a hemangioma at macroscopic examination of sagittal anatomical sections were sampled for histological and quantitative analysis.\\u000a At histology, the proportion of

  11. Severe aortic and arterial aneurysms associated with a TGFBR2 mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A LeMaire; Hariyadarshi Pannu; Van Tran-Fadulu; Stacey A Carter; Joseph S Coselli; Dianna M Milewicz

    2007-01-01

    Background A 24-year-old man presented with previously diagnosed Marfan's syndrome. Since the age of 9 years, he had undergone eight cardiovascular procedures to treat rapidly progressive aneurysms, dissection and tortuous vascular disease involving the aortic root and arch, the thoracoabdominal aorta, and brachiocephalic, vertebral, internal thoracic and superior mesenteric arteries. Throughout this extensive series of cardiovascular surgical repairs, he recovered

  12. Arterial blood sample (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rather than a vein is to measure blood gases. Because arterial blood is oxygenated blood flowing directly from the heart, analysis of arterial blood can determine the chemistry of the blood before it is used by ...

  13. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the artery that is blocked. After moving skin and tissue out of the way, the surgeron will place clamps at each end of the blocked section of artery. The graft is then sewn in place. The surgeon will ...

  14. Coronary Artery Anomalies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... terms: CAA, anomalous coronary artery (ACA), sudden cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death A coronary artery anomaly (CAA) ... exercise Sudden cardiac death (also called sudden cardiac arrest) is the most dangerous symptom of a CAA. ...

  15. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , ... procedures. Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel ...

  16. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

  17. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  18. Transit & Arterial Performance

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

  19. Extracardiac coronary arterial anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Chen, Justin; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    The collateral arterial circulation of the heart has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been paid to extracardiac anastomoses, which may also be of significant clinical importance. In this review, we will describe the most common types of these anastomoses, which include bronchial to coronary arteries and internal thoracic to coronary arteries. In a much lesser degree, anastomoses between coronary arteries and pericardiacophrenic branches of the internal thoracic arteries, anterior mediastinal arteries, intercostal arteries, and esophageal arterial branches have also been described. Knowledge of the likely morphology and function of the anastomoses, therefore, could prove helpful in the clinical evaluation of patients with myocardial ischemia, particularly when selecting candidates for myocardial revascularization. PMID:21322035

  20. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wang, Hao-Kwan; Syu, Fei-Kai; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation. Methods We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure) and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses. Results The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36), advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08), diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88), cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76), dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33), blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95), hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47), and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22). Patients taking calcium/vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93), bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61), or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77) were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08), acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41) were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation. Conclusion We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations.

  1. Percutaneous ethanol embolization and cement augmentation of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas at two adjacent vertebral levels.

    PubMed

    Cianfoni, Alessandro; Massari, Francesco; Dani, Genta; Lena, Jonathan R; Rumboldt, Zoran; Vandergrift, William A; Bonaldi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    This report describes a case of successful percutaneous direct-puncture ethanol embolization, followed by vertebroplasty, of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma (VH) involving two adjacent thoracic vertebral levels. In this case, the 78-year-old male patient presented with a 6-month history of progressive paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a T8-T9 VH with an extensive epidural component. Follow-up demonstrated epidural component shrinkage with complete regression of symptoms at 3 months. This case suggests that exclusive percutaneous treatment may be considered for symptomatic VH even when two adjacent vertebral levels are affected. PMID:23419714

  2. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) One in every 20 Americans over the age of 50 has P.A.D., a condition that raises the risk for heart attack and stroke. Peripheral arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your legs. Just

  3. The development of the vertebrate inner ear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

    1998-01-01

    The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

  4. Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

  5. Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 considered fundamental, and it pervades all discussions of animal biology. With the recognition of incomplete taxonomic sampling. Evolutionary jumps, fossils and extinction A fundamental problem

  6. Hematogenous candida vertebral osteomyelitis treated with ketoconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. C. Dijkmans; P. J. van den Broek; J. W. M. van der Meer; M. I. Koolen; R. P. Mouton; T. H. M. Falke

    1982-01-01

    Summary Candida vertebral osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematodes following X-ray evidence of osteomyelitis and the repeated culturing ofCandida albicans from material obtained by needle biopsies from the third lumbar vertebra. The patient had been on glucocorticosteroids and parenteral nutrition six months previously. At that time, a yeast was cultured from the blood and the tip

  7. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  8. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  9. REVIEW Ectodermal Patterning in Vertebrate Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Sasai; Eddy M. De Robertis

    Recent molecular insights on how the ectodermal layer is patterned in vertebrates are reviewed. Studies on the induction of the central nervous system (CNS) by Spemann's Organizer led to the isolation of noggin and chordin. These secretory proteins function by binding to, and inhibiting, ventral BMPs, in particular BMP-4. Neural induction can be considered as the dorsalization of ectoderm, in

  10. Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongcheol Kim; Maira Carrillo; Vrinda Kulkarni; Pudur Jagadeeswaran; Bruce Riley

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins

  11. Why can't vertebrates synthesize trehalose?

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is a singular molecule, which has been strictly conserved throughout evolution in prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), lower eukaryotes, plants, and invertebrates, but is absent in vertebrates and-more specifically-in mammals. There are notable differences regarding the pivotal roles played by trehalose among distantly related organisms as well as in the specific metabolic pathways of trehalose biosynthesis and/or hydrolysis, and the regulatory mechanisms that control trehalose expression genes and enzymatic activities. The success of trehalose compared with that of other structurally related molecules is attributed to its exclusive set of physical properties, which account for its physiological roles and have also promoted important biotechnological applications. However, an intriguing question still remains: why are vertebrates in general, and mammals in particular, unable (or have lost the capacity) to synthesize trehalose? The search for annotated genomes of vertebrates reveals the absence of any functional trehalose synthase gene. Indeed, this is also true for the human genome, which contains, however, two genes encoding for isoforms of the hydrolytic activity (trehalase). Although we still lack a convincing answer, this striking difference might reflect the divergent evolutionary lineages followed by invertebrates and vertebrates. Alternatively, some clinical data point to trehalose as a toxic molecule when stored inside the human body. PMID:25230776

  12. Reproductive modes and strategies in vertebrate evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Angelini; Gianfranco Ghiara

    1984-01-01

    Vertebrate reproductive modes, which are characterized by egg and development type, have been compared and, in some cases, re-defined. Reproductive strategies regulate reproductive effort. Reproductive modes and strategies have been selected in species history: more anciently and with more conservative characters the former; more recently and with some flexibility in response to environmental changes the latter.Semelparity is the expression of

  13. Ancestral vertebrate complexity of the opioid system.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina; Sundström, Görel

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the opioid peptides and nociceptin/orphanin as well as their receptors has been difficult to resolve due to variable evolutionary rates. By combining sequence comparisons with information on the chromosomal locations of the genes, we have deduced the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate predecessor had one opioid precursor gene and one receptor gene. The two genome doublings before the vertebrate radiation resulted in three peptide precursor genes whereupon a fourth copy arose by a local gene duplication. These four precursors diverged to become the prepropeptides for endorphin (POMC), enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin, respectively. The ancestral receptor gene was quadrupled in the genome doublings leading to delta, kappa, and mu and the nociceptin/orphanin receptor. This scenario is corroborated by new data presented here for coelacanth and spotted gar, representing two basal branches in the vertebrate tree. A third genome doubling in the ancestor of teleost fishes generated additional gene copies. These results show that the opioid system was quite complex already in the first vertebrates and that it has more components in teleost fishes than in mammals. From an evolutionary point of view, nociceptin and its receptor can be considered full-fledged members of the opioid system. PMID:25677769

  14. MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM ARIZONA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY S. MORGAN; RICHARD S. WHITE

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the Miocene and Pliocene vertebrates of Arizona, spanning the time period from about 2 to 20 Ma. The best known Miocene faunas are Wellton and Anderson Mine from the late Arikareean or Hemingfordian North American land-mammal \\

  15. HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

    Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

  16. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

    2012-04-01

    Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs. PMID:22443133

  17. Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis Gibert et al. Gibert et) #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate Background: The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), used for manufacturing polycarbonate

  18. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  19. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  20. Stenosis of the cervical vertebral canal in a yearling ram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AC Palmer; WR Kelly; PS Ryde

    1981-01-01

    Stenosis of the cervical vertebral canal in a 10 1\\/2-month-old Suffolk ram is described. The vertebral canal was narrowed in a dorsoventral direction at the anterior and posterior ends of the cervical vertebral C3 and C4, at the posterior end of C2 and the anterior end of C5. The body of C3 was wedge-shaped in a longitudinal plane. The vertebral

  1. Risk factors for vertebral fractures in renal osteodystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosei Atsumi; Kazuhiro Kushida; Kaoru Yamazaki; Satoshi Shimizu; Akihiro Ohmura; Tetsuo Inoue

    1999-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of vertebral fractures in hemodialysis (HD) patients, investigated whether low bone mineral density (BMD) is predictive of vertebral fracture, and evaluated the effect of serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on vertebral fracture. One hundred eighty-seven male HD patients were assessed for vertebral fractures, and lumbar-spine and total-body BMD were measured by

  2. The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  3. Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

    2007-01-01

    In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

  4. The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  5. Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

  6. Hemoglobin function in the vertebrates: An evolutionary model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Coates

    1975-01-01

    Summary Comparative data on quaternary structure, cooperativity, Bohr effect and regulation by organic phosphates are reviewed for vertebrate hemoglobins. A phylogeny of hemoglobin function in the vertebrates is deduced. It is proposed that from the monomeric hemoglobin of the common ancestor of vertebrates, a deoxy dimer, as seen in the lamprey, could have originated with a single amino acid substitution.

  7. Adenosine does not save the heart of anoxia-tolerant vertebrates during prolonged oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Despite adenosine being regarded as an important signaling molecule capable of coordinating ATP supply and demand during periods of oxygen deprivation in anoxia-intolerant mammals, the importance of adenosinergic cardiovascular control in anoxia-tolerant vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we report on adenosinergic cardiovascular control during normoxia and prolonged (hours to days) oxygen deprivation for three vertebrate species tolerant of severe hypoxia/anoxia, the closely related common (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian (Carassius carassius) carp, and the freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). Using an intra-arterial injection of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline while measuring cardiac output (Q), heart rate (f(H)) and arterial blood pressure, we establish that adenosinergic cardiovascular control is unimportant during prolonged anoxia in the freshwater turtle (6 h at 21 degrees C and 14 d at 5 degrees C) and the crucian carp (5 d at 8 degrees C). In contrast, adenosinergic control contributes to the down-regulation of cardiac activity exhibited by 5 degrees C-acclimated common carp during a 12.5 h severe hypoxia (<0.3 mg O2 l(-1)) exposure. Specifically, aminophylline injection resulted in significant increases in f(H) and Q, and a decrease in total peripheral resistance. These species-specific differences in adenosinergic cardiovascular control during prolonged periods of oxygen deprivation may be related to differences displayed by these three species in their anoxia tolerance and survival strategies. PMID:17433747

  8. Distinct Notch signaling outputs pattern the developing arterial system.

    PubMed

    Quillien, Aurelie; Moore, John C; Shin, Masahiro; Siekmann, Arndt F; Smith, Tom; Pan, Luyuan; Moens, Cecilia B; Parsons, Michael J; Lawson, Nathan D

    2014-04-01

    Differentiation of arteries and veins is essential for the development of a functional circulatory system. In vertebrate embryos, genetic manipulation of Notch signaling has demonstrated the importance of this pathway in driving artery endothelial cell differentiation. However, when and where Notch activation occurs to affect endothelial cell fate is less clear. Using transgenic zebrafish bearing a Notch-responsive reporter, we demonstrate that Notch is activated in endothelial progenitors during vasculogenesis prior to blood vessel morphogenesis and is maintained in arterial endothelial cells throughout larval stages. Furthermore, we find that endothelial progenitors in which Notch is activated are committed to a dorsal aorta fate. Interestingly, some arterial endothelial cells subsequently downregulate Notch signaling and then contribute to veins during vascular remodeling. Lineage analysis, together with perturbation of both Notch receptor and ligand function, further suggests several distinct developmental windows in which Notch signaling acts to promote artery commitment and maintenance. Together, these findings demonstrate that Notch acts in distinct contexts to initiate and maintain artery identity during embryogenesis. PMID:24598161

  9. Distinct Notch signaling outputs pattern the developing arterial system

    PubMed Central

    Quillien, Aurelie; Moore, John C.; Shin, Masahiro; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Smith, Tom; Pan, Luyuan; Moens, Cecilia B.; Parsons, Michael J.; Lawson, Nathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of arteries and veins is essential for the development of a functional circulatory system. In vertebrate embryos, genetic manipulation of Notch signaling has demonstrated the importance of this pathway in driving artery endothelial cell differentiation. However, when and where Notch activation occurs to affect endothelial cell fate is less clear. Using transgenic zebrafish bearing a Notch-responsive reporter, we demonstrate that Notch is activated in endothelial progenitors during vasculogenesis prior to blood vessel morphogenesis and is maintained in arterial endothelial cells throughout larval stages. Furthermore, we find that endothelial progenitors in which Notch is activated are committed to a dorsal aorta fate. Interestingly, some arterial endothelial cells subsequently downregulate Notch signaling and then contribute to veins during vascular remodeling. Lineage analysis, together with perturbation of both Notch receptor and ligand function, further suggests several distinct developmental windows in which Notch signaling acts to promote artery commitment and maintenance. Together, these findings demonstrate that Notch acts in distinct contexts to initiate and maintain artery identity during embryogenesis. PMID:24598161

  10. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

  11. Endovascular treatment of basilar artery stenosis due to cerebral vasculopathy related to neurofibromatosis (NF1)

    PubMed Central

    Alurkar, Anand; Prasanna Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha; Oak, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrovascular lesions are uncommon in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Case Description We report a case of 34-year-old man with NF1 who developed posterior circulation stroke. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed acute infarcts in the right vertebra basilar artery territory. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated significant stenosis of the basilar artery in the mid segment that was identified as the etiology of the symptoms. The vertebral arteries were tortuous and the basilar artery was ectatic. Subsequently endeavour resolute stent was placed across the lesion and post-procedure angiogram showed resolution of stenosis. Conclusion Selective stenotic involvement of the basilar artery with ectatic vertebrobasilar circulation associated with NF1, which was successfully treated with endovascular method, was not been reported previously to our knowledge. PMID:24920981

  12. Radiographic evaluation of vertebral fractures in osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kenji; Kamimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Shigeharu

    2007-02-01

    Vertebral fractures, are a serious clinical problem for elderly osteoporotic patients, have been increasingly recognized and are now common. On the assumption that it is difficult to diagnose osteoporotic vertebral fractures on plain radiographs, we studied 78 consecutive patients aged over 50 years with severe back pain with or without minor trauma. All patients had been admitted to our department and had undergone radiographic examinations including plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. Surprisingly, 74 of the patients (94.9%) with severe back pain had vertebral fractures. Low intensity on T1-weighted MRI indicated that the severe back pain was a symptom of vertebral fracture. The patients were divided into two groups: those with total, and those with partial T1-weighted hypointensity of the vertebral body on MRI. Thirty-five of the vertebral fractures (47.3%) were not detectable on plain radiographs, and patients without trauma showed vertebral deformity more frequently than those with trauma. The patients were treated conservatively with bed rest until the severe back pain had subsided, after which they were evaluated clinically. The average period of bed rest was 22.3 days, which did not differ significantly in relation to the occurrence of trauma, the extent of the signal change in the vertebral body on MRI or the presence of vertebral deformity. Even without vertebral deformity or trauma, vertebral fractures required long periods of bed rest for pain relief and entailed serious clinical problems. PMID:17161286

  13. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  14. Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2007-01-01

    The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

  15. Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

  16. The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Wilming; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Howe; S. Trevanion; Tim J. P. Hubbard; J. L. Harrow

    2008-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20

  17. Vertebrate use of muskrat lodges and burrows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Kiviat

    1978-01-01

    The literature is reviewed and analysis made of references to more than 60 vertebrates that use lodges or bank burrows built\\u000a by the muskrat,Ondatra zibethicus L. Muskrat homes are important to turtles, waterfowl, terns, carnivores, rodents, and other species for shelter, nesting,\\u000a getting above the water, or seeking food. No use is obligate but the availability of muskrat homes may

  18. Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

    2011-12-01

    Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

  19. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  20. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-28

    Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 182n - 6 to produce 183n - 6 that is elongated to 203n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 183n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 225n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 225n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

  1. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

  2. Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Flammer

    In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

  3. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  4. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma related to pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murvet Yuksel; K. Zafer Yuksel; Deniz Tuncel; Beyazit Zencirci; Sevgi Bakaris

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report a case of vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy in a 21-year-old woman presenting with paraparesis\\u000a of rapid onset. An emergency MRI scan of the dorsal spine showed a lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra with extradural extension\\u000a and marked spinal cord compression. A cesarean section was done, and this was followed by emergent laminectomy. Her symptoms

  5. New vascular system in reptiles: anatomy and postural hemodynamics of the vertebral venous plexus in snakes.

    PubMed

    Zippel, K C; Lillywhite, H B; Mladinich, C R

    2001-11-01

    Using corrosion casting, we demonstrate and describe a new vascular system--the vertebral venous plexus--in eight snake species representing three families. The plexus consists of a network of spinal veins coursing within and around the vertebral column and was previously documented only in mammals. The spinal veins of snakes originate anteriorly from the posterior cerebral veins and form a lozenge-shaped plexus that extends to the tip of the tail. Numerous anastomoses connect the plexus with the caval and portal veins along the length of the vertebral column. We also reveal a posture-induced differential flow between the plexus and the jugular veins in two snake species with arboreal proclivities. When these snakes are horizontal, the jugulars are observed fluoroscopically to be the primary route for cephalic drainage and the plexus is inactive. However, head-up tilting induces partial jugular collapse and shunting of cephalic efflux into the plexus. This postural discrepancy is caused by structural differences in the two venous systems. The compliant jugular veins are incapable of sustaining the negative intraluminal pressures induced by upright posture. The plexus, however, with the structural support of the surrounding bone, remains patent and provides a low-pressure route for venous return. Interactions with the cerebrospinal fluid both allow and enhance the role of the plexus, driving perfusion and compensating for a posture-induced drop in arterial pressure. The vertebral venous plexus is thus an important and overlooked element in the maintenance of cerebral blood supply in climbing snakes and other upright animals. PMID:11746458

  6. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  7. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  8. Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

  9. Primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Bomin; Zhang, Xiuhe; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ni, Lujia; Yang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of dyspnoea and radiating upper-right quadrant pain and oedema in her lower extremities for more than 20 days. The ultrasonographic study of the heart revealed the adherence of a substantive hypoechoic mass (73 x 34 mm) to the antelateral wall of the pulmonary artery and resultant pulmonary stenosis. Computed tomographic imaging of the pulmonary artery revealed an irregularly shaped filling defect (approximately 41 x 39 x 59 mm) in the main pulmonary artery. The boundary of the defect was irregular, but demarcation with healthy tissue was clear. After surgical treatment, the histologic and immunohistochemical assays revealed a primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma. Pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcomas are usually misdiagnosed as other pulmonary artery obstructive diseases. There should be a greater focus of clinical attention and resection is the appropriate surgical treatment for such malignant tumours. PMID:21744714

  10. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePLUS

    About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

  11. Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity >?4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ??21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age

  12. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Safian

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  The clinical diagnosis of renal artery stenosis relies on a high index of suspicion and confirmation by noninvasive imaging\\u000a modalities. There are three distinct clinical syndromes associated with renal artery stenosis: renin-dependent hypertension,\\u000a essential hypertension, and ischemic nephropathy. Clinical features that should heighten suspicion for renal artery stenosis\\u000a include abrupt-onset or accelerated hypertension at any age, unexplained acute or

  13. Bipolar supernumerary renal artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abolhassan B. Shakeri; R. Shane Tubbs; Mohammadali M. Shoja; Parham Pezeshk; Ramin M. Farahani; Amir A. Khaki; Fatemeh Ezzati; Farshad Seyednejad

    2007-01-01

    The variations of renal arteries are considered critical issues that surgeons should have thorough envision and appreciation\\u000a of the condition. Variations of these vessels may influences urological, renal transplantation and laparoscopic surgeries.\\u000a We present a case of bilateral accessory renal artery with a striking pre-hilar branching pattern encountered upon digital\\u000a subtraction angiography (DSA) for imaging of the renal arteries of

  14. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Amer, Syed; Rahman, Ambreen; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy. PMID:23653867

  15. Arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

  16. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  17. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  18. Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Retbi; A. Casasoprana; J. C. Gabilan; M. Dehan; J. Rosenstein-Retbi

    1978-01-01

    An infant with idiopathic arterial calcification is presented. The disease was diagnosed during the life of the patient as an aortogram demonstrated a stenosis of the left coronary artery and complete occlusion of the right coronary artery.

  19. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    PubMed

    Muto, M; Marcia, S; Guarnieri, G; Pereira, V

    2014-04-13

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications. PMID:24801264

  20. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  1. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  2. Splenic artery aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor F. Trastek; Peter C. Pairolero; Philip E. Bernatz

    1985-01-01

    The cause of splenic artery aneurysms and the indications for their treatment remain controversial. Splenic artery aneurysms occur more frequently in women and are associated with pregnancy and multiparity. Whether arteriosclerosis is the cause of the aneurysm or is a secondary phenomenon is unknown. Patients not treated do well, especially if the aneurysm is less than 2 cm in diameter.

  3. Genetics in Arterial Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature. PMID:21852556

  4. BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Ku

    1997-01-01

    Bloodflow in arteries is dominated by unsteadyflow phenomena. The cardiovas- cular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley num- ber, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. Thearteriesarelivingorgansthatcanadapttoandchangewiththevaryinghemo- dynamic conditions. In

  5. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    PubMed

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

  6. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  7. A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

  8. Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms; including frog, fish, chick, and mouse; have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models. PMID:19575677

  9. The vertebral fracture cascade in osteoporosis: a review of aetiopathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Briggs; A. M. Greig; J. D. Wark

    2007-01-01

    Once an initial vertebral fracture is sustained, the risk of subsequent vertebral fracture increases significantly. This phenomenon\\u000a has been termed the “vertebral fracture cascade”. Mechanisms underlying this fracture cascade are inadequately understood,\\u000a creating uncertainty in the clinical environment regarding prevention of further fractures. The cascade cannot be explained\\u000a by low bone mass alone, suggesting that factors independent of this parameter

  10. The prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan Soo Shin; Min Joo Kim; Sang Mi Shim; Jin Taek Kim; Sung Hoon Yu; Bo Kyung Koo; Hwa Young Cho; Hyung Jin Choi; Sun Wook Cho; Sang Wan Kim; Seong Yeon Kim; Seung-O Yang; Nam H. Cho

    We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in Korea. In a community-based prospective epidemiology\\u000a study, 1,155 men and 1,529 women (mean age 59 years, range 43–74) were recruited from Ansung, a rural Korean community. Prevalent\\u000a vertebral fractures were identified on the lateral spinal radiographs at T11 to L4 using vertebral morphometry. Bone mineral\\u000a density (BMD) was measured at

  11. Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

  12. Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems

    E-print Network

    Choma, Michael A.

    The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

  13. Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

    2002-01-01

    Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

  14. Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

  15. Trans-arterial Onyx Embolization of a Functional Thoracic Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Quesada, Tatiana; Maud, Alberto; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Torabi, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Akle, Nassim; Cruz Flores, Salvador; Trier, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumors of the endocrine system. They are highly vascular and in some cases hormonally active, making their management challenging. Although there is strong evidence of the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization in the management of spinal tumors, only five cases have been reported in the setting of thoracic paragangliomas. We present the case of a 19-year-old man with a large, primary, functional, malignant paraganglioma of the thoracic spine causing a vertebral fracture and spinal cord compression. To our knowledge this is the first report of preoperative trans-arterial balloon augmented Onyx embolization of a thoracic paraganglioma. PMID:25763296

  16. Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

  17. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

  18. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  19. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  20. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution. PMID:22537233

  1. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement.

    PubMed

    Dar, Showkat Hussain; Wazir, Hardeep Singh; Dar, Ishrat Hussain; Singh, Jang Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade) of the spine (primary), which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement. PMID:24125988

  2. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  3. Incremental markings of enamel in ectothermal vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Line, S R

    2000-05-01

    The deposition of enamel is marked by the formation of growth lines, which reflect incremental growth. Although periodic markings have been observed in enamel of non-mammalian vertebrates, the cross-striation interval and the pattern of enamel deposition have not been formally investigated. Here a structural study was made of the enamel in four non-mammalian vertebrates, with emphasis on periodic markings. Teeth from Rana catesbeiana, Tropidurus torquatus, Caiman crocodilus and a Canadian carnosaur were analysed. Enamel of T. torquatus and R. castebeiana was aprismatic; that of C. crocodilus and the carnosaur was formed by large, prism-like structures. Conspicuous incremental lines were observed in the enamel of the three living species, which presented a cross-striation repeat smaller than the prism cross-striations of mammalian enamel. Incremental lines of carnosaur enamel had a mean repeat interval similar to that of mammalian prism cross-striations. As metabolic activity in ectotherms is influenced by environmental conditions, the analysis of incremental markings of enamel is a potentially valuable source of information in the study of living and fossil reptiles and amphibians. PMID:10739857

  4. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

    2014-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. PMID:24103665

  5. Endovascular Stenting under Cardiac and Cerebral Protection for Subclavian Steal after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Due to Right Subclavian Artery Origin Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal (CSS) can occur after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the internal thoracic artery (ITA). Subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the ITA graft causes CSS. We describe a technique for cardiac and cerebral protection during endovascular stenting for CSS due to right SA origin stenosis after CABG. A 64-year-old man with a history of CABG using the right ITA presented with exertional right arm claudication. Angiogram showed a CSS and retrograde blood flow in the right vertebral artery (VA) due to severe stenosis of the right SA origin. Endovascular treatment of the right SA stenosis was planned. For cardiac and cerebral protection, distal balloon protection by inflating a 5.2-F occlusion balloon catheter in the SA proximal to the origin of the right VA and ITA through the right brachial artery approach and distal filter protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) through the left femoral artery (FA) approach were performed. Endovascular stenting for SA stenosis from the right FA approach was performed under cardiac and cerebral protection by filter-protection of the ICA and balloon-protection of the VA and ITA. Successful treatment of SA severe stenosis was achieved with no complications. PMID:25874182

  6. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology. PMID:20372942

  7. Genetic determinants of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Engler, Mary B; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2015-02-01

    Stiffness of large arteries (called arteriosclerosis) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although previous studies have shown that arterial stiffness is moderately heritable, genetic factors contributing to arterial stiffness are largely unknown. In this paper, we reviewed the available literature on genetic variants that are potentially related to arterial stiffness. Most variants have shown mixed depictions of their association with arterial stiffness across multiple studies. Various methods to measure arterial stiffness at different arterial sites can contribute to these inconsistent results. In addition, studies in patient populations with hypertension or atherosclerosis may overestimate the impact of genetic variants on arterial stiffness. Future studies are recommended to standardize current measures of arterial stiffness in different age groups. Studies conducted in normal healthy subjects may also provide better opportunities to find novel genetic variants of arterial stiffness. PMID:25472935

  8. Devastating Ischemic Stroke Following Selective Arterial Embolization of a Large Chest Wall Aneurysmal Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Andrew L; Teagarden, Alicia M; Abu-Sultaneh, Samer; Lutfi, Riad

    2014-09-12

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign bone lesions found in children and young adults. Rarely, these lesions can arise from ribs, and there is disagreement on the best treatment because of proximity to vital structures. Frequently, surgeons remove ABC with en bloc resection. Selective arterial embolization has been used as an adjunct to surgery, or rarely as the primary treatment. We report a case of embolic stroke complicating embolization of a rib ABC, likely from the presence of collateral circulation between the mass and vertebral artery. Caution should be taken when performing embolization of lesions in this location because of potential complications. PMID:25222058

  9. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

  10. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  12. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability. PMID:25661070

  13. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  14. Conservative management of a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the artery of cervical enlargement-anterior spinal artery junction.

    PubMed

    Boeris, Davide; Mortimer, Alex; Sakthithasan, Mathuri; Evins, Alexander Ian; Sandeman, David; Renowden, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man suffered severe sudden onset head and neck pain after being pushed from behind during an assault. Physical examination was normal. Cervical MRI demonstrated an intradural hematoma, anterior to the cord, between C2-4. Subsequent contrast enhanced MR angiography and digital subtraction vertebral angiography confirmed that the cause of the hemorrhage was a fusiform (presumed dissecting) pseudoaneurysm of the artery of the cervical enlargement at its junction with the anterior spinal artery. The aneurysm was managed conservatively. Follow-up angiography demonstrated that the aneurysm had spontaneously thrombosed within 10?days and remained occluded at 2?months. The patient remained occluded at 6 months following the initial injury. Anterior spinal aneurysms represent a management dilemma and options are discussed. PMID:25809436

  15. Median artery revisited

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; VÁZQUEZ, T.; NEARN, L.; LOGAN, B.; PARKIN, I.

    1999-01-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type, which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3?1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4?1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1?1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6?1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5?1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2?1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

  16. Median artery revisited.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vázquez, T; Nearn, L; Logan, B; Parkin, I

    1999-07-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3:1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4:1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1:1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6:1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5:1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2:1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

  17. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  18. Biomechanics of vertebral compression fractures and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Local biomechanical factors in the etiology of vertebral compression fractures are reviewed. The vertebral body is particularly vulnerable to compression fracture when its bone mineral density (BMD) falls with age. However, the risk of fracture, and the type of fracture produced, does not depend simply on BMD. Equally important is the state of degeneration of the adjacent intervertebral discs, which largely determines how compressive forces are distributed over the vertebral body. Disc height also influences load-sharing between the vertebral body and neural arch, and hence by Wolff's Law can influence regional variations in trabecular density within the vertebral body. Vertebral deformity is not entirely attributable to trauma: it can result from the gradual accumulation of fatigue damage, and can progress by a quasi-continuous process of "creep". Cement injection techniques such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are valuable in the treatment of these fractures. Both techniques can stiffen a fractured vertebral body, and kyphoplasty may contribute towards restoring its height. The presence of cement can limit endplate deformation, and thereby partially reverse the adverse changes in load-sharing which follow vertebral fracture. Cement also reduces time-dependent "creep" deformation of damaged vertebrae. PMID:21805360

  19. Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms Bradley Cooke, Carol D the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role

  20. ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

  1. DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger Candidates for Focal Species Status Only species presumed to have established populations in the basin

  2. Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Nigel Finn; Jelena Kolarevic; Heidi Kongshaug; Frank Nilsen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg) gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental), cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic) and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic). Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent

  3. The risk and burden of vertebral fractures in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Kanis; O. Johnell; A. Oden; F. Borgstrom; N. Zethraeus; C. De Laet; B. Jonsson

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk and burden of vertebral fractures judged as those coming to clinical attention and as morphometric fractures. Incidence and utility loss were computed from data from Malmo, Sweden. Clinical fractures accounted for 23% of all vertebral deformities in women and for 42% in men. The average 10-year fracture probability for morphometric

  4. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  5. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

  6. Extraretinal Photoreception and Circadian Systems in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Yoshikawa; Tadashi Oishi

    1998-01-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates have been known to have photoreceptors in their pineal complex and deep brain as well as the retina. The extraretinal photoreceptors are believed to be essential for seasonal reproduction and regulation of circadian physiology. In this review, we discuss the relation between extraretinal photoreceptors and circadian systems in some species of nonmammalian vertebrates in terms of the pineal

  7. Checklist and Centres of Vertebrate Diversity in Mozambique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Schneider; Victorino A. Buramuge; Luís Aliasse; Filipa Serfontein

    SUMMARY A checklist of vertebrates of Mozambique was elaborated by means of revision of monographic and web-based resources. During interviews of native speakers m ade in various parts of Mozambique, vernacular names of vertebrates in the 20 most important languages were assessed and included in the checklist as well as their common names in Portuguese and English. Additional information such

  8. Evaluation of adverse health outcomes associated with vertebral fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Ross; B. Ettinger; J. W. Davis; L. J. Melton III; R. D. Wasnich

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the frequency or degree to which vertebral fractures cause pain and physical disability. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the advantages of risk analysis over other statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis) for quantifying relationships between vertebral fractures and outcomes such as pain and disability. Subjects who volunteered to participate in studies of osteoporosis were

  9. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

  10. [A digital radiology method for assessing vertebral osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Diacinti, D; Acca, M; Tomei, E

    1996-01-01

    The radiologic identification of vertebral fractures is usually subjective and reproducibility is poor. This paper describes a new digital radiologic method to perform vertebral morphometry, i.e. osteoradiometry (ORM). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained in 50 premenopausal women and digitalized by means of a video camera. A special computer software enables to calculate the anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), and posterior (Hp) heights of vertebral bodies (T4-L5) and the morphometric indices of vertebral fractures. ORM reproducibility was assessed by comparing repeated measurements made by two radiologists: the intra- and interobserver variation coefficients (CV) were respectively 1.5% and 2.3% for Hp; 1.3% and 2% for Hm; 1.4% and 2.1% for Ha. The normal range for vertebral dimensions was therefore established. The anterior and posterior heights increased from T4 to L2, but for L3-L5 the posterior height was lower than the anterior height (Ha/Hp > 1). Vertebral heights positively correlated with the standing heights of the subjects (r = 0.2, p < 0.05). Weight and the body mass index (BMI) were not correlated with vertebral heights. These normal values, compared with those found in osteoporosis patients, will allow to assess ORM diagnostic efficacy in identifying vertebral fractures. PMID:8614716

  11. Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

    2011-01-01

    Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

  12. Acute spinal cord compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary R. Templin; Jeffrey B. Stambough; Jeffery L. Stambough

    2004-01-01

    Background contextThe reported incidence of vertebral hemangioma within the spinal column is common. Most often these benign vascular tumors are incidental radiographic findings and do not cause neurological sequelae. Rarely, vertebral hemangiomas will cause compressive neurological symptoms, such as radiculopathy, myelopathy and paralysis. In these cases the clinical presentation is usually the subacute or delayed onset of progressive neurological symptoms.

  13. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  14. Peripheral ophthalmic artery aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Qiao; Handong Wang; Lei Mao; Suihua Chen; Wei Xie; Qi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Generally speaking, the term “ophthalmic aneurysms” refers to carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, which arise from the internal\\u000a carotid artery (ICA) wall at or around the origin of the ophthalmic artery (OA). In contrast, aneurysms arising from the OA\\u000a stem or its branches, separate from the ICA are called peripheral OA aneurysms (POAAs). POAAs are a rare entity, which clinical\\u000a features and natural

  15. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ashurst; C.-K. Chen; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Jekosch; S. Keenan; Patrick Meidl; Stephen M. J. Searle; Jim Stalker; R. Storey; S. Trevanion; L. G. Wilming; Tim J. P. Hubbard

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Vertebrate,Genome,Annotation,(Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was,first made,public in 2004 and,has,been,designed,to view,manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences,produced,at the Wellcome,Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human,annotated,loci has,more,than,doubled,to close,to 33000 and,now,contains,comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole,mouse,chromosomes,and,around,40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we,offer manual,annotation,of a number,of haplo- type,regions,in mouse,and,human,and,regions,of

  16. The epigenome in early vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovi?, Ozren; van Heeringen, Simon J.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic regulation defines the commitment and potential of cells, including the limitations in their competence to respond to inducing signals. This review discusses the developmental origins of chromatin state in Xenopus and other vertebrate species and provides an overview of its use in genome annotation. In most metazoans the embryonic genome is transcriptionally quiescent after fertilization. This involves nucleosome-dense chromatin, repressors and a temporal deficiency in the transcription machinery. Active histone modifications such as H3K4me3 appear in pluripotent blastula embryos, whereas repressive marks such as H3K27me3 show a major increase in enrichment during late blastula and gastrula stages. The H3K27me3 modification set by Polycomb restricts ectopic lineage-specific gene expression. Pluripotent chromatin in Xenopus embryos is relatively unconstrained, whereas the pluripotent cell lineage in mammalian embryos harbors a more enforced type of pluripotent chromatin. PMID:22139962

  17. High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wählby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

  18. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  19. Vertebrate thymus and the neurotrophin system.

    PubMed

    Vega, José A; García-Suárez, Olivia; Germanà, Antonino

    2004-01-01

    An immunomodulary role has been proposed for growth factors included in the family of neurotrophins. This is supported by the presence of both neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in the immune organs and some immunocompetent cells, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the neurotrophins on the immune cells, and the structural changes of lymphoid organs in mice deficient in neurotrophins and their receptors. The current data strongly indicate that neurotrophins regulate the biology of thymic stromal cells and T cells, including survival, and are involved in the thymic organogenesis. This review compiles the available data about the occurrence and distribution of neurotrophins and their signaling receptors (Trk proteins and p75(NTR)) in the vertebrate thymus and the possible contribution of these molecules to the thymic microenvironment and, therefore, to the T cells differentiation. PMID:15380668

  20. Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

  1. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes. PMID:24533544

  2. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  3. Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carrillo, Maira; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates. PMID:20037653

  4. Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

    2012-02-14

    The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation. PMID:22308397

  5. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is "typical" (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an "atypical" appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots ("aggressive" VHs). These "atypical" and "aggressive" VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. PMID:25348558

  6. Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury following Severe Head or Cervical Spine Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Rommel; Andreas Niedeggen; Martin Tegenthoff; Paul Kiwitt; Uwe Bötel; Jean-Pierre Malin

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the frequency of neck vessel injuries, Doppler investigations were performed in 60 patients following either severe head injury (n = 29), cervical spine injury (n = 26), or combined head and cervical spine injury (n = 5). The majority of patients were referred to our hospital for early rehabilitation; before admission Doppler investigations had been performed

  7. The gain and loss of genes during 600 million years of vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    -scale duplication events (whole genome duplications): > 1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates and fishes > 3R): >> 1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates and fishes1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates

  8. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  9. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(2):220-228, June 1991 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(2):220-228, June 1991 © 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology CT SCANNING AND COMPUTERIZED RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE INNER EAR OF MULTITUBERCULATE MAMMALS ZHEXI-lawo- rowska et aI., 1986; Hahn, 1988; Miao, 1988; LUD, 1989) all lacked quantitative measurements ofthe ves

  10. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Girondot, Marc

    458 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458­461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE BONE PROFILER: A TOOL TO QUANTIFY, MODEL, AND STATISTICALLY COMPARE BONE-SECTION COMPACTNESS microstructure is very complex, and few ob- jective, quantitative methods (other than very simple ones

  11. Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Van Veen, John Edward

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

  12. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  13. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  14. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karaka?l?, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karc?, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, ?enol

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

  15. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution. PMID:23746908

  16. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  17. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  18. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: t-matsu@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ikeda, Jun [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Emergency (Japan); Nagata, Akihiro [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  19. USE OF CERVICAL VERTEBRAL DIMENSIONS FOR ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. Material and Methods: The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old) who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3) method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. Results: The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age and between bone age and chronological age. However no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (p<0.05). Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that the method for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed. PMID:19089119

  20. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  1. The spinal curvature irregularity index independently identifies vertebral fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maalouf; N. M. Maalouf; N. Schaaf; R. M. Zebaze; A. Nehme; Z. Tannous; J. Wehbe; G. Adib; M.-H. Gannagé-Yared; E. Seeman

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  The spinal curvature irregularity index (SCII) is a quantitative measure of the irregularity of the spinal curvature. We evaluated\\u000a the predictive ability of SCII to identify subjects with vertebral fractures (VF).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Vertebral heights were measured by quantitative vertebral morphometry in 461 Lebanese women 20–89 years of age and VFs were\\u000a ascertained by the grade 1 Eastell method. SCII scores

  2. Evolution of vertebrates as viewed from the crest.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen A; Simoes-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E

    2015-04-23

    The origin of vertebrates was accompanied by the advent of a novel cell type: the neural crest. Emerging from the central nervous system, these cells migrate to diverse locations and differentiate into numerous derivatives. By coupling morphological and gene regulatory information from vertebrates and other chordates, we describe how addition of the neural-crest-specification program may have enabled cells at the neural plate border to acquire multipotency and migratory ability. Analysis of the topology of the neural crest gene regulatory network can serve as a useful template for understanding vertebrate evolution, including elaboration of neural crest derivatives. PMID:25903629

  3. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery on each side of your neck. The blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally blocked by fatty material called plaque. A partial blockage is called carotid artery stenosis (narrowing). A blockage in your carotid artery can ...

  4. Celiac artery compression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokotsakis, J N; Lambidis, C D; Lioulias, A G; Skouteli, E T; Bastounis, E A; Livesay, J J

    2000-04-01

    Celiac artery compression syndrome occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm causes extrinsic compression of the celiac trunk. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with a three-month history of postprandial abdominal pain, nausea and some emesis, without weight loss. There was a bruit in the upper mid-epigastrium and the lateral aortic arteriography revealed a significant stenosis of the celiac artery. At operation, the celiac axis was found to be severely compressed anteriorly by fibers forming the inferior margin of the arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. The ligament was cut and a vein by-pass from the supraceliac aorta to the distal celiac artery was performed. The patient remains well and free of symptoms two and a half years since operation.In this report we discuss the indications and the therapeutic options of this syndrome as well as a review of the literature is being given. PMID:10799832

  5. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

  6. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Peripheral Arterial Disease American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  7. Renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. PMID:25439331

  8. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  9. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  10. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  11. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  12. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  13. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  14. Placement of an Arterial Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Tegtmeyer; Glenn Brady; Susanna Lai; Richard Hodo; Dana Braner

    2006-01-01

    Indications Radial arterial lines are important tools in the treatment of critically ill patients. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure is indicated for patients with hemody- namic instability that requires inotropic or vasopressor medication. An arterial line allows for consistent and continuous monitoring of blood pressure to facilitate the reliable titration of supportive medications. In addition, arterial lines allow for reli-

  15. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  16. Paradoxical reaction of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Im, Jae Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Lee, Jin Soo

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxical reactions of tuberculosis (TB) in vertebral osteomyelitis are very rarely reported. We experienced four cases of severe paradoxical reactions in tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. Four cases of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis were confirmed by an acid-fast bacilli smear or culture. The patients were human immunodeficiency virus negative, and were all initially treated with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Their symptoms improved with anti-TB drugs. However, after 2-12 weeks, their symptoms had recurred, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at the time of readmission revealed an aggravation of vertebral osteomyelitis. Operations were carried out to relieve severe pain or spinal cord decompression. Through continued anti-TB drug therapy, all patients recovered without sequelae. PMID:25692354

  17. The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2012-12-21

    How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

  18. A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Niksch, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

  19. The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    2011-05-01

    Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate populations. The low maximum growth rate of Vertebrate populations makes them particularly sensitive to global change, while they contribute relatively modestly to major ecosystem services. One may conclude that unless they are considered as sentinels of the biological consequences of global changes, their situation will go on strongly deteriorating, in particular under the influence of interactions of different components of global change such as changes in use and climate change. PMID:21640944

  20. international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife

    E-print Network

    The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

  1. GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

  2. A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove: outcrossing; selfing; heterozygosity; mangrove killifish; Kryptolebias marmoratus 1. INTRODUCTION Three). The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus lives in and around red mangrove forests along the eastern

  3. Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna

    E-print Network

    Vences, Miguel

    prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic

  4. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  5. Endoscopic radial artery harvesting procedure for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Gabriel; Ehasz, Paul; Gillinov, A. Marc; Svensson, Lars G.; Brozzi, Nicolas; Lytle, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Development and adoption of endoscopic minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting prompted its application to the radial artery in an effort to minimize surgical trauma. Recently, we reported that endoscopic radial artery harvesting was associated with better wound appearance and it proved to be safe and effective, with less pain and fewer wound complications than the open surgical technique. Based on this positive experience, our institution adopted endoscopic radial artery harvesting, hence the aim of this manuscript is to describe the minimally invasive endoscopic radial artery harvesting for coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:23977636

  6. Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

    2000-01-01

    :   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

  7. Silicon compatible with the height of human vertebral column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masa-Oki Yamada; Yoshiyuki Tohno; Setsuko Tohno; Masako Utsumi; Yumi Moriwake; Gen Yamada

    2003-01-01

    In the study on human vertebral composites, silicon was found to be related to the height of the vertebral column. The element\\u000a ratio of silicon to calcium in the lumbar vertebra was twice that of the lowest one in the cervical vertebra. The element\\u000a ratio gradually increased from approx 0.5 at the cervical vertebra to approx 1.0 at the lumbar

  8. Thoracocervical dorsal dermal sinus associated with multiple vertebral body anomalies.

    PubMed

    Aydin, K; Sencer, S; Minareci, O

    2001-12-01

    Congenital dermal sinus is a type of closed spinal dysraphism. Cervical and thoracic regions are the rare sites for dorsal dermal sinuses. Dermal sinuses are frequently associated with dermoid or epidermoid tumor and osseous abnormalities such as bifid spinous process. The association of dorsal dermal sinuses with vertebral body anomalies is very rare. We present MR imaging features of a case of thoracocervical dorsal dermal sinus associated with multiple vertebral body anomalies. PMID:11792050

  9. Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-08-01

    Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

  10. Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

    1998-01-01

    Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

  11. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

  12. Thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extradural extension and spinal cord compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with progressive numbness of lower extremities and unsteady gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of the dorsal spine demonstrated multiple hyperintense inactive vertebral hemangiomas on T-1 weighted images. There was an active hemangioma involving D7 vertebral body and neural arch with epidural extension and spinal cord compression. He underwent embolization of the main feeders of the lesion and

  13. [Renal artery embolism].

    PubMed

    Hora, M; Hanus, T; Chochola, M

    2003-03-01

    Renal artery embolism (RAE) is a rare disease. Urgent treatment is necessary, as ischaemia can cause irreversible kidney damage in 60 to 90 minutes. RAE frequently clinically manifests as a pain similar to renal colic. Source of embolus is predominantly the heart at atrial fibrillation. Laboratory findings are unspecific. Ultrasonography with color Doppler imaging is essential. Kidney perfusion is low and upper urinary tract is undilated. Renal function can be recognized by intravenous urography and at renal scintigraphy. In angiography, renal artery is closed with thromboembolus. With no delay, transcatheter clot aspiration should be performed and fibrinolytic agents (tissue plasminogen activator) should be topically administered. Continual heparinisation and later warfarinisation should follow. In spite of successful revascularisation, parameters of kidney function can almost never reach that prior the RAE and shrinkage of kidney becomes a frequent consequence. Treatment can be successful even in patients with renal occlusion lasting over 90 minutes, since occlusion is often incomplete or significant collateral blood supply exists. In conclusion, renal artery embolism must be considered in cases of flank pain in patients with certain risk actors (especially atrial fibrillation). Ultrasonography with color Doppler imaging and urgent angiography of the renal artery are necessary in these cases. Thromboembolus can be then aspirated, and kidney perfused with fibrinolytic agent. PMID:12756838

  14. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    > SEE ALL MERCK MANUALS Home Browse By: Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Peripheral Arterial ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ...

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneursym.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Singh, Kulbir; Aditi; Singh, Parminderpal; Aneja, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Idopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare lesion. Clinical experience with this condition is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. We report a patient who came to us with complaints of chest pain, breathlessness on exertion and pedal oedema and was diagnosed to have PAA. PMID:24930208

  16. The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

    1993-01-01

    The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

  17. A review of anatomical and mechanical factors affecting vertebral body integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M Greig; John D Wark; Nicola L Fazzalari; Kim L Bennell

    st tr ra ac ct t Background: The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fracture is multifactorial and may be conceptualised using a systems framework. Previous studies have established several correlates of vertebral fracture including reduced vertebral cross-sectional area, weakness in back extensor muscles, reduced bone mineral density, increasing age, worsening kyphosis and recent vertebral fracture. Alterations in these physical characteristics may

  18. Comparative structure analysis of vertebrate ribonuclease P RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pitulle, C; Garcia-Paris, M; Zamudio, K R; Pace, N R

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease P cleaves 5'-precursor sequences from pre-tRNAs. All cellular RNase P holoenzymes contain homologous RNA elements; the eucaryal RNase P RNA, in contrast to the bacterial RNA, is catalytically inactive in the absence of the protein component(s). To understand the function of eucaryal RNase P RNA, knowledge of its structure is needed. Considerable effort has been devoted to comparative studies of the structure of this RNA from diverse organisms, including eucaryotes, primarily fungi, but also a limited set of vertebrates. The substantial differences in the sequences and structures of the vertebrate RNAs from those of other organisms have made it difficult to align the vertebrate sequences, thus limiting comparative studies. To expand our understanding of the structure of diverse RNase P RNAs, we have isolated by PCR and sequenced 13 partial RNase P RNA genes from 11 additional vertebrate taxa representing most extant major vertebrate lineages. Based on a recently proposed structure of the core elements of RNase P RNA, we aligned the sequences and propose a minimum consensus secondary structure for the vertebrate RNase P RNA. PMID:9649615

  19. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  20. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2013-10-24

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

  1. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  2. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

  3. Profiling ascidian promoters as the primordial type of vertebrate promoter

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background CpG islands are observed in mammals and other vertebrates, generally escape DNA methylation, and tend to occur in the promoters of widely expressed genes. Another class of promoter has lower G+C and CpG contents, and is thought to be involved in the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Non-vertebrate deuterostomes are reported to have a single class of promoter with high-frequency CpG dinucleotides, suggesting that this is the original type of promoter. However, the limited annotation of these genes has impeded the large-scale analysis of their promoters. Results To determine the origins of the two classes of vertebrate promoters, we chose Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate that is evolutionarily close to the vertebrates, and identified its transcription start sites genome-wide using a next-generation sequencer. We indeed observed a high CpG content around the transcription start sites, but their levels in the promoters and background sequences differed much less than in mammals. The CpG-rich stretches were also fairly restricted, so they appeared more similar to mammalian CpG-poor promoters. Conclusions From these data, we infer that CpG islands are not sufficiently ancient to be found in invertebrates. They probably appeared early in vertebrate evolution via some active mechanism and have since been maintained as part of vertebrate promoters. PMID:22369359

  4. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

  5. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case report and embryological background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Folia Morphol; M. Konarik; J. Knize; V. Baca; D. Kachlik

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superfi- cialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of

  6. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  7. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. PMID:20963851

  8. Vertebrate head development: segmentation, novelties, and homology.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Lennart; Ericsson, Rolf; Cerny, Robert

    2005-11-01

    Vertebrate head development is a classical topic lately invigorated by methodological as well as conceptual advances. In contrast to the classical segmentalist views going back to idealistic morphology, the head is now seen not as simply an extension of the trunk, but as a structure patterned by different mechanisms and tissues. Whereas the trunk paraxial mesoderm imposes its segmental pattern on adjacent tissues such as the neural crest derivatives, in the head the neural crest cells carry pattern information needed for proper morphogenesis of mesodermal derivatives, such as the cranial muscles. Neural crest cells make connective tissue components which attach the muscle fiber to the skeletal elements. These crest cells take their origin from the same visceral arch as the muscle cells, even when the skeletal elements to which the muscle attaches are from another arch. The neural crest itself receives important patterning influences from the pharyngeal endoderm. The origin of jaws can be seen as an exaptation in which a heterotopic shift of the expression domains of regulatory genes was a necessary step that enabled this key innovation. The jaws are patterned by Dlx genes expressed in a nested pattern along the proximo-distal axis, analogous to the anterior-posterior specification governed by Hox genes. Knocking out Dlx 5 and 6 transforms the lower jaw homeotically into an upper jaw. New data indicate that both upper and lower jaw cartilages are derived from one, common anlage traditionally labelled the "mandibular" condensation, and that the "maxillary" condensation gives rise to other structures such as the trabecula. We propose that the main contribution from evolutionary developmental biology to solving homology questions lies in deepening our biological understanding of characters and character states. PMID:17046353

  9. Vertebrate brains at the pilot light.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Peter L; Nilsson, Göran E

    2004-08-12

    While the brains of most vertebrates are unable to tolerate more than a few minutes of anoxia, some freshwater turtles (Trachemys and Chrysemys), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and frogs (Rana pipens and Rana temporaria) can survive anoxia for hours to months. Obviously, anoxia tolerance has evolved separately several times and this is also reflected in the divergent strategies these animals utilize to survive without oxygen. The turtles and crucian carp defend their brain ATP levels and avoid a loss of ion homeostasis by reducing ATP use. In the turtles, the early release of adenosine and the activation of K(ATP) channels, a progressive release of GABA and a drastic reduction in electric activity and ion fluxes send the brain into a comatose like state. The crucian carp displays a more modest depression of ATP use, probably achieved through a moderated release of GABA and adenosine, allowing the animal to maintain physical activity in anoxia. The anoxic frog, on the other hand, seems to rely on mechanisms that greatly retard the anoxia induced fall in ATP levels and loss of ion homeostasis, so that the brain can be saved as long as the anoxia is limited to a few hours. The sequence of events characterizing the anoxic frog brain is similar to that of failing anoxic mammalian brain, although over a greatly extended time frame, allowing the frog to die slowly in anoxia, rather than survive. By contrast the only factor that limits anoxic survival in turtles and crucian carp may be the final depletion of their glycogen reserves. PMID:15288600

  10. MDCTA diagnosis of cerebral vessel disease among patients with arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Romanko-Hrushchak, Nataliya

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: to study changes involving cerebral vessels in patients with hypertension and various levels of total cardiovascular risk. Material/Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients underwent CT-angiography of intracranial vessels. Ninety-eight of them were diagnosed with hypertension. Taking into consideration high blood pressure, presence of risk factors and target organ damage subjects were divided into 4 groups: with low, medium, high and very high total cardiovascular risk. Control group included 36 patients. They were not diagnosed with hypertension at the time of examination. One hundred and five patients were examined using a 4-slice CT scanner (Toshiba Asteion 4, Toshiba Medical System, Japan), and 29 patients were examined using a 128-slice scanner (Siemens Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with an injection system. We used iodine-containing contrast agents such as iodixanol and iopromide for angiography. Results: Anatomical and topographic changes of cerebral vessels were most frequently found in hypertensive patients with high and very high total cardiovascular risk. Narrowing of vertebral vessels was the most common change (27 patients (27.55%), 21 patients (21.43%) had narrowing of the right artery, and 6 (6.12%) subjects – of the left one). Tortuous course of internal carotid arteries at the neck level was visualized in 11 patients (11.22%). Narrowing of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery was noted in 9 patients (9.18%), of the right one – in 8 patients (8.16%), of the left one – in 1 patient (1.02%). Aneurysmal dilation of intracranial vessels was visualized in 6 patients (6.12%). Saccular aneurysm of left internal carotid artery was diagnosed in 2 patients (2.04%), one patient (1.02%) had right internal carotid artery aneurysm and one patient (1.02%) had an aneurysm of the basilar artery. Discussions: the most common changes of cerebral vessels diagnosed in MDCTA among patients with hypertension included various degrees of narrowing of vertebral vessels, anterior, posterior and posterior communicating arteries and internal carotid arteries. Changes of middle cerebral arteries and basilar arteries were extremely rare, thus we can say that these vessels are influenced by high blood pressure to lesser extent. We established the relationship between changes in cerebral blood vessels and total cardiovascular risk. Therefore, we believe that findings will be useful for establishing prognosis in hypertension and prevention of complications such as stroke. Conclusions: MDCT angiography is a highly informative method to study changes of cerebral vessels in patients with hypertension. The relationship between changes in cerebral blood vessels diagnosed through MDCT angiography and the level of total cardiovascular risk among patients with hypertension had been established. PMID:24115957

  11. Branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery and the blood supply of the intracavernous cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tekdemir, I; Tüccar, E; Cubuk, H E; Ersoy, M; Elhan, A; Deda, H

    1998-08-01

    With the increasing frequency of surgical operations to the cavernous sinus greater knowledge of the microanatomy of the cavernous sinus has become necessary. The most frequently seen complications during cavernous sinus surgery involve impairment of cranial nerves. This can occur due to direct damage or ischemia. For these reasons, it is important to know the arterial supplies to the cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus and the anatomy of these branches as well. 15 formaline fixed adult cadavers were used in this study. Before the dissections, the internal carotid artery and vertebral artery were filled with coloured latex on both sides. In this report, the intracavernous branches of internal carotid artery (I.I.C.A.) were identified based on the principles of Nomina Anatomica (1989) and compared with others. In our study we found that the segment of the abducens nerve which lies in Dorello's channel was supplied by the meningeal branch; from the point at which it pierces the cerebellar tentorium, the trochlear nerve is supplied by the tentorial cerebellar artery; the posterior cerebellar artery supplies the proximal segment of the oculomotor nerve that proceeds to the oculomotor triangle. Except for these, all the cranial nerves that were located on the lateral wall of the sinus cavernosus are supplied by the tentorial marginal branch and the branches of the lateral trunk. PMID:9728276

  12. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

  13. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  14. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  15. Coronary Artery Stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Heller; George D. Dangas

    \\u000a When Andreas Gruentzig performed the first percutaneous coronary angioplasty on an awake patient in 1977 (Zurich, Switzerland),\\u000a he created the nascent field of interventional cardiology and ushered in a new era of coronary revascularization. Percutaneous\\u000a coronary transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) was positioned to serve as an alternative and complement to coronary artery bypass\\u000a grafting (CABG) and optimal medical therapy. As in

  16. Correlation of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis with Atherosclerosis of the Intracranial Cerebral Artery and the Extracranial Carotid Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Keun Seo; Hwan S. Yong; Seong-Beom Koh; Sang-il Suh; Ji H. Kim; Sung-Wook Yu; Ji-Yeon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background: Investigating atherosclerosis of the coronary artery in ischemic stroke patients is clinically important because comorbidity is relatively common in such patients. We studied the relationship of atherosclerosis of the coronary artery to atherosclerosis of the intracranial cerebral artery and extracranial carotid artery. Further investigation was performed for determining the factors independently associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis in ischemic stroke

  17. Pediatric arterial interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshalleck, Francis

    2010-12-01

    The spectrum of pediatric vascular pathology differs from the adult population and it varies greatly to include congenital and acquired disorders. Although catheter-directed angiography remains the gold standard, most vascular conditions in the child can be adequately diagnosed with magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or duplex/Doppler ultrasonography with only a few exceptions, such as intrarenal arterial stenosis, small vessel vasculitides, and visceral vascular malformations. The advancement of catheter and wire technology has made it increasingly possible for complex arterial interventions to be performed in children, including embolization, angioplasty with stent insertion, thrombolysis, and endovascular neurological procedures. More angiographic procedures are being performed with the aim of also being therapeutic. Special considerations in children include the use of appropriate equipment and adequate dosing of contrast and of the various medications used during angiography, particularly in patients less than 15 kg in weight. This article will focus on the management of renovascular hypertension, liver transplant hepatic arterial intervention, and the use of carbon dioxide gas as a contrast agent in the child. PMID:21055678

  18. GRAFTED VERTEBRAL FRACTURE AFTER IMPLANT REMOVAL IN A PATIENT WITH SPINE-SHORTENING VERTEBRAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    NAKASHIMA, HIROAKI; YUKAWA, YASUTSUGU; ITO, KEIGO; MACHINO, MASAAKI; KANBARA, SHUNSUKE; MORITA, DAIGO; IMAGAMA, SHIRO; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; KATO, FUMIHIKO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We experienced the rare complication of a vertebral fracture that was caused by implant removal after bony fusion had been achieved in a patient who underwent spine-shortening osteotomy (SSO) for tethered cord syndrome (TCS). We propose that the removal of the implant used for SSO should be contraindicated. The patient (a 27-year-old female) presented to our institution with a history of progressive severe lower back pain, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. As an infant, she had undergone surgery for spina bifida with lipoma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed tethering of the spinal cord to a lipoma. We performed SSO at the level of the L1 vertebra level. After spine shortening and fixation using a posterior approach, the L1 vertebral body was completely removed anteriorly and replaced with a left iliac bone graft. The patient’s symptoms improved after surgery. After bony fusion was achieved after surgery, we decided to remove the spinal implant after we explained the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure to the patient. We performed implant removal surgery safely 2 years later; however, the patient complained of severe lower back pain 10 days after the surgery without any history of trauma. Reconstruction computed tomography showed fracture of the grafted vertebra. We performed a repeat posterior fixation, which relieved the lower back pain; she has experienced no complications in the subsequent 5 years. In summary, we report a case of a rare complication of the fracture of a grafted vertebra after removal of an implant used in SSO for TCS. Spinal stability could not be maintained without the spinal posterior implant after SSO. Postoperative fracture after spinal implant removal is rare but possible, and patients must be informed of this potential risk. PMID:25797997

  19. Micromechanics of the Human Vertebral Body for Forward Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J.; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E = 8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E = 2,500 MPa. As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean ± SD for n = 22: 41.3% ± 7.4% compression; 44.1% ± 8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

  20. Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (; )

    2005-02-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

  1. Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

    2012-08-01

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

  2. Prezygapophyseal articular facet shape in the catarrhine thoracolumbar vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2010-08-01

    Two contrasting patterns of lumbar vertebral morphology generally characterize anthropoids. "Long-backed" monkeys are distinguished from "short-backed" apes [Benton: The baboon in medical research, Vol. 2 (1967:201)] with respect to several vertebral features thought to afford greater spinal flexibility in the former and spinal rigidity in the latter. Yet, discussions of spinal mobility are lacking important functional insight that can be gained by analysis of the zygapophyses, the spine's synovial joints responsible for allowing and resisting intervertebral movements. Here, prezygapophyseal articular facet (PAF) shape in the thoracolumbar spine of Papio, Hylobates, Pongo, Gorilla, and Pan is evaluated in the context of the "long-backed" versus "short-backed" model. A three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach is used to examine how PAF shape changes along the thoracolumbar vertebral column of each taxon and how PAF shape varies across taxa at corresponding vertebral levels. The thoracolumbar transition in PAF shape differs between Papio and the hominoids, between Hylobates and the great apes, and to a lesser extent, among great apes. At the level of the first lumbar vertebra, the PAF shape of Papio is distinguished from that of hominoids. At the level of the second lumbar vertebra, there is variation to some extent among all taxa. These findings suggest that morphological and functional distinctions in primate vertebral anatomy may be more complex than suggested by a "long-backed" versus "short-backed" dichotomy. PMID:20310062

  3. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  4. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850?ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm?Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  5. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia involving large arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandy, Frank; Izquierdo, Luis; Liu, Jingxuan; Criado, Enrique

    2008-05-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare vascular proliferative disorder, which most commonly involves the skin of the head and neck regions. Noncutaneous localization of this pathology is unusual, and its primary localization in large arteries presenting as a pulsatile mass is extremely rare. We report here two cases of ALHE manifested as masses of the occipital and brachial artery. ALHE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of localized peripheral arterial masses in young patients. PMID:18455650

  6. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  7. Conserved and Divergent Patterns of DNA Methylation in Higher Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a “global” methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called “CpG islands.” Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

  8. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Yoshihito

    2013-01-01

    Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

  9. Conserved and divergent patterns of DNA methylation in higher vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a "global" methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called "CpG islands." Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

  10. University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

  11. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

  12. Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Peter, Richard E; Unniappan, Suraj

    2008-02-01

    In mammals, ghrelin is a non-amidated peptide hormone, existing in both acylated and non-acylated forms, produced mainly from the X/A or ghrelin cells present in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), and functions primarily as a GH-releasing hormone and an orexigen, as well as having several other biological actions. Among non-mammalian vertebrates, amino acid sequence of ghrelin has been reported in two species of cartilaginous fish, seven species of teleosts, two species of amphibians, one species of reptile and six species of birds. The structure and functions of ghrelin are highly conserved among vertebrates. This review presents a concise overview of ghrelin biology in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:18222718

  13. RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M.; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Wallingford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left–right patterning. PMID:22227339

  14. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  15. Arterial stiffness in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prenner, Stuart B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2015-02-01

    Arterial stiffness is an age-related process that is a shared consequence of numerous diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM), and is an independent predictor of mortality both in this population and in the general population. While much has been published about arterial stiffness in patients with DM, a thorough review of the current literature is lacking. Using a systematic literature search strategy, we aimed to summarize our current understanding related to arterial stiffness in DM. We review key studies demonstrating that, among patients with established DM, arterial stiffness is closely related to the progression of complications of DM, including nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. It is also becoming clear that arterial stiffness can be increased even in pre-diabetic populations with impaired glucose tolerance, and in those with the metabolic syndrome (METS), well before the onset of overt DM. Some data suggests that arterial stiffness can predict the onset of DM. However, future work is needed to further clarify whether large artery stiffness and the pulsatile hemodynamic changes that accompany it are involved in the pathogenesis of DM, and whether interventions targeting arterial stiffness are associated with improved clinical outcomes in DM. We also review of the potential mechanisms of arterial stiffness in DM, with particular emphasis on the role of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and nitric oxide dysregulation, and address potential future directions for research. PMID:25558032

  16. Radiative transport in large arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Theodor, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A refined model for the photon energy distribution in a living artery is established by solving the radiative transfer equation in a cylindrical geometry, using the Monte Carlo method. Combining this model with the most recent experimental values for the optical properties of flowing blood and the biomechanics of a blood-filled artery subject to a pulsatile pressure, we find that the optical intensity transmitted through large arteries decreases linearly with increasing arterial distension. This finding provides a solid theoretical foundation for measuring photoplethysmograms. PMID:24466476

  17. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  18. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  19. Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?

    PubMed

    McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F Andrew; Orme, C David L; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G; Chase, Mark W; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

  20. Do Global Diversity Patterns of Vertebrates Reflect Those of Monocots?

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F. Andrew; Orme, C. David L.; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Chase, Mark W.; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

  1. Relation of Vertebral Deformities to Bone Density, Structure, and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Melton, L Joseph; Riggs, B Lawrence; Keaveny, Tony M; Achenbach, Sara J; Kopperdahl, David; Camp, Jon J; Rouleau, Peggy A; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Robb, Richard A; Therneau, Terry M; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    Because they are not reliably discriminated by areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements, it is unclear whether minimal vertebral deformities represent early osteoporotic fractures. To address this, we compared 90 postmenopausal women with no deformity (controls) with 142 women with one or more semiquantitative grade 1 (mild) deformities and 51 women with any grade 2–3 (moderate/severe) deformities. aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and geometry by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), bone microstructure by high-resolution peripheral QCT at the radius (HRpQCT), and vertebral compressive strength and load-to-strength ratio by finite-element analysis (FEA) of lumbar spine QCT images. Compared with controls, women with grade 1 deformities had significantly worse values for many bone density, structure, and strength parameters, although deficits all were much worse for the women with grade 2–3 deformities. Likewise, these skeletal parameters were more strongly associated with moderate to severe than with mild deformities by age-adjusted logistic regression. Nonetheless, grade 1 vertebral deformities were significantly associated with four of the five main variable categories assessed: bone density (lumbar spine vBMD), bone geometry (vertebral apparent cortical thickness), bone strength (overall vertebral compressive strength by FEA), and load-to-strength ratio (45-degree forward bending ÷ vertebral compressive strength). Thus significantly impaired bone density, structure, and strength compared with controls indicate that many grade 1 deformities do represent early osteoporotic fractures, with corresponding implications for clinical decision making. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20533526

  2. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  3. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  4. Left subclavian artery stenting: an option for the treatment of the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Bruno Lorenção; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; de Oliveira, Eduardo Silva Jordao; Linhares Filho, Frederico Augusto de Carvalho; Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Passalacqua, Aldo Zampieri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The subclavian steal syndrome is characterized by the vertebral artery flow inversion, due to a stenotic lesion in the origin of the subclavian artery. The Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome is a variation of the Subclavian Steal Syndrome and is characterized by inversion of flow in the Internal Thracic artery that has been used as conduct in a myocardial revascularization. Its diagnosis must be suspected in patients with difference in pulse and arterial pressure in the upper limbs, that present with angina pectoris and that have done a myocardial revascularization. Its treatment must be a surgical bypass or a transluminal angioplasty. Objective The objective is to show the left subclavian artery stenting as a safe and effective method to treat the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Methods Historical prospective, non-randomized trial, through revision of the hospital records of the patients treated with the stenting of the left subclavian artery, from January 2006 to September 2012. Results In the mentioned period, 4.291 miocardial revascularizations were performed with the use of the left mammary artery, and 16 patients were identified to have the Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. All of them were submitted to endovascular treatment. The success rate was 100%; two patients experienced minor complications; none of them presented with major complications. Eleven of the 16 patients had ultrassonographic documentation of patent stent for at least one year; two patients lost follow up and other two died. Conclusion The stenting of the left subclavian artery is a good option for the treatment of the Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome, with high level of technical and clinical success. PMID:25140474

  5. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2015-04-23

    Fossils of early gnathostomes (or jawed vertebrates) have been the focus of study for nearly two centuries. They yield key clues about the evolutionary assembly of the group's common body plan, as well the divergence of the two living gnathostome lineages: the cartilaginous and bony vertebrates. A series of remarkable new palaeontological discoveries, analytical advances and innovative reinterpretations of existing fossil archives have fundamentally altered a decades-old consensus on the relationships of extinct gnathostomes, delivering a new evolutionary framework for exploring major questions that remain unanswered, including the origin of jaws. PMID:25903631

  6. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  7. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  8. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  9. [Congenital brachyury and vertebral malformations in a White Polled Heath].

    PubMed

    Kerkmann, Andrea; Ganter, Martin; Seibel, Henrike; Wohlsein, Peter; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In a female White Polled Heath a congenital shortening and abnormal bending of the tail was observed. The trunk appeared to be shortened and almost quadratic. However, further findings could not be ascertained in the general clinical, neurological and orthopaedic examination. Maceration of the trunk skeleton showed vertebral fusion in several segments of the vertebral column and a wedge-shaped vertebra of the cervical spine, causing slight scoliosis. In addition, several ribs were fused. Exogenic causes such as drugs or viral infections during pregnancy were unlikely, whereas hereditary could not be ruled out. PMID:20496834

  10. iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology; )

    2008-01-01

    Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

  11. Management of anomalous circumflex coronary artery from the neo-pulmonary artery in an adolescent following neonatal arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lauren M; Magill, H Lynn; Sathanandam, Shyam K

    2015-03-01

    A 15-year-old male with transposition of the great arteries presented with exertional chest pain. He was found to have a circumflex coronary artery from the neo-pulmonary artery that had not been transferred during his arterial switch operation. The circumflex coronary artery, fed through collaterals from a re-implanted single coronary artery, resulted in coronary steal. This report describes a management pathway to treat this rare anomaly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044498

  12. Surgical Treatment of Coronary Artery Aneurysm with Coronary Artery Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironori Inoue; Masahiro Ueno; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Kazuhisa Matsumoto; Koji Tao; Ryuzo Sakata

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon disease with an incidence of 1%-5% in evaluated patients. Atherosclerosis is its most common etiology in adults, occurring in 50% of cases. Also, CAA is associated with predisposing factors such as Kawasaki disease, stent- angioplasty, and notably, coronary artery fistula. Most CAAs are asymptomatic but occasionally lead to life-threatening conditions, such as rupture,

  13. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  14. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

  15. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  16. How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? Peripheral arterial disease (P.A. ... test, dye is injected through a needle or catheter (tube) into one of your arteries. This may ...

  17. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of coronary artery bypass graft surgery for the treatment of coronary arteriosclerosis. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary

  18. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Clark; F. Cons-Molina; M. Deleze; S. Ragi; L. Haddock; J. R. Zanchetta; J. J. Jaller; L. Palermo; J. O. Talavera; D. O. Messina; J. Morales-Torres; J. Salmeron; A. Navarrete; E. Suarez; C. M. Pérez; S. R. Cummings

    2009-01-01

    Summary  In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23–13.4) prevalence\\u000a of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries.\\u000a These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those\\u000a found in the

  19. Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Özden, ?lgin; Do?an, Öner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

  20. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  1. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Padrón-Pérez, Noel; Aronés, Janny Rosario; Muñoz, Silvia; Arias-Barquet, Luis; Arruga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old. PMID:24748768

  2. The Discovery of Encephalic Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Tatu; Thierry Moulin; Guy Monnier

    2005-01-01

    Up until the 17th century, ideas surrounding the discovery of encephalic arteries were to remain largely influenced by the political and religious ideologies of the era. Parts of the encephalic arterial system have been called after several anatomists from this earlier period. From the 18th century onwards, scientists and doctors in particular, liberated themselves from the political and religious trends

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Jardim, Carlos; Humbert, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disease (incidence and prevalence rates of approximately one and six cases per million inhabitants, respectively) with different clinical phenotypes. A group of diverse conditions manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and share similar pathological and/or clinical findings with IPAH. By definition, IPAH is diagnosed only after alternative diagnoses have been ruled out. Extensive investigation is needed to determine if PAH is associated with thyroid diseases, infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, exposure to certain drugs (particularly anorexigens), certain genetic mutations, and so on. The presence of genetic abnormalities and risk factors (such as specific drug exposures) reinforces the "multiple hit" concept for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Fortunately, within the past two decades, therapeutic options have become available for IPAH, resulting in improved survival and clinical outcomes. At least seven different compounds have been registered for PAH treatment. However, even with aggressive PAH-specific therapy, mortality rates remain high (?40% at 5 years). Given the high mortality rates, the use of combinations of agents that work by different pathways has been advocated (either as "add-on" therapy or initial "up front" therapy). Further, new therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are on the near horizon, aiming to further improve survival from the remarkable progress already seen. PMID:24037625

  4. CT during arterial portography.

    PubMed

    Soyer, P

    1996-01-01

    CT during arterial portography (CTAP) is based on portal enhancement of the liver by infusion of contrast material through the superior mesenteric or splenic artery. This technique provides high degrees of enhancement of the portal vein and intrahepatic vessels, allowing reliable segmental localisation of tumours and accurate assessment of relationships between tumours and intrahepatic vessels. Because of its invasiveness, CTAP must be limited to patients for whom non-invasive preoperative imaging suggests resectable tumour. In the majority of cases, CTAP is performed in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, but other types of hepatic tumour (either primary or secondary) and pancreatic tumour may be an indication for CTAP. Visualisation of non-tumorous perfusion defects is a limitation of this technique, but such defects have been well described and have characteristic locations and appearance. In difficult cases, correlation with sonographic, CT and MRI findings helps characterise portal perfusion defects. CTAP is the most sensitive technique for the detection of intrahepatic tumours, and the recent use of spiral technology shows promise in the performance of CTAP. CTAP data can be viewed as multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions that allow preoperative planning of the extent of resection and determination of the volume of the remaining liver after resection. PMID:8798005

  5. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Saw, Jacqueline; Gulati, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare but challenging clinical entity of unknown etiology. From a pathophysiological standpoint, SCAD may occur in patients with a coronary intimal tear (presenting with the classic angiographic "flap" and multiple lumens), but also in patients without an intimal rupture (presenting as an intramural hematoma). Until now, available information on SCAD was largely based on multiple, small case-series studies but, recently, data from relatively large registries have cast a new light on this disease. Classically, SCAD was thought to present in young females without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors but recent reports suggest a broader clinical spectrum encompassing older patients with associated coronary artery disease. In this review, we concentrate on 3 main aspects of this unique disease: (1) the value of intracoronary diagnostic techniques (intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography) to complement coronary angiography and to provide novel diagnostic insights on this elusive clinical condition; (2) the growing clinical evidence suggesting an association and potential causation between fibromuscular dysplasia and SCAD; and (3) the challenges of coronary revascularization in this adverse anatomic setting, together with recent data suggesting that a initial, conservative medical management may be preferable for the majority of patients with SCAD. PMID:25131524

  6. Persistent sciatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nuño-Escobar, Cesar; Pérez-Durán, Mario Alberto; Ramos-López, Rubén; Hernández Chávez, Guillermo; Llamas-Macías, Francisco; Baltazar-Flores, María; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2013-11-01

    A persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is an exceptionally rare embryologic vascular anomaly with a reported incidence of 0.01-0.05% based on angiography. Most PSAs do not require treatment and 50% of affected individuals are asymptomatic. However, all PSA-related aneurysms should be treated because they involve a high risk of complications.We report the case of 53-year-old man with a 7-cm aneurysm arising from a left dominant PSA together with a hypoplastic left femoral artery, who presented with acute left limb ischemia. The patient had realized the presence of a pulsating mass in his left buttock 12 months before the ischemic event. He was treated initially with below-knee popliteal embolectomy and exclusion of the aneurysm with 2 overlapping, self-expanding, 10×50-mm stent grafts. On diagnosis, PSA aneurysms require neither potentially harmful ligation nor a technically challenging open procedure. Endovascular aneurysm exclusion using an antegrade or a retrograde approach is safe and efficient; however, long-term follow-up is required to establish the efficacy of this endovascular procedure. PMID:23891253

  7. Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

  8. Antiquity of the vertebrate pattern of activity metabolism and its

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Albert F.

    , the anaerobic process by which glucose is degraded to lactic acid. Most invertebrate species resortdisrupts maintenance of blood and tissue pH which may well affect enzymatic activity, protein configuration and so on8. This exercise-related pH depression may persist in lower vertebrates for several hours

  9. Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey B Lillywhite; Kevin C Zippel; Anthony P Farrell

    1999-01-01

    Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic

  10. Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrafish, ectothermic vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Stuart; J. A. Harper; K. M. Brindle; M. D. Brand

    1999-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is of demonstrated importance in mammalian thermogenesis, and early hypotheses regarding the functions of the newly discovered UCP homologues, UCP2, UCP3 and others, have focused largely on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and

  11. The vertebrate cell kinetochore and its roles during mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conly L Rieder; E. D. Salmon

    1998-01-01

    A replicated chromosome possesses two discrete, complex, dynamic, macromolecular assemblies, known as kinetochores, that are positioned on opposite sides of the primary constriction of the chromosome. Here, the authors review how kinetochores control chromosome segregation during mitosis in vertebrates. They attach the chromosome to the opposing spindle poles by trapping the dynamic plus-ends of microtubules growing from the poles. They

  12. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates is how birds and bats satisfy relatively high energy needs with less absorptive surface area. Here, we further show that an enhanced paracellular pathway for intestinal absorption of water-soluble nutrients

  13. Modeling vertebrate diversity in Oregon using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cablk, Mary Elizabeth

    Vertebrate diversity was modeled for the state of Oregon using a parametric approach to regression tree analysis. This exploratory data analysis effectively modeled the non-linear relationships between vertebrate richness and phenology, terrain, and climate. Phenology was derived from time-series NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery for the year 1992 using two methods: principal component analysis and derivation of EROS data center greenness metrics. These two measures of spatial and temporal vegetation condition incorporated the critical temporal element in this analysis. The first three principal components were shown to contain spatial and temporal information about the landscape and discriminated phenologically distinct regions in Oregon. Principal components 2 and 3, 6 greenness metrics, elevation, slope, aspect, annual precipitation, and annual seasonal temperature difference were investigated as correlates to amphibians, birds, all vertebrates, reptiles, and mammals. Variation explained for each regression tree by taxa were: amphibians (91%), birds (67%), all vertebrates (66%), reptiles (57%), and mammals (55%). Spatial statistics were used to quantify the pattern of each taxa and assess validity of resulting predictions from regression tree models. Regression tree analysis was relatively robust against spatial autocorrelation in the response data and graphical results indicated models were well fit to the data.

  14. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  15. Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls

    E-print Network

    Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls Callum F. Ross1 and Keith A. Metzger2 1. It is often stated that the skull is optimally designed for resisting feeding forces, where optimality gradi- ents ­ variation in bone strain magnitudes across the skull ­ which in the primate skull have

  16. Marine vertebrate zoonoses: an overview of the DAO special issue.

    PubMed

    Moore, M J; Gast, R J; Bogomolni, A L

    2008-08-19

    The role of marine birds, mammals, turtles and fish as vectors of infectious agents of potential risk to humans can be examined from a variety of perspectives. The studies in this DAO Special include a broad survey of multiple agents and species, a sequencing study of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes known to be pathogenic to humans, an assessment of risks to humans working with marine mammals, a source tracking study using E. coli ribotypes, studies of regional Salmonella and Brucella epizootiology, a serology survey and a case report of a herpes simplex infection in a dolphin. Additionally, a recently published study (Venn-Watson et al. 2008; Dis Aquat Org 79:87-93) classifying pure cultures of bacteria from a captive dolphin colony also pertains to this theme. These studies raise the following questions: whether the presence of zoonotic agents in marine vertebrates represents a risk to other marine vertebrates, humans, or both; what are the routes by which these marine vertebrate zoonotic infections are acquired and circulated in the marine ecosystem; to what degree are such agents subclinical versus causes of overt disease in marine vertebrates; what are the subsets of the human population most likely to be affected by such infections; and which human health preventive measures would seem reasonable? PMID:18828558

  17. Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

  18. Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging

    E-print Network

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging California Institute of Technology employing different imaging techniques. Sub resolution imaging of beating zebrafish heart has however remained a challenge owing Embryonic heart is a 100 moving quasi-periodically at few Hertz frequency, over

  19. Neural Crest and the Origin of Vertebrates: A New Head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Gans; R. Glenn Northcutt

    1983-01-01

    Most of the morphological and functional differences between vertebrates and other chordates occur in the head and are derived embryologically from muscularized hypomere, neural crest, and epidermal (neurogenic) placodes. In the head, the neural crest functions as mesoderm and forms connective, skeletal, and muscular tissue. Both the neural crest and the epidermal placodes form special sense organs and other neural

  20. DNA methylation, epigenetics, and evolution in vertebrates: facts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Varriale, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

  1. Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three-

    E-print Network

    Lowery, Laura Anne

    2057 Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three- dimensional structure, the development of which is not well understood. Brain morphogenesis begins during, and continues subsequent to, neural tube closure. One aspect of brain structure that is highly conserved throughout

  2. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

  3. CYNTENATOR: Progressive Gene Order Alignment of 17 Vertebrate Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Rödelsperger; Christoph Dieterich; Sridhar Hannenhalli

    2010-01-01

    Whole genome gene order evolution in higher eukaryotes was initially considered as a random process. Gene order conservation or conserved synteny was seen as a feature of common descent and did not imply the existence of functional constraints. This view had to be revised in the light of results from sequencing dozens of vertebrate genomes.It became apparent that other factors

  4. Thoracic Vertebral Actinomycosis: Actinomyces israelii and Fusobacterium nucleatum?

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Hitoshi; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Kajioka, Eric H. N.; Chokrungvaranon, Nalurporn; Kim, Wesley; Gallacher, Scott T.

    2008-01-01

    Actinomyces spp. are considered rare pathogens in today's medicine, especially with thoracic vertebral involvement. Classic actinomycosis (50%) presents as an oral-cervicofacial (“lumpy jaw”) infection. This report describes a case of spinal cord compression caused by Actinomyces israelii with the coisolation of Fusobacterium nucleatum. There are limited numbers of similar cases. PMID:18337385

  5. Characteristics of vertebrate-dispersed fruits in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong has a native angiosperm flora of approximately 1800 species, of which 27% (482 spp.) bear fleshy, presumably vertebrate-dispersed fruits, including 76% of the 337 tree and shrub species and 70% of the 103 climber species. Morphological characteristics were determined for 255 species and nutritional characteristics of the fruit pulp for 153 species. Most fruit species were black (45.1%)

  6. Vertebral and metacarpal morphometry as indicators of nutritional improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Revilla; E. Fraile; F. Aguado; E. R. Hermandez; L. F. Villa; H. Rico

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Because of the importance of nutrition in the development of bone mass, we studied the nutritional state, and bone state by means of metacarpal radiogrammetric measurements and vertebral morphometry in a group of 40 premenopausal women born between 1960 and 1970, mean age 29 ± 5 years, and in another group of 40 postmenopausal women born between 1934 and 1944,

  7. VERTEBRATES FROM THE CUTLER GROUP OF MONUMENT VALLEY AND VICINITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER PAUL VAUGHN

    ology of Baars will be followed here. Based on comparisons of vertebrate fossils from the Cutler of Monument Valley with those from the Lower Permian of north-central Texas, it would seem that the Halgaito Shale and Cedar Mesa Sandstone are of Wolfcampian age and that the Organ Rock Shale is probably the equivalent of beds near the boundary of the

  8. NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

  9. The Importance of Collagen Fibers in Vertebrate Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick H. Silver

    2009-01-01

    Collagen fibers form the basic structural components of extracellular matrix (ECM) of vertebrates that serve to: (1) store elastic energy during muscular deformation, (2) transmit stored energy into joint movement, and (3) transfer excess energy from the joint back to the attached muscles for dissipation. They also act as mechanotransducers by transferring stress borne by the musculoskeleton to the attached

  10. Compressive fatigue behavior of human vertebral trabecular bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Rapillard; Mathieu Charlebois; Philippe K. Zysset

    2006-01-01

    Damage accumulation under compressive fatigue loading is believed to contribute significantly to non-traumatic, age-related vertebral fractures in the human spine. Only few studies have explored trabecular bone fatigue behavior under compressive loading and none examined the influence of trabecular architecture on fatigue life. In this study, trabecular bone samples of human lumbar and thoracic vertebrae (4 donors from age 29

  11. HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN

    E-print Network

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN Philip D. Gingerich Abstract.- The first fossil mammals from the Bighorn Basin were found by Wortman and described by Cope in 1880. These are early Wasatchian in age, and probably came from the southern part of the basin. During Wortman's 1881

  12. A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Moschetta; Fang Xu; Lee R. Hagey; Gerard P. van Berge-Henegouwen; Karel J. van Erpecum; Jos F. Brouwers; Jonathan C. Cohen; Molly Bierman; Helen H. Hobbs; Joseph H. Steinbach; Alan F. Hofmann

    2005-01-01

    Biliary lipids (bile salts, phospholipids, choles- terol, plant sterols) were determined in 89 vertebrate species (cartilaginous and bony fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals), and individual phospholipid classes were measured in 35 species. All samples contained conjugated bile salts (C 27 bile alcohol sulfates and\\/or N -acyl amidates of C 27 and\\/or C 24 bile acids). Phospholipids were generally absent in

  13. Structural aspects of the calcification process of lower vertebrate collagen.

    PubMed

    Bigi, A; Koch, M H; Panzavolta, S; Roveri, N; Rubini, K

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the structural relationship between inorganic phase and collagen fibrils in the calcified tissues of lower vertebrates we have carried out a wide and small angle X-ray diffraction investigation on carp scales and bone samples. The small angle patterns from decalcified bone and scales, as well as uncalcified tendon samples from carp are very similar to that of type I collagen from higher vertebrates. The D-axial period, 67 nm, is the same as that of higher vertebrate type I collagen, while the most significant difference is the relatively low intensity of the first order reflection, which is, however, the most intense. The relative intensity distributions of the meridional reflections recorded from fish bone and scales are in agreement with an electron density distribution according to a step function. The calculated step length is very close to the values previously reported for calcified tissues from higher vertebrates. The small angle reflections from calcified, as well as decalcified, scales display different directions of orientation, which could be in agreement with a plywood arrangement of collagen fibrils in successive sheets parallel to the plane of the scale. PMID:10826707

  14. The Mosaic Genome of Warm-Blooded Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Bernardi; Birgitta Olofsson; Jan Filipski; Marino Zerial; Julio Salinas; Gerard Cuny; Michele Meunier-Rotival; Francis Rodier

    1985-01-01

    Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (>>200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such classes can be separated and used to study

  15. Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding

    E-print Network

    Resource Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding Sites in the Human Genome Tae by preventing the spread of heterochromatin and restricting transcriptional enhancers from acti- vation of these sequences are located far from the transcriptional start sites, with their dis- tribution strongly

  16. Evolutionary transitions in parental care and live bearing in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Reynolds; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Robert P. Freckleton

    2002-01-01

    We provide the é rst review of phylogenetic transitions in parental care and live bearing for a wide variety of vertebrates. This includes new analyses of both numbers of transitions and transition probabilities. These reveal numerous transitions by shorebirds and anurans toward uniparental care by either sex. Whereas most or all of the shorebird transitions were from biparental care, nearly

  17. Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

  18. Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satomi Kohno; Yoshinao Katsu; Taisen Iguchi; Louis J. Guillette Jr

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid

  19. Vertebrate Cranial Placodes as Evolutionary Innovations-The Ancestor's Tale.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations often arise by tinkering with preexisting components building new regulatory networks by the rewiring of old parts. The cranial placodes of vertebrates, ectodermal thickenings that give rise to many of the cranial sense organs (ear, nose, lateral line) and ganglia, originated as such novel structures, when vertebrate ancestors elaborated their head in support of a more active and exploratory life style. This review addresses the question of how cranial placodes evolved by tinkering with ectodermal patterning mechanisms and sensory and neurosecretory cell types that have their own evolutionary history. With phylogenetic relationships among the major branches of metazoans now relatively well established, a comparative approach is used to infer, which structures evolved in which lineages and allows us to trace the origin of placodes and their components back from ancestor to ancestor. Some of the core networks of ectodermal patterning and sensory and neurosecretory differentiation were already established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians and were greatly elaborated in the bilaterian ancestor (with BMP- and Wnt-dependent patterning of dorsoventral and anteroposterior ectoderm and multiple neurosecretory and sensory cell types). Rostral and caudal protoplacodal domains, giving rise to some neurosecretory and sensory cells, were then established in the ectoderm of the chordate and tunicate-vertebrate ancestor, respectively. However, proper cranial placodes as clusters of proliferating progenitors producing high-density arrays of neurosecretory and sensory cells only evolved and diversified in the ancestors of vertebrates. PMID:25662263

  20. Making a vertebrate limb: New players enter from the wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Martin

    2001-01-01

    Summary What initiates vertebrate limb development and induces limbs to form where they do? For several years the answer to this intriguing question has been framed in terms of a working model that limb induction depends on a dialogue between two members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family of intercellular signaling molecules, FGF8 and FGF10. Now, a recent paper