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1

Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. PMID:10217474

Schittek, A

1999-01-01

2

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-10

3

Subclavian and Vertebral Arterial Interventions  

PubMed Central

Endovascular treatment of supra-aortic atherosclerotic arterial stenoses and occlusions using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement is an accepted first-choice procedure. Technical success, primary success, and midterm patency after PTA and stent placement for the treatment of stenosed or obstructed brachiocephalic arteries are promising and complication rates are low. Permanent miniaturization and device improvement makes treatment of atherosclerotic obstructive disease by endovascular means in brachial and cephalic arteries a safe procedure showing promising midterm patency rates.

Muller-Hulsbeck, S.

2007-01-01

4

Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.  

PubMed

We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. PMID:23454143

Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

2013-05-01

5

"Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." PMID:21440457

Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

2012-11-01

6

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

7

Anomalous origin of right vertebral artery from right external carotid artery.  

PubMed

A 50 years old male was admitted with sub-arachnoid haemorrhage. Angiographic examination revealed an abnormal origin of the right vertebral artery from the right external carotid artery. Multiple variations in the origin of right vertebral artery have been reported in literatures. Anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery from the right external carotid artery has not been reported earlier. PMID:20392388

Nasir, Sadaf; Hussain, Manzar; Khan, Sikandar Ali; Mansoor, Muhammad Ayub; Sharif, Salman

2010-03-01

8

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature.

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung

2013-01-01

9

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before.

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

10

Simultaneous Bilateral Vertebral Artery 3D Rotational Angiography  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe the first reported use of simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery rotational angiography to visualize an aneurysm. Images acquired from 3D rotational angiography with a single vertebral injection provided insufficient anatomic detail in two cases with vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms associated with fenestration. Therefore, simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery 3D rotational runs were performed. Anatomic detail was superior with the simultaneous injection and this allowed for the appropriate plan of care to be instituted. In the rare cases of vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm associated with fenestration, simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery 3D rotational angiography may provide the most useful anatomic detail when evaluating a patient for possible endovascular intervention.

Reavey-Cantwell, J.F.; Lewis, S.B.; Firment, C.

2005-01-01

11

Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management.

Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

2012-01-01

12

Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections. Vertigo is seen generally in the upper middle aged patients. Vertigo can be observed in dolichoectasia of basilar artery such as angulation and elongation, because of the diminished blood supply and changed hemodynamic factors of vestibular nuclei and its connections. We hypothesized that angulation or elongation of basilar artery can be estimated according to the unilateral vertebral artery dominant hypertensive patients. The basilar artery can angulate from the dominant side of vertebral artery to the recessive side. These angulation and elongation can effect the hemodynamic factors in absence of growing collateral arteries. So, the vertigo attacks may occur in these patients. PMID:18037573

Cosar, Murat; Yaman, Mehmet; Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Ozen, Oguz A

2008-01-01

13

Vertebral artery dissection as a cause of cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The acute onset of neck pain and arm weakness is most commonly due to cervical radiculopathy or inflammatory brachial plexopathy. Rarely, extracranial vertebral artery dissection may cause radiculopathy in the absence of brainstem ischemia. We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection presenting as cervical radiculopathy in a previously healthy 43-year-old woman who presented with proximal left arm weakness and neck pain aggravated by movement. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed dissection of the left vertebral artery with an intramural hematoma compressing the left C5 and C6 nerve roots. Antiplatelet treatment was commenced, and full power returned after 2 months. Recognition of vertebral artery dissection on cervical MRI as a possible cause of cervical radiculopathy is important to avoid interventions within the intervertebral foramen such as surgery or nerve root sleeve injection. Treatment with antithrombotic agents is important to prevent secondary ischemic events. PMID:24353851

Silbert, Benjamin Isaac; Khangure, Mark; Silbert, Peter Linton

2013-12-01

14

Direct transposition of the distal cervical vertebral artery into the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

From January 1979 to December 1991, 92 revascularizations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery were performed in 91 patients through a direct transposition of this artery into the internal carotid artery (ICA). These cases represented 15.1% of 610 vertebral revascularizations and 38.8% of 280 distal vertebral revascularizations performed during this period at our institution. The sex ratio of

Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer; Gérald Rancurel; Amine Bahnini; Carlo Ruotolo; Giulio Illuminati

1995-01-01

15

Giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery: case report.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial vertebral artery are extremely rare due to their deep location and the anatomical protection of this artery. They can be caused by cervical traumas (firearm injuries, sports, hyperextension of the neck and iatrogeny). The authors report the case of a patient who developed a giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery after surgery for the removal of a tumor of the cerebellopontine angle in which surgical lesion of the artery occurred. Treatment was performed by endovascular approach. Literature is reviewed and comments are made on the physiopathogeny of the lesion and the different forms of treatment. PMID:8984990

Gallo, P; Dalacorte, A; Raupp, E; Santos, A J; Frank, M R; Saraiva, G A

1996-06-01

16

Direct vertebral artery access for the endovascular treatment of basilar artery aneurysms.  

PubMed

The femoral approach has been considered the preferred technique for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Occasionally, aneurysms are not amenable to the standard femoral approach. We describe four cases of basilar artery aneurysm that were treated by the direct vertebral artery access of V1 at the cervical region. The direct vertebral artery access technique can provide an alternative route in selected cases for the treatment of basilar artery aneurysms. PMID:22440598

Vanzin, J R; Bambini Manzato, L; Slaviero, F; Strzelecki, M; D'agostini Annes, R

2012-03-01

17

Direct Vertebral Artery Access for the Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary The femoral approach has been considered the preferred technique for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Occasionally, aneurysms are not amenable to the standard femoral approach. We describe four cases of basilar artery aneurysm that were treated by the direct vertebral artery access of V1 at the cervical region. The direct vertebral artery access technique can provide an alternative route in selected cases for the treatment of basilar artery aneurysms.

Vanzin, J.R.; Bambini Manzato, L.; Slaviero, F.; Strzelecki, M.; D'Agostini Annes, R.

2012-01-01

18

The Approach to Intracranial and Extracranial Vertebral Artery Stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25% of ischemic strokes involve the posterior or vertebrobasilar circulation, which is associated with a mortality\\u000a of 20-30%. Posterior circulation strokes are predominantly due to embolism and large artery disease. This chapter focuses\\u000a on the percutaneous management of patients with significant atherosclerotic stenosis of the extracranial and intracranial\\u000a vertebral artery.

J. Emilio Exaire; Jacqueline Saw

19

Case report on vertebral artery dissection in mixed martial arts.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man presented to the ED with severe vertigo 2 days after a grappling injury while training in mixed martial arts. Imaging revealed a cerebellar infarct with complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery secondary to dissection. Management options are discussed as is the ongoing controversy regarding the safety of the sport. PMID:22487672

Slowey, Michael; Maw, Graeme; Furyk, Jeremy

2012-04-01

20

Osteochondroma of C1 causing vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Spinal osteochondromas constitute a small percentage of all intraspinal tumours, and are a rare cause of neurological symptoms. We describe a patient with a vertebral artery occlusion secondary to an osteochondroma of the C1 vertebra presenting with symptoms of cerebral ischaemia. This case is reported because of its extreme rarity. PMID:22844969

Altaf, Farhaan; Movlik, Harvard; Brew, Stefan; Rezajooi, Kia; Casey, Adrian

2013-02-01

21

Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

2013-12-01

22

Flow-area relationship in internal carotid and vertebral arteries  

PubMed Central

Subject-specific computational and experimental models of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms require the specification of physiologic flow conditions. Because patient-specific flow data is not always available, researchers have used “typical” or population average flow rates and waveforms. However, in order to be able to compare the magnitude of hemodynamic variables between different aneurysms or groups of aneurysms (e.g. ruptured vs. unruptured) it is necessary to scale the flow rates to the area of the inflow artery. In this work, a relationship between flow rates and vessel areas is derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance measurements in the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries of normal subjects.

Cebral, J R; Castro, M A; Putman, C M; Alperin, N

2009-01-01

23

Giant vertebral artery aneurysm in a child treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization  

PubMed Central

Background: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are extremely rare in the pediatric population and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes a case of a pediatric patient with giant vertebral artery aneurysm who presented with intracranial mass effect. This patient was successfully treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization. Case Description: A 7-year-old girl presented with tetraparesis, ataxia, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Cerebral angiography revealed intracranial giant aneurysm arising from the right vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular parent artery occlusion alone to facilitate aneurysmal thrombosis as an initial treatment. This was done to avoid a coil mass effect to the brainstem. However, incomplete thrombosis occurred in the vicinity of the vertebral artery union. Therefore, additional coil embolization for residual aneurysm was performed. Two additional coil embolization procedures were performed in response to recurrence. Mass effect and clinical symptoms gradually improved, and the patient had no associated morbidity or recurrence at 2 years after the last fourth coil embolization. Conclusion: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and challenging in pediatric patients. Staged endovascular strategy can be a safe and effective treatment option.

Park, Hun-Soo; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Wada, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hironaka, Yasuo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

24

[Formation of vertebral-subclavian steal syndrome in abnormal origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic ark].  

PubMed

Presented herein is a clinical case report concerning the formation of vertebral-subclavian steal syndrome combined with occlusion of the left subclavian artery and an abnormal origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch. Duplex scanning data and angiography findings showed that the collateral compensation of haemocirculation in the upper extremity took place through the subclavian-vertebral collateral net. Doppler ultrasonography signs of the latent steal syndrome were revealed in the intracranial segment of the left vertebral artery and were confirmed by the findings of the reactive hyperthermia test. Balloon angioplasty with stenting of the 1st portion of the left subclavian artery resulted in normalization of the Doppler spectrum in the intracranial segment of the left vertebral artery. PMID:21983471

Kirsanov, R I; Kulikov, V P; Arzamastsev, D D; Subbotin, Iu G

2011-01-01

25

Management of hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms involving posterior inferior artery.  

PubMed

We reported 2 cases with hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and one was treated with aneurysm trapping and PICA-VA anastomosis, whereas another was treated with coil embolization and VA-to-PICA stent placement. We suggest both bypass surgery and VA-to-PICA stent placement are good options for PICA revascularization. PMID:24621719

Guo, Liemei; Wan, Jieqing; Qiu, Yongming; Zhang, Xiaohua

2014-03-01

26

Extracranial Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Presenting as a Chronic Cervical Mass Lesion  

PubMed Central

Background. Aneurysms of the extracranial vertebral artery are rare and can provide a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Methods. We reviewed the clinical history of a patient presenting with cervical radiculopathy, who harboured an extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm eroding the cervical spine. Results. CT Angiography and MR Angiography set the diagnosis, by revealing a left C5-C6 vertebral artery aneurysm with cervical root impingement. Bony reconstruction depicted enlargement of the C6 transverse foramen and a marked enlargement of the C6-C7 intravertebral foramen. The lesion was treated by intravascular proximal vertebral artery occlusion. Conclusions. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms require a high index of clinical suspicion. This is the first report of a vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with bony erosion, which supports a less minacious portrayal of vertebral artery aneurysms.

Stavrinou, Lampis C.; Stranjalis, George; Stavrinou, Pantelis C.; Bontozoglou, N.; Sakas, Damianos E.

2010-01-01

27

Multiple symptomatic vertebral artery loops treated with posterior cervical fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) loops are rare and their management is challenging. A 55-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of frequent episodes of presyncope and mild left C5 radiculopathy that was exacerbated by flexion or extension of his neck. Examination revealed complex left VA loops at C2\\/3 and C4. The patient underwent posterior cervical fusion which resolved his

Nader S. Dahdaleh; Gregory W. Albert; David M. Hasan

2010-01-01

28

Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery dissection: a review.  

PubMed

Dissection of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries is increasingly recognized as a cause of transient ischemic attacks and stroke. The annual incidence of spontaneous carotid artery dissection is 2.5 to 3 per 100,000, while the annual incidence of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection is 1 to 1.5 per 100,000. Traumatic dissection occurs in approximately 1% of all patients with blunt injury mechanisms, and is frequently initially unrecognized. Overall, dissections are estimated to account for only 2% of all ischemic strokes, but they are an important factor in the young, and account for approximately 20% of strokes in patients less than 45 years of age. Arterial dissection can cause ischemic stroke either by thromboemboli forming at the site of injury or as a result of hemodynamic insufficiency due to severe stenosis or occlusion. Available evidence strongly favors embolism as the most common cause. Both anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents have been advocated as treatment methods, but there is limited evidence on which to base these recommendations. A Cochrane review on the topic of antithrombotic drugs for carotid dissection did not identify any randomized trials, and did not find that anticoagulants were superior to antiplatelet agents for the primary outcomes of death and disability. Healing of arterial dissections occurs within three to six months, with resolution of stenosis seen in 90%, and recanalization of occlusions in as many as 50%. Dissecting aneurysms resolve on follow-up imaging in 5-40%,decrease in size in 15-30%, and remain unchanged in 50-65%. Resolution is more common in vertebral dissections than in carotid dissections. Aneurysm enlargement occurs rarely. The uncommon patient presenting with acute hemodynamic insufficiency should be managed with measures to increase cerebral blood flow, and in this setting emergency stent placement to restore cerebral perfusion may be considered, provided that irreversible infarction has not already occurred. PMID:18574926

Redekop, Gary John

2008-05-01

29

Numerical simulation of vertebral artery stenosis treated with different stents.  

PubMed

We sought to investigate the effects of endovascular stents with different links for treating stenotic vertebral artery and to determine the relationship between the shape of the link and in-stent restenosis (ISR). We also attempted to provide scientific guidelines for stent design and selection for clinical procedures. Models of three types of stent with different links (L-stent, V-stent, and S-stent) and an idealized stenotic vertebral artery were established. The deployment procedure for the stent in the stenotic vertebral artery was simulated for solid mechanics analysis. Next, the deformed models were extracted to construct the blood flow domain, and numerical simulations of the hemodynamics in these models were performed using the finite element method. The numerical results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with the L-stent and V-stent, the S-stent has a better flexibility and induces less stress in the stent strut. Furthermore, less stress is generated in the arterial wall. (2) Vascular straightening is scarcely influenced by the shape of the link, but it is closely related to the flexibility of the stent. (3) The S-stent has the smallest foreshortening among the three types of stents. (4) Compared with the V-stent and S-stent, the L-stent causes a smaller area with low wall shear stress, less blood stagnation area, and better blood flow close to the artery wall. From the viewpoint of the combination of solid mechanics and hemodynamics, the S-stent has better therapeutic effects because of its lower potential for inducing ISR and its better prospects in clinical applications compared with the L-stent and V-stent. PMID:24337228

Qiao, Aike; Zhang, Zhanzhu

2014-04-01

30

Multidetector computed tomography angiography: Application in vertebral artery dissection  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is a minimally invasive radiological technique providing high-resolution images of the arterial wall and angiographic images of the lumen. We studied the radiological features of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a consecutive series of patients investigated for acute stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to confirm and define the diagnostic features of VAD on MDCTA. Patients and Methods: Review of patients identified prospectively over a 4-year period with VAD assessed by MDCTA was conducted. Radiological features of VAD on MDCTA were reanalyzed utilising previously reported criteria for VAD. Results: Thirty-five patients (25 males, mean age 49.6 years) with a total of 45 dissected vertebral arteries were reviewed. MDCTA features of VAD included increased wall thickness in 44/45 (97.7%) arteries and increased total vessel diameter in 42/45 arteries (93.3%). All dissected arteries had either lumen stenosis (21/45) or associated segmental occlusion (24/45). An intimal flap was detected in 6/45 (13.3 %) vessels. Twenty-five patients had follow-up imaging, 14/32 vessels returned to normal, 4 showed improvement in stenosis but did not return to normal and 14 demonstrated no change. The majority of non-occluded vessels became normal or displayed improved patency. Only 4/17 occluded arteries demonstrated re-establishment of flow. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusions: MDCTA is a safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of VAD. Increased wall thickness (97.7%) and increased vessel wall diameter (93.3%) were the most frequently observed features.

Teasdale, Evelyn; Zampakis, Peter; Santosh, Celestine; Razvi, Saif

2011-01-01

31

Arterial changes in the human vertebral body associated with aging. The ratios of peripheral to central arteries and arterial coiling.  

PubMed

Microarteriography with barium has shown the topgraphic distribution of intraosseous arteries in the cadaveric human vertebral body. Two types of intraosseous artery are found in the adult vertebral body, peripheral and central, whereas in children only central arteries are found. There is a close correlation (r = 0.79) between the ratios of peripheral: central arteries against age. The central arteries develop coils, which increase proportionately in number as age advances. The possible clinical significance of these observations is discussed. The increase in peripheral arteries alters the direction of flow from centrifugal to centripetal in the aged vertebral body; this has implications for the distribution of infected material, causing vertebral osteomyelitis, and for the distribution of electric surface charges, which will alter the mineralization of the vertebral body. The increase in coiling will alter intraosseous haemodynamics, potentially increasing resistance to flow resulting in ischaemia. The coils and their sheaths will modify the height of the pulse wave within the artery, increasing agitation of extracellular fluid, thus assisting the transport of metabolites. PMID:3715624

Ratcliffe, J F

1986-04-01

32

Vertebral artery aneurysm--a unique hazard of head banging by heavy metal rockers. Case report.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old drummer in a neighborhood rock music band suffered a traumatic true aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery from violent head and neck motion. He underwent excision of the aneurysm after distal and proximal ligation of the artery. He is neurologically normal 1 year after surgery. The mechanisms of injury caused by extremes of cervical motion, as well as 5 previously reported cases of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm from closed trauma, are discussed. Excision of vertebral artery aneurysms in patients with emboli from a mural thrombus is recommended. The consequences of vertebral artery ligation and the indications for distal reconstruction are discussed. PMID:1819327

Egnor, M R; Page, L K; David, C

33

Cerebellar hemorrhage after embolization of ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to PICA including parent artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Some complications related to vertebral artery occlusion by endovascular technique have been reported. However, cerebellar hemorrhage after vertebral artery occlusion in subacute phase is rare. In this report, we describe a patient who showed cerebellar hemorrhage during hypertensive therapy for vasospasm after embolization of a vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Case Description: A 56-year-old female with a ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery developed cerebellar hemorrhage 15 days after embolization of the vertebral artery, including the dissected site. In this patient, the preserved posterior inferior cerebellar artery fed by retrograde blood flow might have been hemodynamically stressed during hypertensive and antiplatelet therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusion: Although cerebellar hemorrhage is not prone to occur in the nonacute stage of embolization of the vertebral artery, it should be taken into consideration that cerebellar hemorrhage may occur during hypertensive treatment.

Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Shima, Hiroshi; Seki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

34

[Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].  

PubMed

From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

2004-01-01

35

Occipital artery anastomosis to vertebral artery causing pulsatile tinnitus.  

PubMed

Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation. PMID:23493341

Alexander, Matthew David; English, Joey; Hetts, Steven W

2014-03-01

36

Hemifacial Spasm Developed after Contralateral Vertebral Artery Ligation  

PubMed Central

Although the mechanism of hemifacial spasm (HFS) is not yet well established, vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone and hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus have been suggested. We report a case of HFS in the setting of coinciding intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) of the pons and proximal ligation of the contralateral vertebral artery (VA) for the treatment of a fusiform aneurysm of the distal VA and discuss the possible etiologies of HFS in this patient. A 51-year-old male with an ICH of the pons was admitted to our hospital. Neuroimaging studies revealed an incidental fusiform aneurysm of the right VA distal to the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Eight months after proximal ligation of the VA the patient presented with intermittent spasm of the left side of his face. Pre- and post-ligation magnetic resonance angiography revealed an enlarged diameter of the VA. The spasm completely disappeared after microvascular decompression.

Choi, Hyuk Jai; Lee, Sung Ho; Rhee, Bong Arm

2012-01-01

37

Cervical Compressive Myelopathy due to Anomalous Bilateral Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal.

Ha, Eun Jin; Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2013-01-01

38

A case of traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury presenting with life-threatening symptoms  

PubMed Central

Traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of loss of consciousness after hitting his head. After immediate resuscitation, he showed quadriplegia and absence of spontaneous breathing. Brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atlantoaxial subluxation, fractured C2 odontoid process, left vertebral artery occlusion, and bilateral extensive ischemia in the medulla oblongata and high cervical spinal cord. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated left vertebral artery dissection just below the level of vertebral body C2.

Kishi, Seiji; Kanaji, Kenji; Doi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

2012-01-01

39

Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Child with Brachial Plexus Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is an unusual event in children, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deficits. The authors present a case of a 4-year-old boy with a traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection, who suffers from left arm monoplegia due to brachial plexus injury.

Seong-Hyun Park; Joo-Kyung Sung; Sung-Kyoo Hwang

2005-01-01

40

Treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A short report.  

PubMed

We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

2014-06-30

41

Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

2014-03-01

42

Right vertebral artery as the fourth branch of the aortic arch.  

PubMed

The present report describes an anomalous case of the right vertebral artery arising as the last branch of the aortic arch identified in a 76-year-old Japanese male cadaver during dissection in the anatomical laboratory of Kanazawa Medical University. The aortic arch itself coursed normally but the right vertebral artery was uniquely situated at the fourth branch next to the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The anomalous right vertebral artery branched into the esophageal branch, the prevertebral branch, and the second right posterior intercostal artery, and finally entered the first costotransverse foramen at the thoracic region as it passed upward through the first to the seventh transverse foramina of the cervical vertebra. The left vertebral artery was normal. The development of the right vertebral artery may be described as follows: (i) the distal portion of the right dorsal aorta, which usually disappears, persisted and became united, via post-costal longitudinal anastomosis; (ii) the right dorsal aorta between the seventh and eighth intersegmental arteries lost its connection to the main structure; and (iii) the fusion of the originally paired dorsal aorta extended around the 11th segment, which was two segments away from the normal portion of the structure. PMID:19159368

Higashi, Nobuaki; Shimada, Hiroki; Simamura, Eriko; Hatta, Toshihisa

2008-12-01

43

Atypical Anterior Spinal Artery Infarction due to Left Vertebral Artery Occlusion Presenting with Bilateral Hand Weakness  

PubMed Central

Background Infarct of the anterior spinal artery is the most common subtype of spinal cord infarct, and is characterized by bilateral motor deficits with spinothalamic sensory deficits. We experienced a case with atypical anterior-spinal-artery infarct that presented with bilateral hand weakness but without sensory deficits. Case Report A 29-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and bilateral weakness of the hands. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not reveal any lesion. His motor symptoms improved rapidly except for mild weakness in his left wrist and fingers. Magnetic resonance angiography showed proximal occlusion of the left vertebral artery; a spine MRI revealed left cervical cord infarction. Conclusions Bilateral or unilateral hand weakness can be the sole symptom of a cervical cord infarct.

Kim, Min-Ji; Jang, Mi-Hee; Choi, Mi-Song; Kang, Suk Yun; Kim, Joo Yong; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kang, Ik-Won

2014-01-01

44

Variations in Entrance of Vertebral Artery in Korean Cervical Spine: MDCT-based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the vertebral artery has clinical importance not only for the performance of interventional or surgical procedures itself but also to ensure their safety. We conducted a study of the anatomical variation by reviewing multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of the cervical spine from 460 Korean patients. Methods 16-row MDCT data from 460 patients were used in this study. We observed 920 vertebral arteries. Examination points included level of entrance of the artery into the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebra, origin site of the vertebral artery, course of a vertebral artery with aberrant entrance. Result The vertebral artery in 2 (0.2%) cases in this study entered into the transverse foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra from the left. In 45 (4.9%) cases, the vertebral artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 5th cervical vertebra. Of these, the entrance was on the right in 15 (1.6%) and on the left in 30 (3.3%). We found 17 (1.8%) cases in which the artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 4th cervical vertebra, 10 (1.1%) on the right and 7 (0.7%) on the left side. As is commonly acknowledged, the 6th cervical vertebra was the most common site of entry; the vertebral artery entered the transverse foramen of the 6th cervical vertebra in the remaining 855 (93.0%) cases, on the right in 434 (47.2%) and on the left in 421 (45.8%). Conclusions In conclusion, the possibility of an atypical course of the vertebral artery in segments V1 and V2 should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT images before carrying out procedures involving the anterior cervical vertebrae.

Shin, Hye Young; Park, Ji Kang; Park, Sun Kyung; Jung, Gyu Seo

2014-01-01

45

Effect of cervical spondylosis on vertebral arterial flow and its association with vertigo.  

PubMed

The aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of cervical spondylosis on vertebral arterial flow. The flow changes on Doppler measurements in patients with vertigo were also assessed. Ninety-one patients with different grades of degeneration on disks and apophysis were evaluated. The severity of degeneration was determined by two observers, and the effect of cervical degeneration on vertebral arterial flow was assessed. The relation between vertigo and changes in Doppler measurements of vertebral artery in neck and cranium was analyzed. As total degeneration increases, the flow volume decreases in the right vertebral artery but increases in the left. No other correlation between degeneration scores, cervical curve measurements, and Doppler measurements was noted. According to the total degeneration scores, no differences were noted between the patients with and without vertigo. In patients with vertigo, the resistive index was higher in the neck before the vertebral foramina. In correlations of the ratios of the intra/extracranial vertebral artery with Doppler measurements, the only change was observed in the left flow volume. The severity of degeneration in disks and apophysis does not cause a considerable change in vertebral arterial flow, and also no significant finding on Doppler measurements were noted in patients with vertigo. PMID:18688672

Bayrak, Ilkay Koray; Durmus, Dilek; Bayrak, Ayse Oytun; Diren, Baris; Canturk, Ferhan; Canturk, Feryal

2009-01-01

46

Intra-arterial Onyx Embolization of Vertebral Body Lesions  

PubMed Central

While Onyx embolization of cerebrospinal arteriovenous shunts is well-established, clinical researchers continue to broaden applications to other vascular lesions of the neuraxis. This report illustrates the application of Onyx (eV3, Plymouth, MN) embolization to vertebral body lesions, specifically, a vertebral hemangioma and renal cell carcinoma vertebral body metastatic lesion.

Sedora-Roman, Neda I.; Reddy, Arra Suresh; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Thomas, Ajith J.

2013-01-01

47

Intra-arterial Onyx Embolization of Vertebral Body Lesions.  

PubMed

While Onyx embolization of cerebrospinal arteriovenous shunts is well-established, clinical researchers continue to broaden applications to other vascular lesions of the neuraxis. This report illustrates the application of Onyx (eV3, Plymouth, MN) embolization to vertebral body lesions, specifically, a vertebral hemangioma and renal cell carcinoma vertebral body metastatic lesion. PMID:24729960

Sedora-Roman, Neda I; Gross, Bradley A; Reddy, Arra Suresh; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

2013-12-01

48

Stenting for Abrupt Closure of the Intracranial Vertebral Artery Complicating Balloon Angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Summary We report a case of stenting for abrupt closure of the intracranial vertebral artery complicating balloon angioplasty. A 58-year-old man with symptomatic restenosis of the intracranial vertebral artery underwent balloon angioplasty, which was complicated by acute occlusion due to wall dissection. The acute occlusion of the lesion was completely recanalized by implanting a balloon-expandable stent designed for the coronary artery. Follow-up angiography 15 months after stenting did not show severe restenosis and the patient's symptoms disappeared after stenting. This therapeutic option may be useful as a means to bail out from acute occlusion of the intracranial artery caused by endovascular procedures.

Hatano, T.; Tsukahara, T.; Araki, K.

2000-01-01

49

Stenting of Vertebral Artery Origin with the Buddy Wire Technique in Tortuous Subclavian Artery  

PubMed Central

Summary Tortuous vasculature is a common reason for failure to stabilize a guiding catheter in an appropiate position and is associated with a higher incidence of vascular complications. In such a case, the guiding catheter often buckles into the aorta during an attempt to place the balloon or stent. In this report, we used the buddy wire technique to support the guiding catheter, and we passed through the vertebral artery origin stenosis with the help of a microcatheter-microguidewire combination which enabled stent deployment. We kept the buddy wire through the guiding catheter throughout the procedure and the 6F guiding catheter allowed passages of both buddy wire and stent system.

Uysal, E.; Caliskan, C.; Caymaz, I.; Orken, D.N.; Basak, M.

2010-01-01

50

Neurological Outcome and Quality of Life after Stroke due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral artery dissection is a well-recognized cause of posterior circulation stroke for which there is relatively little information on long-term outcomes. Quality of life (QOL) is an important patient-centred outcome measure. Methods: Stroke due to vertebral artery dissection was conservatively defined by neuroimaging documentation. Thirty sequential cases were identified based on a retrospective database and chart review with prospective

Diana Czechowsky; Michael D. Hill

2002-01-01

51

Right vertebral artery as the fourth branch of the aortic arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report describes an anomalous case of the right vertebral artery arising as the last branch of the aortic arch\\u000a identified in a 76-year-old Japanese male cadaver during dissection in the anatomical laboratory of Kanazawa Medical University.\\u000a The aortic arch itself coursed normally but the right vertebral artery was uniquely situated at the fourth branch next to\\u000a the brachiocephalic

Nobuaki Higashi; Hiroki Shimada; Eriko Simamura; Toshihisa Hatta

2008-01-01

52

Evaluation of vertebral artery involvement by Doppler sonography in patients with behcet disease.  

PubMed

Objectives- Neurologic lesions in Behçet disease are most frequently observed in areas supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. We aimed to evaluate possible vertebral artery involvement by Doppler sonography in patients with Behçet disease. Methods- Forty-five patients with Behçet disease and 29 healthy volunteers had Doppler sonography of the vertebral arteries. Patients were grouped according to neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging findings as follows: group 1, Behçet disease without neurologic involvement; group 2, neuro-Behçet disease; and group 3, control. Results were assessed with a 95% confidence interval. Results- The main findings of our study were as follows: (1) total vertebral artery volume flow was significantly lower in the patient groups than the control group (P< .05); (2) total volume flow was lower in group 2 than group 1, although the difference was not statistically significant; (3) peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity values were significantly lower in the patient groups than the control group; (4) right and left mean volume values were lower in group 2; and (5) resistive and pulsatility index values for the left vertebral artery were significantly higher in group 2, but no statistically significant differences were found in the resistive and pulsatility index values for the right vertebral artery. Conclusions- Doppler sonography of the vertebral arteries in Behçet disease shows alterations that may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:24764336

Ta?olar, Sevgi; Do?an, Metin; Ta?olar, Hakan; Kahraman, Ay?egul; Kam??l?, Suat; Do?an, Adil; Y?ld?r?m, Okan; Kap?c?o?lu, Yelda

2014-05-01

53

Ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct percutaneous puncture for basilar artery mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke: a technical report.  

PubMed

A middle aged patient presented with acute ischemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion. The patient clinically deteriorated despite intravenous thrombolysis and was referred for mechanical thrombectomy. The right vertebral artery was occluded and could not be accessed despite attempting various shaped catheters, even when a radial artery access was used. The left vertebral artery ended in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Eventually, ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct puncture was successfully done and the procedure was completed. No access related complications were encountered. Direct cervical arterial puncture can be safely used by experienced operators as a last resort in acute stroke cases with difficult access. PMID:23563477

Desai, Jamsheed A; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Hill, Michael D; Goyal, Mayank; Eesa, Muneer

2014-04-01

54

Ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct percutaneous puncture for basilar artery mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke: a technical report.  

PubMed

A middle aged patient presented with acute ischemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion. The patient clinically deteriorated despite intravenous thrombolysis and was referred for mechanical thrombectomy. The right vertebral artery was occluded and could not be accessed despite attempting various shaped catheters, even when a radial artery access was used. The left vertebral artery ended in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Eventually, ultrasound guided V3 segment vertebral artery direct puncture was successfully done and the procedure was completed. No access related complications were encountered. Direct cervical arterial puncture can be safely used by experienced operators as a last resort in acute stroke cases with difficult access. PMID:23536646

Desai, Jamsheed A; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Hill, Michael D; Goyal, Mayank; Eesa, Muneer

2013-01-01

55

Vertebral Artery Aneurysm – A Unique Hazard of Head Banging by Heavy Metal Rockers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year-old drummer in a neighborhood rock music band suffered a traumatic true aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery from violent head and neck motion. He underwent excision of the aneurysm after distal and proximal ligation of the artery. He is neurologically normal 1 year after surgery. The mechanisms of injury caused by extremes of cervical motion, as well as

Michael R. Egnor; Larry K. Page; Carlos David

1992-01-01

56

Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

2005-06-01

57

Endovascular Management of Pediatric High-Flow Vertebro-Vertebral Fistula with Reversed Basilar Artery Flow  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed.

Honarmand, A.R.; Ansari, S.A.; Alden, T.D.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Hurley, M.C.; Rahman, O.; Shaibani, A.

2013-01-01

58

Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%), atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%), possible dissections (2.6%), kinked arteries (2.6%) and coiling (32.0%). Eighteen patients (2.8%) with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5%) and 15 cases (2.3%) were possible dissections. Conclusion We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. In general, posterior vascular pathology is not uncommon, and CTA is a useful modality in the detection of changes based on characteristics and locations of findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries. Ultrasound examination can be a useful supplementary tool in deciding the consequence of vascular findings on CTA.

Bentsen, L.; Nygard, A.; Ovesen, C.; Christensen, A.; Rosenbaum, S.; Havsteen, I.; Christensen, H.

2014-01-01

59

Anomalous vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction  

PubMed Central

Background: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare condition. Case Description: A 63-year-old female was originally diagnosed with occult hydrocephalus syndrome after presenting with symptoms of ataxia and urinary incontinence. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting induced an acute worsening of the patient?s symptoms as she immediately developed a sensory myelopathy. An MR scan demonstrated multiple congenital abnormalities including cervicomedullary stenosis with anomalous vertebral artery compression of the dorsal spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. The patient was taken to surgery for a suboccipital craniectomy, C1-2 laminectomy, vertebral artery decompression, duraplasty, and shunt ligation. Intraoperative findings confirmed preoperative radiography with ectactic vertebral arteries deforming the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. There were no procedural complications and at a 6-month follow-up appointment, the patient had experienced a marked improvement in her preoperative signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare disorder amenable to operative neurovascular decompression.

Ball, Bret Gene; Krueger, Bruce R; Piepgras, David G

2011-01-01

60

Bilateral segmental agenesis of carotid and vertebral arteries with rete mirabile and the prominent anterior and posterior spinal arteries as compensations.  

PubMed

Agenesis of carotid or vertebrobasilar arteries with rete formation is rare. The anterior spinal artery or posterior spinal arteries supplying the posterior circulation with steno-occlusion or agenesis of bilateral vertebral arteries is also uncommon. Here, we describe a very rare case of concomitant segmental agenesis of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries with collateral compensations from the prominent anterior spinal artery and posterior spinal arteries, as well as some transdural arterial networks which were considered a rete mirabile. We discuss its embryological and anatomic significance. PMID:24556295

Lu, Jun; Liu, Jiachun; Wang, Lijun; Qi, Peng; Wang, Daming

2014-01-01

61

Cerebellar infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by a hypertrophied uncovertebral joint.  

PubMed

We report a case of cerebellar infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by a hypertrophied uncovertebral joint. A 38-year-old man presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and dysarthria. The magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery (SCA). Magnetic resonance, 3-dimensional computed tomographic, and conventional angiography revealed severe right vertebral artery stenosis by extrinsic compression of the hypertrophied right C5-C6 uncovertebral joint. The diagnosis was acute cerebellar infarction, which was probably caused by embolism from the right vertebral artery stenosis that was caused by the hypertrophied C5-C6 uncovertebral joint. C5-C6 anterior discectomy and fusion were performed together with direct uncovertebral joint decompression. Postoperative 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography revealed improvement in antegrade filling in the right vertebral artery. The imaging findings for this patient and the pathogenesis of cerebellar infarction for our patient are discussed. PMID:22365284

Choi, Jong Mun; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Chang, Suk Ki; Oh, Sung Han

2012-11-01

62

Vertebral artery dissection presenting as a Brown-S?quard syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertebral artery dissection has become increasingly recognized as an important cause of stroke. It usually presents with posterior headache or neck pain followed within hours or days by signs of posterior circulation stroke. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical presentation of a Brown-Séquard syndrome with a vertebral artery dissection has been reported only once before. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 35-year-old man presented with acute left-sided weakness. He had experienced left-sided posterior neck pain after a 4-hour flight 4 weeks previously. Physical examination was consistent with a left Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance angiography showed evidence of left vertebral artery dissection. He improved after therapy with anticoagulants. Conclusion We report a case of an unusual presentation of a relatively uncommon condition. This diagnosis should be considered early in relatively young patients with stroke-like symptoms or unexplained neck pain, because missing a dissection can result in adverse outcomes.

2009-01-01

63

[Contralateral suboccipital approach for clipping of an unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm].  

PubMed

Numerous approaches have been used to access aneurysms of the vertebral artery(VA)-posterior inferior cerebellar artery(PICA)complex for microsurgical clipping. Here, we report the case of a patient with an unruptured aneurysm of the left VA-PICA complex that was successfully treated using a contralateral suboccipital approach. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a small saccular aneurysm arising from the lateral aspect of the left V4 segment just distal to the PICA origin. The aneurysm deviated to the right from the midline at the level of the jugular tubercle on angiographic evaluation, so we selected a contralateral suboccipital approach. The aneurysm was completely obliterated by neck clipping. After surgery, slight dysphagia and hoarseness appeared, but dysphagia disappeared within several days and hoarseness disappeared within 5 months. VA-PICA aneurysms can vary in their relationship to cranial nerves, brainstem, and bones of the skull base. Neurosurgeons should consider using a contralateral approach for certain aneurysms arising from a tortuous VA that has crossed the midline. PMID:24388938

Maeda, Kazushi; Tanaka, Shunya; Miyazono, Masayuki; Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, So; Nagaoka, Shintaro; Uesaka, Toshio; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Uno, Junji; Gi, Hidefuku

2014-01-01

64

Unilateral right occipital condyle to C2 level spinal cord infarction associated with ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis and contralateral vertebral artery dissection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objectives To illustrate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of unilateral right occipital condyle to C2 level spinal cord infarction. Setting A teaching hospital in Taiwan. Findings A 37-year-old man presented with acute-onset severe right neck pain before weakness developed in both right limbs. Early diagnosis was delayed due to mild intervertebral herniation of the C4–C5 disk. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed unilateral right occipital condyle to C2 level infarction. Angiography showed stenosis of the right vertebral artery (foraminal and intradural segments), and dissection of the left vertebral artery at the C1–C2 level. At discharge, he walked with assistance; 2 weeks later, he walked independently. Conclusions An early diagnosis is difficult but important, as it facilitates appropriate treatment for better functional and survival outcomes. Accurate early diagnosis can be made with adequate knowledge of spinal cord infarction and high index of suspicion for this condition.

Wang, Chin-Man; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Lo, Yang-Lan; Chen, Ji-Yih; Wong, Alice M-K

2011-01-01

65

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection in an adult with brachial plexus injury and cervical spinal fractures  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 32 year-old right-hand dominant woman who sustained a right brachial plexus injury, ipsilateral fractures of the cervical spine transverse processes, and vertebral artery dissection. She presented to us four days following the initiating accident. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed normal brachial plexus along with vertebral artery dissection with intramural thrombus and vascular lumen occlusion. The dissection was managed conservatively. A repeat CAT-SCAN Angiography three months later showed healing of the dissection plus vascular lumen re-canalization. There were no sequelae due to the dissection. The details of the case are discussed in this report.

2007-01-01

66

Successful treatment of a ruptured aneurysm at the vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery junction and simultaneous treatment of the stenotic vertebral artery with a single flow-diverting stent: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction This is the first report on the simultaneous successful treatment of a large ruptured saccular aneurysm and stenotic parent artery with a single flow-diverting stent. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man with occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery-left vertebral artery that was successfully treated by the deployment of a single flow-diverting stent in the stenotic left vertebral artery. Stent deployment was complicated by thrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery, which was successfully reopened. The patient recovered completely, and follow-up angiography at 4 months and 1 year showed patent vertebral artery with gradual shrinkage of the aneurysm. Conclusions This report contributes to the literature on treatment of large ruptured aneurysms localized in stenotic arteries and in areas of the endocranium where a mass of embolic material in the aneurysm (coils) might compromise the circulation in the parent blood vessel or compress vital brain structures.

2014-01-01

67

A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments. PMID:24321776

Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-02-01

68

Acute vertebral artery origin occlusion leading to basilar artery thrombosis successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting and thrombectomy.  

PubMed

Few reports have described the successful treatment of stroke caused by acute vertebral artery (VA) origin occlusion by endovascular surgery. We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who experienced stroke due to left acute VA origin occlusion. Cerebral angiography showed that the left VA was occluded at its origin, the right VA had hypoplastic and origin stenosis, and the basilar artery was occluded by a thrombus. The VA origin occlusion was initially passed through with a 0.035-inch guide wire. An angioplasty was performed, and a coronary stent was appropriately placed. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. A balloon-assisted guiding catheter was navigated through the stent and a thrombectomy was performed using the Penumbra system. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Balloon-assisted catheter guidance through a vertebral artery stent permitted a successful thrombectomy using the Penumbra system and may be useful for treating stroke due to VA origin occlusion. PMID:24976095

Abe, Arata; Okubo, Seiji; Onozawa, Shiro; Nakajima, Masataka; Suzuki, Kentaro; Harada-Abe, Mina; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

2014-06-30

69

A case of vertebral artery dissection associated with morning blood pressure surge.  

PubMed

We report a case of a middle-aged man who suffered a cerebral infarction resulting from dissection of a vertebral artery associated with morning blood pressure surge. A 56-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with dizziness and vomiting in the early morning on a cold day in winter. He reported that he had been standing in front of the sink after bathing when he suddenly felt dizzy and fell down. He did not lose consciousness, and by the time he reached the hospital by ambulance, his dizziness had subsided, but he complained of severe headache and vomited 3 times. On admission, he was alert, and there were no neurological or radiological abnormalities (CT, MR angiography) in the brain. However, infarction in the left cerebellar hemisphere was detected by brain MRI on the 5th day of hospitalization. String sign of the left vertebral artery was noted by angiography, confirming the diagnosis of dissection of the left vertebral artery. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed after discharge. Although the mean 24-h blood pressure was in the normal range, a marked morning blood pressure rise was observed. We speculated that the acute rise of blood pressure in the early morning might have contributed to the dissection of the vertebral artery. PMID:16471179

Eguchi, Kazuo; Tachikawa, Yuichi; Kashima, Ryuichi; Shinohara, Michi; Fukushima, Fumiya; Sato, Takashi; Takeda, Akira; Numao, Toshio; Numao, Toshiro; Kario, Kazuomi; Shimada, Kazuyuki

2005-10-01

70

Concurrent basilar artery double fenestration with aneurysm and vertebral artery dissection: case report and literature review of rare cerebrovascular abnormalities.  

PubMed

Many disorders can cause aneurysm and/or dissection of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), connective tissue disorders, cerebral vasculitis, infection, and vascular malformations. Arterial fenestration is a rare congenital finding that can also cause aneurysms, and can rarely dissect and bleed. Treatment of aneurysm and dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage can be very complicated, and requires case-by-case analysis of the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy. To the authors' knowledge, no case of double fenestration of the basilar artery has been reported. This report presents a case of concurring vertebral artery dissection and double fenestration of the basilar artery with aneurysm. The fenestration and FMD are considered possible main contributing causes of this presentation. A literature review of cerebrovascular fenestration and FMD is provided and the relationship between the 2 is considered. Lastly, the use of antithrombotic therapy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage, dissection, and stent placement is discussed. PMID:23548267

Stark, Madeline M; Skeik, Nedaa; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Crandall, Benjamin M; Tubman, David E

2013-05-01

71

Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology  

PubMed Central

Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ.

Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

2014-01-01

72

Bilateral asymmetrical duplicated origin of vertebral arteries: Multidetector row CT angiographic study  

PubMed Central

Bilateral duplicated origin of V-1 segment of vertebral arteries is an extremely rare vascular variant and only two such cases have been reported so far. Presence of this vascular abnormality was observed incidentally in a 36-year-old male patient, with a complaint of dizziness, evaluated by multidetector row computed tomography (CT) angiography. Two limbs of the right vertebral artery arose from the right subclavian artery and fused to form a single vessel at the interval between fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae, which entered the foramen transversarium of fourth cervical vertebra. On the left side, the medial limb originated directly from the arch of aorta and the lateral limb from the left subclavian artery, and both united at the interval between fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae to form a single vessel which entered the foramen transversarium of fifth cervical vertebra. No other cerebrovascular pathology like aneurysm, fenestration, dissection, and stenosis was detected, which could be correlated with the symptoms of the patient. This rare congenital vascular anomaly has diagnostic and therapeutic implications in any intervention involving the vertebral artery.

Rameshbabu, CS; Gupta, OM Prakash; Gupta, Kanchan Kumar; Qasim, Muhammad

2014-01-01

73

Pseudoaneurysm of Lumbar Artery following a Vertebral Biopsy: A Case Report.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man developed a severe low back pain and a fever. In the initial examinations, a collapse of the L5 anterosuperior vertebral body and narrowing of the L4/5 disc space were identified on radiographs, and the laboratory data showed inflammatory results. A computed tomography (CT) and a magnetic resonance imaging showed collapse of L5. A needle biopsy was performed to make a diagnosis; however, an abdominal pain and a hypotension appeared after the biopsy. An abdominal CT showed a hematoma in the retroperitoneal space, and an angiography revealed a left fourth lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with transcatheter placement of microcoils. Although haemorrhagic complications following needle biopsy are very rare, patients with large amounts of vertebral destruction may have unusual anatomical positions of the lumber artery. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of lumbar artery injury during a needle biopsy and take care of prebiopsy plans. PMID:22606563

Mifune, Yutaka; Yagi, Masayoshi; Iwasaki, Yasunobu; Doita, Minoru

2012-01-01

74

Altered Hemodynamics Associated with Pathogenesis of the Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The etiology of the vertebral dissecting aneurysms is largely unknown, and they frequently occurs in relatively healthy young men. Objectives and Methods. A series of 57 consecutive cases defined by angiography were evaluated with regard to deviation in the course of the affected and contralateral vertebral arteries. Division was into 3 types: Type I without any deviation, Type II with mild-to-moderate deviation but not over the midline; and Type III with marked deviation over to the contralateral side beyond the midline. Results. The most frequent type of VA running was Type III for the affected and Type I nonaffected side, with this being found in all 17 patients except one. All of the Type III dissections occurred just proximal to a tortuous portion, while in cases with Type-I- and Type-II-affected sides, the majority (33 of 39) occurred near the union of the vertebral artery. In 10 of 57, a non-dominant side was affected, all except one being of Type I or II. With 12 recent patients assessed angiographically in detail for hemodynamics, eleven patients showed contrast material retrograde inflowing into the pseudolumen from the distal portion of the dissection site. Turbulent blood flow was recognized in all of these patients with retrograde inflow. Conclusions. Turbulent blood flow is one etiology of vertebral artery dissection aneurysms, with the sites in the majority of the cases being just proximal to a tortuous portion or union of vessels. In cases with dissection proximal to the tortuous course of the vertebral artery, retrograde inflow will occur more frequently than antegrade, which should be taken into account in designing therapeutic strategies.

Kurata, Akira; Suzuki, Sachio; Iwamoto, Kazuhisa; Nakahara, Kuniaki; Abe, Katsutoshi; Inukai, Madoka; Niki, June; Sasaki, Makoto; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Konno, Shingo; Kan, Shinichi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

2012-01-01

75

[Myelomalacia caused by embolism of the substantia gelatinosa in the vertebral column and spinal cord arteries].  

PubMed

A 56 year old woman developed a transverse lumbar paraplegia within two hours following a jump from an 80 centimeter high window. The patient died 13 days later from a pulmonary embolus. At autopsy an intervertebral disc tissue embolus was found in the arteries to the 12th thoracic vertebral body and the spinal cord. The embolus originated in a Schmorl nodule in the 12th thoracic vertebral body. The findings and the clinical course suggest that dislodged nucleus pulposus tissue was expressed into the vascular system over some time as a result of tears in small vessels. The implications for treatment of patients with similar spinal cord symptoms are considered. PMID:3716660

Barz, H; Majerowitsch, B

1986-01-01

76

Atlanto-axial dislocation associated with anomalous single vertebral artery and agenesis of unilateral internal carotid artery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of an anomalous single midline vertebral artery (VA) in a case of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). The left VA coursed in the midline at craniovertebral junction as there was no right VA. The left internal carotid artery was also not formed. This was a case report of a 34-year-old male patient who presented with features of high cervical myelopathy. On evaluation, he had fixed AAD. There was inadvertent intra-operative VA injury, which was sealed to control the brisk bleeding to require stenting ultimately. Patient did not survive and expired after 5 days due to brain edema secondary to compromised anomalous intracranial circulation.

Mehrotra, Anant; Chunnilal, Jayesh Sardara; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Srivastava, Arun; Kumar, Raj

2013-01-01

77

Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment.  

PubMed

Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries. PMID:21577335

Al Barbarawi, Mohamed; Odat, Ziad; Alheis, Mwaffaq; Qudsieh, Suhair; Qudsieh, Tareq

2010-01-01

78

Stenting of the vertebral artery origin with ostium dilation: technical note.  

PubMed

Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery (VA) origin stenosis typically requires placement of the proximal end of the stent within the lumen of the subclavian artery or aorta to provide complete coverage of the ostial lesion. This configuration may complicate subsequent endovascular access into the stented VA. We describe a technique modification of VA origin stenting and angioplasty with a monorail angioplasty balloon system designed specifically for dilation of the ostial origin which may be helpful in conforming the proximal portion of the stent to the VA origin. Simplified endovascular access to the VA origin after angioplasty is demonstrated. PMID:22935348

Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2013-09-01

79

Atherosclerosis in the vertebral artery: an intrinsic risk factor in the use of spinal manipulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of atherosclerotic plaques and their influence on the vertebral artery is of clinical importance within the scope\\u000a of spinal manipulation. Manipulation may stimulate the development of atherosclerotic plaques, could detach an embolus with\\u000a ensuing infarction, injure the endothelium or may directly cause a dissection in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques.\\u000a In order to identify the sites and frequency

Barbara Cagnie; Erik Barbaix; Elke Vinck; Katharina D’Herde; Dirk Cambier

2006-01-01

80

Endovascular management of symptomatic vertebral artery origin stenosis in the presence of an acute thrombus.  

PubMed

A woman in her early 60s with hypertension and hyperlipidemia was undergoing investigations for anemia of unknown etiology. She developed a sudden reduction in visual acuity and bilateral visual field impairment. MRI and angiography revealed acute infarcts in the posterior circulation and severe narrowing of the left vertebral artery origin. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a high-grade stenosis of the left vertebral artery origin with a thrombus just distal to the stenosis. The patient developed recurrent infarcts while on antithrombotic therapy. The lesion was successfully treated by vertebral artery origin angioplasty and stenting (VOAS) using a flow reversal technique and distal embolic protection. She was discharged to a rehabilitation facility 4 days later without worsening or new neurological deficits. A search of the literature yielded a similar report managed with anticoagulation and subsequent VOAS after complete lysis of the thrombus. Our report highlights the technique, safety and feasibility of VOAS in the presence of a thrombus using a flow reversal technique and distal protection. PMID:21990503

Amole, Adewumi O; Akdol, Mehmet S; Wood, Clint E; Keyrouz, Salah G; Erdem, Eren

2012-07-01

81

Traumatic dissection of the vertebral artery in a toddler following a short fall.  

PubMed

Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in children is uncommon, but is sometimes seen after rupture of aneurysms, and in different disorders. Traumatic SAH is common after serious accidental head injury, but is also reported after child abuse with vigorous shaking. To avoid unnecessary accusations of innocent care givers, it is important not to misinterpret the findings as abusive head trauma in small children with SAH. In the presented case, a nearly two-year-old girl was brought to the hospital after a fall witnessed by her father. The girl was unconscious, with elevated intracranial pressure, SAH and bilateral retinal haemorrhage (RH). She was pronounced dead after 9h. Premortem angiography revealed a dissection of the right vertebral artery, and postmortem examination revealed a traumatic lesion deep in the neck, at the base of the skull. Cerebral edema, in combination with SAH and RH, is highly suggestive of abusive head trauma. However, no external lesions, no skeletal lesions, especially no long bone metaphyseal lesions, or subdural haematomas occurring at the same time as SAH, were found. There was no report of previous child abuse in the family. Based on the radiological and postmortem findings, we believe that an accidental fall caused a blunt force trauma with a subsequent dissection of the right vertebral artery. To our knowledge, accidental tear of one of the vertebral arteries, leading to SAH in a toddler, has previously not been described. Child abuse is an important exclusion diagnosis with serious legal implications. PMID:22633312

Kristoffersen, Stine; Vetti, Nils; Morild, Inge

2012-09-10

82

Usefulness of V3-radial artery graft-V4 bypass in bilateral fusiform aneurysms of vertebral artery: case report.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman with bilateral vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms was transferred to our hospital. She suffered from a minor stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the stroke incidentally revealed bilateral VA aneurysms. Due to its size, more observation was recommended, and the patient was found eager to be treated. Both side surgeries were found inappropriate because of severe lower cranial nerve disturbances. The right aneurysm involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and the V4 segment was deviated to the right side. Therefore, the smaller right aneurysm was treated first with an occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass and a V3-radial artery graft (RAG)-V4 bypass followed by proximal clipping of the PICA and the right VA. The right VA was successfully remade by RAG and the right aneurysm was not revealed on postoperative examination. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm was able to be eliminated by the parent artery occlusion even by using an interventional radiology (IVR). The V3-RAG-V4 bypass is a useful method for treating bilateral VA aneurysms. This is a new bypass which has not been reported so far to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24477058

Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

83

[Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery concurrent with contralateral intracerebellar hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A case of a dissecting vertebral aneurysm concurrent with contralateral cerebellar hemorrhage is reported. A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). On admission, CT scanning showed SAH and left cerebellar hematoma. Angiography was performed and it revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. Proximal clipping of the right vertebral dissecting artery was performed through right suboccipital craniotomy. During the operation, the cerebellar hemisphere gradually became firm, but the operation was finished without any complications. After the operation, the patient's consciousness level decreased from somnolence to semicomatose for a period of 2 hours 30 min. CT scanning showed the left cerebellar hematoma expanding. The cerebellar hematoma was evacuated immediately by midline suboccipital craniectomy, and the patient's consciousness level improved. In such a case, care must be taken to discover the cause of the expansion and to prevent concurrent hematoma during the operation. Through this case, discussion was held concerning the pitfalls of treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage concurrent with intracerebral hematoma in the remote region. PMID:11260895

Ochiai, H; Yamakawa, Y; Kawasoe, T

2001-02-01

84

Use of a Pressure-Sensing Wire to Detect Sequential Pressure Gradients for Ipsilateral Vertebral and Subclavian Artery Stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Endoluminal stent placement is safe and effec- tive in the treatment of symptomatic ostial stenoses of the vertebral artery (VA) and proximal subclavian artery (SCA). However, determining the relative importance of an individual lesion on angiography is difficult when VA and SCA stenoses are concurrent. Pressure-sensing wires help in determining the functional significance of coronary ar- tery stenosis. We

Chung-Pin Liu; Yen-Hung Ling; Hsien-Li Kao

85

Anomalous Origin of Bilateral Vertebral Arteries from the ICA: Review of the Literature and a Case Report.  

PubMed

Atypical origins of the vertebral arteries (VAs) are rare anatomic findings. In this study, we present an extremely rare arrangement of the cerebral circulation in a 72-year-old male patient. The anatomic rarity, which was detected using ultrasonic imaging, involved the bilateral VAs coming off the internal carotid arteries (ICAs). Because the ICA and VA on the left side were severely stenotic, the vascular surgeons performed carotid and vertebral endarterectomy simultaneously. Although stenosis can be eliminated from these arteries, this type of rare anatomy results in more difficulties and risks for the patient. Ultrasound imaging provides high anatomic detail during this unique operation. PMID:24456866

Liu, Yumei; Hua, Yang; Liu, Beibei; Jia, Lingyun; Jiao, Liqun

2014-07-01

86

Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

Yip, H.-K. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Youssef, Ali A. [Suez Canal University Hospital, Cardiology Department (Egypt); Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China)], E-mail: tang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2007-09-15

87

Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Column Metastases Using Intra-Arterial Cisplatin: Pilot Experience  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance. Treatment of spinal column metastatic tumors is challenging, especially in the setting of progressive disease despite previous radiation and chemotherapy. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is an uncommonly used but established treatment for head and neck cancers, retinoblastoma, and glioblastoma. The author reports extension of the IAC concept to vertebral metastatic tumors. Clinical Presentation. Two patients with intractable spinal pain secondary to spinal metastatic involvement at T11-L1 segments were treated with intra-arterial injections of cisplatin, with simultaneous sodium thiosulfate chelation. The first patient, a 60-year old female with metastatic lung carcinoma underwent, three cycles of therapy over a 9-week period; the treated regions demonstrated bone remodeling and sclerosis. The second case was a 40-year old male with malignant pheochromocytoma, who underwent a single treatment and succumbed 5 weeks later from progressive widespread disease. Both patients reported significant pain relief and neither of them exhibited a decline in neurologic function. Conclusion. The intra-arterial delivery of cisplatin appeared to be well tolerated in the two cases. In the case with the longest survival, the treated vertebral segments became more sclerotic, consistent with biomechanical stabilization. Endovascular treatment of spinal metastases may hold promise, especially as newer categories of biologic agents become more widely available.

Chopko, Bohdan W.

2014-01-01

88

Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note  

SciTech Connect

Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

Rabellino, Martin, E-mail: jmrabellino@hotmail.co [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Garcia Nielsen, L. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Interventional Cardiology (Spain); Baldi, S.; Zander, T. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Spain); Maynar, M. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain)

2009-01-15

89

Vertebral artery dissection caused by swinging a golf club: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery (VA) dissection caused by swinging a golf club is extremely rare, and the mechanism of the dissection has not been elucidated. A 39-year-old man suddenly felt sharp neck pain and dizziness when he swung a driver while playing golf and visited our clinic. Imaging studies showed acute right cerebellar infarction and complete occlusion of the right VA at the C2 (axis) level. After 1 month of 100 mg aspirin treatment, the occluded right VA was completely recanalized and the patient became totally asymptomatic. Professional golfers look at the position of the ball on the ground or tee until completion of their follow-through. However, some amateur golfers look in the direction that the ball travels at the beginning of their follow-through. It is hypothesized that this rapid disproportionate head rotation produces VA elongation and distortion, mainly at the C2 level, causing stenosis or occlusion of the artery. PMID:24056473

Yamada, Shoko M; Goto, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Matsuno, Akira

2014-03-01

90

The forgotten disease: Bilateral lemierre's disease with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Lemierre’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • fever • headache • tachycardia • tachypnoe Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Lemierre’s disease, also known as the forgotten disease, postanginal sepsis, or necrobacillosis, was first reported in 1890 by Courmont and Cade, but it was Dr. Andre Lemierre, a professor of microbiology, who described this disease in 1936. The typical causative agent is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other organisms may be involved. The pathogenesis of Lemierre’s disease is not well understood. It is characterized by a primary oropharyngeal infection associated with septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and metastatic septic emboli. Case Report: We report a case of Lemierre’s disease with bilateral internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis and metastatic septic emboli to the lungs and brain, associated with epidural abscess and mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery, which is quite rare in Lemierre’s disease. This is the first report of a case of Lemierre’s disease associated with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Conclusions: Lemierre’s disease is a rare and perplexing medical entity. Clinical suspicion should be high in previously healthy young adults presenting with fever and neck pain following oropharyngeal infection. Dr. Lemierre stated that ‘symptoms and signs of Lemierre’s disease are so characteristic that it permits diagnosis before bacteriological examination’. The prognosis of patients with Lemierre’s disease is generally good, provided prompt recognition and appropriate treatment.

Gupta, Tanush; Parikh, Kaushal; Puri, Sonam; Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Sharma, Divakar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence

2014-01-01

91

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion secondary to adjacent-level degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion (RVAO), or bow hunter's syndrome, most often occurs at the C1-2 level on physiological head rotation. It presents with symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Several previously published studies have reported on subaxial sites of vertebral artery (VA) compression by head rotation. The authors report a case of subaxial spine RVAO due to adjacent-segment degeneration. A 52-year-old man presented with dizziness when rotating his head to the left. Twenty years earlier, he had undergone a C4-5 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for a herniated disc. Imaging studies including a dynamic CT angiography and dynamic catheter angiography revealed occlusion of the left VA at the C3-4 level when the patient turned his head to the left, in the setting of an aberrant vertebrobasilar system. Successful treatment was achieved by surgical decompression of the left VA and C3-4 ACDF. Expedited diagnosis and treatment are dependent on the recognition of this unusual manifestation of RVAO, especially when patients present with nonspecific symptoms of VBI. PMID:24745352

Buchanan, Colin C; McLaughlin, Nancy; Lu, Daniel C; Martin, Neil A

2014-06-01

92

Differential blood flow responses to CO2 in human internal and external carotid and vertebral arteries  

PubMed Central

Arterial CO2 serves as a mediator of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and its relative influence on the regulation of CBF is defined as cerebral CO2 reactivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there are differences in CBF responses to physiological stimuli (i.e. dynamic exercise and orthostatic stress) between arteries in humans. These findings suggest that dynamic CBF regulation and cerebral CO2 reactivity may be different in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. The aim of this study was to identify cerebral CO2 reactivity by measuring blood flow and examine potential differences in CO2 reactivity between the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood flow responses by duplex ultrasonography (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery (BA) by transcranial Doppler (Vivid-7, GE healthcare) during two levels of hypercapnia (3% and 6% CO2), normocapnia and hypocapnia to estimate CO2 reactivity. To characterize cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, we used both exponential and linear regression analysis between CBF and estimated partial pressure of arterial CO2, calculated by end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. CO2 reactivity in VA was significantly lower than in ICA (coefficient of exponential regression 0.021 ± 0.008 vs. 0.030 ± 0.008; slope of linear regression 2.11 ± 0.84 vs. 3.18 ± 1.09% mmHg?1: VA vs. ICA, P < 0.01). Lower CO2 reactivity in the posterior cerebral circulation was persistent in distal intracranial arteries (exponent 0.023 ± 0.006 vs. 0.037 ± 0.009; linear 2.29 ± 0.56 vs. 3.31 ± 0.87% mmHg?1: BA vs. MCA). In contrast, CO2 reactivity in ECA was markedly lower than in the intra-cerebral circulation (exponent 0.006 ± 0.007; linear 0.63 ± 0.64% mmHg?1, P < 0.01). These findings indicate that vertebro-basilar circulation has lower CO2 reactivity than internal carotid circulation, and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation, which may explain different CBF responses to physiological stress.

Sato, Kohei; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

93

Endovascular stenting of symptomatic innominate artery stenosis under distal balloon protection of the internal carotid and vertebral artery for cerebral protection: a technical case report.  

PubMed

The use of cerebral protection devices in endovascular treatment for innominate artery (IA) stenosis is not well established. We describe a novel technique for cerebral protection during endovascular stenting of symptomatic IA stenosis. An 82-year-old man presented with acutely scattered brain infarction by artery-to-artery embolism due to IA stenosis. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic IA stenosis was planned to prevent recurrent attacks. Endovascular stenting for IA stenosis via the right femoral artery approach was performed under simultaneous distal balloon protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) via the right brachial artery approach. Successful treatment of symptomatic IA stenosis was achieved with no complications. The technique with simultaneous distal balloon protection of the ICA and VA provided excellent cerebral protection in stenting of IA stenosis. PMID:23263481

Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Kajihara, Yosuke; Mukada, Kazutoshi; Kurisu, Kaoru

2013-02-01

94

A case of endovascular treatment for followed by side to side bypass for vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms involved posterior inferior cerebellar artery.  

PubMed

Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. PMID:24570816

Chung, Seung-Young; Yoon, Byul Hee; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min

2014-01-01

95

A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery  

PubMed Central

Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.

Chung, Seung-Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min

2014-01-01

96

Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng, E-mail: xfliu2@yahoo.com.cn [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (China)

2011-06-15

97

[Vertebral artery dissection: peculiarities of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and neuroimaging manifestations of vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Twenty seven patients (19 men, 8 women, mean age 34.1±6.1) with the VA dissection were enrolled. All the patients underwent MRA, neck MRI (T1 f-s, T2 f-s) and head MRI. Twenty six of 27 patients had follow-up MRA/MRT studies: during the acute period and after 2 months or later. Clinical manifestations of VA dissection included ischemic stroke (IS, 52%), transient ischemic attack (TIA, 4%) and isolated neck pain/headache (44%). Ninety two percent of patients in the group of patients with isolated pain and 53% in the group with brain ischemia were women. Bilateral dissection of VA was found in 10 of 27 patients (37%), concomitant internal carotid artery dissection -- in 2 patient (7,4%). In 93% of the patients, IS/TIA was associated with neck pain and/or headache. In 64% patients, the pain occurred after neck movements or mild head trauma. The pain preceded brain ischemia symptoms by a few days/2--3 weeks (80%) or appeared simultaneously with them (13%). Symptoms of brain ischemia developed abruptly (82%) usually in wakeful state (80%) during rotation/ bending of the head. Most patients (93%) had complete or good regress of neurological deficit. MRA/MRI revealed hemodynamically insignificant VA stenosis (92%), VA occlusion (5%), increasing of the external VA diameter (100%), dual lumen (8%) and small dissecting aneurysm (11%). In 4 of 6 stroke patients studied within the first week, the signs of arterial embolism were found. The follow up MRA/MRI showed the regress of all stenosis and recanalization of one of two occlusions. In patients with isolated pain, dissections occurred more often in the V1--V2 segments of VA (83%), while in patients with IS/TIA the dissections were mostly found in the V3--V4 segments (47%) (?<0.05). The patients with IS/TIA had more prominent VA stenosis and smaller external arterial diameters in comparison with patients with isolated pain. This suggests the subintimal localization of intramural hematoma (IMH) in the group of ischemic manifestation and subadventicial localization of IMH in patients with isolated head/neck pain. Clinical manifestations of VA dissection depend on the IMH localization. The main mechanism of brain ischemia appears to be an arterial embolism by clotted IMH fragments from the secondary intimal tear. It is suggested that in patients with isolated pain, the media may be weaker than in patients with brain ischemia that in turn promotes subadventicial IMH propagation. PMID:24430028

Kalashnikova, L A; Dreval, M V; Dobrynina, L A; Krotenkova, M V

2013-01-01

98

[Case of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction presenting with acute brachial diplegia due to right vertebral artery occlusion].  

PubMed

A 73-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of sudden onset of dizziness, bilateral shoulder pain, and brachial diplegia. Neurological examination revealed severe bilateral weakness of the triceps brachii, wrist flexor, and wrist extensor muscles. There was no paresis of the lower limbs. His gait was ataxic. Pinprick and temperature sensations were diminished at the bilateral C6-C8 dermatomes. Vibration and position senses were intact. An MRI of the head revealed a right cerebellar infarction and occlusion of the right vertebral artery. An MRI of the cervical spine on T? weighted imaging (T?WI) showed cord compression at the C3/4-C5/6 level secondary to spondylotic degeneration without any intramedullary signal changes of the cord. On the following day, however, high-signal lesions on T?WI appeared in the C5-C6 spinal cord, suggesting cord infarction. Unilateral vertebral artery occlusion does not usually result in cervical cord infarction because of anastomosis of arteries. Because of the long-term mechanical compression in our case, it was likely that cervical cord ischemia was present before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of chronic cord compression, our case suggests that occlusion of a unilateral vertebral artery could cause cervical cord infarction. PMID:22790805

Fujii, Takayuki; Santa, Yo; Akutagawa, Noriko; Nagano, Sukehisa; Yoshimura, Takeo

2012-01-01

99

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms.

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

100

Vertebral artery dissection due to an esophageal foreign body migration: a case report  

PubMed Central

Unintentional foreign bodies‘ swallowing is a fairly common occurrence in ENT consultation especially among children. They usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. It represents about 1% to 4% of all cases of foreign bodies‘ ingestion. A 16 year's old female patient has presented to ENT emergency with a painful dysphagia following an accidental ingestion of a metallic pin. Cervical X ray confirmed the presence of the pin while endoscopic investigations have shown no foreign body. Cervical CT scan revealed the migration of the foreign body through the esophageal wall with left vertebral artery dissection. Endoscopic management has been sufficient with an uneventful post operative follow up. Esophageal foreign bodies are very diverse mainly dominated by fish bones (60%) and chicken bones (16%). Metallic pins are rare. The major risks of migration of those foreign bodies are cervical abscess, mediastinitis and oeso-vascular fistulae. Cases of self extrusion through the skin have been reported. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. Endoscopic management has been sufficient.

Benmansour, Najib; Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmlih, Amine; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

2014-01-01

101

Completely reversed flow in the vertebral artery does not always indicate subclavian steal phenomenon.  

PubMed

We evaluated the causes, differential diagnosis and clinical significance of completely reversed flow (CRF) in the vertebral artery (VA). Twenty-three patients diagnosed with CRF in the VA by Doppler ultrasound were studied retrospectively. CRF was divided into intermittent CRF and continuous CRF. The peak reversed velocity (PRV) and ratio of time in intermittent CRF to one cardiac cycle (tICRF/CC) were calculated. Causes of CRF were determined on the basis of previous angiography results. The results indicated that subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP) caused all cases of continuous CRF (n = 8). Intermittent CRF was caused by SSP (n = 6) or proximal VA occlusion (n = 9). PRV and tICRF/CC were increased in SSP as compared with VA occlusion (p < 0.05). Using a cutoff of tICRF/CC = 0.30, we achieved excellent accuracy in predicting the cause of intermittent CRF (100%) and posterior circulatory infarction (91%). Thus, analysis of CRF patterns and measurements of VA parameters can be used in differential diagnosis of the causes of CRF and in prediction of posterior circulatory infarction. PMID:24486238

Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Fan, Liang-Hao; Guan, Li-Jie

2014-06-01

102

Bow hunter's syndrome unmasked after contralateral vertebral artery sacrifice for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS), or positional vertebrobasilar insufficiency, is a rare disorder characterized by positional stenosis or occlusion of the dominant vertebral artery (VA) with concordant signs and symptoms of brainstem ischemia. Many etiologies have been described, with the most common level of obstruction occurring at the craniocervical junction. The authors report acquired BHS after the patient's contralateral VA was sacrificed for ruptured aneurysm. A 44-year-old man was referred to our institution for years of continued positional tinnitus, vertigo, and nausea. This symptomatology began 5 years prior, immediately after the patient's right VA was endovascularly sacrificed to treat a ruptured VA aneurysm. From the time of treatment, right head turning caused instantaneous symptoms consistent with brainstem ischemia. Evaluations performed during the 5 year interim before referral included computed tomography angiography, MRI, and diagnostic cerebral angiography (DCA). All failed to identify a causal etiology. A diagnosis of BHS was made with dynamic DCA. With the patient's head turned to the right, angiography of the left VA demonstrated a positional block. The patient underwent left VA decompression. Intraoperative dynamic DCA was utilized to demonstrate adequacy of decompression. The patient tolerated the procedure without complication. Symptomatology immediately completely subsided and remained absent at his 3 month follow-up. An acquired BHS should be recognized as a possible complication if VA sacrifice is considered for an unclippable or uncoilable aneurysm. PMID:24308952

Ikeda, Daniel S; Villelli, Nicolas; Shaw, Andrew; Powers, Ciarán

2014-06-01

103

[A case of embolic infarction originating from extracranial vertebral artery stenosis by cervical spondylosis at C5/6: its pathogenesis and surgical treatment].  

PubMed

We report a case of right brainstem and cerebellar infarction induced by head rotation. The infarction was due to an artery to artery embolism originating from extracranial vertebral artery stenosis resulting from C5-6 cervical spondylosis. A-64-year-old man with cervical spondylosis experienced swallowing difficulty and vertigo while eating dinner. Neurological examination at admission indicated lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome). MRI (FLAIR) revealed multiple high-intensity signal areas in the right lateral medulla and the cerebellar hemisphere in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Right vertebral angiogram demonstrated marked stenosis in the neutral position and occlusive changes with head rotation to the right (30 degrees) at C5-6. Rotation induced substantially delayed filling of the right vertebral artery. To remedy this, we resected the osteophyte, fused the uncovertebral joint and connective tissue adhering tightly to the right vertebral artery at C5-6 level, and unroofed the transverse foramens at C5 and C6. Post-operative angiogram confirmed the disappearance of marked stenosis and improved antegrade filling of the right vertebral artery. In the present report, the pathogenesis and surgical treatment of this particular case are discussed. PMID:14598649

Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Kenji; Shigemori, Minoru

2003-10-01

104

Treatment of Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis with a Pharos Stent Device: a Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Summary Atherosclerotic stenosis of vertebral artery (VA) origin exceeding 70% severity accounts for one third of all vertebrobasilar strokes. For a period of one year the results of endovascular treatment of VA stenosis with the new Pharos stent device were assessed. Twenty-two patients with symptomatic VA stenosis were treated with the Pharos stent. Clinical status and stenosis grade were documented before treatment and 24 hours, one, three and twelve months after treatment via ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography. All procedures proved to be technically successful without the occurrence of intra-procedural complications. During the observation period of more than one year, 55% of patients were documented with a mean stenosis degree of 60%: two (10%) of these patients showed a residual stenosis after angioplasty and nine patients (45%) an in-stent restenosis, whereas only two patients were documented with a hemodynamically relevant in-stent restenosis of 80%. These two patients were retreated with balloon dilatation. None of the patients showed neurological deterioration or new abnormalities at magnetic resonance tomography examination. Neither VA occlusion nor restenosis of the contralateral VA negatively affected the clinical outcome. An in-stent restenosis was developed by more female than male patients. VA origin stenting with the Pharos stent device is an effective treatment of stenosis. The good clinical results compared to the high restenosis rates have to be examined in further studies. Pin particular, it has to be determined whether the Pharos stent allows the vessel time for collateralization, whether double antiplatelet treatment prevents recurrent cerebrovascular events or whether merely the low restenosis degree is causative for the clinical outcome.

Broussalis, E.; Kunz, A.B.; Luthringshausen, G.; Klein, S.; Mccoy, M.R.; Trinka, E.; Killer-Oberpfalzer, M.

2011-01-01

105

A Quantitative Comparison of the Vertebral Artery and Transverse Foramen Using CT Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The vertebral artery (VA) is important for the development of the transverse foramen (TF). Most studies of these structures have focused on anatomical anomalies. Therefore, we investigated quantitatively the association between the relative sizes of the TF and VA. Methods We recruited a consecutive series of subjects who underwent CT angiography to estimate the relative sizes of the VA and TF in axial source images. Two neurologists independently reviewed the axial CT images of 208 patients who had no history of transient ischemic attack or stroke. Averaged areas of the VA and TF were defined by the sum of the areas at each level from C3 to C6, divided by 4. Correlation analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and vascular risk factors. Results The mean age of the subjects was 53 years. The interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of TF size were good. There was a linear relationship between the sizes of the VA and TF on each side (right side: r2=0.58, p<0.001; left side: r2=0.62, p<0.001). The area of the VA was significantly associated with that of the TF after adjusting for vascular risk factors. Conclusions The size of the VA is strongly and linearly correlated with the size of the TF. These findings suggest that measurement of the TF and VA with CT angiography is a reliable method for evaluating VA diseases, and may provide new insight into the differentiation between VA hypoplasia and atherosclerosis of the VA.

Kim, Chulho; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Sang Soon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Chi Kyung; Oh, Mi-Young; Chung, Jong-Won

2012-01-01

106

Long-term outcome of vertebral artery origin stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery origin (VAO) stenosis is occasionally observed in patients who have acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the long-term outcomes and clinical significance of VAO stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We performed a prospective observational study using a single stroke center registry to investigate the risk of recurrent stroke and vascular outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and VAO stenosis. To relate the clinical significance of VAO stenosis to the vascular territory of the index stroke, patients were classified into an asymptomatic VAO stenosis group and a symptomatic VAO stenosis group. Results Of the 774 patients who had acute ischemic stroke, 149 (19.3%) of them had more than 50% stenosis of the VAO. During 309 patient-years of follow-up (mean, 2.3 years), there were 7 ischemic strokes, 6 hemorrhagic strokes, and 2 unknown strokes. The annual event rates were 0.97% for posterior circulation ischemic stroke, 4.86% for all stroke, and 6.80% for the composite cardiovascular outcome. The annual event rate for ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation was significantly higher in patients who had symptomatic VAO stenosis than in patients who had asymptomatic stenosis (1.88% vs. 0%, p?=?0.046). In a multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio, per one point increase of the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS) for the composite cardiovascular outcome, was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.02-2.08, p?=?0.036). Conclusions Long-term outcomes of more than 50% stenosis of the VAO in patients with acute ischemic stroke were generally favorable. Additionally, ESRS was a predictor for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Asymptomatic VAO stenosis may not be a specific risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation. However, VAO stenosis may require more clinical attention as a potential source of recurrent stroke when VAO stenosis is observed in patients who have concurrent ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation.

2013-01-01

107

Duplex Doppler ultrasound examination of carotid and vertebral arteries: guidelines of the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery.  

PubMed

The duplex Doppler examination of carotid and vertebral arteries is the primary diagnostic method in detecting disorders leading to the brain blood supply disturbances. In many cases, in patients with carotid artery stenosis, the Doppler ultrasound plays a major role in the process of qualification to the reconstructive procedures. Regardless of the widespread availability and high sensitivity and specificity of this method it's burdened with serious drawbacks. The most important of them are evaluation subjectivity and variety of methods to assess stenosis degree and the nature of atherosclerotic plaques. They often cause difficulties in comparing the test results carried out in different centers and to find correlations with other imaging methods results. In order to overcome these drawbacks, Polish Society for Vascular Surgery has attempted to develop recommendations for uniform methodology of carotid and vertebral arteries Doppler examination. Legal terms, the manner of examination and its interpretation were presented. Proposing the way of highlights results and messages conclusion to enable the recommendationsimplementation of endovascular and surgical qualifications relating to surgical treatment. We hope that these recommendations will help to standardize examination techniques. PMID:24677046

Madycki, Grzegorz; Gabriel, Marcin; Hawro, Piotr; Pawlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczmik, Wac?aw; Urbanek, Tomasz

2014-01-01

108

Bilateral Carotid and Vertebral Rete Mirabile Presenting with a Prominent Anterior Spinal Artery Mimicking a Spinal Dural AV Fistula at MRI  

PubMed Central

Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile (CVRM) is a very rare condition. We report a new case of CVRM initially detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. MRI demonstrated tortuous vascular signal voids limited to the anterior cerebrospinal fluid space mimicking spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. A diagnosis of CVRM was confirmed on the basis of angiographic findings of rete formation associated with bilateral aplasia of the cavernous internal carotid and vertebral arteries without abnormal arteriovenous connection.

Lee, Seung Young

2011-01-01

109

Extracranial Segments of the Vertebral Artery: Insight in the Developmental Changes up to the 21st Year of Life.  

PubMed

The vertebral artery (VA) bilaterally arises usually from the subclavian artery and courses within the bony canals of cervical vertebrae, and then it reverses directions on the first vertebra before piercing the dura to enter the cranium.The aim was to follow (ab)normal developmental changes of extracranial VA from prenatal status to age 21. This chapter included a brief description of the arterial embryology and morphofunctional specificity of the VA in prevertebral, cervical, and atlantic parts, during prenatal and postnatal period.The authors concluded that the subclavian origin of the VA was in most of fetal and adult cases. The incidences of variable VA origins and domination of one of the VAs were different from one series of human specimens to the second one. Although in most of cases, anomalous origin and/or variable course of the extracranial VA had little or did not result in clinical symptoms in infants and young adults, the true value of their discovery is in the diagnostic gain before vascular surgery of supra-aortic arteries. PMID:24265044

Ljiljana, Vasovi?; Ivan, Jovanovi?; Sla?ana, Ugrenovi?; Slobodan, Vlajkovi?; Predrag, Jovanovi?; Gordana, Dor?evi?

2014-01-01

110

Three cases of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection (SVAD), resulting in two cases of Wallenberg syndrome and one case of Foville syndrome in young, healthy men.  

PubMed

First patient, presented with sudden onset of headache, left hypoacusia and right hemiparesis, posteriorly developing gaze-evoked nystagmus and worsening right-sided weakness. Diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection and Foville Syndrome were made through clinical assessment and CT-carotid angiogram-MR angiography. Second patient, presented with four episodes of pain over left side of the nose and left eye pain over 1 month; admitted for acute facial pain without limb weakness. During admission, tingling over V1/V2 facial territory, vertigo, hypotension, uvula deviation and right lower limb numbness. CT-carotid angiogram confirmed vertebral artery with dissection. MRI revealed left lateral medullary infarct. Third patient, presented with sudden onset of left facial numbness and right upper limb weakness; 1 day after, right arm and leg hypoesthesia with hoarseness. MRA revealed dissection of left distal vertebral artery and MRI showed infarction in lower medulla oblongata. PMID:24777086

Canepa Raggio, Carlo; Dasgupta, Aban

2014-01-01

111

Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: clinical aspects, imaging features and endovascular treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracranial arterial dissections are a recognised cause of stroke, particularly in young adults. Clinical diagnosis may be\\u000a difficult, and the classical triad of symptoms is uncommon. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of extracranial\\u000a arterial dissections, and this review provides a detailed discussion of the relative merits and limitations of currently available\\u000a imaging modalities. Conventional arteriography has been

Christine M. Flis; H. Rolf Jäger; Paul S. Sidhu

2007-01-01

112

Rotational occlusion of the vertebral artery caused by transverse process hyperrotation and unilateral apophyseal joint subluxation. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors describe transverse process hyperrotation and unilateral apophyseal joint subluxation as a novel mechanism of rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion. The patient, a 56-year-old man, complained of episodic bilateral blindness when rotating his head more than 90 degrees to the right. Plain cervical x-ray films showed spondylotic osteophytes of the right C4-5 uncovertebral portion. Dynamic angiography revealed right VA occlusion at C4-5 and left VA occlusion at C1-2 with head rotation to the right. It was demonstrated on three-dimensional images constructed from computerized tomography scans that C-4 transverse process hyperrotation compressed the right VA against the apex of the C-5 subluxating superior articular process via the inner surface of the transverse process anterior root (processus costarius) rather than the osteophytes. It is also proposed that the true site of occlusion is different from that observed in angiographic studies. PMID:9171185

Kawaguchi, T; Fujita, S; Hosoda, K; Shibata, Y; Iwakura, M; Tamaki, N

1997-06-01

113

The Difference of Each Angiographic Finding After Multiple Stent According to Stent Type in Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report a case of spontaneous bilateral intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with subarachnoid hemorrhage. One dissecting lesion was treated with a coronary balloon-mounted stent (BMS) technique; however, due to differences in access route tortuosity, the other lesion was treated with a self-expandable stent (SES) technique. After 2 months, the angiographic outcome showed complete healing of the dissected segment on the side that was treated with BMS; in contrast, the dissection lesion appeared to be re-growing on the side that was treated with SES. Complete treatment of the aggravated lesion was achieved by additional deployment of BMSs. Therefore, we have provided a discussion of the possible reasons for this difference in outcome according to the stent type.

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Woon Ki; Baik, Min Woo

2013-01-01

114

Hemorrhagic infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by an osteophyte at the C5 superior articular process.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man presented with right upper homonymous quadrihemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hemorrhagic infarctions in the bilateral occipital lobes and infarction in the left cerebellar hemisphere. Digital subtraction angiography and three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed right vertebral artery (VA) stenosis caused by an osteophyte at the C5 superior articular process. The VA stenosis was aggravated by neck extension. The brain infarctions were attributed to embolism from the right VA stenosis. Unroofing of the anterior root of the right C4 transverse foramen, removal of the osteophyte at the superior articular process of C5, and anterior fusion at C4-5 were performed. His postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:19318736

Takeuchi, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Nakatani, Mitsuru; Isu, Toyohiko

2009-03-01

115

Brainstem ischemia, steno-occlusive pathology of the vertebral arteries, and alterations in the circadian blood pressure pattern: a case report.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with vertebrobasilar steno-occlusive pathology associated with ischemic brainstem symptomatic lesions related to abnormal decrease in blood pressure (BP). A 63-year-old man presented vertigo and persistent gait impairment as a result of a posterior cerebellar infarction and, during hospitalization, experienced a new episode of cerebral ischemia in the territory of the anterior cerebellar artery. Cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the left vertebral artery and two severe stenoses of the right vertebral artery, and 24-hour dynamic BP monitoring evidenced severe postprandial hypotension. Medical treatment was not effective so he underwent an endovascular procedure. This report documents the importance of BP monitoring for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of posterior ischemic strokes and, above all, for a more reliable prognosis and therapy. PMID:19560687

Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Laganà, Angelina; Savica, Rodolfo; La Spina, Paolino; Mento, Giuseppe; Longo, Marcello; Musolino, Rosa

2009-01-01

116

Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft  

PubMed Central

The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.

Shim, Jai-Joon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chang, Jae-Chil

2012-01-01

117

Bilateral inverted vertebral arteries (V3 segment) in a case of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: Distinct entity or a lateral variant of persistent first intersegmental artery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs), commonly involving the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). Here we describe an unusual variant consisting of bilateral VAs with normal loops but passing below the C1 (inverted VA) arch, distinctly different from the FIA. Case Description: A 9-year-old boy presented with a spastic quadriparesis. Preoperative radiographic studies showed an irreducible AAD with an occipitalized CO-C1 and C2-3 fusion. Although both VAs exhibited proximal and distal loops like normal VA, the distal loops did not pass through the C1 transverse foramina and coursed inferior to the C1 arch instead. With this critical preoperative information, both VAs could be better safeguarded during dissection of the C1-2 facets. Conclusion: In the case presented, although the course of the inverted VAs is similar, the norm, they coursed inferior to both C1 arches. Careful evaluation of the preoperative radiological studies allowed for careful dissection of the inverted VA (horizontal loop) while opening the C1-2 joint for subsequent alignment (e.g. reduction) and bony fusion. This information also facilitates safer insertion of lateral mass screws (e.g. choosing the appropriate C1 screw length to gain adequate bony purchase without compromising anomalous VA).

Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K.; Ghuman, Mandeep S.

2014-01-01

118

Effect of Vertebral Artery Infusions of Oxytocin on Plasma Vasopressin Concentration, Plasma Renin Activity, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate and Their Responses to Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infusion of oxytocin into one vertebral artery of anesthetized dogs did not alter plasma vasopressin concentration, blood pressure or heart rate. However, there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma renin activity (PRA; ? = 7.6 ± 2.3 ng\\/ml · h). A 35% hemorrhage caused blood pressure to fall by 9.4 ± 4.0 mmHg (p < 0.01) and

David P. Brooks; Leonard Share; Joan T. Crofton; Robin W. Rockhold; Kuniaki Matsui

1984-01-01

119

Predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography for ischemic stroke-related vertigo.  

PubMed

Vertigo can be a major presentation of posterior circulation stroke and can be easily misdiagnosed because of its complicated presentation. We thus prospectively assessed the predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) for the prediction of ischemic stroke-related vertigo. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a sensation of whirling (vertigo); (2) intractable vertigo for more than 1 hour despite appropriate treatment; and (3) those who could complete cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vertebral artery (V2 segment) ECCS studies. Eventually, 76 consecutive participants with vertigo were enrolled from Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 2010 and August 2011. Demographic data, neurological symptoms, neurologic examinations, and V2 ECCS were assessed. We chose the parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), PSV/EDV, mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) to represent the hemodynamics. Values from both sides of V2 segments were averaged. We then calculated the average RI (aRI), average PI (aPI), average PSV (aPSV)/EDV, and average (aMV). Axial and coronal diffusion-weighted MRI findings determined the existence of acute ischemic stroke. We grouped and analyzed participants in two ways (way I and way II analyses) based on the diffusion-weighted MRI findings (to determine whether there was acute stroke) and neurological examinations. Using way I analysis, the "MRI (+)" group had significantly higher impedance (aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio) and lower velocity (aPSV, aEDV, and aMV(PSV + EDV/2)), compared to the "MRI (-)" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aPSV, aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) and MRI (-) groups were 41.15/61.5/66.0 (p = 0.0101), 14.55/69.2/72.0 (p = 0.0003), 29.10/92.1/38.0 (p = 0.0013), 1.07/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0066), 0.62/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0076), and 2.69/80.8/66.0 (p = 0.0068), respectively. Using way II analysis, lower aEDV and aMV, and higher aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio could determine the "MRI (+) without focal signs" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) without focal signs and MRI (-) groups were 9.10/71.4/96.0 (p = 0.0005), 15.65/57.1/96.0 (p = 0.0124), 1.10/100/70.0 (p = 0.0002), 0.64/100/70.0 (p = 0.0023), and 2.80/100/70.0 (p = 0.0017), respectively. In conclusion, using demographic data and clinical symptoms, it was difficult to determine the patients with ischemic stroke-related vertigo. Although neurological examinations still have diagnostic value, the high impedance and low velocity pattern of V2 ECCS can be an add-on method for the screening of acute ischemic stroke-related vertigo, even for those without focal neurological signs. PMID:24296055

Liou, Li-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, I-Fang; Chang, Yang-Pei; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lai, Chiou-Lian

2013-12-01

120

Calcified vertebral artery and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) may get delayed or missed in patients with atypical signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), considered to be superior to com- puterized tomography (CT) in PCS, too is not 100% sensi- tive, as 20% of patients with PCS may have a negative diffu- sion-weighted MRI at admission.(1) Moreover, MRI is not uni- versally available and

Sudhir Kumar

2005-01-01

121

Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Clinical and angiographic follow-up of 206 cases from Northwest Iran.  

PubMed

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has recently become a noteworthy treatment option for significant stenosis involving the vertebral artery (VA) in selected patients. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and mid-term follow up results of 206 cases received PTA with or without stent implant to treat their symptomatic atherosclerotic VA stenosis in all segments (V1-V4). In a prospective mono-arm trial from October 2008 to July 2012 in a single center, 239 lesions affecting the intra or extracranial VA (171 in V1, 17 in V2, 14 in V3, 21 in V4 and 16 in combined segments) were treated by PTA with or without stent implant. Non-disabling stroke patients who had failed conservative medical treatment and had angiographic evidence of >50% stenosis in the dominant VA with clinical signs and symptoms of VB stenosis were included in this study. They were mean followed for 13.15±5.24 months after treatment. Overall, 206 patients underwent the procedure. A stent was implemented in 199 patients (96.6%). The periprocedural complication rate was 7.2%. The procedural (technical) success rate was 97.6%. Of the total 239 lesions, 223 were treated with stent implant. Clinical success was achieved in all 206 symptomatic patients after the procedure. Restenosis occurred in 15.9% after a mean 10.8 (6-24) months. Of those, 63.1% and 34.2% had mild and moderate stenosis that was treated medically, whereas one case (2.6%) with severe restenosis underwent balloon angioplasty. No deaths occurred during the follow-up period. The follow-up complication rate was 6.3%. TIA occurred in 4.4%, a minor stroke in 1.4% and a major stroke in one patient. The overall patient event-free survival was 92.4%. These results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of PTA with or without stent implant, with a high technical success rate, a low complication rate, a low restenosis rate and durable clinical success in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. This approach seems to improve patients' immediate and mid-term clinical results. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to further validate this treatment option. PMID:24007733

Mohammadian, R; Sharifipour, E; Mansourizadeh, R; Sohrabi, B; Nayebi, A R; Haririan, S; Farhoudi, M; Charsouei, S; Najmi, S

2013-08-01

122

Vertebral Artery Dissect Injury with Brown-S?quard Syndrome by a Neural Foramen Penetrated Electric Screw Driver Bit : A Case Report  

PubMed Central

There are few reports in the literature of complete obstruction of the vertebral artery (VA) due to an electric screw driver bit penetration through the neural foramen into the spinal canal with Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a penetrated neck injury by an electric screw driver bit after a struggle. The patient presented the clinical features of BSS. Computed tomography scan revealed that the electric screw driver bit penetrated through the right neural foramen at the level of C3-4, and it caused an injury to the right half of the spinal cord. Emergent angiography revealed VA dissection, which was managed by immediate coil embolization at both proximal and distal ends of the injury site. After occlusion of the VA, the electric screw driver bit was extracted under general anesthesia. Bleeding was minimal and controlled without difficulties. No postoperative complications, such as wound dehiscence, CSF leakage, or infection, were noted. Endovascular approaches for occlusion of vertebral artery lesions are safe and effective methods of treatment.

Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Noh, Sung Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul

2013-01-01

123

Vertebral artery dissect injury with brown-séquard syndrome by a neural foramen penetrated electric screw driver bit : a case report.  

PubMed

There are few reports in the literature of complete obstruction of the vertebral artery (VA) due to an electric screw driver bit penetration through the neural foramen into the spinal canal with Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a penetrated neck injury by an electric screw driver bit after a struggle. The patient presented the clinical features of BSS. Computed tomography scan revealed that the electric screw driver bit penetrated through the right neural foramen at the level of C3-4, and it caused an injury to the right half of the spinal cord. Emergent angiography revealed VA dissection, which was managed by immediate coil embolization at both proximal and distal ends of the injury site. After occlusion of the VA, the electric screw driver bit was extracted under general anesthesia. Bleeding was minimal and controlled without difficulties. No postoperative complications, such as wound dehiscence, CSF leakage, or infection, were noted. Endovascular approaches for occlusion of vertebral artery lesions are safe and effective methods of treatment. PMID:24891861

Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Noh, Sung Hyun; Shin, Dong Ah; Ji, Gyu Yeul

2013-12-01

124

Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

Filippo, Ferrara, E-mail: f_ferrara@virgilio.it; Francesco, Meli [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Angiology (Italy); Francesco, Raimondi [University Medical Hospital, University of Palermo, Associated Professor, Department of Angiology (Italy); Corrado, Amato [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Angiology (Italy); Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Giuseppina, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Salvatore, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Full Professor of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology (Italy)

2006-06-15

125

Uric acid as biochemical marker for retinal and optic nerve damage after occlusion and reperfusion of common carotid and vertebral arteries in rat.  

PubMed

Transient retinal and optic nerve ischemia lasting for 20 minutes was produced in Wistar rats by clipping bilateral common carotid arteries and coagulating both vertebral arteries by heat. The uric acid level in the retina and optic nerve were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection just before induction of ischemia, 20 minutes after induction of ischemia, and after resolution of ischemia. Uric acid content in the optic nerve (28.0 +/- 4.5 ng/mg protein) was about 5 times higher than that in the retina (5.7 +/- 0.8 ng/mg protein) in the control experiment. Ischemia lasting for 20 minutes caused a 2.7-fold increase of uric acid in the optic nerve and a 1.8-fold increase in the retina. Following reperfusion of the blood flow by unclipping of the common carotid arteries, the uric acid level decreased to the control level in both the retina and optic nerve 30 minutes after unclipping, which was followed by 3.1- and 1.6-fold increases in uric acid in the retina and the optic nerve, respectively, at 60 minutes after unclipping. Although ischemia alone causes tissue damage, there is some clinical evidence that greater injury can occur after oxygen is reintroduced to ischemic tissue. Our results indicate that the retina is more likely to be damaged by reperfusion than the optic nerve. PMID:1635299

Sano, Y; Kanematsu, E H; Yoshiura, M; Iwamoto, T; Takizawa, N; Tokuhisa, T; Mizuno, A

1992-01-01

126

A clinical study on the effect of Yinxing Damo combined with Betahistine Hydrochloride Injection on vertebral basilar artery ischemic vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Yinxing Damo (YXDM) combined with Betahistine Hydrochloride Injection (BHI) on vertebra\\u000a basilar artery ischemic vertigo (VBIV).Methods: Ninety patients with VBIV were randomly divided into two groups; 45 patients (the treated group) were treated with YXDM\\u000a and BHI intravenous dripping, once a day for 14 days. Another 45 patients (control group) were treated with

Deng Yan; Zhu Hai-qing; Deng Guo-bao; Tan Cheng

2005-01-01

127

Endovascular treatment for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms: results from Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and 2.  

PubMed

In treating ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), neuroendovascular therapy (NET) represented by coil obliteration is considered to be a reliable intervention. However, there has been no multi-center based study in this setting so far. In this article, results of NET for ruptured VADA obtained from Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and 2 were assessed to elucidate the factors associated with favorable outcome. A total of 213 in JR-NET1 and 381 patients in JR-NET2 with ruptured VADA were included, and they were separately analyzed because several important datasets such as vasospasm and site of dissecting aneurysms in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were collected only in JR-NET1. The ratio of poor World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (4 and 5) was 48.8% and 53.9%, and the ratio of favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale, mRS 0 to 2) at 30 days after onset was 61.1 % and 49.1% in JR-NET1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, poor WFNS grade and procedural complication were independently correlated as negative factors for favorable outcome. In JR-NET1, PICA-involved lesion was also designated as a negative factor while elderly age and absence of postprocedural antithrombotic therapy was detected as other negative factors in JR-NET2. The ratios of favorable outcome in poor grade patients were 25.4% in JR-NET1 and 31.3% in JR-NET2, which seemed compatible with the previous studies. These results may provide a baseline data for the NET in this disease and could be useful for validating the benefits of novel devices. PMID:24390187

Satow, Tetsu; Ishii, Daizo; Iihara, Koji; Sakai, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

128

Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-  

PubMed Central

A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected.

Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

2013-01-01

129

C2 laminar screw and C1-2 transarticular screw combined with C1 laminar hooks for atlantoaxial instability with unilateral vertebral artery injury.  

PubMed

Transarticular screw fixation (TASF) is technically demanding, with high risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. How to manage intraoperative VA injury and choose optimal alternative fixation becomes a concern of spinal surgeons. In this study, the management strategy for a patient with suspected intraoperative VA injury was analyzed. A 53-year-old woman developed type II odontoid fracture and brain stem injury due to a motor vehicle accident 3 months earlier. After conservative treatments, the brain stem injury improved, but with residual ocular motility defect in the right eye. The odontoid fracture did not achieve fusion with displacement and absorption of fracture fragments. After admission, atlantoaxial fixation using bilateral C1-2 transarticular screws (TASs) combined with C1 laminar hooks was planed. The first TAS was inserted successfully. Unfortunately, suspected VA injury developed during tapping the tract for the second TAS. Considering the previous brain stem injury and that directly inserting the screw to tamponade the hemorrhage might cause VA stenosis or occlusion, we blocked the screw trajectory with bone wax. C2 laminar screw was implanted instead of intended TAS on the injured side. The management strategy for suspected VA injury should depend on intraoperative circumstances and be tailored to patients. Blocking screw trajectory with bone wax is a useful method to stop bleeding. Atlantoaxial fixation using C2 laminar screw and C1-2 TAS combined with C1 laminar hooks is an ideal alternative procedure. PMID:21331546

Guo, Qunfeng; Liu, Jun; Ni, Bin; Lu, Xuhua; Zhou, Fengjin

2011-09-01

130

Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid And Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Endovascular treatment (angioplasty with or without stenting) is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery stenosis but there are scarce long-term efficacy data showing that it prevents stroke. We therefore report the long-term results of the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS). Methods Between March, 1992, and July, 1997, patients who presented at a participating centre with a confirmed stenosis of the internal carotid artery that was deemed equally suitable for either carotid endarterectomy or endovascular treatment were randomly assigned to either treatment in equal proportions by telephone or fax from the randomisation service at the Oxford Clinical Trials Unit, UK. Patients were seen by an independent neurologist at 1 and 6 months after treatment and then every year after randomisation for as long as possible, up to a maximum of 11 years. Major outcome events were transient ischaemic attack, non-disabling, disabling, and fatal stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from any other cause. Outcomes were adjudicated on by investigators who were masked to treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 01425573. Findings 504 patients with stenosis of the carotid artery (90% symptomatic) were randomly assigned to endovascular treatment (n=251) or surgery (n=253). Within 30 days of treatment, there were more minor strokes that lasted less than 7 days in the endovascular group (8 vs 1) but the number of other strokes in any territory or death was the same (25 vs 25). There were more cranial nerve palsies (22 vs 0) in the endarterectomy group than in the endovascular group. Median length of follow up in both groups was 5 years (IQR 2–6). By comparing endovascular treatment with endarterectomy after the 30-day post-treatment period, the 8-year incidence and hazard ratio (HR) at the end of follow-up for ipsilateral non-perioperative stroke was 11·3% versus 8·6% (HR 1·22, 95% CI 0·59–2·54); for ipsilateral non-perioperative stroke or TIA was 19·3% versus 17·2% (1·29, 0·78–2·14); and for any non-perioperative stroke was 21·1% versus 15·4% (1·66, 0·99–2·80). Interpretation More patients had stroke during follow-up in the endovascular group than in the surgical group, but the rate of ipsilateral non-perioperative stroke was low in both groups and none of the differences in the stroke outcome measures was significant. However, the study was underpowered and the confidence intervals were wide. More long-term data are needed from the on going stenting versus endarterectomy trials. Funding British Heart Foundation; UK National Health Service Management Executive; UK Stroke Association.

Ederle, Jorg; Bonati, Leo H; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Gaines, Peter A; Beard, Jonathan D; Venables, Graham S; Markus, Hugh S; Clifton, Andrew; Sandercock, Peter; Brown, Martin M

2009-01-01

131

Vertebral spinal osteophytes.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671

Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios

2011-03-01

132

Extracranial vertebral aneurysm with neurofibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With neurofibromatosis neuromas of the cranial and cervical nerves are common findings and meningiomas and ependymonas appear more often than in the average population. Vascular manifestations of the disease are also commonly known in the renal and gastrointestinal vessels but rarely in the large cerebral arteries. The case of a 50 year old man with neurofibromatosis and a vertebral aneurysm

O. Schubiger; M. G. Yasargil

1978-01-01

133

Characterization of the time course of the superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, internal carotid and vertebral arteries blood flow response to the oral glucose challenge test using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Blood flow to the splanchnic circulation increases postprandially which may cause a reduction in systemic and cerebral perfusion leading to postprandial syncope in the elderly who lack adequate cardiovascular reserve. We used multi-station 2D phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) with the aim of characterizing the time course of the haemodynamic response to an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) in the large arteries perfusing the splanchnic, systemic and cerebral circulations (superior mesenteric artery SMA, abdominal aorta AA, internal carotid arteries, ICA and vertebral arteries VA). In this study nine fasted healthy volunteers were studied. Separate cine PC-MRI scans were acquired in the neck and in the abdomen every 88 s, these two measurements being interleaved for ten baseline scans at each station with the scanner automatically moving the subject between the two stations. After ingestion of the OGCT, a further 30 cine PC-MRI scans were acquired at each station. Using this technique we were able to characterize with frequent sampling of volumetric blood flow the time course of blood flow response to the OGCT of the SMA, AA and both VA and ICA. We found a substantial variation between individuals in the amplitude and the time to the peak of the SMA blood flow response to the OGCT which correlated positively with body mass index. MRI provides a robust, non-invasive method of studying normal physiology that could be valuable in studies of diseases such as postprandial hypotension. PMID:19759401

Totman, J J; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Campbell, E; Hoad, C L; Macdonald, I A; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

2009-10-01

134

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

135

Preoperative Percutaneous Injection of Methyl Methacrylate and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in Vertebral Hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate the usefulness of preoperative percutaneous injections in vertebral hemangiomas. METHODS: Four patients presented with complicated vertebral hemangioma (spi- nal cord compression in three cases, intermittent spinal claudiction in one case). A three-part treatment was performed: initially, arterial embolization in three cases; 1 day later, percutaneous injections of methyl methacrylate into the vertebral body to strengthen it and

Anne Cotten; Bernard Cortet; Jean-Paul Lejeune; Xavier Leclerc; Patrick Chastanet; Jacques Clarisse

136

Imaging of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Udismita

2014-01-01

137

Imaging of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Udismita

2014-05-01

138

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

139

[Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].  

PubMed

Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

1997-09-01

140

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

141

Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

2014-07-01

142

Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

143

Vertebral spinal osteophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies.\\u000a The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For\\u000a instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied\\u000a by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive

Zachary KlaassenR; R. Shane Tubbs; Nihal Apaydin; Robert Hage; Robert Jordan; Marios Loukas

2011-01-01

144

Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS. Methods 413 patients who were randomly assigned in CAVATAS and completed treatment for carotid stenosis (200 patients had endovascular treatment and 213 patients had endarterectomy) had prospective clinical follow-up at a median of 5 years and carotid duplex ultrasound at a median of 4 years. We investigated the cumulative long-term incidence of carotid restenosis after endovascular treatment and endarterectomy, the effect of the use of stents on restenosis after endovascular treatment, risk factors for the development of restenosis, and the effect of carotid restenosis on the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN01425573. Findings Severe carotid restenosis (?70%) or occlusion occurred significantly more often in patients in the endovascular arm than in patients in the endarterectomy arm (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3·17, 95% CI 1·89–5·32; p<0·0001). The estimated 5-year incidence of restenosis was 30·7% in the endovascular arm and 10·5% in the endarterectomy arm. Patients in the endovascular arm who were treated with a stent (n=50) had a significantly lower risk of developing restenosis of 70% or greater compared with those treated with balloon angioplasty alone (n=145; HR 0·43, 0·19–0·97; p=0·04). Current smoking or a history of smoking was a predictor of restenosis of 70% or more (2·32, 1·19–4·54; p=0·01) and the early finding of moderate stenosis (50–69%) up to 60 days after treatment was associated with the risk of progression to restenosis of 70% or more (3·76, 1·88–7·52; p=0·0002). The composite endpoint of ipsilateral non-perioperative stroke or transient ischaemic attack occurred more often in patients in whom restenosis of 70% or more was diagnosed in the first year after treatment compared with patients without restenosis of 70% or more (5-year incidence 23% vs 11%; HR 2·18, 1·04–4·54; p=0·04), but the increase in ipsilateral stroke alone was not significant (10% vs 5%; 1·67, 0·54–5·11). Interpretation Restenosis is about three times more common after endovascular treatment than after endarterectomy and is associated with recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular symptoms; however, the risk of recurrent ipsilateral stroke is low. Further data are required from on-going trials of stenting versus endarterectomy to ascertain whether long-term ultrasound follow-up is necessary after carotid revascularisation. Funding British Heart Foundation; UK National Health Service Management Executive; UK Stroke Association.

Bonati, Leo H; Ederle, Jorg; McCabe, Dominick JH; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Gaines, Peter A; Beard, Jonathan D; Venables, Graham S; Markus, Hugh S; Clifton, Andrew; Sandercock, Peter; Brown, Martin M

2009-01-01

145

Autophagy During Vertebrate Development  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cells degrade their own components through the lysosomal machinery. In physiological conditions, the mechanism is tightly regulated and contributes to maintain a balance between synthesis and degradation in cells undergoing intense metabolic activities. Autophagy is associated with major tissue remodeling processes occurring through the embryonic, fetal and early postnatal periods of vertebrates. Here we survey current information implicating autophagy in cellular death, proliferation or differentiation in developing vertebrates. In developing systems, activation of the autophagic machinery could promote different outcomes depending on the cellular context. Autophagy is thus an extraordinary tool for the developing organs and tissues.

Aburto, Maria R.; Hurle, Juan M.; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Magarinos, Marta

2012-01-01

146

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained.

Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

1983-01-01

147

Head segmentation in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze.

Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

2008-01-01

148

Vertebrate heart development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes recent studies of the cellular and molecular events involved in the determination and differentiation of cardiac myocytes in vertebrate embryos. Fate-mapping studies in mouse, chick, amphibian and zebrafish embryos suggest that cardiac muscle precursors are specified shortly before or at the time of gastrulation. Nuclear factors, such as dHAND, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, GATA-6, Nkx-2.3, growth arrest homeobox

Gary E Lyons

1996-01-01

149

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools.

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

150

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools. PMID:23858304

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

151

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

152

Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic vertebral fractures after conservative or surgical treatment.

Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

2010-01-01

153

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

154

Complex Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula and Ruptured Aneurysm in Neurofibromatosis  

PubMed Central

The objective and importance of this study was to describe the challenges encountered with treating a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and ruptured aneurysm in a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage. A 36-year-old female with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented 2 weeks after uneventful cesarean section with a rapidly expanding pulsatile neck mass. Angiography demonstrated a complex left vertebral AVF and multiple associated vertebral artery aneurysms. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed using a retrograde and antegrade approach to occlude the fistulas and trap the ruptured aneurysm, successfully treating the acute hemorrhage. Subsequent definitive therapy was accomplished utilizing a combined neurointerventional and neurosurgical strategy of direct-puncture acrylic embolization and ligation of the vertebral artery. Recent advances in neurointerventional technology allow novel approaches in the primary and/or preoperative treatment of complex vascular lesions such as those seen in NF1. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5p40-b

Roth, Tori C.; Manness, Wayne K; Hershey, Beverly L.; Yazdi, Joseph

2000-01-01

155

Symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas.  

PubMed

Eight cases of vertebral haemangioma causing spinal cord or nerve root compression are described, together with one other which was not causing organic signs or symptoms. The compression was due to extradural tumour in 5 cases, bony expansion encroaching on the neural canal in 2 cases, and a combination of bony expansion and extradural tumour in one case. When present the classical radiological appearance of accentuated vertical striation or honeycomb pattern is easily recognized, but atypical features, such as apparent pedicular erosion, paravertebral soft tissue mass and bony expansion, may occur, making diagnosis more diffcult. In 2 cases the correct diagnosis was not made before surgery. In one of these there were no plain film changes and in the other a metastasis was considered the more likely diagnosis. In the asymptomatic case the absence of extra-osseous extension was an important factor in excluding any possible clinical significance of the haemangioma. The great importance of pre-operative spinal angiography is stressed. PMID:1122377

McAllister, V L; Kendall, B E; Bull, J W

1975-03-01

156

Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2013-08-01

157

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

158

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

159

Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception  

PubMed Central

Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

Lamb, Trevor D.

2009-01-01

160

Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications.

Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

2008-01-01

161

Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization  

SciTech Connect

A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

2010-12-15

162

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze.

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdogan

2014-01-01

163

Distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms are usually found on the bifurcation of the vertebral artery (VA) - PICA junction. Aneurysms arising from more peripheral PICA seg- ments named distal PICA aneurysm are uncommon. The major clinical manifestation is that of an intracra- nial bleeding and the site of hemorrhage is related to the PICA segment originating

Ricardo Ramina; Viviane Aline Buffon; Jerônimo Buzetti Milano; Erasmo Barros da Silva Jr; Kelly Cristina Bordignon

2005-01-01

164

Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in many extant teleost fish, reptiles

James K. Bowmaker

2008-01-01

165

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

2014-05-01

166

Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements. PMID:15345473

Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R

2005-01-01

167

The Vertebrate Invasion of Fresh Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and early evolution of the vertebrates took place in exclusively marine conditions. From the Middle Cambrian chordate Pikaia, through the Upper Cambrian, Ordovician and early Silurian records, there is little evidence of non-marine vertebrate faunas. With the progressive closing of the Iapetus Ocean, there developed from Wenlock times possible brackish vertebrate faunas, dominated by thelodonts, anaspids and cephalaspids,

L. B. Halstead

1985-01-01

168

Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2013-12-15

169

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar arteries as a cause of hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar artery is a condition in which the vertebral/basilar artery is elongated, distended and tortuous. It is usually asymptomatic. It may present with compressive or ischemic symptoms. Hydrocephalus as a complication of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with dolichoectasia of the basilar artery causing compression of the third ventricular outflow and, thus, presenting with noncommunicating hydrocephalus.

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Dange, Nitin; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

170

Morphological castes in a vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

2000-01-01

171

Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates.

Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

2012-01-01

172

Segmentation of the vertebrate body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmental character of the vertebrate body wall is reflected by metamerically arranged tissues that are patterned during\\u000a embryonic life as a consequence of somite formation, compartmentalization and differentiation. The somites bud off the paraxial\\u000a mesoderm in a cranio-caudal sequence and are compartmentalized by local signals from adjacent structures. These signals may\\u000a be mediated by diffusible substances such as Sonic

B. Christ; Corina Schmidt; Ruijin Huang; Jörg Wilting; Beate Brand-Saberi

1997-01-01

173

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail.

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

174

Rupture and Migration of an Endovascular Stent in the Brachiocephalic Trunk Causing a Vertebral Steal Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Delayed stent fracture has been observed in many different arteries and may represent a risk factor for restenosis. We describe the case of a delayed rupture of an endovascular brachiocephalic trunk stent. The complete fracture allowed a fragment to migrate distally and tilt, resulting in a hemodynamic pattern similar to that of a prevertebral stenosis with complete inversion of the homolateral vertebral blood flow. The induced vertebral steal syndrome as well as the risk of cerebral embolism was corrected by an aortobrachiocephalic bypass and resection of the ruptured stent.

Periard, D., E-mail: Daniel.Periard@chuv.ch; Haesler, E.; Hayoz, D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Service of Angiology (Switzerland); Von Segesser, L. K. [University Hospital (CHUV), Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Center (Switzerland); Qanadli, S. D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

2008-07-15

175

Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic\\u000a fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed\\u000a tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and\\u000a minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I

Michael B. Pitton; Nadine Morgen; Sascha Herber; Philipp Drees; Bertram Böhm; Christoph Düber

2008-01-01

176

Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

Mayer, Thomas E., E-mail: t.e.mayer@med.uni-jena.d [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU), Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Hamann, Gerhard F. [Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Wiesbaden, Department of Neurology (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2008-11-15

177

Arterial Ageing  

PubMed Central

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed.

Lee, Seung-Jun

2013-01-01

178

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates.

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

179

Segmentation of the vertebrate body.  

PubMed

The segmental character of the vertebrate body wall is reflected by metamerically arranged tissues that are patterned during embryonic life as a consequence of somite formation, compartmentalization and differentiation. The somites bud off the paraxial mesoderm in a cranio-caudal sequence and are compartmentalized by local signals from adjacent structures. These signals may be mediated by diffusible substances such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnts and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) or by cell-cell interactions via membrane-bound receptors and ligands such as Delta and Notch. Compartmentalization of the somites and their derivatives is reflected by the differential expression of developmental regulatory genes such as Pax-1, 3, 7 and 9, MyoD, paraxis, twist and others. Secondary segmentation is imposed upon other tissues, such as blood vessels and nerves, by the rearrangement and regionalization of the somitic derivatives, especially the sclerotome. Early cranio-caudal identity is determined by the expression of different Hox genes. Finally, fusion of segmental anlagen occurs to form segment-overbridging skeletal elements and muscles. The expression of homologous genes indicates that the process of segmentation in vertebrates and invertebrates is homologous, derived by descent from a common ancestor. PMID:9462855

Christ, B; Schmidt, C; Huang, R; Wilting, J; Brand-Saberi, B

1998-01-01

180

Noncontiguous lumbar vertebral hemangiomas treated by posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions and are often asymptomatic. Most vertebral hemangiomas that cause cord compression and neurological symptoms are located in the thoracic spine and involve a single vertebra. The authors report the rare case of lumbar hemangiomas in a 60-year-old woman presenting with severe back pain and rapidly progressive neurological signs attributable to 2 noncontiguous lesions. After embolization of the feeding arteries, no improvement was noted. Thus, the authors performed open surgery using a combination of posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation. The patient experienced relief from back and leg pain immediately after surgery. At 3 months postoperatively, her symptoms and neurological deficits had improved completely. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of 2 noncontiguous extensive lumbar hemangiomas presenting with neurological symptoms managed by such combined treatment. The combined management seems to be an effective method for treating symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. PMID:24236666

Yu, Bin; Wu, Desheng; Shen, Bin; Zhao, Weidong; Huang, Yufeng; Zhu, Jianguang; Qi, Dongduo

2014-01-01

181

Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies  

SciTech Connect

Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

1982-12-01

182

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

183

[Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].  

PubMed

Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others. PMID:18924356

Pérez, Amador Schüller

2008-01-01

184

Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

2002-01-01

185

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

186

Subclavian steal and rest pain in a case of brachiocephalic artery occlusion.  

PubMed

A patient with multiple vessel disease presented with symptoms of significant bilateral upper extremity pain and weakness that was more significant on the right side. On carotid duplex scanning, brachiocephalic artery occlusion with retrograde flow was noted through the right common carotid and right vertebral arteries at rest. Furthermore, 50% to 90% occlusion of the left internal carotid was noted. Filling of the right subclavian artery was noted to be through the right vertebral and right common carotid arteries. Unlike isolated subclavian steal syndrome, brachiocephalic artery occlusion induces significant hemodynamic alterations in extracranial arterial flow, which normally produces no symptoms at rest, but may produce symptoms with exercise. The occurrence of subclavian steal phenomenon in the presence of brachiocephalic occlusion is extremely rare. The present case is the first to report a patient presenting with bilateral upper extremity rest pain in the presence of brachiocephalic artery occlusive disease. PMID:22477423

Kapa, Suraj; Adams, Jonathon

2008-01-01

187

Arterial embolism  

PubMed Central

Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied.

Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

188

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

189

Back pain in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review article examines the epidemiology and pathogenesis of back pain and vertebral fractures in osteoporosis, reviewing\\u000a the management of pain in patients with vertebral fractures and the direct and indirect effect of osteoporosis treatments\\u000a on back pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The management of patients with vertebral fractures has largely concentrated on the prevention of further fractures by the\\u000a treatment of underlying osteoporosis,

R. M. Francis; T. J. Aspray; G. Hide; A. M. Sutcliffe; P. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

190

68Ga DOTATATE Uptake in Vertebral Hemangioma.  

PubMed

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is an established modality for imaging well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. It is known that inflammatory diseases (eg, tuberculosis) may also accumulate somatostatin receptor analogs. Here, we present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a neuroendocrine tumor of the rectum showing uptake of Ga DOTATATE in 2 vertebrae that was caused by vertebral hemangiomas. This could be clearly demonstrated on the CT scan. Although studies outlining the normal distribution of Ga DOTATATE exist, uptake in vertebral hemangiomas has not been described yet. As the case shows, vertebral hemangiomas should be kept in mind as a benign differential diagnosis. PMID:24152639

Brogsitter, Claudia; Hofmockel, Thomas; Kotzerke, Jörg

2014-05-01

191

Fragility fractures requiring special consideration: vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is complicated because of the comorbid conditions of the elderly patient. Underlying osteoporosis leads to malalignment of the weakened bone and impedes fracture fixation. The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is widely empirical, because standardized and accepted treatment evidence-based concepts are missing for certain fracture types. As in other osteoporotic fractures in the elderly, the key for good outcome may be a combination of interdisciplinary treatment approaches and adapted surgical procedures. This article gives an overview of the underlying problems and possible treatment strategies for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in geriatric patients. PMID:24721374

Kammerlander, Christian; Zegg, Michael; Schmid, Rene; Gosch, Markus; Luger, Thomas J; Blauth, Michael

2014-05-01

192

[Prevention of cerebral infarction in thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair(TEVAR) of distal aortic arch aneurysms; left subclavian artery balloon technique].  

PubMed

Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair(TEVAR) has been applied more and more frequently to an atherosclerotic distal aortic arch aneurysm. Even if the procedure is successful, extensive cerebral infarction might occur, especially in the left vertebral artery area. We therefore devised a new method to prevent embolic events using a thrombectomy catheter with an end hole, which was placed at the origin of the letf subclavian artery via the radial artery. This simple left subclavian artery balloon technique not only prevents cerebral embolism in the left vertebral artery system, but also provides a position marker under X-ray, and enables tight compaction of the embolization coils. PMID:23381358

Kondo, Shunichi; Hirota, Jun; Yamabe, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Ken; Kondo, Taichi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Katada, Yoshiaki; Irie, Yoshihito; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

2013-02-01

193

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

194

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

195

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

196

The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species of introduced exotic vertebrates of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are identified and described. The principal factors responsible for their introductions are explored and recommendations are made for alleviation of current problems cau...

J. P. Crowder

1974-01-01

197

Cilia in vertebrate development and disease  

PubMed Central

Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction.

Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2012-01-01

198

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

199

Osteoporotic vertebral collapse with late neurological complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes 27 patients who had a spinal fracture and underwent an anterior or a posterior spinal decompression, with or without spinal instrumentation, for late neurological compromise secondary to post-traumatic vertebral collapse associated with osteoporosis. Five males and 22 females were studied, with an average follow-up of 3.7 years. The patients developed delayed neurological compromise due to osteoporotic vertebral

H Baba; Y Maezawa; K Kamitani; N Furusawa; S Imura; K Tomita

1995-01-01

200

Persistent stapedial arteries in human: from phylogeny to surgical consequences.  

PubMed

The stapedial artery is an embryonic artery which disappears during the tenth week in utero, in human species. During its short life, this artery shapes the stapes and transforms the middle meningeal artery from the internal carotid artery to a branch of the external carotid system. Nevertheless, a persistent stapedial artery is seen in 0.2-4.8 per thousand of human adults. This persistence is usually asymptomatic but can sometimes cause pulsatile tinnitus or conductive hearing loss. Despite the risk of facial palsy, hearing loss and even hemiplegia argued by several authors, some surgeons have succeeded in coagulation without side effects. Reviewing the literature, we seek to enlighten the actual knowledge about the persistent stapedial artery to evaluate the risk to coagulate it. Embryologic studies explain the four types of persistent stapedial arteries: the hyoido-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-hyo-stapedial artery and aberrant internal carotid with persistent stapedial artery. Phylogenetic studies show that the stapedial artery persists in adulthood in many vertebrates. Its disappearance is therefore either a random effect or an adaptative convergence. This adaptation could be partially linked to the negative allometry of the stapes. Practically, the risk to coagulate a stapedial artery seems limited thanks to anastomoses, for example with the stylomastoid artery. The risk of hemiplegia reported is in fact an extrapolation of variation in rats' embryos. A persistent stapedial artery can therefore reasonably be coagulated, with special attention to the facial nerve, because the facial canal is always dehiscent where the artery penetrates. PMID:23640742

Hitier, Martin; Zhang, M; Labrousse, M; Barbier, C; Patron, V; Moreau, S

2013-12-01

201

Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Embolized through Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery  

PubMed Central

Summary Carotid-vertebral anastomoses are commonly detected as incidental findings. But sometimes these channels are important for the clinical condition of the patient. Here a case of right thalamo-capsular arteriovenous malformation is described where a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery was the only route for embolization of the arteriovenous malformation.

Gupta, A.K.

2005-01-01

202

Bias in Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Vertebrate Rhodopsin Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spurious nodes were found in phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences in comparison with well- established vertebrate relationships. These spurious reconstructions were well supported in bootstrap analyses and occurred independently of the method of phylogenetic analysis used (parsimony, distance, or likelihood). Use of this data set of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences allowed us to exploit established vertebrate relationships, as well

Belinda S. W. Chang; Dana L. Campbell

203

Arterial Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pressure measures from an arterial line give more detailed information than that from a pulse oximeter (a sensor that is clipped on to a patient’s finger, ...

204

Arterial embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... MRI of the arm or leg Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) Plethysmography Transcranial Doppler exam of arteries to the brain Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) This disease may also affect the results ...

205

Dolichoectasia of the circle of Willis arteries and fusiform aneurysm of basilar artery - case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is a rare arteriopathy characterized by elongation and widening of the arteries and disturbance of the laminar blood flow. It involves mostly vertebral and basilar arteries. In advanced cases, formation of a fusiform aneurysm is possible. Case Report: A sixty-four-year-old female with hypertension was admitted to the hospital with severe non-systemic vertigo and dysarthria, which had lasted for a couple of weeks. Imaging of the brain revealed dolichoectasia of arteries of the circle of Willis coexisting with a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial dolichoectasia may be asymptomatic for a long time. However, in many cases it leads to neurological symptoms associated with haemodynamic disturbance (due to unstable wall clots) and mass effect caused by the widened vessel.

Baran, Boguslawa; Kornafel, Olga; Guzinski, Maciej; Sasiadek, Marek

2012-01-01

206

Measurement of force to obstruct the cervical arteries and distribution of tension exerted on a ligature in hanging.  

PubMed

We experienced suicidal hanging cases without a ligature in front of the neck. We conducted several anatomical autopsies and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and studied the dynamics behind hanging by applying an apparatus to cadaver and creating a dummy. MRI revealed that the vertebral artery protrudes diagonally upward from the second vertebra to the first one. We also found that this area was not covered with any bony tissue. The average length between the first and second transverse processes was 2 cm. We measured the minimum required force to obstruct the blood stream in both carotid and vertebral arteries exerting 130 mmHg. The required force was 6 kg for the carotid artery and 7 kg for the vertebral artery. Compared to the reported cases, there was not a significant difference in the force to obstruct the carotid artery, however, that of the vertebral artery was lower than the force reported so far. With an experiment of pressure sensitive plastic-sheet, we learned the lateral sides of the neck are compressed more. The results obtained from this study show that the complete and fatal obstruction of the carotid and the vertebral arteries may easily occur when the ligature transects at the lower part of mandible angle. PMID:19364674

Yamasaki, Shigeru; Takase, Izumi; Takada, Naoki; Nishi, Katsuji

2009-07-01

207

Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Associated with Vertebrobasilar Artery  

PubMed Central

Objective Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is considered as a reversible pathophysiological condition mainly induced by continuous vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) at the cerebellopontine angle. As an offending vessel, vertebrobasilar artery tends to compress much more heavily than others. The authors analyzed HFS caused by vertebrobasilar artery and described the relationships between microsurgical findings and clinical courses. Methods Out of 1,798 cases treated with microvascular decompression (MVD) from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2004, the causative vessels were either vertebral artery or basilar artery in 87 patients. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, computed tomography (CT) or brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 3-dimentional short range MR technique was performed and CT was checked immediately or 2-3 days after anesthetic recovery. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, the compression patterns of the vessels at the time of surgery and treatment outcomes. Results There were 47 were male and 32 female patients. HFS developed on the left side in 52 cases and on the right side in 27. The mean age of onset was 52.3 years (range 19-60) and the mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years. Many patients (39 cases; 49.1%) had past history of hypertension. HFS caused only by the vertebral artery was 8 cases although most of the other cases were caused by vertebral artery (VA) in combination with its branching arteries. Most frequently, the VA and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were the simultaneous causative blood vessels comprising 32 cases (40.5%), and in 27 cases (34.2%) the VA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were the offenders. Facial symptoms disappeared in 61 cases (77.2%) immediately after the operation and 68 cases (86.1%) showed good outcome after 6 months. Surgical outcome just after the operation was poor in whom the perforators arose from the offending vessels concurrently (p<0.05). Conclusion In case where the vertebral artery is a cause of HFS, commonly branching arteries associated with main arterial compression on facial REZ requires more definite treatment for proper decompression because of its relatively poor results compared to the condition caused by other vascular compressive origins.

Kim, Joo Pyung; Choi, Seok Keun; Rhee, Bong Arm; Lim, Young Jin

2008-01-01

208

Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

Cohn, M J

2001-01-01

209

Vertebral fractures in children with osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Background. The aim of our study was to analyze the results of biochemical, densitometic and calcaneous ultrasound examination in children with vertebral fractures. Material and methods. The study involved 19 patients (7 girls, 12 boys) with pathological vertebral fractures diagnosed radiologically. Bone mineral densitometry (DXA method) and ultrasound examinations of the calcaneous bone were performed. The biochemical examinations including serum concentration and diurnal elimination of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Concentrations of parathormon (PTH) were assessed by radioimmunometry, and 25OHD by the Elisa method. Results. Fifteen children had back pain complaints; in 5 cases there had been vertebral trauma before diagnosis, and in 12 at least one fracture of a long bone. The most common fractures occurred at Th6-L1 and L4- L5. Fractures of only one vertebra appeared in 3 children. In 10 patients the DXA Z-score was below -2.0, and in 7 from -1.0 to -2.0. In 11 patients at least one of the ultrasound parameters fell below -2.0. Seven patients had a low concentration of 25OHD and PTH, and there were 5 cases of hypomagnesemia. Conclusions. In children with pain complaints from the vertebral region and a significant quantitative decrease of bone mineral density (even without clinical symptoms), lateral X-rays of the lower thoracic and lumbar region are indicated. Pathological vertebral fractures (after exclusion of local changes and metastases) should be an important diagnostic criterion for osteoporosis regardless of quantitative bone examination results. PMID:17603441

Loba-Jakubowska, Elzbieta; Kilia?ska, Agnieszka; Micha?us, Izabela; Chlebna-Sokó?, Danuta

2006-04-28

210

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the ...

211

Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Pericardial Disease Sports and the Heart Heart Tumors Atherosclerosis Coronary Artery Disease Peripheral Arterial Disease Aneurysms and ... Disease Occlusive peripheral arterial disease often results from atherosclerosis. Symptoms depend on which artery is blocked and ...

212

Hedgehog Secretion and Signal Transduction in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is essential for proper embryonic patterning and development. Dysregulation of Hh signaling is associated with a variety of human diseases ranging from developmental disorders such as holoprosencephaly to certain forms of cancer, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Genetic studies in flies and mice have shaped our understanding of Hh signaling and revealed that nearly all core components of the pathway are highly conserved. Although many aspects of the Drosophila Hh pathway are conserved in vertebrates, mechanistic differences between the two species have begun to emerge. Perhaps the most striking divergence in vertebrate Hh signaling is its dependence on the primary cilium, a vestigial organelle that is largely absent in flies. This minireview will provide an overview of Hh signaling and present recent insights into vertebrate Hh secretion, receptor binding, and signal transduction.

Ryan, Kaitlyn E.; Chiang, Chin

2012-01-01

213

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land.

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

214

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-09-01

215

Vertebrate and invertebrate carotenoid-binding proteins.  

PubMed

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on carotenoid-binding proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate systems, and we report our initial purification and characterization of a novel lutein-binding protein isolated from liver of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). PMID:17188641

Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S

2007-02-15

216

The evolution of vertebrate color vision.  

PubMed

Color vision is conventionally defined as the ability of animals to reliably discriminate among objects and lights based solely on differences in their spectral properties. Although the nature of color vision varies widely in different animals, a large majority of all vertebrate species possess some color vision and that fact attests to the adaptive importance this capacity holds as a tool for analyzing the environment. In recent years dramatic advances have been made in our understanding of the nature of vertebrate color vision and of the evolution of the biological mechanisms underlying this capacity. In this chapter I review and comment on these advances. PMID:22399401

Jacobs, Gerald H

2012-01-01

217

Ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms: management considerations with a focus on surgical and endovascular techniques to preserve arterial continuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The present retrospective analysis was undertaken to review an institutional experience with 13 intracranial dissecting aneurysms as source of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) among a total of 585 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods and results. In 6 patients the vertebral artery (VA) was affected, in 2 patients the basilar artery (BA), in 3 the internal carotid (ICA), in 1 the middle

E. Uhl; R. Schmid-Elsaesser; H.-J. Steiger

2003-01-01

218

Coma with Vertical Gaze Palsy: Relevance of Angio-CT in Acute Percheron Artery Syndrome.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: A 63-year-old woman with chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin was admitted to emergency for coma and complete vertical gaze palsy. Investigations: Brain CT and MRI, echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels, angio-CT of the intracranial vessels, EEG, transesophageal echocardiogram, biohumoral tests. Brain CT and MRI scans showed bilateral thalamic lesions with involvement of the right midbrain; EEG showed a diffuse alpha rhythm prevalent on the posterior regions; echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels showed marked reduction of blood flow in the right vertebral artery; angio-CT scans showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a significant filling defect of the first part of the right posterior cerebral artery (P1) from which the artery of Percheron arises. A follow-up angio-CT showed a complete recanalization of P1. Diagnosis: Percheron artery syndrome. Treatment and Management: Aspirin, neurorehabilitation. PMID:20671861

Godani, M; Auci, A; Torri, T; Jensen, S; Del Sette, M

2010-01-01

219

Coma with Vertical Gaze Palsy: Relevance of Angio-CT in Acute Percheron Artery Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background A 63-year-old woman with chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin was admitted to emergency for coma and complete vertical gaze palsy. Investigations: Brain CT and MRI, echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels, angio-CT of the intracranial vessels, EEG, transesophageal echocardiogram, biohumoral tests. Brain CT and MRI scans showed bilateral thalamic lesions with involvement of the right midbrain; EEG showed a diffuse alpha rhythm prevalent on the posterior regions; echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels showed marked reduction of blood flow in the right vertebral artery; angio-CT scans showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a significant filling defect of the first part of the right posterior cerebral artery (P1) from which the artery of Percheron arises. A follow-up angio-CT showed a complete recanalization of P1. Diagnosis: Percheron artery syndrome. Treatment and Management: Aspirin, neurorehabilitation.

Godani, M.; Auci, A.; Torri, T.; Jensen, S.; Del Sette, M.

2010-01-01

220

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis.

Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

221

Posterior C1-2 fusion using a polyaxial screw/rod system for os odontoideum with bilateral persistence of the first intersegmental artery.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a patient with os odontoideum, myelopathy secondary to atlantoaxial instability, and bilaterally persistent first intersegmental artery at the craniovertebral junction. Instead of occipitocervical fusion, C1-2 posterior fusion was performed using a polyaxial screw/rod system. The information obtained from 3D CT angiography studies may highlight the potential risk of vertebral artery injury in advance and reduce the risk of an intraoperative vertebral artery injury. In addition, C-1 lateral mass screw placement may be a safe procedure for cases of atlantoaxial subluxation in which there are persistent C-1 intersegmental arteries. PMID:21142459

Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2011-01-01

222

Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development  

PubMed Central

The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development.

Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

223

Lhx2, a vertebrate homologue of apterous, regulates vertebrate limb outgrowth.  

PubMed

apterous specifies dorsal cell fate and directs outgrowth of the wing during Drosophila wing development. Here we show that, in vertebrates, these functions appear to be performed by two separate proteins. Lmx-1 is necessary and sufficient to specify dorsal identity and Lhx2 regulates limb outgrowth. Our results suggest that Lhx2 is closer to apterous than Lmx-1, yet, in vertebrates, Lhx2 does not specify dorsal cell fate. This implies that in vertebrates, unlike Drosophila, limb outgrowth can be dissociated from the establishment of the dorsoventral axis. PMID:9735354

Rodriguez-Esteban, C; Schwabe, J W; Peña, J D; Rincon-Limas, D E; Magallón, J; Botas, J; Izpisúa Belmonte, J C

1998-10-01

224

Molecular evolution of color vision in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify amino acid changes that have modified the absorption spectra of

Shozo Yokoyama

2002-01-01

225

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

226

Genome size and chromatin condensation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell membrane-dependent chromatin condensation was studied by flow cytometry in erythrocytes of 36 species from six classes of vertebrates. A positive relationship was found between the degree of condensation and genome size. The distribution of variances among taxonomic levels is similar for both parameters. However, chromatin condensation varied relatively more at the lower taxonomic levels, which suggests that the degree

Alexander E. Vinogradov

2005-01-01

227

Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization.  

PubMed

Data from living and extinct faunas of primitive vertebrates imply very different scenarios for the origin and evolution of the dermal and oral skeletal developmental system. A direct reading of the evolutionary relationships of living primitive vertebrates implies that the dermal scales, teeth, and jaws arose synchronously with a cohort of other characters that could be considered unique to jawed vertebrates: the dermoskeleton is primitively composed of numerous scales, each derived from an individual dental papilla; teeth are primitively patterned such that they are replaced in a classical conveyor-belt system. The paleontological record provides a unique but complementary perspective in that: 1) the organisms in which the skeletal system evolved are extinct and we have no recourse but to fossils if we aim to address this problem; 2) extinct organisms can be classified among, and in the same way as, living relatives; 3) a holistic approach to the incorporation of all data provides a more complete perspective on early vertebrate evolution. This combined approach is of no greater significance than in dealing with the origin of the skeleton and, combined with recent discoveries and new phylogenetic analyses, we have been able to test and reject existing hypotheses for the origin of the skeleton and erect a new model in their place. PMID:12430166

Donoghue, Philip C J; Sansom, Ivan J

2002-12-01

228

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

229

Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

1998-01-01

230

A vertebrate globin expressed in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoglobins and myoglobins constitute related protein families that function in oxygen transport and storage in humans and other vertebrates. Here we report the identification of a third globin type in man and mouse. This protein is predominantly expressed in the brain, and therefore we have called it neuroglobin. Mouse neuroglobin is a monomer with a high oxygen affinity (half saturation

Thorsten Burmester; Bettina Weich; Sigrid Reinhardt; Thomas Hankeln

2000-01-01

231

Selected Bibliography of Certain Vertebrate Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide biologists with a basic set of references with which to initiate faunal surveys of vertebrates. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list, but should adequately introduce basic field techniques. Emphasis wa...

R. A. Thomas

1977-01-01

232

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using EST counts for 26 stages of development. We show that, in both species, genes expressed early in development (1) have a more dramatic effect of knock-out or mutation and (2) are more likely to revert to single copy after whole genome duplication, relative to genes expressed late. This supports high constraints on early stages of vertebrate development, making them less open to innovations (gene gain or gene loss). Results are robust to different sources of data—gene expression from microarrays, ESTs, or in situ hybridizations; and mutants from directed KO, transgenic insertions, point mutations, or morpholinos. We determine the pattern of these constraints, which differs from the model used to describe vertebrate morphological conservation (“hourglass” model). While morphological constraints reach a maximum at mid-development (the “phylotypic” stage), genomic constraints appear to decrease in a monotonous manner over developmental time.

Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

2008-01-01

233

Conserved distances between vertebrate highly conserved elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

High numbers of sequence element with very high (>95%) sequence conservation between the human and other vertebrate genomes have been reported and ascribed putative cis-regulatory functions. We have inves- tigated the structural relationships between such elements in mammalian genomes and find that not only their sequences, but also the distances between them are significantly (P < 2.2 3 10216) more

Hong Sun; Geir Skogerbø; Runsheng Chen

2006-01-01

234

Limb preferences in non-human vertebrates.  

PubMed

There is considerable debate about whether population-level asymmetries in limb preferences are uniquely human or are a common feature among vertebrates. In the present article the results of studies investigating limb preferences in all non-extinct vertebrate orders are systematically analysed by employing cladographic comparisons. These studies analysed 119 different species, with 61 (51.26%) showing evidence for population-level asymmetries, 20 (16.81%) showing evidence for individual-level asymmetries and 38 (31.93%) showing no evidence for asymmetry. The cladographic comparison revealed that research in several key taxa in particular (e.g., Chondrichtyes, Crocodylia, Atlantogenata and Palaeognathae) would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate limb preferences. Furthermore, the findings of the present study support the position that population-level asymmetries in limb preferences as such represent a common vertebrate feature. Looking into the details, however, some important differences from human handedness become visible: Non-human limb preferences typically show a less-skewed lateralisation pattern and there are larger numbers of individuals without a preference in most species compared to humans. Moreover, limb preferences in non-human animals are often less task-invariant than human handedness and are more frequently modulated by external factors and individual characteristics. PMID:23167450

Ströckens, Felix; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian

2013-01-01

235

Late Development of Hagfish Vertebral Elements  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:129–139, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

2013-01-01

236

Percutaneous vertebroplasty in painful refractory vertebral hemangiomas  

PubMed Central

Background: Painful vertebral hemangiomas are often inadequately managed medically. We evaluated the outcome of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the treatment of painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management. Materials and Methods: 14 patients (four thoracic and ten lumbar vertebra) with painful vertebral hemangiomas presenting with severe back pain for more than 6 months not responding to medical therapy were treated by vertebroplasty. Cross sectional imaging of the spine with magnetic resonance was done. Blood investigations were done to exclude coagulopathy excluded. PVP was performed under local anesthesia. Results: The pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS-11) of these patients was in the range of 7-10 (Severe Pain). After vertebroplasty 8 patients were completely free of pain (PI NRS Score 0) while 6 were significantly relieved (PI-NRS Score 1-3). No complications were observed. Two patients with associated radicular pain had good pain relief following PVP. No recurrence was found during 36 months of postoperative followup. Conclusion: PVP is a safe and effective procedure in patients with painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management.

Narayana, RV; Pati, Rajesh; Dalai, Sibasankar

2014-01-01

237

Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

PubMed Central

We present the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The infection occurred in an 80-year-old woman who had been taking glucocorticosteroids. S. lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus with considerable potential as a human pathogen. Isolation of this organism should be regarded as significant unless evidence suggests otherwise.

Murdoch, D R; Everts, R J; Chambers, S T; Cowan, I A

1996-01-01

238

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

239

Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... following vertebroplasty. Some studies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been noted with vertebroplasty. 9 osteoblasts, the ... vertebra before injecting cement, patients can also expect restoration of some of the vertebral body height they ...

240

Analysis of Long Bone and Vertebral Failure Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Baboons were dropped vertically from four feet above the ground. The vertebral columns were examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Six months post-impaction, there was damage to the vertebral end plates and beginning osteoarthros...

J. A. C. Eurell

1983-01-01

241

Morphology of the human vertebral endplate.  

PubMed

It is presumed that poor intervertebral disc cell nutrition is a contributing factor in degeneration, and is exacerbated by vertebral endplate sclerosis. Yet, quantitative relationships between endplate morphology and degeneration are unavailable. We investigated how endplate bone microstructure relates to indices of disc degeneration, such as morphologic grade, proteoglycan content, and cell density. Intervertebral core samples [n?=?96, 14 subjects, L1-L5 level, ages 35-85 (64?±?16 years), degeneration grade 1 (n?=?4), grade 2 (n?=?32), grade 3 (n?=?44), grade 4 (n?=?10), grade 5 (n?=?6)] that included subchondral bone, cartilage endplate, and adjacent nucleus were harvested from human cadaveric lumbar spines. The morphology of the vertebral endplate was analyzed using µCT and the adjacent nucleus tissue was collected for biochemical and cellular analyses. Relationships between vertebral endplate morphology and adjacent disc degeneration were analyzed. Contrary to the prevailing notion, vertebral endplate porosity increased between 50% and 130% and trabecular thickness decreased by between 20% and 50% with advancing disc degeneration (p?vertebral capillaries, as opposed to decreased permeability of intervening tissues. PMID:21812023

Rodriguez, Azucena G; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E; Burghardt, Andrew J; Berven, Sigurd; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2012-02-01

242

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

PubMed Central

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean ± SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 ± 6.2; VBS: 3.7 ± 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 ± 9.4; VBS: 13.3 ± 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

2010-01-01

243

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss\\u000a of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS)\\u000a was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent

Robert Rotter; Heiner Martin; Sebastian Fuerderer; Michael Gabl; Christoph Roeder; Paul Heini; Thomas Mittlmeier

2010-01-01

244

Heart development in Drosophila and its relationship to vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the vertebrate hox gene clusters and their structural and functional relationship to the Drosophila HOM-C cluster of homeotic genes revealed amazing similarities between the developmental mechanisms by which a major body axis is formed in vertebrates and those of many invertebrates, possibly encompassing all multicellular organisms. Recent data suggest that heart development in Drosophila also resembles vertebrate

Rolf Bodmer

1995-01-01

245

The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates.

Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

246

Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Supply from the Lateral Sacral Artery-Case Report and Review of Literature-  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) that is supplied by a lateral sacral artery. A 73-year-old male presented with gait disturbance that had developed 3 years ago. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging suggested a possible SDAVF. Selective spinal angiography including the vertebral arteries and pelvic vessels showed the SDAVF fed by left lateral sacral artery. The patient was subsequently treated with glue embolization. Three days after the embolization procedure, his gait disturbance was much improved.

Park, Kwan-Woong; Park, Sung Il; Im, Soo-Bin

2009-01-01

247

Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift

Daniel A. Duprez

248

Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

Rubenstein, E.

2002-05-01

249

Brain base arteries: pattern and variation in the European otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

The pattern and variation of the brain base arteries were investigated in 30 specimens of European otter. It was found that the vascular pattern in this species is similar to the vascular pattern found in other Carnivora. A very well-developed basilar artery, which was formed as a result of the anastomosis of equally well-developed vertebral arteries and the ventral spinal artery, was demonstrated to be characteristic of the species. Most of the variation in the pattern of origin concerned the origin of the middle cerebral arteries and labyrinthine arteries. In a single individual, a double middle cerebral artery was observed. Overall, the specimens demonstrated a clear regularity in the pattern of vessels in the base of the brain and a small range of variation. PMID:22414248

Brudnicki, W

2012-10-01

250

Interesting basis of vertebrobasilar arterial territory  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrobasilar arterial territory nourishes one-quarter of human brain. It constitutes some vital and strategic parts of the central nervous system. Methods A number of keywords (vertebral, basilar, artery, and territory) were searched in MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed) as well as Google, ProQuest, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct online databases. Only articles containing all keywords were included. We also reviewed archives of libraries in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran) for all anatomy, embryology, neurology, and neuroscience books and journals about vertebrobasilar arterial territories. Results The vertebrobasilar arterial (VA) system has a high incidence of variations, anomalies, and persistent fetal vessels. Two important anatomic facts explain why VA origin lesions seldom cause chronic hemodynamically significant low flow to the vertebrobasilar system. First, the VAs are paired vessels that unite to form a single basilar artery. Second, the extracranial VA gives off numerous muscular and other branches as it ascends in the neck. Thus, in the VA system, there is much more potential for development of adequate collateral circulation. Even when there is bilateral occlusion of the VAs at their origins, patients do not often develop posterior circulation infarcts. Conclusion VA origin disease is more benign than ICA origin disease from hemodynamic aspect. This important point could make influence in therapeutic interventional decisions in asymptomatic VA origin stenosis.

Ghandehari, Kosar

2012-01-01

251

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Beta Integrin Genes and Proteins: Ancient Genes in Vertebrate Evolution  

PubMed Central

Intregins are heterodimeric ?- and ?-subunit containing membrane receptor proteins which serve various cell adhesion roles in tissue repair, hemostasis, immune response, embryogenesis and metastasis. At least 18 ?- (ITA or ITGA) and 8 ?-integrin subunits (ITB or ITGB) are encoded on mammalian genomes. Comparative ITB amino acid sequences and protein structures and ITB gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate ITB genes usually contained 13–16 coding exons and encoded protein subunits with ?800 amino acids, whereas vertebrate ITB4 genes contained 36-39 coding exons and encoded larger proteins with ?1800 amino acids. The ITB sequences exhibited several conserved domains including signal peptide, extracellular ?-integrin, ?-tail domain and integrin ?-cytoplasmic domains. Sequence alignments of the integrin ?-cytoplasmic domains revealed highly conserved regions possibly for performing essential functions and its maintenance during vertebrate evolution. With the exception of the human ITB8 sequence, the other ITB sequences shared a predicted 19 residue ?-helix for this region. Potential sites for regulating human ITB gene expression were identified which included CpG islands, transcription factor binding sites and microRNA binding sites within the 3?-UTR of human ITB genes. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships of vertebrate beta-integrin genes which were consistent with four major groups: 1: ITB1, ITB2, ITB7; 2: ITB3, ITB5, ITB6; 3: ITB4; and 4: ITB8 and a common evolutionary origin from an ancestral gene, prior to the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that ITB4 is the most likely primordial form of the vertebrate ? integrin subunit encoding genes, that is the only ? subunit expressed as a constituent of the sole integrin receptor ‘?6?4’ in the hemidesmosomes of unicellular organisms.

Holmes, Roger S.; Rout, Ujjwal K.

2011-01-01

252

Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks.

Chandrasekhar, Anand

2007-01-01

253

Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

Carroll, Robert Lynn

1997-04-01

254

Function and evolution of vertebrate globins.  

PubMed

Globins are haem-proteins that bind O2 and thus play an important role in the animal's respiration and oxidative energy production. However, globins may also have other functions such as the decomposition or production of NO, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species or intracellular signalling. In addition to the well-investigated haemoglobins and myoglobins, genome sequence analyses have led to the identification of six further globin types in vertebrates: androglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y and neuroglobin. Here, we review the present state of knowledge on the functions, the taxonomic distribution and evolution of vertebrate globins, drawing conclusions about the functional changes underlying present-day globin diversity. PMID:24811692

Burmester, T; Hankeln, T

2014-07-01

255

Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-01-01

256

Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT  

SciTech Connect

The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

1982-11-01

257

[Radiologic evaluation of an isolated vertebral hemangioma].  

PubMed

CT scan and M.R.I. features have been evaluated in case of compressive (H.V.C.) and asymptomatic (H.V.A.) vertebral hemangiomas. The main datas observed in H.V.C. are: 1) thoracic localization; 2) whole vertebral body involvement; 3) extension to the pedicles; 4) irregular trabeculation; 5) swelling of bone contours with 6) epidural and perivertebral extension. H.V.C. always exhibit at least three of these six datas while H.V.A. are associated with 2 or less. Also H.V.C. frequently present intravertebral contrast enhancement on CT and low signal intensity on T1 weighted and high signal intensity on T2 weighted M.R.I. PMID:2698449

Laredo, J D; Assouline, E; Gaston, A; Gelbert, F; Merland, J J

1989-01-01

258

Vertebrate and invertebrate carotenoid-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on

Prakash Bhosale; Paul S. Bernstein

2007-01-01

259

Cerebellar stroke in elderly patient with basilar artery agenesia: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 76-year-old woman admitted to our institution with sudden onset of dizziness and vertigo followed by vomiting and blurred vision. Her medical history was remarkable for hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic stroke in the territory of the left cerebral median artery. Her symptoms were suggestive of a cerebellar stroke. Computed tomography brain scan and neck vessel ultrasounds produced normal findings. A 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed a reverse dipping pattern. Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed, showing a hyperintense ischemic focus involving pons and left middle cerebellar peduncle, on T2-weighted images. On Time-of-flight (TOF)-3-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography, there was a marked reduction of basilar artery signal. The digital subtraction angiography showed a vertebrobasilar system anomaly. The right vertebral artery was hypoplastic with few thin terminal spinal branches. The left vertebral artery was vicarious to the right one in intracranial tract. V3 to V4 tract showed multiple atherosclerotic wall irregularities. The basilar common trunk was absent. An abnormal posterior inferior cerebellar artery replaced the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and superior cerebellar artery. Right posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and superior cerebellar artery arose from ipsilateral V4 tract. This case is the first description of pure basilar agenesia. The symptoms might be related to temporary decrement of the flow in the left vertebral artery. Furthermore, the reverse dipping pattern together with the aging, hypertension, and diabetes had probably contributed to a hemodynamic malfunction of the cerebral vascular system. PMID:20123233

Savica, Rodolfo; Longo, Marcello; La Spina, Paolino; Pitrone, Antonio; Calabrò, Rocco S; Trifirò, Gianluca; Cotroneo, Masina; Granata, Francesca; Musolino, Rosa

2010-01-01

260

Mucosal immunity in the gut: the non-vertebrate perspective.  

PubMed

Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of this review is to summarize key experimental evidence illustrating how non-vertebrate immune mechanisms at barrier epithelia compare to those of higher vertebrates, using the gut as a model organ. Not only effector mechanisms of gut immunity are similar between vertebrates and non-vertebrates, but it also seems that the proper functioning of non-vertebrate gut defense mechanisms requires the presence of a resident microbiota. As more information becomes available, it will be possible to obtain a more accurate picture of how mucosal immunity has evolved, and how it adapts to the organisms' life styles. PMID:23537860

Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victor

2013-01-01

261

Evolution of Vertebrate GnRH Receptors from the Perspective of a Basal Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R) in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian), type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that two whole rounds of genome duplication (2R) occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

Sower, Stacia A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Joseph, Nerine T.; Freamat, Mihael

2012-01-01

262

Coronary artery disease (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

263

Coronary artery fistula (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A coronary artery fistula generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries fails to form properly during the development of the baby. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

264

Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome.

van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

2014-01-01

265

Determination of strain energy function for arterial elastin: Experiments using histology and mechanical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-range reversible deformation of vertebrate arteries is primarily mediated by elastin networks that endure several million deformation cycles without appreciable fatigue. To determine how elastin contributes to the composite arterial properties, we studied the three-dimensional microstructure and biomechanics of isolated elastin. We initially estimated the sensitivity of these studies by comparing two elastin isolation protocols, autoclaving and alkali-extraction, and

Namrata Gundiah; Mark B Ratcliffe; Lisa A Pruitt

2007-01-01

266

Spontaneous multiple arterial dissections presenting with renal infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient under treatment for infertility.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old woman developed multiple spontaneous arterial dissections in both renal arteries, the carotid artery, superior mesenteric artery, and vertebral artery, but not the aorta, and she suffered a renal infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage within a short period of time. She had been undergoing frequent injections of human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin, together with oral estrogen therapy, during a 5-year infertility treatment regimen. As she had no other history of any disorder affecting the arterial walls, this therapy is suspected to have caused the multiple arterial deformities. Although cases of isolated arterial dissection are occasionally reported, it is rare for multiple dissections and serious symptoms to occur simultaneously. PMID:15731548

Wakino, Shu; Tawarahara, Kei; Tsuchiya, Naoto; Kurosawa, Yoshitomo; Sugihara, Tatsuo; Ando, Koushi

2005-03-01

267

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

268

A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos  

PubMed Central

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set.

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

269

Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment  

PubMed Central

Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old) and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments). Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length) and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length). The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

Herrero, Carlos Fernando P. S.; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Garcia, Luis Vicente; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

2014-01-01

270

Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates. PMID:24507155

Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

2014-01-01

271

Vertebral Fracture Assessment: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions.  

PubMed

Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an established, low radiation method for detection of prevalent vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures are usually not recognized clinically at the time of their occurrence, but their presence indicates a substantial risk for subsequent fractures independent of bone mineral density. Significant evidence supporting VFA use for many post-menopausal women and older men has accumulated since the last ISCD Official Position Statement on VFA was published. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry considered the following issues at the 2007 Position Development Conference: (1) What are appropriate indications for Vertebral Fracture Assessment; (2) What is the most appropriate method of vertebral fracture detection with VFA; (3) What is the sensitivity and specificity for detection of vertebral fractures with this method; (4) When should additional spine imaging be performed following a VFA; and (5) What are the reporting obligations for those interpreting VFA images? PMID:18442755

Schousboe, John T; Vokes, Tamara; Broy, Susan B; Ferrar, Lynne; McKiernan, Fergus; Roux, Christian; Binkley, Neil

2008-01-01

272

Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult  

PubMed Central

The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries.

Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

273

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

274

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

275

Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics  

PubMed Central

An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments.

WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

2009-01-01

276

Peripheral artery leiomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Vascular leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare tumors and represent only 0.001% of all malignancies. Venous leiomyosarcomas occur five times more often than arterial ones, with 50% of them originating in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Arterial leiomyosarcomas are most commonly encountered in the great vessels with less than 50% of them occurring in the peripheral circulation. A total of only seven cases of arterial leiomyosarcomas involving the femoral artery have been reported in literature to date. We report a case of an arterial leiomyosarcoma involving the profunda femoris artery, and provide a comprehensive review on peripheral arterial leiomyosarcomas-distribution, clinical presentation, radiological and histological diagnosis, staging, and treatment. PMID:19174258

Sakpal, Sujit Vijay; Mehta, Rohin; Babel, Nitin; Chamberlain, Ronald Scott

2009-01-01

277

Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD.

Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

2013-01-01

278

Vertebral rim lesions in the dorsolumbar spine.  

PubMed Central

The frequency, distribution, and histological characteristics of vertebral rim lesions have been studied at D11 and L4 in 117 post-mortem spines in subjects aged 13-96 years. Only one lesion was found in patients less than 30 years, but thereafter the frequency increased with age. At least one rim was affected in the majority of patients greater than or equal to 50 years. They were found more frequently in the upper than the lower rim and they were also more common anteriorly than posteriorly. Lesions were associated with focal avulsion of the annulus in an otherwise healthy disc or with annular tears running into the rim. Rim lesions can be recognised radiographically by the presence of the vacuum phenomenon, vertebral rim sclerosis with or without a cup-shaped defect in the rim and osteophytes confined to one side of the disc. The histological appearances suggest a traumatic aetiology, and since bone is known to be supplied with pain sensitive nerve endings the lesions may be important in the general context of low back pain. Images

Hilton, R C; Ball, J

1984-01-01

279

Trial by fire in the vertebrate graveyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an introduction to vertebrate skeletal material, students work individually through a series of stations displaying isolated bones and teeth. Associated with each station are two to six short-answer questions that ask the students to identify, orient, and taxonomically classify the specimens, and to describe the rationale for their answers. Students must respond to every question. Even if they have no prior course experience with vertebrate anatomy, they are required to propose and defend an answer, based on careful observation, "common sense," and relevant personal experience. After the students have worked through the stations and answered all the questions, instructor and class discuss the samples and student interpretations. This activity is deliberately designed to force students to work outside of their comfort zone. In the exercise and discussion, students are required to employ careful and reasoned observation in developing hypotheses concerning the identities of the samples, and to defend those hypotheses based on physical characteristics of the bones. The point of the exercise is not to identify the specimens correctly (although students often do better than they expect), but to demonstrate that skeletal anatomy makes "sense", and that thoughtful reasoning based on solid evidence is key to interpreting skeletal remains.

Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

280

Intraembryonic hematopoietic cell migration during vertebrate development.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other teleosts do not form yolk sac blood islands during early embryogenesis, but instead hematopoiesis occurs solely in a dorsal location known as the intermediate cell mass (IM) or Oellacher. In this report, we have isolated cDNAs encoding zebrafish homologs of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and GATA-2 and have used these markers to determine that the IM is formed from mesodermal cells in a posterior-lateral position on the yolk syncytial layer of the gastrula yolk sac. Surprisingly, cells of the IM then migrate anteriorly through most of the body length prior to the onset of active circulation and exit onto the yolk sac. These findings support a hypothesis in which the hematopoietic program of vertebrates is established by variations in homologous migration pathways of extra- and intraembryonic progenitors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Detrich, H W; Kieran, M W; Chan, F Y; Barone, L M; Yee, K; Rundstadler, J A; Pratt, S; Ransom, D; Zon, L I

1995-01-01

281

What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?  

PubMed Central

Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution.

2014-01-01

282

Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94%) have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand) in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

Pan, Deng; Zhang, Liqing

2008-01-01

283

Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

2005-02-07

284

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development.

2011-01-01

285

Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.  

PubMed

In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

Svoboda, Ond?ej; Stachura, David L; Macho?ová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Ji?í; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bart?n?k, Petr

2014-07-10

286

Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

Olson, E. C.

1988-01-01

287

The road to the vertebral formula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

2009-01-01

288

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

2014-01-01

289

The diameter of the vertebral canal in dogs in cases of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

. From Th1 to L7 midsagittal and interpedicular vertebral canal diameters were measured in macerated spines of 162 dogs to determine, whether the presence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations are associated with dislocation of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal. Relative to dogs with a regular number of 27 presacral vertebrae (C7\\/Th13\\/L7), the maximal enlargement

Sabine Breit; Wolfgang Künzel

2002-01-01

290

Postmortem angiographic study of degenerative vascular changes in arteries supplying the cervicobrachial region.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of degenerative changes in the arteries supplying the cervicobrachial region, and their relation to cervical disc degeneration. METHODS--Fifty postmortem aortic arch angiographies were evaluated for occlusions and variations in the diameter of the vertebral arteries and thyro- and costocervical trunks, as well as for tortuosity, average diameter and the highest cervical level to which the ascending cervical artery, an upward continuation of the thyrocervical trunk, and the deep cervical artery, an upward continuation of the costocervical trunk, ascended. RESULTS--Localised segmental narrowings, usually situated close to the ostia of the arteries, were common, whereas total occlusions were rare. Thirty (60%) of the subjects showed a segmental narrowing at least in one of the six arteries analysed, while only two (4%) showed an occluded artery, which in both the cases was the thyrocervical trunk. Narrowings were most common in vertebral arteries, followed by costocervical and thyrocervical trunks. Segmental narrowings, as well as general tortuosity of the arteries, increased with age. It was also found that ascending and deep cervical arteries did not run as high up in the posterior neck muscles in older people as in younger ones. Twenty three subjects with marked cervical disc degeneration showed on average 2.3 arteries with segmental narrowings, while the corresponding figure for twenty seven subjects without disc degeneration was 0.6. Both the segmental narrowings and the disc degeneration, however, were strongly associated with age, and thus the causality between the former two remained unclear. CONCLUSION--The study showed that degenerative changes are common in the arteries supplying the cervicobrachial area, indicating that impaired blood flow might play a part in some cervicobrachial disorders. Images

Kauppila, L I; Penttila, A

1994-01-01

291

Mechanism of Medullary Infarction Based on Arterial Territory Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The blood supply to the medulla oblongata is distinct from that of other areas of the brainstem, and thus the mechanism underlying medullary infarctions may be distinct. However, few studies have investigated this. Methods Of 3833 stroke patients who were on the stroke registry between February 1999 and April 2008, those with medullary infarctions demonstrated on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We analyzed the topography, the involved arterial territories, and the etiologic mechanisms of the lesions. Results In total, 142 patients were enrolled in the study. Bilateral medullary infarctions were rare (2.2%). Lesions involving the anteromedial or lateral territories were common in the upper medulla oblongata, whereas lateral territorial involvements were common in the middle and lower regions of the medulla oblongata. Significant stenosis (>50%) or occlusion of the vertebral artery was common (52.2%). Among stroke subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis was most common (34.5%), while lacunae and cardioembolism were rare (3.5% and 4.2%, respectively). Vertebral artery dissection was frequent. The stroke mechanisms differed with the involved vascular territories. Large-artery atherosclerosis produced lesions in the lateral, anteromedial, and posterior territories. None of the cardioembolisms or other etiologies involved anteromedial or anterolateral territories, but all involved the lateral and/or posterior territories. Lacunar infarction was found only in the anteromedial and anterolateral territories. Conclusions The topography and mechanisms of infarctions involving the medulla oblongata are different with the involved arterial territories. These findings may be associated with the distinct pattern of arterial supply to the medulla oblongata.

Kim, Kyoungsub; Lee, Hye Sun; Jung, Yo Han; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Seung Min

2012-01-01

292

Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended. PMID:24119627

Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

2014-01-01

293

Basilar artery thrombosis after reduction of cervical spondyloptosis: a cautionary report.  

PubMed

Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a rare clinical entity typically associated with complete neurological deficit. The inherent mechanics of this fracture-dislocation pattern contorts the vertebral arteries in such a way that it may result in dissection or compromised flow through those vessels. Thus, intimal injury or thrombus from stasis of flow may result. Reduction of the spondyloptosis restores flow to the vertebral arteries, but it also may mobilize thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection within the previously contorted vessel. The authors review their experience in the care of a 43-year-old man who sustained C4-5 spondyloptosis while riding an all-terrain vehicle. On arrival, the patient demonstrated no motor function below C-4 but had sensation to the nipple line (American Spinal Injury Association Spinal Cord Injury Classification B). The patient's cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated complete spondyloptosis at C4-5. The patient was immediately placed in cervical traction and taken to the operating room for open reduction of the fracture dislocation, decompression of the spinal cord, and stabilization with an interbody graft and cervical plate. Preoperative cervical traction was successful in only partial reduction of the fracture dislocation. Open reduction was achieved with exposure of the C-4 and C-5 bodies and sequential distraction. After anatomical alignment was achieved, an interbody graft was placed and a cervical plate secured. A subsequent decline in the patient's level of consciousness prompted CT of the head, which showed evidence of a basilar artery thrombosis. A CT angiographic study demonstrated patency of the vertebral arteries, but a mid-basilar artery thrombosis. The patient progressed to brain death 24 hours after reduction of the fracture dislocation. The degree of contortion of the vertebral arteries in cervical spondyloptosis in the upper cervical spine may result in stasis of flow with subsequent formation of thrombus or intimal injury. After anatomical reduction, restoration of flow within the vertebral arteries may mobilize the thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection and result in subsequent embolic events. Endovascular evaluation may be warranted immediately after anatomical reduction of a high cervical spondyloptosis for evaluation of the vertebral arteries and possible thrombus dissolution or retrieval. PMID:22385083

Tumialán, Luis M; Theodore, Nicholas

2012-05-01

294

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of

Allison M Churcher; John S Taylor

2009-01-01

295

Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

2006-01-01

296

Evolutionary diversity of reverse (R) fluorescent chromosome bands in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic chromosomes, interphase cell nuclei, and male meiosis of 41 species representing all vertebrate classes were analyzed with distamycin A\\/mithramycin counterstaining. The purpose of the study was to recognize differences and common characteristics in the reverse (R) fluorescent banding patterns in the chromosomes of vertebrate species at various stages of evolution. In contrast to the warm-blooded mammals and birds, the

Michael Schmid; Martina Guttenbach

1988-01-01

297

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

298

Molecular control of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate limb is a powerful model system for studying the cellular and molecular interactions that determine morphological pattern during embryonic development. Recent advances in our understanding of these interactions have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations. The transfer of information has, until recently, been largely one way, with developmental studies

Martin J. Cohn; Philippa E. Bright

1999-01-01

299

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example

Stephen J. Godfrey; Joshua B. Smith

2010-01-01

300

Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual complication of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Crohn's disease is a rare occurrence and mostly occurred in patients with Crohn's disease complicated by an abscess or fistulising disease. We report a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, occurring in a refractory Crohn's disease without contiguous abscess or fistula with the bowel. PMID:24916975

Ajayi, Olushola; Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Iqbal, Nasir

2014-01-01

301

Vertebral reconstruction with cortical allograft: long-term evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of large anterior vertebral column defects is indicated in a number of pathological conditions including tumor, infection, trauma and post-traumatic deformity. Several substitutes and techniques are available for the functional restoration of the vertebral column. Vascularized bone transfers, autografts, allografts or xenografts have been used, as well as metal or ceramic implants. All of these bear potential advantages and

E. Munting; A. Faundez; E. Manche

2001-01-01

302

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

2011-01-01

303

Cement augmentation in vertebral burst fractures.  

PubMed

As a result of axial compression, traumatic vertebral burst fractures disrupt the anterior column, leading to segmental instability and cord compression. In situations with diminished anterior column support, pedicle screw fixation alone may lead to delayed kyphosis, nonunion, and hardware failure. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty) have been used in an effort to provide anterior column support in traumatic burst fractures. Cited advantages are providing immediate stability, improving pain, and reducing hardware malfunction. When used in isolation or in combination with posterior instrumentation, these techniques theoretically allow for improved fracture reduction and maintenance of spinal alignment while avoiding the complications and morbidity of anterior approaches. Complications associated with cement use (leakage, systemic effects) are similar to those seen in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures; however, extreme caution must be used in fractures with a disrupted posterior wall. PMID:24981904

Zaryanov, Anton V; Park, Daniel K; Khalil, Jad G; Baker, Kevin C; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

2014-07-01

304

Morphogenesis and evolution of vertebrate appendicular muscle  

PubMed Central

Two different modes are utilised by vertebrate species to generate the appendicular muscle present within fins and limbs. Primitive Chondricthyan or cartilaginous fishes use a primitive mode of muscle formation to generate the muscle of the fins. Direct epithelial myotomal extensions invade the fin and generate the fin muscles while remaining in contact with the myotome. Embryos of amniotes such as chick and mouse use a similar mechanism to that deployed in the bony teleost species, zebrafish. Migratory mesenchymal myoblasts delaminate from fin/limb level somites, migrate to the fin/limb field and differentiate entirely within the context of the fin/limb bud. Migratory fin and limb myoblasts express identical genes suggesting that they possess both morphogenetic and molecular identity. We conclude that the mechanisms controlling tetrapod limb muscle formation arose prior to the Sarcopterygian or tetrapod radiation.

HAINES, LYNN; CURRIE, PETER D.

2001-01-01

305

Evolutionary attempts at 4 eyes in vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. METHODS: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes in defined as the duplication or one or more structures integral to the refraction or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known optics, histology, and ecology of each of these vertebrate species with attempts at 4 eyes including Anableps anableps, Dialomnus fuscus, Mnierpes macrocephalus, and Bathylychnops exilis. These animals have developed portions of ancillary eyes that have diverged from the primary globe in 3 different patterns. At least 1 specimen of each of those vertebrate species known to have 4 eyes was examined histologically and compared to the animal's ecology and current cladistic relationship. RESULTS: A anabteps has 2 distinct optical systems in each eye: an upper one for aerial vision and a lower system for aquatic vision. These systems feature separate retinae and an asymmetric lens to achieve focus in the aerial and aquatic vision, but only 1 optic nerve per eye. The visual system is split horizontally to function optimally in a "prone" position in the water. D fuscus is a terrestrial feeder and has a vertically (almost perpendicular to the long axis of the fish) divided cornea using pigment and a condensation of collagen as the divider, a single pupil, and a divided retina. The split cornea allows for the fish to remain vertical with 1 cornea in air and 1 cornea in water. M macrocephalus is probably closely related to D fuscus with a similar split cornea. B exilis is a mesopelagic inhabitant living at approximately 200 to 1,000 m and has an ancillary globe that "buds" off the primary globe. This secondary globe is directed inferiorly toward the ocean floor as compared to the primary globe, which is directed 35 degrees superiorly from the horizontal. Adult species of B exilis have 2 additional scleral bodies suspected to be lenses. If so, these structures would be capable of focusing light from the inferior field onto the superior retina, presumably adding to the panoramic inferior visual field. There are other mesopelagic species, including Styleophorus chordatus, Opisthoproctus grimaldii, Scopelarchus gantheri (or guentheri), Dolichopteryx binocularis, Benthalbella infans, and Evermannella indica, that have other unusual ocular mechanisms, such as retinal diverticulae and lens pads capable of reflection, but do not meet the definition of multiple eyes, as defined for purposes of this work. CONCLUSIONS: D fuscus and M macrocephalus are terrestrial feeders requiring aquatic and aerial vision, and hence have a split cornea for this purpose, and they probably use their anterior corneae for terrestrial vision. A anableps swims at the surface with combined aerial and aquatic vision for feeding and protection from predators. B exilis is a mesopelagic feeder requiring a binocular visual field in the horizontal meridian and above, and simultaneously is a bottom scavenger using an ancillary globe and perhaps scleral lenses for recognition of bioluminescent detritus. Although 2 of these models are related (D fuscus and M macrocephalus), these 4 fish represent 3 separate, distinct, and unrelated convergent evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes in vertebrates satisfying the ecological needs of each. The 3 different models are unrelated evolutionarily and are found in 3 separate orders.

Schwab, I R; Ho, V; Roth, A; Blankenship, T N; Fitzgerald, P G

2001-01-01

306

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

307

Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

2008-04-01

308

Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors—heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin—in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation.

Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

2012-01-01

309

Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.59±0.08) cm, (1.68±0.08) cm, and (1.66±0.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.00±0.09) cm, (1.87±0.04) cm, and (1.99±0.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.10±0.07) cm, (1.98±0.09) cm, and (2.00±0.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); and group A and group B had no significant difference (P=0.157). Conclusions The nitinol memory alloy stents can effectively support and reduce the compression of vertebral endplates and can be used to treat vertebral compression fractures without neurological symptoms.

Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

2014-01-01

310

Treatment options for vertebral fractures an overview of different philosophies and techniques for vertebral augmentation.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: For more than 30 years, minimally invasive surgical procedures have been available to stabilize the fractured vertebrae by cement augmentation leading to significant pain relief, a distinct improvement in quality of life and decreased mortality for patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This overview article is designed to provide information on the wide range of augmentation methods previously tested and clinically applied in surgery in an attempt to compile the clinically relevant information on safety and efficacy in the published literature. METHOD: Based on an extensive literature review on the topic of "vertebral fractures-surgical augmentation techniques" we summarized the results of published clinical trials and experimental testing which address clinically relevant questions. The selection of the publications in reference books and scientific journals covers the time period from the end of the 1970s until the present. RESULTS: The final selection of more than 50 publications with, in the opinion of the authors, clinically relevant data led to the following results, which can be of significance for clinical application. The prerequisites for the success of all augmentation methods include the earliest possible surgical intervention, optimal technical equipment and an experienced, interdisciplinary team, as well as thorough consideration of the situation of the individual patient. The selection of the material for vertebral augmentation depends on the surgical method. The material of choice remains polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and the best record of efficacy and safety is displayed by radiofrequency kyphoplasty with ultrahigh-viscosity cement. Regarding clinical efficacy and safety, there are many convincing documentations showing superiority of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in comparison with conservative therapeutic regimens. Initial results of clinical studies with additional implants indicate a trend toward further improvement in clinical success and suggest possible broader clinical possibilities of application. CONCLUSION: Modern, minimally invasive augmentation techniques represent a real alternative to conservative treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Further technical and clinical development in this area should aim at optimizing procedural safety while continuing to achieve comparably good results to current methods. Minimizing damage to the remaining trabecular structures as well as to adjacent vertebral disks and vertebrae should be paramount of importance. Options for the treatment of vertebral fractures: Reductions in bone density and pathological changes in bone structure are associated with an elevated risk of fractures, which can lead to decisive functional impairment, pain, and a host of further comorbidities. Vertebral augmentation can be considered as an alternative conservative treatment, in order to achieve immediate and lasting pain relief as well as improvement in functional impairment. To achieve greater safety, instrumentation for transpedicular access and incorporation of radiopacifiers in PMMA for vertebroplasty were developed in mid-eighties. Balloon kyphoplasty was introduced in the end nineties, and results of prospective, randomized clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy; the destruction of the remaining native spongiosa structures during balloon expansion is viewed as a disadvantage of this method. The two step method of cavity creation followed by cement delivery known as kyphoplasty has been further refined and developed by and varied by technology/procedural developments. This includes most the radiofrequency kyphoplasty (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), in which ultrahigh-viscosity cement is delivered at a controlled delivery rate, following producing a bone sparing size and side specific cavity which minimizes loss of spongiosa, allowing for mechanical stability upon interdigitation of cement into that remaining trabecular bone. This combination has been shown to preserve vertebral structures and

Bornemann, R; Koch, E M W; Wollny, M; Pflugmacher, R

2013-06-16

311

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

312

The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Catia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

2012-01-01

313

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

Weldon, Paul J.

2010-05-01

314

Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.

Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

2012-01-01

315

Characteristics of a prevalent vertebral deformity predict subsequent vertebral fracture: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a prevalent vertebral deformity increases the risk of a future vertebral fracture. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain characteristics of the prevalent deformity, including its shape and location in the spine, influenced this effect. The 3100 men and 3500 women who took part in this analysis were recruited from population registers for participation

Mark Lunt; Terence W O'Neill; Dieter Felsenberg; Jonathan Reeve; John A Kanis; Cyrus Cooper; Alan J Silman

2003-01-01

316

Posterior decompression and stabilization, and surgical vertebroplasty with the vertebral body stenting for metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression.  

PubMed

We present the technique of combined posterior decompression and spinal instrumentation, and surgical (open) vertebroplasty using a novel system called vertebral body stenting (VBS) during a single session in a patient with metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression. PMID:20082355

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Starantzis, Konstantinos; Korres, Demetrios S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2010-03-01

317

The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.  

PubMed

Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

2014-01-01

318

A case of segmental mediolytic arteriopathy involving both intracranial and intraabdominal arteries.  

PubMed

Segmental mediolytic arteriopathy (SMA) is an uncommon nonatherosclerotic and nonvasculitic arteriopathy. This disease is characterized by lytic degeneration of the arterial media, intramural dissection and thrombosed or ruptured aneurysm. SMA mainly involves the intraabdominal arterial system, resulting in intraabdominal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. However, only a few cases of SMA with involvement of intracranial arteries have been reported. Here, we present a case of SMA developing subarachnoid hemorrhage due to dissection of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. This patient was a 48-year-old male who died 13 days after admission for sudden loss of consciousness. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. At autopsy, the affected vessels included the right vertebral, left internal carotid, superior mesenteric, bilateral renal and left external iliac arteries. Histopathologically, the arteries showed segmental lytic degeneration and disappearance of medial smooth muscle cells, medial dissection and formation of pseudo-aneurysms, the wall of which consisted of a thin membrane of the adventitia. These histopathological features mimicked an entire wall dissection type of intracranial dissecting aneurysm, which exclusively affects the vertebro-basilar system. Thus, SMA should be considered a possible underlying disease in patients with spontaneous dissection of intracranial arteries. PMID:12234069

Sakata, Noriyuki; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Masaru; Masawa, Nobuhide; Suzuki, Keiji; Takatama, Masamitsu

2002-01-01

319

Anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly that most frequently involves the left coronary artery and very rarely the right coronary artery. These lesions can be missed on echocardiography unless carefully looked for. We describe a case of isolated anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery diagnosed on echocardiography and confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography.

Gupta, Rajat; Marwah, Ashutosh; Shrivastva, Savitri

2012-01-01

320

Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shcha123@naver.com; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Seung [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Woo [KonKuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2006-04-15

321

Functional Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... small arteries (arterioles), usually in the fingers or toes, constrict more tightly in response to exposure to cold. Constriction of small arteries causes fingers (or toes) to become pale or bluish, numb, and tingle. ...

322

Coronary Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

323

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Normal blood vessel (blood ows freely) Pulmonary Hypertension (blood ow is slow) Main pulmonary artery Left atrium Blood Vessel Left ventricle Right ventricle Right atrium Online Version ...

324

Persistent hypoglossal artery  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the internal carotid artery has no branches in the neck during postfetal life (von Lanz & Wachsmuth, 1955), but during embryonic development there are anastomotic connections between the internal carotid and basilar artery that rarely persist after intrauterine life (Hassen-Khodja et al. 1992; Widmann & Sumpio, 1992; De Caro et al. 1995). The most common anomaly found incidentally on angiography is a persisting trigeminal artery, but persistent hypoglossal, otic and proatlantal arteries can also be found (Reynolds et al. 1980; Ouriel et al. 1988; Salas et al. 1998). We report a rare example of a persistent hypoglossal artery in a 64 y old female cadaver, cause of death unknown, embalmed by standard mortuary procedures for dissection during the routine anatomy course. The persistent hypoglossal artery originated from the anteromedial wall of the left internal carotid artery 2.5 cm above the bifurcation (Fig.). It extended towards the hypoglossal canal. The diameter of its lumen was 1.5 mm. During its course in the neck, it was positioned anterior to the internal carotid artery and medial to the facial and lingual arteries, the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the convexity of the hypoglossal nerve in the neck. At 1 cm above the convexity of the hypoglossal nerve in the neck, the artery gave rise to a branch that entered the skull through the carotid canal anteromedial to the internal carotid artery (Fig. 1) and joined the basilar artery. The medial branch of the hypoglossal artery crossed the internal carotid artery on its medial side and entered the skull together with the hypoglossal nerve and joined the basilar artery. We found no other anomalies in the cerebral arterial system.

BASIC JUKIC, NIKOLINA; JELIC, MISLAV; BASIC, VANJA; JUKIC, TOMISLAV; VINTER, IVAN

2001-01-01

325

Termination of the vertebral veins: Evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the topographic anatomy of the vertebral vein (VV) in the lower neck and thoracic inlet using CT scans. Enhanced CT scans using 32-MDCT were obtained for 199 consecutive patients. Reconstructed images with 1-mm section thickness/intervals were evaluated by two radiologists examining the drainage point, number, and route of VVs using frame forwarding and the rewind function on the DICOM viewer. The VV was classified into four types as follows: Type A (80.6%), a VV that descended ventral to the subclavian artery (SA) and drained into the upper portion of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV); Type B (5.8%), a VV that descended dorsal to the SA and drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV; Type C (8.3%), a doubled VVs that crossed both sides of the SA and drained into the upper portion of the BCV and formed a common trunk; Type D (5.3%), a VV ventral to the SA that drained into the upper portion of the BCV and another VV dorsal to the SA drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV. Some variations were observed in regard to the drainage point, number, and route of the VVs. Classification of the VV may be useful for interpreting chest CT scans and in better understanding the embryologic development of the vertebral vein. PMID:20533515

Miyake, H; Kiyosue, H; Tanoue, S; Goto, Y; Mori, H; Fujikura, Y

2010-09-01

326

Main pulmonary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Alterations of main pulmonary artery have been described in literature. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro

2011-10-20

327

[Branching patterns of the celiac artery as the hepato-gastro-splenic trunk].  

PubMed

Although the celiac artery is a common trunk of the left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries, its branching pattern varies. Indeed, even among anatomy textbooks, there is disagreement on which pattern is standard. In the present study, we identified the standard pattern of celiac artery branching by examining 186 Japanese cadavers. Celiac arteries with the three main branches were found in 91.4% (170/186) of the cadavers. These 170 cases were then classified into 4 types (Types I-IV). Type I, in which the first branch was the left gastric artery, accounted for 132 cases (71.0%). Thirty-one cases (16.7%) were Type II, in which the three main arteries branched out at the same vertebral level. Type III, in which the common hepatic artery was the first branch, accounted for 4 cases (2.2%). Finally, 3 cases (1.6%) were Type IV, in which the splenic artery was the first branch. These findings suggest that the Type I phenotype is the standard branching pattern of the celiac artery in Japanese. The artery's developmental process was also discussed. PMID:19413194

Higashi, Nobuaki; Shimada, Hiroki; Simamura, Eriko; Hatta, Toshihisa

2009-03-01

328

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

329

Quantification of Vertebral Involvement in Metastatic Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: For patients with a solitary and well-delimitated spinal metastasis that resides inside the vertebral body, without vertebral canal invasion, and who are in good general health with a long life expectancy, en bloc spondylectomy/total vertebrectomy combined with the use of primary stabilizing instrumentation has been advocated. However, clinical experience suggests that these qualifying conditions occur very rarely. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the distribution of vertebral involvement in spinal metastases and determine the frequency with which patients can be considered candidates for radical surgery (en bloc spondylectomy). Methods: Consecutive patients were classified accordingly to Enneking’s and Tomita’s schemes for grading vertebral involvement of metastases. Results: Fifty-one (51) consecutive patients were evaluated. Eighty-three percent of patients presented with the involvement of multiple vertebral levels and/or spinal canal invasion. Conclusion: Because of diffuse vertebral involvement of metastases, no patients in this sample were considered to be candidates for radical spondylectomy of vertebral metastasis.

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Jose Marcus

2013-01-01

330

Clinical testing of omnipaque and amipaque in external carotid and vertebral angiography: randomized double-blind crossover study.  

PubMed

Omnipaque, 300 mg l/ml, was compared with Amipaque, 300 mg l/ml, for cerebral angiography. Twelve patients were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty comparisons were made in the external carotid and 21 in the vertebral artery, Both contrast media caused no or minor changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Good to excellent radiographic visualization of the cerebral arteries was obtained with both agents. The frequency of subjective reactions was almost equal, but the intensity of the reactions was less with Amipaque. No severe reactions were observed. Omnipaque is a more practical nonionic contrast medium than Amipaque because it is delivered in ready-to-use solutions. PMID:6414271

Ingstrup, H M; Laulund, S

1983-01-01

331

Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery  

PubMed Central

A 53-year-old man was admitted for treatment of an aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm that had been diagnosed 5 years earlier and had recently begun to enlarge. The aneurysm, which involved the right subclavian artery from its origin, measured 47 mm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Because of the lesion's size and friability, a 2-stage operation was performed. In the 1st stage, the right subclavian and right vertebral arteries were revascularized with double bypass grafts via a right cervical approach. In the 2nd stage, the patient was repositioned and a left thoracotomy incision was made. With the aid of left-heart bypass, the aorta was cross-clamped proximal and distal to the lesion, and the aneurysmal orifice was closed with a Dacron patch. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 17th postoperative day and remains asymptomatic 24 months later. We recommend the 2-stage technique for similar cases because it prevents limb ischemia and reduces the risk of hemorrhagic and embolic complications. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:76-9) Images

Gordini, Veliano; Collice, Massimo; Fedriga, Emanuele; Moreo, Antonella; Morello, Marco; Porrini, Annamaria; Donatelli, Francesco

1991-01-01

332

The development of the avian vertebral column.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm leads to somite formation. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve the oscillation of "clock-genes" like c-hairy-1 and lunatic fringe indicative of an implication of the Notch signaling pathway. The cranio-caudal polarity of each segment is already established in the cranial part of the segmental plate and accompanied by the expression of genes like Delta1, Mesp1, Mesp2, Ulicx-1, and EphA4 which are restricted to one half of the prospective somite. Dorsoventral compartmentalization of somites leads to the development of the dermomyotome and the sclerotome, the latter forming as a consequence of an epithelio-to-mesenchymal transition of the ventral part of the somite. The sclerotome cells express Pax-1 and Pax-9, which are induced by notochordal signals mediated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) and noggin. The craniocaudal somite compartmentalization that becomes visible in the sclerotomes is the prerequisite for the segmental pattern of the peripheral nervous system and the formation of the vertebrae and ribs, whose boundaries are shifted half a segment compared to the sclerotome boundaries. Sclerotome development is characterized by the formation of three subcompartments giving rise to different parts of the axial skeleton and ribs. The lateral sclerotome gives rise to the laminae and pedicles of the neural arches and to the ribs. Its development depends on signals from the notochord and the myotome. The ventral sclerotome giving rise to the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is made up of Pax-1 expressing cells that have invaded the perinotochordal space. The dorsal sclerotome is formed by cells that migrate from the dorso-medial angle of the sclerotome into the space between the roof plate of the neural tube and the dermis. These cells express the genes Msx1 and Msx2, which are induced by BMP-4 secreted from the roof plate, and they later form the dorsal part of the neural arch and the spinous process. The formation of the ventral and dorsal sclerotome requires directed migration of sclerotome cells. The regionalization of the paraxial mesoderm occurs by a combination of functionally Hox genes, the Hox code, and determines the segment identity. The development of the vertebral column is a consequence of a segment-specific balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of cells. PMID:10994991

Christ, B; Huang, R; Wilting, J

2000-09-01

333

Endovascular treatment of basilar artery stenosis due to cerebral vasculopathy related to neurofibromatosis (NF1)  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrovascular lesions are uncommon in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Case Description We report a case of 34-year-old man with NF1 who developed posterior circulation stroke. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed acute infarcts in the right vertebra basilar artery territory. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated significant stenosis of the basilar artery in the mid segment that was identified as the etiology of the symptoms. The vertebral arteries were tortuous and the basilar artery was ectatic. Subsequently endeavour resolute stent was placed across the lesion and post-procedure angiogram showed resolution of stenosis. Conclusion Selective stenotic involvement of the basilar artery with ectatic vertebrobasilar circulation associated with NF1, which was successfully treated with endovascular method, was not been reported previously to our knowledge.

Alurkar, Anand; Prasanna Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha; Oak, Sagar

2014-01-01

334

Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. PMID:22580082

Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

2012-08-01

335

Calcifications of Vertebrobasilar Arteries on CT: Detailed Distribution and Relation to Risk Factors in 245 Ischemic Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Intracranial atherosclerosis is responsible for a substantial proportion of strokes worldwide but its detailed morphology in the vertebrobasilar arteries (VBA) is unknown. Subject and Methods. Cases with ischemic strokes were retrospectively sought from the hospital database. Native CT scans were assessed for vessel area and intracranial artery calcifications (ICACs) in VBA. The calcifications were classified as focal (FCs), crescent, and circular. Results. 245 patients (mean age: 77.1 ± 10.2 years, 57.6% females) had visible ICACs. Calcifications were found in 75.9%, 63.3%, and 17.1% in the left vertebral artery (LVA), the right vertebral artery (RVA), and the basilar artery (BA), respectively. FCs were present in 91.0%, 90.3%, and 100.0%; crescents in 30.3%, 29.0%, and 7.1%, and circulars in 6.4%, 4.8%, and 0.0% of the RVA, LVA, and BA, respectively. FCs in dorsolateral quadrant were least prevalent in both vertebral arteries (VAs): 46 (29.8%) and 46 (27.4%) for RVA and LVA, respectively. Risk factors associated with vertical dispersion of ICACs were male gender (OR?:?2.69, 1.38–5.28) and diabetes (OR?:?2.28, 1.04–4.99). Conclusions. FCs in VAs are least prevalent in dorsolateral quadrants. The vertical dispersion of ICACs seems to be associated with the male gender and diabetes.

Magdic, Jozef; Hojs-Fabjan, Tanja

2013-01-01

336

Jet pump assisted artery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

1975-01-01

337

Semaphorin Signaling in Vertebrate Neural Circuit Assembly  

PubMed Central

Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration, and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity.

Yoshida, Yutaka

2012-01-01

338

Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record.  

PubMed

The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of 'soft' cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

Sansom, Robert S; Gabbott, Sarah E; Purnell, Mark A

2011-04-22

339

The diameter of the vertebral canal in dogs in cases of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations.  

PubMed

From Th1 to L7 midsagittal and interpedicular vertebral canal diameters were measured in macerated spines of 162 dogs to determine, whether the presence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations are associated with dislocation of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal. Relative to dogs with a regular number of 27 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L7), the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal was more frequently ( P < 0.05) located at vertebra 24 in dogs with 26 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L6), and more frequently at vertebra 25 in dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L8). However, in dogs with 26 presacral vertebrae, maximal agreement in the spinal position of maximal lumbar vertebral canal diameters was achieved relative to dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae by adding one additional thoracic (Th6, 7, or 8) segment. Therefore, the present findings strongly suggest that relative to the regular (C7/Th13/L7) condition, decrease in the number of presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L6) is associated with incorporation of a midthoracic segment, whereas increase in the number of presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L8) is not related to the presence of an additional vertebral segment. When using Th1 as landmark, the difference in the position of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal between dogs with 26 and dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae in average was only one segment. It is known from previous reports that the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal corresponds with the maximal enlargement of the lumbar spinal cord. When using S1 or the transitional vertebra as the landmark for determination of the appropriate site for subarachnoid cannulation, this site is expected to range within the same limits regardless of the vertebral formula. PMID:12021914

Breit, Sabine; Künzel, Wolfgang

2002-05-01

340

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

341

Preoperative sclerotherapy using sodium tetradecyl sulphate (fibro-vein™) can assist in the management of vertebral hemangiomas.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown-Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively. PMID:24353964

Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

2012-09-01

342

Preoperative Sclerotherapy Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate (Fibro-Vein(TM)) Can Assist in the Management of Vertebral Hemangiomas  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown–Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively.

Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

2012-01-01

343

Reversal of flow in the mammary artery to treat subclavian steal syndrome in conjunction with coronary bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Occasionally patients with multi-vessel disease present with coronary stenoses and subclavian steal syndrome. A novel surgical approach for the treatment of these vascular problems is described. The in situ left internal mammary artery was used to create an aortosubclavian shunt, thus restoring antegrade vertebral flow and vein grafts were used for coronary revascularization. PMID:21172534

John, Alexander; Hofmann, Steffen; Ostowar, Abazar; Ferdosi, Abbas; Warnecke, Henning

2011-01-01

344

DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS  

PubMed Central

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

2010-01-01

345

GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

346

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

347

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

348

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

349

Expression of histo-blood group antigens in vertebrate gonads.  

PubMed

The tissue expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in vertebrates, as well as their evolutionary tendencies and relation to histogenesis, especially in the reproductive system, are not entirely understood.The present research comprises a large-scale immunohistochemical study of HBGA A and B expression in ovaries and testicles of 14 species belonging to six classes of free-living vertebrates from Chondrichtyes to Mammalia .We present novel data for ABH antigen reactivity in reproductive organs of vertebrates which have not been studied so far. Our results suggest that HBGA are evolutionary stable structures, most possibly related to vitellogenesis in oocytes with high yolk content. The tendency observed in A and B antigen expression is mostly associated with the processes of gamete differentiation and vitellogenesis, rather than with the evolutionary development of vertebrate species. PMID:20194100

Tomova, Elena S; Sarafian, Victoria S

2010-03-01

350

Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

Kazarian, L. E.

1981-01-01

351

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins containing membrane attack complex\\/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens,

Carlos J. Rosado; Ashley M. Buckle; Ruby H. P. Law; Rebecca E. Butcher; Wan-Ting Kan; Catherina H. Bird; Kheng Ung; Kylie A. Browne; Katherine Baran; Tanya A. Bashtannyk-Puhalovich; Noel G. Faux; Wilson Wong; Corrine J. Porter; Robert N. Pike; Andrew M. Ellisdon; Mary C. Pearce; Stephen P. Bottomley; Jonas Emsley; A. Ian Smith; Jamie Rossjohn; Elizabeth L. Hartland; Ilia Voskoboinik; Joseph A. Trapani; Phillip I. Bird; Michelle A. Dunstone; James C. Whisstock

2007-01-01

352

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate\\u000a tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth\\u000a impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth\\u000a marks. They provide another example

Stephen J. Godfrey; Joshua B. Smith

2010-01-01

353

The genetic and evolutionary basis of colour variation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in vertebrates. Although mammals show less variation\\u000a in body pigmentation than other vertebrate groups, the genetics of colour determination and variation is best understood for\\u000a them. More than 150 genes have been identified that influence pigmentation, and in many cases, the cause for variation in\\u000a pigmentation has been identified

Michael Hofreiter; Torsten Schöneberg

2010-01-01

354

Structure, Regulation and Evolution of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steven Shoei-Lung Li (1998) Structure, regulation and evolution of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase genes. Zoological Studies 37(1): 1-6. In vertebrates, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes A (muscle) and B (heart) are best suited for pyruvate reduction and lactate oxidation, respectively. In mammals and columbid birds, a 3rd LDH-C isozyme is expressed in testis. In advanced teleost fish a 3rd LDH isozyme is

Steven Shoei-Lung Li

1998-01-01

355

Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

2000-01-01

356

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

357

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology  

PubMed Central

Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates.

Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallbook, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

2008-01-01

358

Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

2012-01-01

359

Clinical and radiographic results of balloon kyphoplasty for treatment of vertebral body metastases and multiple myelomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to augment vertebral body strength. This technique has been commonly used to treat osteoporotic, vertebral body compression fractures. The technique was also used to augment painful metastatic vertebral fractures. The objective of this study was to review the clinical and radiological results after kyphoplasty in patients with vertebral body compression fractures

Sedat Dalbayrak; Mehmet Re?id Önen; Mesut Y?lmaz; Sait Naderi

2010-01-01

360

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

361

Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: The Borgess Classification  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) and its best medical treatment are debated. This may be due to a lack of clear classification of sCAD. We propose the new Borgess classification of sCAD, based on the presence or absence of intimal tear as depicted on imaging studies and effect on blood flow. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center investigator-initiated registry on consecutive patients treated for sCAD. In the Borgess classification, type I dissections have intact intima and type II dissections have an intimal tear. Results: Forty-four patients and 52 dissected arteries were found. Forty-nine of 52 dissections (93%) were treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Twenty-one of 52 dissections were type I; 31 were type II. Type I dissections were more likely to present with ischemic symptoms [stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA)] (p?=?0.001). More type I dissections occurred in the vertebral artery, while more type II dissections occurred in the internal carotid artery (p?

Al-Ali, Firas; Perry, Brandon C.

2013-01-01

362

Visual Assessment of Vertebral Deformity by X-ray Absorptiometry: A Highly Predictive Method to Exclude Vertebral Deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The accurate identification of prevalent vertebral fractures is important in both the clinical and research setting as they\\u000a are associated with increased risk of further fracture and irreversible clinical consequences. This study reports a direct\\u000a comparison of prevalent vertebral deformity identification using X-ray absorptiometry (XA) scans, acquired on a dual-energy\\u000a X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine, and conventional radiographs in a

J. A. Rea; J. Li; G. M. Blake; P. Steiger; H. K. Genant; I. Fogelman

2000-01-01

363

[Arteries of the human thalamus. II. Arteries and paramedian thalamic territory of the communicating basilar artery].  

PubMed

The basilar communicating artery (or mesencephalic artery) gives off more often one than two paramedian thalamic arteries. The paramedian territory, infero-medial, has a variable extent. It can include the polar territory when the polar artery does not exist. The paramedian artery arises as often from the controlateral basilar communicating artery than from the ipsilateral one. One basilar communicating artery may so have a very extensive bilateral territory. PMID:959702

Percheron, G

1976-05-01

364

An ultrastructural comparison of diet-induced atherosclerosis of arteries supplying the central nervous system in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The carotid lesions of cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys fed an 8- to 12-months atherogenic diet are very severe. However, the basilar, vertebral and middle cerebral arteries of the same atherosclerotic monkeys look instead, at SEM examination, similar to the control ones. At TEM examination, these arteries of the atherosclerotic monkeys show only minimal lesions in the subendothelial space ('edema' and presence of fragments of basilar membrane) and sometimes necrobiosis of endothelial cells. The smooth muscle cells, which are also present in the controls in these arteries in the subendothelial space, are sometimes surrounded by a nest of basement membrane beads and do not contain lipid droplets. PMID:6678590

Weber, G; Fabbrini, P; Resi, L; Sforza, V; Tanganelli, P; Vesselinovitch, D; Wissler, R W

1983-01-01

365

Adiponectin and Arterial Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, is reduced in hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Arterial stiffness, as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in hypertension and diabetes, and as augmentation index (AIx) in CAD, is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. We explored the relationship between adiponectin and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.Methods: Seventy-six untreated patients, 34 women, aged 47 ±

Azra Mahmud; John Feely

2005-01-01

366

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36).  

PubMed

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 'short loops'; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S

2012-01-01

367

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36.

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

368

Back pain caused by a pseudo-tumorous vertebral collapse: atypical presentation of primary vertebral hydatidosis  

PubMed Central

Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is a rare but serious parasitic disease in endemic areas. Primary spinal location is extremely rare. This case report describes a rare instance of hydatid cyst that caused severe and progressive low-back pain and neurologic dysfunction. Spine MRI showed a unique vertebral collapse of Th12 body with multicystic lesions filling the spinal canal. In addition, hydatidosis serodiagnostic test was positive at 1/725. Treatment depended on the actual surgical removal of the cysts. Surgery consisted in excision and extirpation of the cysts, associated with decompressive laminectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histological results. No coincidental hydatid visceral involvement was found. Antihelminthic drugs (Albendazole) were promptly given before surgery for a long period. The outcome was satisfactorily marked by total regression of the motor deficit and sphincter disorders.

Mrabet, D; Rekik, S; Khiari, H; Mizouni, H; Meddeb, N; Cheour, I; Elleuch, M; Mnif, E; Mrabet, A; Sahli, H; Sellami, S

2011-01-01

369

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

PubMed Central

Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining receptor conformation or regulating receptor activity. We anticipate that the identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.

Churcher, Allison M; Taylor, John S

2009-01-01

370

The Evaluation of Vertebrobasilar Artery System in Neuro-Behçet and Behçet Disease using Magnetic Resonance Angiography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertebrobasilar artery system in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. For this aim; 20 adults with clinically diagnosed Behcet's disease, 20 adults with Neuro-Behçet's disease, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). During MRA, diameters of left vertebral artery (LVA), right vertebral artery (RVA), basilar artery (BA), and proximal segment (P1) of posterior cerebral artery between origin and junction with the posterior communicating artery were measured. In all groups, LVA was dominant than RVA (P?artery system should be examined in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. Anat Rec, 297:1302-1305, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24737739

Kose, Evren; Kamisli, Suat; Dogan, Metin; Tasolar, Sevgi; Kahraman, Ay?egül; Oztanir, Mustafa Namik; Sener, Serpil

2014-07-01

371

The origin and evolution of vertebrate glycine transporters.  

PubMed

In the vertebrate central nervous system, glycinergic neurotransmission is regulated by the action of the glycine transporters 1 and 2 (GlyT1 and GlyT2)--members of the solute carrier family 6 (SLC6). Several invertebrate deuterostomes have two paralogous glycine carrier genes, with one gene in the pair having greater sequence identity and higher alignment scores with respect to GlyT1 and the other paralog showing greater similarity to GlyT2. In phylogenetic trees, GlyT2-like sequences from invertebrate deuterostomes form a monophyletic subclade with vertebrate GlyT2, while invertebrate GlyT1-like proteins constitute an outgroup to both the GlyT2-like proteins and to vertebrate GlyT1 sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vertebrate GlyT1 and GlyT2 are, respectively, derived from GlyT1- and GlyT2-like genes in invertebrate deuterostomes. This implies that the gene duplication which gave rise to these paralogs occurred prior to the origin of vertebrates. GlyT2 subsequently diverged significantly from its invertebrate orthologs (i.e., through the acquisition of a unique N-terminus) as a consequence of functional specialization, being expressed principally in the lower CNS; while GlyT1 has activity in both the lower CNS and several regions of the forebrain. PMID:24619162

Shpak, Max; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Miranda, Manuel

2014-04-01

372

Vertebrate extinctions and survival across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical analysis of the fossil vertebrate record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary shows that the available evidence is far less accurate than that concerning invertebrates and microfossils. Far-reaching conclusions have been drawn from generalisations about vertebrate extinctions in the continental realm based on the local record from western North America, but little is known about patterns of terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions in other parts of the world, and even the western North American record is ambiguous. Despite this unsatisfactory record, it clearly appears that terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions were highly selective, with some groups (e.g. dinosaurs) becoming completely extinct, whereas others seem to be virtually unaffected. This argues against devastating catastrophes of the kind postulated by some recent impact scenarios. However, the survival of groups known to be sensitive to climatic deterioration (such as crocodilians and other non-dinosaurian reptiles) indicates that alternative hypotheses involving gradual but fairly important climatic changes on a world-wide scale are not convincing either. The pattern of extinction and survival among vertebrates across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary may be explained as a consequence of the disruption of some food chains following a crisis in the plant kingdom, which itself may have been the result of the atmospheric consequences of unusual extraterrestrial or internal events.

Buffetaut, Eric

1990-01-01

373

Insights from Amphioxus into the Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage  

PubMed Central

Central to the story of vertebrate evolution is the origin of the vertebrate head, a problem difficult to approach using paleontology and comparative morphology due to a lack of unambiguous intermediate forms. Embryologically, much of the vertebrate head is derived from two ectodermal tissues, the neural crest and cranial placodes. Recent work in protochordates suggests the first chordates possessed migratory neural tube cells with some features of neural crest cells. However, it is unclear how and when these cells acquired the ability to form cellular cartilage, a cell type unique to vertebrates. It has been variously proposed that the neural crest acquired chondrogenic ability by recruiting proto-chondrogenic gene programs deployed in the neural tube, pharynx, and notochord. To test these hypotheses we examined the expression of 11 amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis. Consistent with cellular cartilage as a vertebrate novelty, we find that no single amphioxus tissue co-expresses all or most of these genes. However, most are variously co-expressed in mesodermal derivatives. Our results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm.

Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

2007-01-01

374

The common ancestral core of vertebrate and fungal telomerase RNAs  

PubMed Central

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein with an intrinsic telomerase RNA (TER) component. Within yeasts, TER is remarkably large and presents little similarity in secondary structure to vertebrate or ciliate TERs. To better understand the evolution of fungal telomerase, we identified 74 TERs from Pezizomycotina and Taphrinomycotina subphyla, sister clades to budding yeasts. We initially identified TER from Neurospora crassa using a novel deep-sequencing–based approach, and homologous TER sequences from available fungal genome databases by computational searches. Remarkably, TERs from these non-yeast fungi have many attributes in common with vertebrate TERs. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of highly conserved regions within Pezizomycotina TERs revealed two core domains nearly identical in secondary structure to the pseudoknot and CR4/5 within vertebrate TERs. We then analyzed N. crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase reconstituted in vitro, and showed that the two RNA core domains in both systems can reconstitute activity in trans as two separate RNA fragments. Furthermore, the primer-extension pulse-chase analysis affirmed that the reconstituted N. crassa telomerase synthesizes TTAGGG repeats with high processivity, a common attribute of vertebrate telomerase. Overall, this study reveals the common ancestral cores of vertebrate and fungal TERs, and provides insights into the molecular evolution of fungal TER structure and function.

Qi, Xiaodong; Li, Yang; Honda, Shinji; Hoffmann, Steve; Marz, Manja; Mosig, Axel; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Stadler, Peter F.; Selker, Eric U.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

2013-01-01

375

Management of tumor adherent to the vertebral column.  

PubMed

Twelve patients with non-small cell lung cancer had tumors that were adherent to the vertebral column and clinically suspected of invading the bone. All were free of mediastinal node involvement as assessed by pretreatment mediastinoscopy. All received 3000 rads of preoperative radiation followed by en bloc resection of the lung and a tangential portion of the involved vertebral bodies. A complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy was also performed. Three patients had true Pancoast's syndrome and in the remaining nine the tumor was located above T6 with the majority in the apex of the chest. Resectability was based on the absence of tumor extension into the costotransverse foramen and the extent of vertebral body involvement. Detailed studies of the decalcified surgical specimen show that the tumor extended into the cortex in two patients, periosteum in six, parietal in three, and up to the visceral pleura in one. Six patients are alive after 1 to 11 years (four beyond 5 years) without evidence of recurrent tumor and arthritic pain. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier method) was 42%. In patients with tumors adherent to the vertebral body and no evidence of roentgenographic erosion, the en bloc removal of the lung and the involved portion of the vertebral body is required for complete excision and is associated with long-term survival without sequelae. PMID:2537446

DeMeester, T R; Albertucci, M; Dawson, P J; Montner, S M

1989-03-01

376

Heterogeneity of neurogenic responses in intra- and extrameningeal arteries of dogs.  

PubMed Central

1. Neurogenic responses to transmural electrical stimulation were examined in endothelium-denuded extrameningeal (vertebral and carotid) and intrameningeal (spinal, basilar and middle cerebral) arteries isolated from dogs. 2. In the extrameningeal arteries, transmural electrical stimulation produced a phasic contraction. This contraction was abolished by tetrodotoxin, prazosin and guanethidine. However, alpha,beta-methylene ATP and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) had no significant effect on the contractile responses. 3. In the intrameningeal arteries, the neurogenic responses to electrical stimulation were composed of a transient contraction and relaxation. The transient contraction was selectively inhibited by guanethidine L-NOARG abolished the relaxation but not the contraction induced by electrical stimulation. Prazosin had no effect on either neurogenic response. 4. Noradrenaline produced a large contraction in the extrameningeal arteries which was selectively inhibited by prazosin. alpha,beta-Methylene ATP produced neither contraction nor inhibition of the response to noradrenaline in the extrameningeal arteries. 5. In the intrameningeal arteries, alpha,beta-methylene ATP produced a greater contraction than noradrenaline. The response to alpha,beta-methylene ATP was selectively abolished by desensitization of P2x-purinoceptors with alpha,beta-methylene ATP itself. The contractile response to noradrenaline was inhibited by rauwolscine but not by prazosin. 6. ATP produced endothelium-dependent relaxations in the extrameningeal and intrameningeal arteries, which were attenuated by endothelium removal. 7. NADPH diaphorase-positive fibres were dense in the middle cerebral and basilar arteries but rare or absent in the spinal artery. In the extrameningeal arteries diaphorase-positive traces were observed in the vasa vasorum. 8. The present findings indicate that the neurogenic responses of intrameningeal arteries of dogs are composed of NO-ergic and sympathetic purinergic components, while the extrameningeal arteries tested produced only sympathetic adrenergic responses, suggesting that regional heterogeneity may be associated with a sudden transition in innervation and receptor expression at the meninx. Images Figure 6

Kohno, Y.; Saito, T.; Saito, H.; Aoyama, H.; Nojyo, Y.; Kigoshi, S.; Muramatsu, I.

1995-01-01

377

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.  

PubMed

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. PMID:24103665

Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

2014-02-01

378

Endothelial function is impaired in conduit arteries of pannexin1 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Pannexin1 is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate tissues, but the role it plays in vascular tone regulation remains unclear. We found that Pannexin1 expression level is much higher in the endothelium relative to smooth muscle of saphenous artery. The ability of endothelium-intact arteries for dilation was significantly impaired whereas contractile responses were considerably increased in mice with genetic ablation of Pannexin1. No such increased contractile responses were detected in the endothelium-denuded arteries. Combined, our findings suggest a new function of Pannexin1 as an important player in normal endothelium-dependent regulation of arterial tone, where it facilitates vessel dilation and attenuates constriction. Reviewed by Dr. Armen Mulkidjanian and Dr. Alexander Lobkovsky.

2014-01-01

379

Renal arteries (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... kidney. Contrast medium is then injected into the renal artery through the catheter, and images of the vessels of the kidney are taken. The test is a useful aid in evaluating kidney function and diagnosing any narrowing of the arteries, blood ...

380

Artery of Percheron infarction.  

PubMed

Artery of Percheron (AOP) is small perforating arteries supplying paramedian thalamus and mid-brain. The incidence of infarction is rare. We presented a 62-year-old man found conscious drowsy for 4 days. MRI revealed bilateral thalamic and midbrain infarction due to AOP occlusion. PMID:22879120

Yu, Guo-Sheng; Kuo, Kuei-Hong; Chan, Lung

2012-06-01

381

Genetics in Arterial Calcification  

PubMed Central

Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature.

Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

2011-01-01

382

Arterial Pressure Analog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

1980-01-01

383

Coronary artery stent (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

384

Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Nine cases of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms have undergone surgery over a 14-year period. One case presented with Reader's paratrigeminal syndrome and 2 cases developed acute postoperative respiratory obstruction secondary to pharyngeal oedema. The management of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Dehn, T. C.; Taylor, G. W.

1984-01-01

385

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

MedlinePLUS

... plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can cause ... coronary artery. This creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. Surgeons can bypass multiple ...

386

Concurrent Stenoocclusive Disease of Intracranial and Extracranial Arteries in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera  

PubMed Central

Moyamoya disease is a stenoocclusive disease involving the intracranial carotid and proximal middle cerebral arteries. There are rarely any additional extracranial stenoses occurring concurrently with moyamoya. The pathophysiology of moyamoya remains obscure, but hematologic disorders, notably sickle-cell anemia, have been associated in some cases. We describe the novel case of polycythemia vera associated with severe steno-occlusive disease of both intracranial and extracranial large arteries. A 47-year-old woman with polycythemia vera had multiple transient ischemic attacks, and noninvasive vessel imaging revealed steno-occlusive disease of bilateral supraclinoid internal carotid arteries with moyamoya-type collaterals, proximal left subclavian artery, right vertebral artery origin, bilateral renal arteries, superior mesenteric artery, and right common iliac artery. Laboratory workup for systemic vasculitis was negative. She required bilateral direct external carotid to internal carotid bypass procedures and percutaneous balloon angioplasty of her right VA origin stenosis. This case suggests that hematologic disorders can lead to vessel stenoses and occlusion. The pathophysiology may be due to a prothrombotic state leading to repeated endothelial injury, resultant intimal hyperplasia, and progressive steno-occlusion.

Hua, Le H.; Dodd, Robert L.; Schwartz, Neil E.

2012-01-01

387

Erythropoiesis and red cell function in vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

All vertebrate embryos produce a specific erythroid cell population--primitive erythrocytes--early in development. These cells are characterized by expression of the specific embryonic haemoglobins. Many aspects of primitive erythropoiesis and the physiological function of primitive red cells are still enigmatic. Nevertheless, recent years have seen intensive efforts to characterize in greater detail the molecular events underlying the initiation of erythropoiesis in vertebrate embryos. Several key genes have been identified that are necessary for primitive and the subsequent definitive erythropoiesis, which differs in several aspect from primitive erythropoiesis. This review gives in its first part a short overview dealing with comparative aspects of primitive and early definitive erythropoiesis in higher and lower vertebrates and in the second part we discuss the physiological function of primitive red cells based mainly on results from mammalian and avian embryos. PMID:16281952

Baumann, R; Dragon, S

2005-12-01

388

Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling  

PubMed Central

The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology.

Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

2013-01-01

389

Molecular control of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations.  

PubMed

The vertebrate limb is a powerful model system for studying the cellular and molecular interactions that determine morphological pattern during embryonic development. Recent advances in our understanding of these interactions have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations. The transfer of information has, until recently, been largely one way, with developmental studies informing our understanding of the fossil record and clinical limb anomalies; however, evolutionary and clinical studies are now beginning to shed light onto one another and onto basic developmental processes. In this review, we discuss recent advances in these fields and how they are interacting to improve our understanding of vertebrate limb biology. PMID:10199960

Cohn, M J; Bright, P E

1999-04-01

390

RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left–right patterning.

Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M.; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Wallingford, John B.

2012-01-01

391

RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development.  

PubMed

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left-right patterning. PMID:22227339

Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L; Marcotte, Edward M; Wallingford, John B

2012-03-01

392

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.  

PubMed

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

393

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

394

Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy.

Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

2014-01-01

395

Vertebral fracture assessment: the 2005 ISCD Official Positions.  

PubMed

Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) is a low radiation method for imaging the thoraco-lumbar spine using bone densitometers. VFA can easily be performed at the time of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, allowing integration of BMD and vertebral fracture information into clinical patient care. As VFA is a relatively new procedure, it has received limited study and heretofore has not had widespread clinical application. Consequently, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) considered the following VFA issues at the 2005 Position Development Conference: (1) indications for VFA; (2) methodology for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures using VFA; and (3) indications for additional imaging after VFA. The ISCD Official Positions with respect to the above issues, as well as the rationale and evidence used to derive these positions, are presented here. PMID:16731430

Vokes, Tamara; Bachman, Donald; Baim, Sanford; Binkley, Neil; Broy, Susan; Ferrar, Lynne; Lewiecki, E Michael; Richmond, Bradford; Schousboe, John

2006-01-01

396

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

397

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes.

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

398

Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

In mammals, ghrelin is a non-amidated peptide hormone, existing in both acylated and non-acylated forms, produced mainly from the X/A or ghrelin cells present in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), and functions primarily as a GH-releasing hormone and an orexigen, as well as having several other biological actions. Among non-mammalian vertebrates, amino acid sequence of ghrelin has been reported in two species of cartilaginous fish, seven species of teleosts, two species of amphibians, one species of reptile and six species of birds. The structure and functions of ghrelin are highly conserved among vertebrates. This review presents a concise overview of ghrelin biology in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:18222718

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Peter, Richard E; Unniappan, Suraj

2008-02-01

399

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe.

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

400

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation in metastatic disease: state of the art.  

PubMed

Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have prolonged cancer survival, with a consequent increase in the incidence of spinal metastases and vertebral compression fractures with associated axial pain, progressive radiculomyelopathy, and mechanical instability. Pain relief in malignant vertebral compression fractures is key to achieving a better quality of life in patients under palliative care. The gold standard for pain relief is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. Nonresponsive cases are then treated with radiotherapy, which may require 2-4 weeks to take effect and in most cases does not provide complete pain relief. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty can in particular give relief in patients with vertebral body compression fractures that do not cause neurological deficits but severely compromise quality of life because of intractable pain. PMID:21465731

Tancioni, Flavio; Lorenzetti, Martin A; Navarria, Pierina; Pessina, Federico; Draghi, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Scorsetti, Marta; Alloisio, Marco; Santoro, Armando; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

2011-01-01

401

Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?  

PubMed

Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F Andrew; Orme, C David L; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G; Chase, Mark W; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent

2013-01-01

402

Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture following instrumented arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar disorders (study group) were investigated. The influence of instrumented lumbar arthrodesis was examined by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck in the study group with that of 28 patients (control group) who had sustained a simple osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The fracture after instrumented arthrodesis was diagnosed at a mean 47 months (range, 7 to 100 months) after the surgery. Results There was a relatively better BMD in the study group, 0.67 ± 0.12 g/cm2 compared to the control group, 0.60 ± 0.13 g/cm2 (p = 0.013). The level of back pain improved from a mean of 7.5 ± 1.0 at the time of the fracture to a mean of 4.9 ± 2.0 at 1 year after the fracture (p = 0.001). However, 12 (48%) patients complained of severe back pain 1 year after the fracture. There was negative correlation between the BMD of the femoral neck and back pain at the last follow up (r = - 0.455, p = 0.022). Conclusions Osteoporotic vertebral fractures after instrumented arthrodesis contribute to the aggravation of back pain and the final outcome of degenerative lumbar disorders. Therefore, it is important to examine the possibility of new osteoporotic vertebral fractures for new-onset back pain after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis.

Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun

2010-01-01

403

Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

404

Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

405

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland.  

PubMed

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation. PMID:20213300

Godfrey, Stephen J; Smith, Joshua B

2010-05-01

406

Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia  

PubMed Central

Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done.

Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

2014-01-01

407

Molecular genetics and the evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Despite the biological importance of UV vision, its molecular bases are not well understood. Here, we present evidence that UV vision in vertebrates is determined by eight specific amino acids in the UV pigments. Amino acid sequence analyses show that contemporary UV pigments inherited their UV sensitivities from the vertebrate ancestor by retaining most of these eight amino acids. In the avian lineage, the ancestral pigment lost UV sensitivity, but some descendants regained it by one amino acid change. Our results also strongly support the hypothesis that UV pigments have an unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore.

Shi, Yongsheng; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Yokoyama, Shozo

2001-01-01

408

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

2010-05-01

409

Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses\\u000a to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of\\u000a gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results