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Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Postpartum vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Finley, Amanda; Rogers, Brenton; Richards, Theodore; Vogel, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a right vertebral artery dissection in a 35-year-old woman, 3?weeks post partum, with manifestations of vertebrobasilar disease. She was 3?weeks out from the uneventful delivery of her fourth child, with presentation of acute neurological symptoms, predominantly intractable vertigo. Vertigo can have many non-specific generalised symptoms and clinical findings. Postpartum women have a lengthy list of possible aetiologies of vertigo not limited to our initially suspected preeclampsia, dural venous thrombosis and vertebral dissection. PMID:26604230

  2. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Marion; Schöggl, Andreas; Saringer, Walter; Reddy, Brian; Matula, Christian

    2002-07-01

    A 22-year-old woman sustained a stab wound injury of the right vertebral artery. Initial treatment with endovascular embolization using platinum coils in a local hospital could not stop the bleeding. The patient was transferred to our department in hypovolemic shock. Further angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula. Open surgical revision occluded the vertebral artery and the patient recovered without neurological deficit. PMID:12160307

  3. Subclavian and Vertebral Arterial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hülsbeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of supra-aortic atherosclerotic arterial stenoses and occlusions using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement is an accepted first-choice procedure. Technical success, primary success, and midterm patency after PTA and stent placement for the treatment of stenosed or obstructed brachiocephalic arteries are promising and complication rates are low. Permanent miniaturization and device improvement makes treatment of atherosclerotic obstructive disease by endovascular means in brachial and cephalic arteries a safe procedure showing promising midterm patency rates. PMID:21326803

  4. Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management. PMID:23024840

  5. Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Obidowski, Damian

    2010-01-19

    Vertebral arteries are two arteries whose structure and location in human body result in development of special flow conditions. For some of the arteries, one can observe a significant difference between flow rates in the left and the right arteries during ultrasonography diagnosis. Usually the reason of such a difference was connected with pathology of the artery in which a smaller flow rate was detected. Simulations of the flow through the selected type of the vertebral artery geometry for twenty five cases of artery diameters have been carried out. The main aim of the presented experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be helpful in understanding the phenomena occurring when two relatively large arteries join together to form one vessel. The obtained results have shown that an individual configuration and diameters of particular arteries can exert an influence on the flow in them and affect a significant difference between flow rates for vertebral arteries. It has been assumed in the investigations that modelled arteries were absolutely normal, without any pathology. In the numerical experiment, the non-Newtonian model of blood was employed. PMID:19909956

  6. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  7. Morphological characteristics of the first part of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Dodevski, A; Lazareska, M; Tosovska-Lazarova, D; Zhivadinovik, J; Aliji, V

    2011-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Because of their anatomical localization, vertebral arteries were neglected in research for a long period of time. Vertebral arteries are responsible for about 30% of the brain blood supply. The aim of this study was to examine the vertebral artery's course in the first segment, and to define the anatomic variations and percentage of their appearance in the adult population using CT angiography. The data derived from this study may find useful application in a wide range of medical fields, such as anatomy, radiology and surgery. For that purpose during a 6-month period we examined 30 patients with CT angiography. The origin of the vertebral artery in all 30 patients was from the subclavian artery. The diameter of the left vertebral artery was from 1.6-5.20 mm., average 3.35 mm. The diameter of the right vertebral artery was from 1.64-5.40 mm., average 3.19 mm. Hypoplasia of the vessel was found in four patients. We found no aplasia of the vessel in this series. A contorted course was found in 12 (40%) patients. In all 30 (100%) patients the vertebral artery entered the foramen transversum at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Although the incidence of anatomical varia-tions is rare, their presence is significant in the diagnostic and surgical procedures in the head and neck region. Insufficient knowledge can lead to serious iatrogenic injures. Key words: vertebral artery, anatomy, variations, origin, hypoplasia, tortuosity. PMID:21822186

  8. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with monocular blindness and external carotid-vertebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Suo; Zhang, Hong T.; Zhang, Dao P.; Zhang, Shu L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present 2 rare cases of persistent embryonic anastomoses. In one case, the patient presented with persistent trigeminal artery along with multiple foci of cerebral infarction as well as central retinal artery thrombosis. In the other case, the patient had direct anastomosis of the vertebral artery with ipsilateral external carotid artery as well as pontine infarction, aneurysm, and unilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral artery. The findings in these cases may shed light on the clinical presentation of such persistent anastomoses and aid their detection in clinical settings. PMID:25935186

  9. The Effect of Head Rotation on the Geometry and Hemodynamics of Healthy Vertebral Arteries

    E-print Network

    Georgiou, Georgios

    The Effect of Head Rotation on the Geometry and Hemodynamics of Healthy Vertebral Arteries NICOLAS(RRT)andlocalizednormalizedhelicity(LNH). Significant geometric changes but moderate flow changes were observed for both vertebral arteries with head in healthy subjects and vertebral artery stenosis patients, and in terms of increased rapture susceptibility

  10. Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy; Jones, Catherine; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

  11. Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeremy; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

  12. Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

  13. Persistent carotid-vertebral anastomosis associated with contralateral accessory middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Francesco; Tortora, Fabio; Elefante, Andrea; Volpe, Antonio; Maiuri, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    An exceptional case is reported of a complex anomaly of the brain arteries including low left carotid bifurcation, persistent carotid-vertebral anastomosis on the left and accessory middle cerebral artery on the right; the whole posterior circulation was only filled through the anomalous anastomotic vessel which joined with the vertebral artery because of a contralateral hypoplasic vertebral artery and the absence of both posterior communicating arteries. This association has not been previously reported in the literature. The embryological processes leading to these arterial anomalies are discussed. Risks related to a severe carotid stenosis or occlusion and to surgical or endovascular procedures in patients harboring these arterial anomalies are emphasized. PMID:16261250

  14. Ruptured aneurysm at an anastomotic artery extending from the vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Uemura, Shozaburo; Hayasaki, Aiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Morioka, Motohiro; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2011-04-01

    A 51-year-old hypertensive man presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage. He had a past history of cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) 4 years earlier. Digital subtraction angiography showed a saccular aneurysm above an arterial loop extending from the vertebral artery to the distal part of the PICA, reminiscent of peripheral PICA branches. We performed aneurysmal neck clipping with excellent outcome. Aneurysms at anastomotic arteries are extremely rare and can result from increased haemodynamic stress. We report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm at an anastomotic artery in the posterior circulation territory. PMID:21058041

  15. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  16. Vertebral artery dissection and cerebellar infarction following chiropractic manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W?L; Chern, C?H; Wu, Y?L; Lee, C?H

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) associated with chiropractic cervical manipulation is a rare but potentially disabling condition. In this report, we present a young patient manifesting with repeated vertigo. Owing to the initial misdiagnosis, the patient later developed cerebellar stroke with inability to stand or walk. Vertigo and disequilibrium are the usual presenting symptoms of this condition, which can result from inner ear or vestibular nerve dysfunction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and even lethal cerebellar infarction or haemorrhage; these last two, although rarely seen in young adults, can be caused by traumatic or spontaneous arterial injury, including injury secondary to chiropractic cervical manipulation. A number of cases of VAD associated with chiropractic cervical manipulation have been reported, but rarely in the emergency medicine literature. We present a case of this rare occurrence, and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:16373786

  17. A Novel Canine Model of Acute Vertebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Jin, Min; Du, Bin; Lin, Hao; Xu, Chengyong; Jiang, Weijian; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Background The extended time window and theoretic reduction in hemorrhage make mechanical strategies an attractive approach for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. However, a limited availability of suitable animal models of cerebrovascular thrombosis has hampered the study of novel endovascular interventions. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique for site-specific placement of a thrombus in a canine model that would allow for the evaluation of mechanical thrombectomy and clot retrieval methods and the visualization of thrombus dislocation or fragmentation during angiographic manipulation. Methods Angiography and embolization with a preformed thrombus were performed in 12 canines. Under fluoroscopic guidance, an embolism protection device (EPD) was anchored to the middle segment of the left vertebral artery (VA) via the left femoral arterial sheath. A preformed radiopaque clot was injected through the guide catheter into the left VA, via the contralateral femoral artery, proximal to the EPD. After 15 min of occlusion, the EPD was removed and persistent occlusion of the VA was documented angiographically. Results Angiography performed during the observation period confirmed the persistence of VA occlusion in each case, and displacement of the radiopaque clots did not occur during the 3-hour observation period. The technique allowed selective embolization of targeted vessels without thrombus fragmentation. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, a canine model of post-circulation embolism induced by autologous blood clot placement. This model can be rapidly formed and easily operated, and the site of thrombosis can be readily controlled. PMID:26545253

  18. Vertebral artery dissection in evolution found during chiropractic examination.

    PubMed

    Futch, Dan; Schneider, Michael J; Murphy, Donald; Grayev, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented to an emergency department with sudden onset of transient loss of left peripheral vision. Owing to a history of migraine headaches, she was released with a diagnosis of ocular migraine. Two days later, she sought chiropractic care for the chief symptom of severe neck pain. The chiropractor suspected the possibility of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). No manipulation was performed; instead, MR angiography (MRA) of the neck was obtained, which revealed an acute left VAD with early thrombus formation. The patient was placed on aspirin therapy. Repeat MRA of the neck 3?months later revealed resolution of the thrombus, without progression to stroke. This case illustrates the importance for all healthcare providers who see patients with neck pain and headache to be attentive to the symptomatic presentation of possible VAD in progress. PMID:26564115

  19. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  20. Giant serpentine vertebrobasilar aneurysm with vertebral artery hypoplasia and fenestration- a case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Pradeep; Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in paediatric age group is rare and association of the aneurysm with congenital vertebral artery anomaly is further rarer. We describe such a case in an 11-year-old male patient who consulted a paediatrician about headache and vertigo, and a noncontrast CT (NCCT) head revealed peripherally calcified hyperdense mass in prepontine and basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed partially thrombosed giant serpentine aneurysm of right vertebrobasilar artery and contralateral hypoplastic vertebral artery with fenestration. The nondominant left vertebral artery gave off the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, then became hypoplastic and joined with its counterpart to form the basilar artery. This pattern is called as type 9. The patient was kept on conservative management. The role of MRI in this congenital anomaly and its association with vertigo and aneurysm of vertebro-basilar artery is discussed. PMID:25954679

  1. Spatial Relationship between Hypoglossal Schwannoma and the Vertebral Artery Using the Far-Lateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Saeko; TAKAHASHI, Satoshi; SHIDOH, Satoka; YOSHIDA, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    In hypoglossal schwannoma removal via the far-lateral approach needs care as the vertebral arteries are usually adjacent to the tumors. Thus, it is important to understand their location respective to schwannoma to conduct a safe surgery. We reviewed the data of eight patients with hypoglossal schwannoma who underwent surgery in Keio University Hospital in 2005–2013. There were five males and three females (mean age at initial presentation was 48.6 years, range 38–72 years). We especially focused on the spatial relationship between the vertebral artery and the tumor, and evaluated their spatial relationship from intraoperative findings. All eight hypoglossal schwannomas included in the current study were type B according to Kaye’s classification. As for spatial relationship between the tumor and the vertebral artery, in six out of eight cases, the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath the tumor; in contrast, in the other two cases, it was pushed out by the tumor and identified just after dural opening. Through the far-lateral approach, we found that the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath in most hypoglossal schwannoma; however, the vertebral artery was occasionally located on the tumor surface. From an anatomical perspective, we speculate this unique location of the vertebral artery in these cases is due to the unusual course of the hypoglossal nerve of tumor origin. PMID:26345663

  2. Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

    2014-03-01

    We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

  3. Vertebral Artery Injury during Routine Posterior Cervical Exposure: Case Reports and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Chimenti, Peter C.; Molinari, Robert; Gruhn, William

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case series. Objective?We report the unusual occurrence of vertebral artery injury (VAI) during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine. The importance of preoperative planning to identify the course of the bilateral vertebral arteries during routine posterior cervical spine surgery is emphasized. Methods?VAI is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spinal surgery. Most reports of VAI are related to anterior surgical exposure or screw placement in the posterior cervical spine. VAI incurred during posterior cervical spinal exposure surgery is not adequately addressed in the existing literature. Two cases of VAI that occurred during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine in the region of C2 are described. Results?VAI was incurred unexpectedly in the region of the midportion of the posterior C1–C2 interval during the initial surgical exposure phase of the operation. An aberrant vertebral artery course in the V2 anatomical section in the region between C1 and C2 intervals was identified postoperatively in both patients. A literature review demonstrates a relatively high incidence of vertebral artery anomalies in the upper cervical spine; however, the literature is deficient in reporting vertebral artery injury in this region. Recommendations for preoperative vertebral artery imaging also remain unclear at this time. Conclusions?Successful management of this unexpected complication was achieved in both cases. This case report and review of the literature highlights the importance of preoperative vertebral artery imaging and knowledge of the course of the vertebral arteries prior to planned routine posterior exposure of the upper cervical spine. In both cases, aberrancy of the vertebral artery was present and not investigated or detected preoperatively. PMID:26682106

  4. Use of histomorphometry in the assessment of fatal vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C P; Lawler, W; Burns, J

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess morphometrically the structural changes, which occur with ageing, along the length of the vertebral artery. METHODS--A series of 36 vessels were removed at necropsy from subjects aged between 9 months and 86 years. Image analysis was used to measure the medial width, the circumference, the intimal: medial area ratio and the adventitial: medial area ratio along each artery. The artery from a case of fatal vertebral artery dissection, which occurred after a game of cricket and then chiropractic neck manipulation, was also examined in the same manner. The proteoglycan accumulation in the media was quantified using an eyepiece graticule. RESULTS--The vertebral arteries were, on average, larger around the origin of the vessel from the subclavian artery, and the adventitia were relatively thicker at this point, and also after piercing the dura mater. The media were much thinner within the intracranial segment and pronounced intimal thickening occurred with increasing age. The dissected artery showed undoubtable pre-existent structural abnormalities, in the form of massive proteoglycan accumulation, which predisposes an artery to dissection. CONCLUSIONS--These data should help pathologists faced with the task of assessing the underlying structural integrity of the vessel wall in cases of vertebral artery injury. Images PMID:8254085

  5. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    PubMed

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ?4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ?50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome. PMID:25417970

  6. Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury.

    PubMed Central

    Auer, R N; Krcek, J; Butt, J C

    1994-01-01

    Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral artery thrombosis, superimposed on an old dissecting intramural haematoma of the right vertebral artery in the atlantoaxial region. Vertebrobasilar occlusion after minor head trauma, hyperextending or rotating neck injury, or neck manipulation is commonest in young people. Occult ligamentous injury to the cervical spine after trauma may be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of vertebral artery damage after injury to the neck. Images PMID:8164004

  7. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  8. Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries following cervical manipulation: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, J W; Conacher, G N; Khangure, M; Harper, C G

    1987-01-01

    Neck manipulation may uncommonly be associated with serious and even fatal vascular complications. Although well recognised, the nature of the vascular injury has only rarely been directly established by pathological examination. The case is reported of a 43-year-old man who died following neck manipulation, and in whom multiple dissecting aneurysms within both vertebral arteries were demonstrated radiologically and found at necropsy. Bilateral dissecting aneurysms were found both at the level of atlanto-axial articulation and close to the origins of the vertebral arteries. No predisposition was found, other than early atheroma consistent with the patient's age. Images PMID:3559616

  9. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  10. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug User

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Doriforou, Ortansia; Skiadas, Vasilios Koutoulidis, Vasilios; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros

    2006-08-15

    A 26-year-old drug abuser who presented with sepsis was found to have a pseudoaneurysm in the left vertebral artery. This aneurysm was presumed to be post-traumatic, since the patient reported multiple attempts to inject drugs in the left jugular vein 15 days prior to admission. The pseudoaneurysm was treated effectively with stent-graft placement.

  11. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

  12. Vertebral artery insult at the transverse foramina by gun shot wounds: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Dalgic, Ali; Okay, Onder; Nacar, Osman; Daglioglu, Ergun; Pasaoglu, Lale; Belen, Deniz

    2009-10-01

    The vertebral artery (VA) is well protected through its course at the cervical transverse foramina and penetrating injuries of VA are mostly caused by gun shot wounds. The mechanism of injury in these wounds is described as the kinetic energy transferred by the bullet, which always depends on its mass and speed. Thus, the size of the pellet is the most important factor for the tissue damage, shock waves and direct injury. Civilian gun shot wounds are generally caused by low velocity firearms, In this report, we described two cases with cervical gunshot wound characterized with transverse foramina damage and VA insult. The first patient was assaulted by bullet that resulted in vertebral artery occlusion, whereas a smaller pellet was found in the second one and arterial flow was not influenced on the site of the damaged transverse foramina. Successful management of these injuries should include careful analysis of the bullet characteristics that is directly related to the intensity of damage. PMID:19847764

  13. Vertebral artery dissection in a patient practicing self-manipulation of the neck

    PubMed Central

    Mosby, John S.; Duray, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection. Clinical Features A 42-year-old female patient sought care for left shoulder pain with a secondary complaint of left lower neck pain. Twelve days prior, she had had “the worst headache of her life,” which began in her left lower cervical spine and extended to her left temporal region. The pain was sudden and severe, was described as sharp and burning, and lasted 3 hours. She reported nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Intervention and Outcome Initial history and examination suggested that the patient's head and neck pain was not musculoskeletal in origin, but vascular. She repeatedly requested that an adjustment be performed, but instead was referred to the local emergency department for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance angiogram revealed a dissection of the left vertebral artery from C6 to the C2-C3 interspace and a 3-mm dissecting pseudoaneurysm at the C3 level. She underwent stent-assisted percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combined with antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel) and experienced a good outcome. Conclusion This case suggests that careful history taking and awareness of the symptoms of VAD are necessary in cases of sudden head and neck pain. More research is needed on the relationship between vertebral artery dissection and self-manipulation of the neck. PMID:22654686

  14. Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Adrian C.; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Hami, Danyal; Santoro, Massimo M.; Torres, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21040422

  15. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  16. Tortuosity of carotid and vertebral arteries: a magnetic resonance angiographic study.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, J M; Levine, R L; Hafeez, F; Dulli, D A

    1998-10-01

    Nine patients (group A) were found on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to have excessive carotid artery, vertebral artery, and vertebrobasilar junction tortuosity. A control group (group B) were age- and sex-matched to group A patients, were selected randomly from our MRA or stroke data banks, and had not undergone MRA for evaluation of migraine, "carotidynia," or pulsatile tinnitus. Factors more prevalent in group A patients included migraine, chronic daily headache, carotidynia, pulsatile tinnitus, and a positive family history of headache. Factors more prevalent in group B patients included a positive family history of stroke, large-vessel atherosclerosis, and scan evidence of ischemic infarctions; many group B patients had undergone MRA for stroke or transient ischemic attack evaluation. Men were slightly underrepresented at 44%, and were younger than women (34 +/- 6 years vs. 43 +/- 3 years; p = 0.01). Relationships in this preliminary study between arterial tortuosity and migraine seem evident. PMID:9780856

  17. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K.; Youssef, Ali A.; Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J.

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  18. Unilateral posterior cervical spinal cord infarction due to spontaneous vertebral artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sébastien; Abdallah, Chifaou; Chanson, Anne; Foscolo, Sylvain; Baillot, Pierre-Alexandre; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Context Ischemia of the cervical spinal cord is a rare complication of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and usually involves the ventral portion. We describe a less evocative clinical presentation and images of unilateral posterior spinal cord infarction due to spontaneous VAD in order to facilitate early diagnosis. Findings A previously fit 30-year-old man presented with persistent headaches and proximal motor deficit of the right arm. He was diagnosed with spontaneous dissection of both vertebral arteries, with occlusion of the right one, and the right carotid artery. Neurological examination also revealed a right C2–C3 tactile sensory loss, with unilateral proprioceptive deficit below. Brain images revealed small bilateral cerebellar infarcts which could not be responsible for the clinical symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed a right posterior cervical spinal cord infarction. The patient achieved nearly complete recovery after several weeks of anticoagulation and rehabilitation. Conclusion and clinical relevance Infarction of the caudal portion of the cervical spinal cord, especially unilateral, caused by spontaneous VAD, has rarely been described and is certainly under-diagnosed due to less suggestive symptoms, like unilateral and mainly sensory deficit. Nevertheless, early diagnosis of this condition is important to guide patient management and rehabilitation. PMID:24090478

  19. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rabellino, Martin; Garcia Nielsen, L.; Baldi, S.; Zander, T.; Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I.; Maynar, M.

    2009-01-15

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  20. Application of vertebral artery ultrasonography in enlistment-age male student pilots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuping; Li, Li; Yao, Kechun; Li, Wenxiu; Wang, Na; Cui, Li; Zou, Zhikang; Ma, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vertebral artery (VA) morphology of enlistment-age male student pilots with ultrasound to provide a basis for early diagnosis of potentially asymptomatic cervical vertigo. Ultrasound results of the origin position, diameter and hemodynamics of the VA in 935 cases of student pilots with a mean age of 18.0 y were analyzed. The inner diameters of both sides of the VA differ: the left is larger than the right statistically (p < 0.001). Moreover, the peak systolic velocity of the left VA is significantly greater than that of the right (p < 0.001). Congenital VA anomalies in age-appropriate male student pilots included inner diameter variation, course variation and origin position variation. The incidence of course variation or origin position proportion was low (3.46%, 32/925), and origin position variation was often accompanied by inner diameter variation or course variation. This study confirms that there are a variety of congenital abnormalities in the vertebral arteries of enlistment-age male student pilots, and a VA diameter <2.5 mm may be a reasonable criterion for diagnosis of VA hypoplasia. PMID:25023108

  1. An Infected Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery Treated with a Stent-graft: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Isaka, Fumiaki; Yamashita, Kohsuke

    2015-11-16

    In a 75-year-old man, a growing vertebral artery aneurysm at the C3/4 intervertebral level was found at postoperative evaluation of cervical abscess, which was diagnosed as a complication of sepsis subsequent to cholangitis. Even after a successful antibiotic treatment and a surgical drainage, the aneurysm grew enough to cause compression of esophagus and trachea. The aneurysm was judged to be infection-related, based on the clinical course and the anatomical vicinity to the abscess. Following a dual antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg and aspirin 100 mg per day) for a week, the patient underwent endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with a stent-graft. Postoperative angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with preserving patency of the vertebral artery. A dual antiplatelet treatment was continued for 6 months and was changed to a single antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg per day) thereafter. Neither recurrence of the aneurysm nor stent-graft infection was observed for 4 years of follow-up. This case illustrates the potential use of a stent-graft in the treatment of an infected aneurysm. PMID:26437795

  2. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elmadag, Mehmet; Güzel, Yunus; Uzer, Gokcer; Tuncay, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy. PMID:25685576

  3. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm for Planning of Endovascular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Young Gyun; Jeong, Hae Woong

    2015-01-01

    The equipment and techniques associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have rapidly evolved. The development of 3.0 Tesla MRI has enabled high-resolution imaging of the intracranial vessel wall. High-resolution MRI (HRMRI) can yield excellent visualization of both the arterial wall and lumen, thus facilitating the detection of the primary and secondary features of intracranial arterial dissection. In the present report, we describe the manner in which HRMRI affected our endovascular treatment planning strategy in 2 cases with unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissection aneurysm. HRMRI provides further information about the vessel wall and the lumen of the unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, which was treated by an endovascular approach in the 2 current cases. PMID:26361535

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  5. Age related changes in the tunica media of the vertebral artery: implications for the assessment of vessels injured by trauma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C; Baugh, R; Wilson, C; Burns, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To provide an illustrated, detailed semiquantitative analysis of the important degenerative changes along the length of the vertebral artery so that pathologists faced with investigating a fatal arterial injury can identify important pre-existing wall abnormalities. Methods—Ten transverse annuli were taken along 34 vertebral arteries from 17 subjects and stained sections were prepared using haematoxylin and eosin and the picro-sirius red method. After routine microscopy, the elastic fibres, collagen, and smooth muscle nuclei in the tunica media were quantified using an eyepiece graticule. An estimate of the severity and extent of elastic tissue fragmentation, collagenous scarring, and intimal thickening/atheroma was then undertaken. Results—Smooth muscle counts remained constant along the artery but collagen counts were higher and elastic counts substantially lower within the intracranial segment. Elastic fibre fragmentation was recognised in infancy and was moderately advanced by early adulthood but considerable collagenous scarring developed later in life. Some individuals demonstrated severe fragmentation and scarring before the age of 35 years. The degenerative changes were often focal and spared the intracranial segment almost completely. Atheroma increased with age but was rarely severe and appeared not to worsen appreciably beyond the age of 40 years. An unusual arrangement of the collagenous tissue was described within the upper cervical loops. Conclusion—Damaged vertebral arteries need to be sampled extensively to allow a proper histological assessment. The picro-sirius red method was successful in delineating the fine connective tissue structure of the wall and early degenerative changes. An understanding of the age and site specific changes should allow the pathologist to recognise important pre-existing abnormalities more easily. Key Words: vertebral artery • picro-sirius red • degenerative change • injury PMID:11215283

  6. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  7. Application of Pipeline Embolization Device for Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms of the Extracranial Vertebral Artery: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eichberg, Daniel G; Thomas, Ajith; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery (VA) are uncommon vascular lesions and definitive management is often challenging. Between 0% and 8% of craniocervical fusions are complicated by VA injury. In these cases, preserving the vertebral artery while treating the pseudoaneurysm is the goal of any treatment option. We describe the second known case of a patient with and iatrogenic extracranial vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm treated effectively using the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) (Ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA). Although there have been only two cases reported, the use of flow-diverting stents appears to be efficacious for the treatment of non-actively bleeding traumatic pseudoaneurysms. PMID:26623211

  8. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm. PMID:7611084

  9. Recanalization of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm after occlusion of the dilated segment only

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Jun; Moroi, Junta; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internal trapping in which the dissecting aneurysm is occluded represents reliable treatment to prevent rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. Various methods of internal trapping are available, but which is most appropriate for preventing both recanalization of the VA and procedural complications is unclear. Case Description: A 61-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a left VA dissecting aneurysm. Only the dilated segment of the aneurysm was occluded by coil embolization. Sixteen days after embolization, angiography showed recanalization of the treated left VA with blood supplying the dilated segment of the aneurysm, which showed morphological change between just proximal to the coil mesh and just distal to a coil, and antegrade blood flow through this part. Pathological examination showed that the rupture site that had appeared to be the most dilated area on angiography was located just above the orifice of the entrance. However, we think that this case of ruptured aneurysm had an entrance into a pseudolumen that existed proximal to the dilated segment, with antegrade recanalization occurring through the pseudolumen with morphological change because of insufficient coil obliteration of the entrance in the first therapy. Conclusions: This case suggests that occlusion of both the proximal and dilated segments of a VA dissecting aneurysm will prevent recanalization, by ensuring that any entrance to a pseudolumen of the aneurysm is completely closed. Careful follow-up after internal trapping is important, since antegrade recanalization via a pseudolumen may occur in the acute stage. PMID:25396072

  10. Evaluation of Interventional Therapy for Patients with Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenosis by Transcranial Color-Coded Sonography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yinghua; Hua, Yang; Jia, Lingyun; Wang, Lili; Liu, Beibei; Duan, Chun; Jiao, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stenting for patients with intra-cranial vertebral artery stenosis by trans-cranial color-coded sonography and to analyze the risk factors of in-stent restenosis (ISR). In total, 121 patients with intra-cranial vertebral artery stenosis stents were included. The follow-up time was 3-12 mo (mean: 9.9 mo). The success rate was 92.6%. Peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity decreased from 261 ± 63 to 109 ± 41 cm/s and from 133 ± 44 to 47 ± 18 cm/s, respectively (both p < 0.001). Peak systolic velocity (245 ± 47 cm/s) and end-diastolic velocity (121 ± 31 cm/s) of patients with ISR (18.9%, 20/106) were higher than those of patients without ISR (101 ± 38 and 44 ± 17 cm/s, respectively) at 12 mo post-procedure (p < 0.05). The length of the stent and residual stenosis were related to ISR. In conclusion, stenting is a feasible treatment method for intra-cranial vertebral artery stenosis. Trans-cranial color-coded sonography can be used for monitoring patients to identify ISR. PMID:26410007

  11. Blood flow in internal carotid and vertebral arteries during orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kohei; Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Overgaard, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2012-12-01

    It remains unclear whether orthostatic stress evokes regional differences in cerebral blood flow. The present study compared blood flow in the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA) during orthostatic stress (60 deg head-up tilt; HUT) in six healthy young men. The ICA and VA blood flow were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was also determined during supine (Supine) and HUT conditions, from the rate of regulation (RoR) in cerebrovascular conductance of the ICA and VA during acute hypotension induced by the release of bilateral thigh-cuffs. The HUT decreased ICA blood flow by -9.4 ± 1.7% (P < 0.01 versus Supine), leaving ICA conductance unchanged. In contrast, there was no significant difference in VA blood flow between Supine and HUT, and VA conductance increased (+12.9 ± 0.8%, P < 0.01). In addition, dynamic cerebral autoregulation in both the ICA and VA was attenuated during HUT, and the magnitude of the attenuation in RoR was greater in the VA [0.25 ± 0.03 s(-1) Supine versus 0.16 ± 0.02 s(-1) HUT (-33.9 ± 5.8%); P < 0.05] compared with the ICA [0.23 ± 0.02 s(-1) Supine versus 0.20 ± 0.03 s(-1) HUT (-10.6 ± 13.4%); P > 0.05]. These data indicate that orthostatic stress evokes regional differences in cerebral blood flow and possible differences in dynamic cerebral autoregulation between two main brain vascular areas in response to an acute change in blood pressure during orthostatic stress. PMID:22689443

  12. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI) occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008), all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49%) and car-pedestrian accidents (24%) were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4%) presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8%) presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III). Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality. PMID:20579381

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms That Cause Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Consideration of Therapeutic Approaches Relevant to the Angioarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koh, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intracranial ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAns) are associated with high morbidity and mortality when left untreated due to the high likelihood of rebleeding. The present study aimed to establish an endovascular therapeutic strategy that focuses specifically on the angioarchitecture of ruptured VADAns. Methods Twenty-three patients with ruptured VADAn received endovascular treatment (EVT) over 7 years. The patient group included 14 women (60.9%) and 9 men (39.1%) between the ages of 39 and 72 years (mean age 54.2 years). Clinical data and radiologic findings were retrospectively analyzed. Results Four patients had aneurysms on the dominant vertebral artery. Fourteen (61%) aneurysms were located distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Six (26%) patients had an extracranial origin of the PICA on the ruptured VA, and 2 patients (9%) had bilateral VADAns. Eighteen patients (78%) were treated with internal coil trapping. Two patients (9%) required an adjunctive bypass procedure. Seven patients (30%) required stent-supported endovascular procedures. Two patients experienced intra-procedural rupture during EVT, one of which was associated with a focal medullary infarction. Two patients (9%) exhibited recanalization of the VADAn during follow-up, which required additional coiling. No recurrent hemorrhage was observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion EVT of ruptured VADAns based on angioarchitecture is a feasible and effective armamentarium to prevent fatal hemorrhage recurrence with an acceptable low risk of procedural complications. Clinical outcomes depend mainly on the pre-procedural clinical state of the patient. Radiologic follow-up is necessary to prevent hemorrhage recurrence after EVT. PMID:26539258

  14. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:25657727

  15. Intraoperative Vertebral Artery Angiography to Guide C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation in a Patient with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Chul; Park, Ki Seok; Ha, Ho Gyun

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of an athetoid cerebral palsy with quadriparesis caused by kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, severe spinal stenosis at the cervicomedullary junction, and atlantoaxial instability. The patient improved after the first surgery, which included a C1 total laminectomy and C-arm guided righ side unilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. C1-2 fixation was not performed on the other side because of an aberrant and dominant vertebral artery (VA). Eight months after the first operation, the patient required revision surgery for persistent neck pain and screw malposition. We used intraoperative VA angiography with simultaneous fluoroscopy for precise image guidance during bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Intraoperative VA angiography allowed the accurate insertion of screws, and can therefore be used to avoid VA injury during C1-2 transarticular screw fixation in comorbid patients with atlantoaxial deformities. PMID:22639719

  16. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  17. Effectiveness of Doppler Image of the Vertebral Artery as an Anatomical Landmark for Identification of Ultrasound-Guided Target Level in Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Park, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A prospective sonographic study. Purpose To verify the effectiveness of simultaneous application of two landmarks, Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the transverse tubercle of the seventh cervical (C7) vertebra. Overview of Literature Counting upwards from the C7 vertebra which only has a posterior tubercle of the transverse process is a commonly used method for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. However, each transverse process has a different shape. Methods Sonograms of 20 volunteers were examined. At first, we identified the C7 transverse process based on the presence of the vertebral artery without the anterior tubercle. The C5 and C6 transverse processes were identified based on the presence of anterior tubercle without the vertebral artery. Subsequently, we placed needles on the C5, C6, and C7 transverse processes and the location and direction of needles were confirmed by fluoroscopy. Results In the 120 segments, 93.3% of needles were placed correctly as desired; 97.5% of needles were placed on the 5C transverse process; 97.5% of needles were placed on the C6 transverse process; and 85.0% of needles were placed on the C7 transverse process, respectively. Both sides showed the same accuracy of 93.3%. Conclusions Simultaneous application of Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the C7 transverse tubercle showed 93.3% accuracy in identifying the target cervical level. Therefore, Doppler image of the vertebral artery can be considered to be a useful landmark for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. PMID:26435784

  18. Fluid structure interaction analysis reveals facial nerve palsy caused by vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoaki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kambayashi, Yukinao; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Shinohara, Sho; Fujiwara, Hidemoto; Nakazato, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Dahmani, Chiheb; Yamamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko; Murayama, Yuichi

    2015-11-01

    Cranial nerve palsy caused by aneurysmal compression has not been fully evaluated. The main causes of symptoms are considered to be direct mechanical compression and aneurysm pulsations. Recent studies indicate that nerve dysfunction is mainly induced by pulsation rather than by direct compression, and successful cases of endovascular surgery have been reported. We describe a patient with an unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysm compressing the facial nerve at the root exit zone (REZ). The patient presented with peripheral facial nerve palsy but not hemifacial spasm and was successfully treated by coil embolization. To investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral facial nerve palsy, fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis can approximate displacement and the magnitude of aneurysmal wall motion due to hemodynamic forces. In our case, maximum mesh displacement was observed at the aneurysmal wall attached to the facial nerve inside the pons rather than the REZ, which explains the clinical manifestation of facial nerve palsy in the absence of hemifacial spasm. This preliminary report demonstrates the utility of FSI analysis for investigating cranial nerve neuropathy. PMID:26453756

  19. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Examination of extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Elwertowski, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    The role of a standard is to describe examination techniques, recommended norms as well as principles necessary to obtain results and draw appropriate conclusions, rather than a description of pathologies. The paper presents a technique for carotid artery examination as well as currently recommended standards. According to San Francisco Consensus from 2003, a significant stenosis of 70% may be detected when systolic velocity in the internal carotid artery stenosis is >230 cm/s, and the diastolic velocity is >100 cm/s. The common carotid artery velocity is also taken into account. Hemodynamic evaluation is therefore the primary method for the assessment of the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis. It is important that the examination is performed at an insonation angle of 60° as measurements at higher angles result in an exponential increase in measurement error. Also, an extended version of standards involving measurements performed behind stenosis, which are used in some clinics, is included in the paper. The paper further presents guidelines for the description of the identified pathologies, which ensure that the findings prove unambiguous for clinicians, especially when stenosis eligible for surgical intervention is detected. Morphological measurement of stenosis (according to NASCET criteria) is only of supplementary character (confirming morphological grounds for the increase of velocity) and has no critical importance, especially due to high measurement divergence. Description of atherosclerotic plaques, especially hypoechoic ones, which are considered potentially unstable and may lead to a raised risk of stroke, is a very important element of examination. The paper is based on Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society and updated based on the latest literature reports. PMID:26673158

  20. Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Ross; Smith, Linda W.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented to a chiropractic physician for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Clinical features A 45-year-old otherwise healthy female presented for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Within minutes, non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms progressed to neurological deficits, including limb ataxia and cognitive disturbances. Suspicion was raised for cerebrovascular ischemia and emergent referral was initiated. Intervention and outcome Paramedics were immediately summoned and the patient was transported to a local hospital with a working diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular ischemia. Multiplanar computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed vertebral artery dissection of the V2 segment in the right vertebral artery. Anticoagulation therapy was administered and the patient was discharged without complications after 5 days in the hospital. Conclusion This case highlights the potential for patients with vertebral artery dissection to present with nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints. Neurological symptoms may not manifest initially, but their sudden onset indicates the possibility of an ischemic cerebrovascular event. We suggest that early recognition and emergent referral for this patient avoided potential exacerbation of an evolving pre-existing condition and resulted in timely anticoagulation treatment. PMID:25685116

  1. The baroreflex, or pressure reflex, is the primary mechanism in adult vertebrates for rapid regulation of arterial pressure

    E-print Network

    Altimiras, Jordi

    regulation of arterial pressure through changes in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Such a mechanism is important for buffering fluctuations in arterial pressure, to maintain tissue perfusion pressure and manipulation of arterial pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. The results demonstrated

  2. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  3. A Novel Approach to Overcome Stent Strut Entrapment of the Distal Filter Retrieval Catheter during Vertebral Artery Stenting: The "Olive-Tipped" Technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Hu, Chang; Wang, Qian; Long, Whitney; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We developed an "olive-tipped" technique for preventing the distal filter retrieval catheter from entrapment in the stent struts during retrieval procedures after stent deployment and which we used in 2 vertebral artery stenting cases. A new wire entry port was made in the catheter at the transition of larger and smaller lumen to permit passage of a low-profile balloon into the lumen of the retrieval catheter. When the balloon was inflated across the retrieval catheter tip, a smoother profile was created which eliminated the sharp step between the catheter tip and the filter wire. The retrieval catheter could then be advanced easily through the stent struts using this modified system. PMID:26522582

  4. Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected. PMID:24363853

  5. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  6. Vertebral Four limbs

    E-print Network

    Doebley, John

    Lung Amnio6c egg * Antorbital fenestra Diapsid skull Crocodile Vertebral column Four limbs Lung Amnio6c egg * Antorbital fenestra Diapsid skull Diapsid skull Crocodile Vertebral column Four limbs Lung Amnio6c egg

  7. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  8. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  9. Type I persistent proatlantal artery associated with fusiform subclavian artery aneurysm: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Krunoslav; Hegeduš, Ivana; Gilman Kuric, Tihana; Salha, Tamer; Tomi?, Svetlana; Butkovi? Soldo, Silva; Buljan, Vesna; Šoši?, ?ur?ica

    2015-08-01

    We report a 61 years old male presenting with a right cerebral infarction, along with a type I persistent left proatlantal artery (PA), which is a form of primitive carotid-basilar anastomosis. The patient had an absence of the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) and hypoplasia of the contralateral VA, while the basilar artery was supplied by the PA. Other vascular anomalies present were a fusiform aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, and an A1 segment aplasia of the hypoplastic anterior right cerebral artery, which originated from the anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge these anomalies were not described previously. PMID:26436940

  10. Antiplatelet treatment compared with anticoagulation treatment for cervical artery dissection (CADISS): a randomised trial

    E-print Network

    CADISS trial investigators

    2015-02-12

    common alternative diagnoses were atherosclerosis, an atretic rather than dissected vertebral artery, a narrowed artery without any defi nite evidence of dissection and, in one case, adherent thrombus without clear evidence of dissection. Several...

  11. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact : Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  12. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral fracture are discussed in this article. PMID:26435923

  13. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  14. The hydrophobicity of vertebrate elastins.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, G W; Gosline, J M; Lillie, M A

    1999-02-01

    An evolutionary trend towards increasing hydrophobicity of vertebrate arterial elastins suggests that there is an adaptive advantage to higher hydrophobicity. The swelling and dynamic mechanical properties of elastins from several species were measured to test whether hydrophobicity is associated with mechanical performance. Hydrophobicity was quantified according to amino acid composition (HI), and two behaviour-based indices: the Flory-Huggins solvent interaction parameter (chi1), and a swelling index relating tissue volumes at 60 and 1 degrees C. Swelling index values correlated with chi1 and, for most species studied, with HI, suggesting that the different approaches used to quantify hydrophobicity are equally valid. Dynamic mechanical properties were measured both in a closed system, to control the effects of water content, and in an open system, to determine whether the increased swelling of hydrophobic materials at low temperatures offsets the direct stiffening effect of cold. There were no biologically significant differences in mechanical behaviour in either open or closed systems that could be attributed to hydrophobicity. Therefore, although the original function of hydrophobicity in an ancestral elastin may have been to produce molecular mobility, mechanical performance did not drive a subsequent increase in hydrophobicity. Higher hydrophobicities may have arisen to facilitate the manufacture of the elastic fibre. PMID:9882642

  15. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    ; ID Quiz 11 FEB Fish III 14 FEB Life on Land I 19 Feb Amphibians 18 FEB Life on Land II 21 FEB Review 26 Feb Amphibians 25 FEB EXAM 1, overview thru life on land 28 FEB Vertebrate Sounds 4 MARCH Amphibians I 5 Mar Amphibians; ID Quiz 7 MARCH Amphibians II 11 MARCH Turtles and Crocodiles 12 March Lizards

  16. A fatal iatrogenic right vertebral injury after transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization for a type II odontoid fracture.

    PubMed

    Scalici, Edoardo; Indorato, Francesca; Portelli, Francesca; Savì, Tommaso; Maresi, Emiliano; Busardò, Francesco P

    2014-02-01

    The authors present a singular case of an iatrogenic right vertebral artery injury, involving a 67 year-old man, who reported a type II odontoid fracture (Anderson and D'Alonzo Classification) and posterior atlantoaxial dislocation following a road traffic accident. A small injury involving the right vertebral artery occurred as a consequence of transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization. It was caused by bone spicules of spinal origin and their presence was confirmed by the histological section of the right vertebral artery at the level of C1-C2. The case confirms how iatrogenic vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery may be potentially lethal, especially where complications arise some days after surgery. PMID:24485420

  17. Bio 4464 Vertebrate Morphology Lab schedule Fall 2007 Mon, Wed 9.30-12.15 Rm Supple 424

    E-print Network

    Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Bio 4464 Vertebrate Morphology Lab schedule Fall 2007 Mon, Wed 9.30-12.15 Rm Supple 424 Lab Manuals: The Dissection of Vertebrates by Gerardo De Luliis and Dino Pulera 2007. Whenever necessary, a lab hand, arteries and veins 9/3,5 Labor Day week 9/10,12 Amphioxus, Ammocetes larva. Lamprey eel, shark dissection

  18. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

  19. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  20. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25772659

  1. Subclavian artery intervention with a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter via the ipsilateral brachial artery without an introducer sheath.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Nakajima, S; Endo, H; Takahashi, T; Nozaki, E

    2015-04-01

    To protect against a distal embolism in the vertebral artery, subclavian artery stenting can be achieved by positioning a filter device or balloon in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. However, treatment with these devices is not easy, and it is also an inaccurate method for cerebral protection. We developed a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter (Optimo(®) occlusion catheter) without an introducer sheath, which allowed us to perform the minimally invasive endovascular therapy (EVT). Herein, we report two EVT cases for subclavian artery disease treated with an Optimo(®) occlusion catheter via the ipsilateral brachial artery. This method is effective for distal protection of both cerebral and brachial artery embolism, and also enables EVT procedure retrogradely as well. PMID:24935071

  2. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  3. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  4. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  5. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  6. The Incidence of New Vertebral Fractures Following Vertebral Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Wan, Chao; Ding, Jinyong; Zhang, Shuncong; Jiang, Xiaobing; Xu, Jixi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed that compares the relationship between percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) and conservative treatments with the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Using meta-analytic techniques, this study compares PVA and conservative treatment for incidence of new vertebral fractures, particularly incidence of adjacent fractures that occur following treatment. A focus of clinicians has been on whether PVA increases the risk of new vertebral fractures. Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to retrieve literature published from the establishment of the databases until April 28, 2015. Literature of related areas was searched manually. The main outcome indicator was the incidence of new vertebral fractures at final follow-up appointment. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of new vertebral fractures in different follow-up periods and the incidence of adjacent fractures. The RevMan 5.3 software program of the Cochrane Collaboration was used to analyze the data. For dichotomous variables, the risk ratio (RR) and a confidence interval (CI) of 95% were used to express the heterogeneity of the effect size. Seven randomized controlled trial studies were selected from the literature. The studies include 871 patients, 436 of whom received PVA treatment and the rest received conservative treatment. Combined analysis of the 7 studies showed that the numbers of new vertebral fractures in the 2 groups are not significantly different. Six studies reported the numbers of new adjacent fractures. Considering the heterogeneity among the studies, 2 subgroups were formed. The 5 studies in the European group showed that the incidence of new adjacent fractures in the PVA-treated group is higher than that in the conservatively treated group, and the difference is statistically significant. The one study in the Asian group showed no significant difference between the incidences of adjacent fractures in the 2 groups. PVA treatment does not increase the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Most studies reported that PVA increases the incidence of adjacent fractures, yet it is rarely stated that both PVA and conservative treatment lead to the same incidence of adjacent fractures. PMID:26376401

  7. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  8. Vertebral fractures in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, J S; Basse, A; Arnbjerg, J

    1993-01-01

    A prospective study on vertebral fractures in newborn calves is described. Vertebral fractures were found in 7.0% of necropsied calves of the Danish Holstein-Friesian (SDM) and Red Danish Dairy (RDM) breeds. Cases were not found in submitted calves of the Jersey breed or beef breeds. At least in beef breeds this was probably due to the low number necropsied. The rate of vertebral fractures in SDM and RDM breeds and between males and females were similar. Most cases occurred in calves born by heifers, and manual traction force had been applied in all cases. All fractures which in most cases consisted of a simple epiphysiolysis were located at the thoraco-lumbar area, and especially the posterior epiphysis of T13 was afflicted. PMID:8147290

  9. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  10. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There may be signs of tissue death or gangrene. Tests to diagnose arterial embolism or reveal the ... or permanent kidney failure Tissue death ( necrosis ) and gangrene Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  11. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give more de- tailed information than that from a pulse oximeter (a sensor that is clipped on to a patient’s finger, ...

  12. Internal carotid artery fibromuscular dysplasia in arterial hypertension: management in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Zamboni, Sergio; Cuppini, Stefano; Zattoni, Luca; Ravenni, Roberta; Sacco, Alberto; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2008-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) reminds of a rare form of secondary arterial hypertension occurring in young people and involving the renal arteries. FMD may also involve vertebral, subclavian, mesenteric, iliac arteries and carotid arteries. FMD of internal carotid arteries is a rare finding that is frequently incidental and asymptomatic. It usually occurs in middle-aged women and is secondary to media-intima fibrodysplasia. The carotid artery may be elongated or kinked and associated cerebral aneurysms have been reported. Symptoms including transient ischaemic attack or stroke are uncommon and are related to decrease of blood flow or embolization by platelet aggregates. At the onset, differential diagnosis with vasculitis must be placed. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography demonstrates bilateral high-grade stenosis with the characteristic "string of beads" pattern. Antiplatelet medication is the accepted therapy for asymptomatic lesions. Graduated endoluminal surgical dilation is an outmoded therapy, no longer used in most medical centres. Current percutaneous angioplasty is the preferred treatment for symptomatic carotid FMD, but no randomized controlled trials comparing this methodology with surgery is available. The management of a case of arterial systemic FMD in a 52-year-old women, diagnosed after a hypertensive crysis, is discussed. Imaging methods disclosed stenoses of carotid arteries, of celiac tripod and of superior mesenteric artery. Because of high risk associated to endovascular surgery, medical therapy was started. In the first year of follow-up, no events have been reported. PMID:18825547

  13. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  14. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  15. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  16. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

  17. [Neonatal cervical artery dissection secondary to birth trauma].

    PubMed

    Hamida, N; Hakim, A; Fourati, H; Ben Thabet, A; Walha, L; Bouraoui, A; Mnif, Z; Gargouri, A

    2014-02-01

    Cervical artery dissection is rare in the neonatal period and is most often caused by birth injury during dystocic labor. The severity of this pathology is due to the possibility of serious neurological complications. We report a case of a male newborn who was born vaginally after shoulder dystocia. The extraction was difficult, resulting in a fracture of the right humerus. On the second day of life, the child presented generalized clonic convulsions. Computed tomography of the brain showed an ischemic stroke in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery, the territory of the right posterior cerebral artery, and the right lenticulostriate and capsular regions. Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral carotid artery thrombosis and dissection at the left common carotid artery and its two branches and the right vertebral artery. We discuss the mechanisms of this pathology and we emphasize preventive measures. PMID:24290182

  18. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts Roberto Brenes1 *, Matthew J. Gray2 ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla

  19. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute arterial occlusion of the kidney is a sudden, severe blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney. ... The kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced ...

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  1. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirki??o-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, W?odzimierz; Jab?o?ski, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare. PMID:25988288

  2. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  3. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Spring 20XX

    E-print Network

    Liu, Alice Y.C.

    FEB Fish II 9-10 Feb Fish; ID Quiz 9 FEB Fish III 12 FEB Life on Land I 16-17 Feb Amphibians 16 FEB Life on Land II 19 FEB Review 23-24 Feb Amphibians 23 FEB EXAM 1, overview thru life on land 26 FEB Vertebrate Sounds 2 MARCH Amphibians I 2-3 Mar Amphibians; ID Quiz 5 MARCH Amphibians II 9 MARCH Turtles

  4. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  5. Spontaneous Mirror Dissections of Cervicocephalic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, W.Y.; Krings, T.; Alvarez, H.; Ozanne, A.; Holmin, S.; Lasjaunias, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Summary While so-called twin or mirror aneurysms constitute an established subgroup of multiple aneurysms, simultaneous spontaneous mirror dissections of cervicocephalic artery have not yet been reported as a particular entity. Among the patients treated at our institution since 1989, we identified 74 patients with spontaneous, nontraumatic dissections. Six of these cases presented with simultaneous bilateral dissections and four of the six patients had mirror dissections. Acute or chronic headache was present in all four cases. Additional clinical presentations consisted of impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, and tinnitus. Angiography revealed irregular stenosis, dilatation or aneurysms located in the cervical ICA (internal carotid artery), VA (vertebral artery), or MCA (middle cerebral artery) without evident location bias. Although mirror dissections seems to be an exceptional finding, they may shed light on the vulnerability of different arterial segments to specific diseases. Similar to arterial aneurysm formation, pathogenesis of mirror dissection may involve an underlying "shared defect" in the endothelial cells, since these cells demonstrate a bilateral distribution during embryological development. This particular distribution therefore also provides a chronicle trail of the first trigger striking during embryonic development and demonstrates the segmental vulnerability to highly specific triggers. PMID:20569557

  6. Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates. PMID:19443856

  7. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  8. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation treated by percutaneous closure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moshe Gomori, J; Anner, Haim; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    Accidental arterial puncture occurs in around 1% and 2.7% of jugular and subclavian approaches, respectively. When a line has been inadvertently inserted into an artery at a noncompressible site, there is an increased risk for serious complications. This complication can be treated by either surgical or endovascular intervention or a combination; however, in critically ill patients or in those with impaired coagulation, therapeutic options are more limited. We describe successful endovascular management of inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation during insertion of a triple lumen central line catheter in a 35-year-old man suffering from leukemia, with sepsis and multi-organ failure. He was hypotensive and hemodynamically unstable, with severe coagulopathy. The catheter had entered the artery at the level of the origin of the internal mammary artery, just above the origin of the vertebral artery. The tip was lying in the aortic arch. The artery was successfully closed by endovascular deployment of an 8 French Angio-Seal device (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). The device is licensed for use in femoral arterial puncture sites but provided safe and effective closure of the subclavian artery puncture in our patient. PMID:24913929

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  11. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  12. Vertebrate Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function, and Insights from Biophysical Approaches

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Vertebrate Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function, and Insights from Biophysical Approaches DANIEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 II. Overview of vertebrate membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 A. Properties of plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes

  13. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  14. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

  15. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index.

  16. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  17. Combined external counterpulsation and endovascular stenting treatment for symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li; Chen, Xiang Yan; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis has a poor prognosis. Intravascular stents provide a new therapeutic approach, but the long-term outcome of stenting compared with medical outcome is controversial. External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method to improve perfusion of vital organs. We report two cases of this combination with ECP treatment in addition to receiving endovascular stenting. Two patients experienced posterior ischemic stroke. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a severe basilar or vertebral artery stenosis. Computed tomographic perfusion revealed significantly decreased perfusion of posterior artery territories. Both of them underwent combined ECP treatment and endovascular stenting of the stenosed basilar or vertebral artery, without recurrent stroke within 30 days after stenting. The two patients were independent (modified Rankin scale ?2) at the 12-month follow-up time. Combined ECP treatment and endovascular stent placement may be effective and safe for patients with symptomatic VBA stenosis who failed aggressive medical treatment. PMID:26568838

  18. Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

  19. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  20. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  1. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:26069429

  2. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (~420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ~505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. PMID:26095697

  3. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  4. Vertebral osteomyelitis: clinical features and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eren Gök, S; Kaptano?lu, E; Celikba?, A; Ergönül, O; Baykam, N; Ero?lu, M; Dokuzo?uz, B

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe clinical and diagnostic features of vertebral osteomyelitis for differential diagnosis and treatment. This is a prospective observational study performed between 2002 and 2012 in Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. All the patients with vertebral osteomyelitis were followed for from 6 months to 3 years. In total, 214 patients were included in the study, 113 out of 214 (53%) were female. Out of 214 patients, 96 (45%) had brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis (BVO), 63 (29%) had tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis (TVO), and 55 (26%) had pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). Mean number of days between onset of symptoms and establishment of diagnosis was greater with the patients with TVO (266 days) than BVO (115 days) or PVO (151 days, p <0.001). In blood cultures, Brucella spp. were isolated from 35 of 96 BVO patients (35%). Among 55 PVO patients, the aetiological agent was isolated in 11 (20%) patients. For tuberculin skin test >15 mm, sensitivity was 0.66, specificity was 0.97, positive predictive value was 0.89, negative predictive value was 0.88, and receiver operating characteristics area was 0.8. Tuberculous and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis remained the leading causes of vertebral osteomyelitis with delayed diagnosis. In differential diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis, consumption of unpasteurized cheese, dealing with husbandry, sweating, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, elevated alanine transaminase, and lumbar involvement in magnetic resonance imaging were found to be predictors of BVO, thoracic involvement in magnetic resonance imaging and tuberculin skin test > 15 mm were found to be predictors of TVO, and history of spinal surgery and leucocytosis were found to be predictors of PVO. PMID:24766063

  5. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  6. Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

  7. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

  8. Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

    1998-01-01

    We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

  9. Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: an unreported association.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2016-01-01

    Rete mirabile is a fine meshwork of anastomosing vessels that replace the parent artery. A 30-year-old woman complained of slurring of speech, right eye proptosis, recurrent vomiting, and loss of bladder and bowel control, followed by drowsiness lasting 30-40?min, for the past 6?months. On cross sectional imaging and angiography, the patient was found to have a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered both endovascular and open surgical options but she refused any form of surgical treatment and opted for conservative management. At the 6 month follow-up, she continued to have occasional episodes of headache and vomiting but was otherwise normal. We describe the clinical, cross sectional, and angiographic features of this patient. A comparison with other patients with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile is also reported. PMID:25428448

  10. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  11. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  12. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography of aberrant subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Büyükbayraktar, Fatma Gül; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of 16-slice multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography for identifying anatomic features of aberrant subclavian arteries. Seventeen patients with aberrant subclavian arteries were assessed by MDCT angiography. The aortic arch position, the presence of a Kommerell's diverticulum, aneurysm, vascular compression of trachea and oesophagus and associated cardiovascular abnormalities were evaluated. MDCT findings were confirmed by surgery in eight patients but in the other nine patients no further evaluation or management was warranted as the aberrant subclavian artery had no significant clinical consequence. Eleven patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery arising from the left aortic arch and six patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from the right aortic arch. Kommerell's diverticulum was identified in three patients with an aberrant right subclavian artery and in five patients with an aberrant left subclavian artery. In two patients it was aneurysmal. Oesophageal compression was detected in eight patients, and tracheal compression was identified in only one paediatric patient. An aberrant subclavian artery was associated with complex congenital heart disease in one patient, intracardiac defects in two patients, aortic coarctation in two patients, patent ductus arteriosus in two patients and an aberrant vertebral artery in one patient. In conclusion, MDCT angiography is superior to digital subtraction angiography for the assessment of aberrant subclavian arteries since digital subtraction angiography has only a poor ability to visualize adjacent structures completely and is invasive in nature. MDCT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography are the current standard in the initial evaluation of thoracic vascular anomalies. PMID:19144774

  13. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  14. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  15. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  16. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

  17. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  18. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

    2015-03-30

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

  19. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  20. Navigation in Evolving Robots: Insight from Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponticorvo, Michela; Miglino, Orazio

    Mobile robots navigation is a broad topic, covering many different technologies and applications. It is possible to draw inspiration for robot navigation from vertebrates. Reviewing literature on vertebrates, it seems clear that they navigate by elaborating substantially two kinds of spatial information: geometric (environmental shape, distance from landmarks) and non geometric (colors, smells). In this paper we try to understand how these cues can be used by small populations of mobile robots in environments reproducing the main features of experimental settings used with vertebrates. The robots are controlled by neural networks, whose evolution determines robot navigation behaviour. We analyze how the artificial systems use these information, separately or jointly, and how is it possible to obtain mobile robots that exploit effectively geometric and non-geometric information to navigate in specific environments.

  1. The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  3. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  4. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  5. Fatal case of cervical blunt vascular injury with cervical vertebral fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Okura, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Ukai, Junichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is usually caused by neck trauma that predominantly occurs in high-impact injuries. BCVI may occur due to damage to both the vertebral and carotid arteries, and may be fatal in the absence of appropriate treatment and early diagnosis. Here, we describe a case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery by a direct blunt external force in a 52-year-old man. Initially, there was no effect on consciousness, but 6 hours later loss of consciousness occurred due to traumatic dissection of the carotid artery that resulted in a cerebral infarction. Brain edema was so extensive that decompression by emergency craniectomy and internal decompression were performed by a neurosurgeon, but with no effect, and the patient died on day 7. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery. The case suggests that cervical vascular injury should be considered in a patient with a blunt neck trauma and that additional imaging should be performed. PMID:26412898

  6. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  7. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  8. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  9. Haemophilus aphrophilus discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, J C; Keene, G S; Weinbren, M J; Johnson, A P; Palepou, M F; George, R C

    1995-01-01

    An unusual case of discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus is described. Infections due to this organism have usually responded to treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics. However, our isolate was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins which has not been reported previously in the world literature. The patient made a good clinical response to ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:8539556

  10. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  11. VERTEBRATE SPECIES OF THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN APPENDIX G

    E-print Network

    documented: Great Basin pocket mouse, hoary bat, Inyo shrew, long-legged myotis, northern pocket gopherAPPENDIX G VERTEBRATE SPECIES OF THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX G VERTEBRATE SPECIES OF THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Matthew D. Schlesinger and J. Shane Romsos We compiled a list of all vertebrate species

  12. Vertebral augmentation for compression fractures caused by malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rahul; Patel, Trusharth; Swarm, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are common in malignant disease and frequently cause severe back pain. However, management of that pain with conventional medical, radiotherapy, or surgical modalities is often inadequate. Vertebral augmentation techniques, such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are minimally invasive techniques in which methylmethacrylate bone cement is percutaneously injected into compressed vertebral bodies. Vertebral augmentation often improves mechanical stability of compressed vertebrae, provides pain relief, and may prevent progression of vertebral collapse. Kyphoplasty may provide increased chance for vertebral body height restoration, but the clinical importance of slight change in vertebral body height is unclear. Vertebral augmentation can be used in conjunction with other treatment modalities, and associated pain relief may improve patient tolerance of needed antitumor therapies, such as radiation therapy. Vertebral augmentation is generally very well tolerated, and complications associated with bone cement extravasation beyond the vertebral body have rarely been reported. Because it often provides good to excellent relief of otherwise intractable pain and is generally well tolerated, vertebral augmentation is becoming a first-line agent for management of painful vertebral compression fractures, especially in the setting of malignant disease. PMID:20876546

  13. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER

  14. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Claessens, Leon

    89 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89­106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION LEON P. A. M. CLAESSENS Museum of Comparative

  15. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOB

  16. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(3):438459, September 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    438 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(3):438­459, September 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW STETHACANTHID CHONDRICHTHYAN FROM THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS OF BEARSDEN, SCOTLAND

  17. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

  18. Ruptured visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. PMID:26054246

  19. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. "To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alzimami, Khalid S; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Almagli, Babikir; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of “to-and-fro” waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and “to-and-fro” flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional “to-and-fro” waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the “to-and-fro” waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative. PMID:26029351

  1. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  2. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  3. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  4. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-28

    Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 182n - 6 to produce 183n - 6 that is elongated to 203n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 183n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 225n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 225n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

  5. Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor?

    PubMed

    Baker, Gary E; de Grip, Willem J; Turton, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Foster, Russell G; Douglas, Ron H

    2015-09-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that melanopsin is localised in cells around the central pore of lateral line neuromasts in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Since melanopsin is a known photoreceptor pigment with diverse functions in vertebrates, we suggest that the lateral line of Xenopus laevis, which is primarily a mechanoreceptor, might also be light sensitive. Potential functions of such photosensitivity are discussed, including its role in mediating locomotor responses following dermal illumination. PMID:26206352

  6. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  7. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  8. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  9. Transcutaneous axillary artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Kucukarslan, Nezihi; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Sungun, Mutasim; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2005-01-01

    The axillary artery may be an alternative cannulation site for patients with diffused atherosclerosis, aortic dissection, and aneurysm. There are different techniques for axillary artery cannulation that can be performed easily with a transcutaneous approach. Small incision necessity, less dissection, and good wound healing are other advantages of this technique. PMID:16183565

  10. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RÜCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  12. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  13. Measurement of vertebral rotation: Perdriolle versus Raimondi.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H R

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of vertebral rotation according to Perdriolle is widely used in the French-speaking and Anglo-American countries. Even in this measurement technique there may be a relatively high estimation error because of the not very accurate grading in steps of 5 degrees. The measurement according to Raimondi seems to be easier to use and is more accurate, with 2 degrees steps. The purpose of our study was to determine the technical error of both measuring methods. The apex vertebra of 40 curves on 20 anteroposterior (AP) radiographs were measured by using the Perdriolle torsion meter and the Regolo Raimondi. Interrater and intrarater reliability were computed. The thoracic Cobb angle was 43 degrees, the lumbar Cobb angle 36 degrees. The average rotation according to Perdriolle was 19.1 degrees thoracic (SD 11.14), 12.7 degrees lumbar (11.21). Measurement of vertebral rotation according to Raimondi showed an average rotation of 20.25 degrees in the thoracic region (11.40) and 13.4 degrees lumbar (10.92). The intrarater reliability was r = 0.991 (Perdriolle) and r = 0.997 (Raimondi). The average intrarater error was 1.025 degrees in the Perdriolle measurement and 0.4 degrees in the Raimondi measurement. Interrater error was on average 3.112 degrees for the Perdriolle measurement and 3.630 degrees for the Raimondi measurement. This shows that both methods are useful tools for the follow-up of vertebral rotation as projected on standard X-rays for the experienced clinical. The Raimondi ruler is easier to use and is slightly more reliable. PMID:7749905

  14. The evaluation of vertebrobasilar artery system in neuro-Behçet and Behçet disease using magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Kose, Evren; Kamisli, Suat; Dogan, Metin; Tasolar, Sevgi; Kahraman, Ay?egül; Oztanir, Mustafa Namik; Sener, Serpil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertebrobasilar artery system in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. For this aim; 20 adults with clinically diagnosed Behcet's disease, 20 adults with Neuro-Behçet's disease, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). During MRA, diameters of left vertebral artery (LVA), right vertebral artery (RVA), basilar artery (BA), and proximal segment (P1) of posterior cerebral artery between origin and junction with the posterior communicating artery were measured. In all groups, LVA was dominant than RVA (P?artery system should be examined in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. PMID:24737739

  15. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated. PMID:24618553

  16. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

    2014-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. PMID:24103665

  17. [Epileptic seizure-induced vertebral body fractures].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, A; Forster, T; Külling, F A

    2015-12-01

    In the literature epilepsy is described as the most common cause of generalized seizures. Vertebral body fractures are a rare complication of epileptic convulsions, occurring with an incidence of 3?%. We present the case of a 37-year-old healthy patient, who sustained contiguous fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine during the first manifestation of epilepsy with primary localized and then secondary generalized epileptic seizures. A complication-free outcome was achieved with a combination of conservative and operative therapies. PMID:26160128

  18. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  19. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  20. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 25 All About Peripheral Arterial Disease What is peripheral arterial disease? Peripheral (puh-RIF-uh-rul) arterial (ar-TEER-ree-ul) ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  1. INTRODUCTION In vertebrates, the multimeric hemoglobin (Hb) protein binds and

    E-print Network

    Storz, Jay F.

    ; Hardison, 2001). Among tetrapod vertebrates, the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) represents RESEARCH ARTICLE Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis

  2. Investigation of spine loading to understand vertebral fractures

    E-print Network

    Bruno, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common complication of osteoporosis and are associated with significant pain, height loss, disfigurement, respiratory impairment, depression, and decreased life span. Despite the high ...

  3. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  4. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  5. Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems

    E-print Network

    Choma, Michael A.

    The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

  6. Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

  7. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specialist is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Did You Know... Angioplasty can help certain types of ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  8. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  9. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their blood cholesterol by diet and medications and exercise regularly. Health care providers will want to reduce your risk ... the artery open. Prevention Take care of your health through exercise and proper nutrition and take all medications as ...

  11. Functional Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that control the dilation and constriction of arteries (sympathetic nervous system), by injuries, or by drugs. Raynaud's Syndrome Raynaud’s ... aged 15 to 40. Anything that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, particularly exposure to cold but also strong emotion, ...

  12. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  13. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  14. Traumatic occlusion of one limb of an intracranial arterial fenestration: an uncommon cause of stroke.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Hunter, S F; Marsh, W R; Aksamit, A J; Jack, C R

    1996-07-01

    Three weeks after an automobile accident, a 35-year-old man experienced left throat and neck pain, numbness of the left face and tongue, dysphagia, left arm pain and weakness, and left miosis. At age 27, he had suffered an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography at that time had also demonstrated a fenestration of the left intracranial vertebral artery. At the time of the second presentation, angiography showed that one of the limbs of the fenestration had become occluded. Although the vast majority of intracranial arterial fenestrations are asymptomatic, occlusion of one of the limbs of a fenestration may be the cause of stroke. PMID:8710096

  15. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  16. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  17. Genome size and chromatin condensation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2005-02-01

    Cell membrane-dependent chromatin condensation was studied by flow cytometry in erythrocytes of 36 species from six classes of vertebrates. A positive relationship was found between the degree of condensation and genome size. The distribution of variances among taxonomic levels is similar for both parameters. However, chromatin condensation varied relatively more at the lower taxonomic levels, which suggests that the degree of DNA packaging might serve for fine-tuning the 'skeletal' and/or 'buffering' function of noncoding DNA (although the range of this fine-tuning is smaller than the range of genome size changes). For two closely related amphibian species differing in genome size, change in chromatin condensation under the action of elevated extracellular salinity was investigated. Condensation was steadier and its reaction to changes in solvent composition was more inertial in the species with a larger genome, which is in agreement with the buffering function postulated for redundant DNA. The uppermost genome size in vertebrates (and in living beings in general) was updated using flow cytometry and was found to be about 80 pg (78,400 Mb). The widespread opinion that the largest genome occurs in unicellular organisms is rejected as being based on artifacts. PMID:15647899

  18. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Marjorie; Reynaert, Nicole; Chávez, Myra N; Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L; Egaña, José T

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  19. Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

  20. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  1. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  2. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a “RS-exon” that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5? splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5? splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  3. Median artery revisited.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vázquez, T; Nearn, L; Logan, B; Parkin, I

    1999-07-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3:1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4:1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1:1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6:1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5:1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2:1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

  4. Novel Pulmonary Artery Reduction Plasty for Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Suh, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old female with pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) associated with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There is no standard therapeutic approach for PAA at the present time. We performed a novel surgical repair of a 67-mm PAA consisting of internal plication of the pulmonary artery to reduce the diameter and approximation of remnant unfolding pulmonary artery to reinforce the stability of the pulmonary artery and prevent bleeding. PMID:26715001

  5. Antiquity of the vertebrate pattern of activity metabolism and its

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Albert F.

    Antiquity of the vertebrate pattern of activity metabolism and its possible relation to vertebrate generally possess well developed capacities for anaerobic metabolism. resultine in formation of lactic acid or to special situations sllch as diving. However, anaerobic metabolism in striated muscle tissue is frequently

  6. Macroscopic anatomy of the vertebral endplate: quid significat?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Ho, Jonhan; Masharawi, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of vertebral endplates have long been a subject of interest, but are of unclear clinical significance. The vertebral columns of a cohort-based sample of 850 individuals were therefore evaluated for vertebral endplate defects, noting adjacent vertebral size and shape variation, bone density and associated pathologies. Defects were found in the vertebral endplates of 458 individuals (Schmorl's nodes in 52.0% and linear defects in 10.6%). Vertebral centra osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis were more common; vertebral compression, less common in vertebrae with defects. Linear defects were more disseminated throughout the vertebral column, with individual defects more commonly affected either the interior half or the posterior quarter of the endplate or extended across all quarters form anterior to posterior. Individual Schmorl's nodes were predominantly limited to a single quarter. An inverse relationship was identified with tuberculosis. Spondyloarthropathy was more common in individuals with Schmorl's nodes, but not linear defects. Schmorl's nodes and linear endplate defects should be independently assessed, although they do share implications. Paradoxically, they are associated with phenomena which seem to mark increased ossification potential (osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), but not with osteoporosis. Similarly, presence of Schmorl's nodes correlation with spondyloarthropathy, another disorder characterized by increased ossification potential. While correlation is not causality, inverse relationship to tuberculosis is intriguing, given the known relationship of spondyloarthropathy to tuberculosis and its antigens. Previously undescribed surface elevations were commonly associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes and also correlated with disease, especially inflammatory arthritis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:25065116

  7. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  8. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates Tamar Flash1

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates Tamar Flash1 and Binyamin Hochner2 In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can

  9. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  10. ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

  11. Height Loss, Vertebral Fractures, and the Misclassification of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WanWan; Perera, Subashan; Medich, Donna; Fiorito, Gail; Wagner, Julie; Berger, Loretta K.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of a vertebral fracture identifies a patient who has clinical osteoporosis. However, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of VFs are asymptomatic. Vertebral Fracture Assessment is a method derived from dual-xray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess vertebral fractures. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the association between the degree of height loss in older men and women and risk of a vertebral fracture, and 2) to determine if knowledge of vertebral fractures will alter the classification of osteoporosis based on bone mineral density alone. Methods 231 men and women over the age of 65 underwent DXA scan of their spine and hip (including bone mineral density and Vertebral Fracture Assessment), measurement of their height, and a questionnaire. Results We found that height loss was significantly associated with a vertebral fracture (p=0.0160). The magnitude of the association translates to a 19% increase in odds for 1/2 inch and 177% for 3 inches. Although 45% had osteoporosis by either bone mineral density or fracture criteria, 30% would have been misclassified if bone mineral density criteria were used alone. Conclusions Height loss is an indicator for the presence of vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density criteria alone may misclassify older patients who have osteoporosis. PMID:20870048

  12. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  13. Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

  14. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  15. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  16. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes. PMID:24533544

  17. Vertebrate paleontology, biostratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoenvironment of Qaidam Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau

    E-print Network

    Vertebrate paleontology, biostratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoenvironment of Qaidam Basin,i , Qingquan Meng i a Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA 90007, United States b Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese

  18. Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

  19. Cement augmentation in vertebral burst fractures.

    PubMed

    Zaryanov, Anton V; Park, Daniel K; Khalil, Jad G; Baker, Kevin C; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    As a result of axial compression, traumatic vertebral burst fractures disrupt the anterior column, leading to segmental instability and cord compression. In situations with diminished anterior column support, pedicle screw fixation alone may lead to delayed kyphosis, nonunion, and hardware failure. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty) have been used in an effort to provide anterior column support in traumatic burst fractures. Cited advantages are providing immediate stability, improving pain, and reducing hardware malfunction. When used in isolation or in combination with posterior instrumentation, these techniques theoretically allow for improved fracture reduction and maintenance of spinal alignment while avoiding the complications and morbidity of anterior approaches. Complications associated with cement use (leakage, systemic effects) are similar to those seen in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures; however, extreme caution must be used in fractures with a disrupted posterior wall. PMID:24981904

  20. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  1. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

  2. Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

  3. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  4. Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carrillo, Maira; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates. PMID:20037653

  5. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  6. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Clark, James M.

    7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION A NEW TROODONTID THEROPOD FROM UKHAA TOLGOD, MONGOLIA MARK A. NORELL1 , PETER J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  7. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172­185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

  8. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA Paleontology and Paleoanthropol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; 4Department

  9. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  10. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

  11. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  13. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Why ... Long-term prognosis What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Illustration by Steven P. Goldberg, MD Copyright © 2012 ...

  14. Preoperative Sclerotherapy Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate (Fibro-Vein™) Can Assist in the Management of Vertebral Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown–Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively. PMID:24353964

  15. Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Van Veen, John Edward

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

  16. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  17. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  18. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final ...

  19. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  20. Credentialing for carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darren B; Rapp, Joseph H

    2005-06-01

    Endovascular treatment of cervical carotid artery stenosis is a rapidly expanding area of clinical competence, and physicians from various subspecialties are already performing carotid artery stenting. As a result of the diverse specialty backgrounds of physicians performing carotid artery stenting, consensus regarding the establishment of credentialing standards remains elusive. In the following manuscript we review the physician credentialing process, published data, and national society position statements applicable to carotid artery stenting. PMID:16110377

  1. Observer agreement in pediatric semi-quantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary-Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Genant semi-quantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults, but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in pediatrics. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. Objective To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Materials and methods Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. Results An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen’s kappa (?) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver ? for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver ? for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver ? for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Conclusion Most ? values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. PMID:24323185

  2. Human Arterial-Tree Multiscale

    E-print Network

    Human Arterial- Tree Multiscale Simulations CRUNCH Group Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University George Karniadakis and Leopold Grinberg #12;For modeling purposes, we subdivide the arterial system into three levels: 1. The Macrovascular Network (MaN), which includes large arteries, down

  3. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  4. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    of the conditions that raise the risk for developing P.A.D., such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are more in every four African Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 has diabetes. Have high blood pressure. Also called hypertension, high blood pressure raises the risk of developing plaque in the arteries. High blood

  5. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  6. The effect of teriparatide to alleviate pain and to prevent vertebral collapse after fresh osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Nishi, Tomio; Abe, Hidekazu; Segawa, Toyohito; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fracture is often seen in osteoporotic patients. Teriparatide is expected to promote bone union. Therefore, we evaluated the action of vertebral collapse prevention by administering teriparatide to vertebral fracture patients. Thirty-four patients with fresh vertebral fracture (48 vertebrae) participated in this study. They were administered either teriparatide (daily 20 µg/day or weekly 56.5 µg/week) or risedronate (17.5 mg/week): ten patients (20 vertebrae) received teriparatide daily (Daily group), 11 patients (15 vertebrae) received teriparatide weekly (Weekly group), and 13 patients (14 vertebrae) received risedronate (RIS group). We compared some laboratory examination items, visual analogue scale (VAS) of low back pain, vertebral collapse rate and local kyphotic angle, and the cleft frequency. In addition, we evaluated 22 vertebral fracture patients (24 vertebrae) who did not take any osteoporotic medicines (Control group). There was no significant difference in any of the scores at the start of treatment. At 8 and 12 weeks after the initial visit, VAS scores in the Daily and Weekly groups were significantly lower than in the RIS group (p < 0.05). At 8 and 12 weeks, the vertebral collapse rate and local kyphotic angle in the Daily group were significantly lower than in the RIS and Control groups (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), and those in the Weekly group were significantly lower than in the Control group (p < 0.05). The cleft frequency in the Daily group was significantly lower than in the RIS group (p < 0.05). Teriparatide is promising for the prevention of vertebral collapse progression after vertebral fracture. PMID:25773046

  7. Wnt5 signaling in vertebrate pancreas development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyon J; Schleiffarth, Jack R; Jessurun, Jose; Sumanas, Saulius; Petryk, Anna; Lin, Shuo; Ekker, Stephen C

    2005-01-01

    Background Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins through their receptors, the frizzled (Fz) family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins, is critical for numerous cell fate and tissue polarity decisions during development. Results We report a novel role of Wnt signaling in organogenesis using the formation of the islet during pancreatic development as a model tissue. We used the advantages of the zebrafish to visualize and document this process in living embryos and demonstrated that insulin-positive cells actively migrate to form an islet. We used morpholinos (MOs), sequence-specific translational inhibitors, and time-lapse imaging analysis to show that the Wnt-5 ligand and the Fz-2 receptor are required for proper insulin-cell migration in zebrafish. Histological analyses of islets in Wnt5a-/- mouse embryos showed that Wnt5a signaling is also critical for murine pancreatic insulin-cell migration. Conclusion Our results implicate a conserved role of a Wnt5/Fz2 signaling pathway in islet formation during pancreatic development. This study opens the door for further investigation into a role of Wnt signaling in vertebrate organ development and disease. PMID:16246260

  8. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  9. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  10. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  11. Vertebral involvement in hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Blay, P; Fernández-Martínez, J M; Díaz-López, B

    2001-03-01

    Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis (HTC) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by calcified soft tissue masses and hyperphosphatemia. Besides these typical features, a number of less common manifestations have been reported, all of them related to pathologic calcification of various tissues. We have investigated the case of a woman with hyperphosphatemia, recurrent episodes of lumbar pain, and a positive familial history of HTC. A bone scan showed markedly increased uptake in the lower lumbar spine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pathological changes in L5 compatible with an inflammatory reaction and not suggestive of neoplastic process. There was no evidence of infection, trauma, malignancy, or other disease that could cause the lesion. We treated the patient with analgesics and NSAIDs and the pain remitted over a period of 1 week. In a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 7 months later, the L5 lesion had disappeared completely. A computed tomography scan analysis with a bone window showed a sclerotic area at the L5 vertebral body. We believe that this patient was affected by the syndrome of HTC and that the inflammatory phenomena found in L5 are a manifestation of this disease. PMID:11248663

  12. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  13. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light–dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23?kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light–dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish. PMID:26257705

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  15. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... significant complications involving cement leakage following vertebroplasty. Some stud- ies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been ... physi- cal role, vitality, and bodily pain. Other stud- 10 ies also cite significant improvement in qual- ...

  16. Paradoxical reaction of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Im, Jae Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Lee, Jin Soo

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxical reactions of tuberculosis (TB) in vertebral osteomyelitis are very rarely reported. We experienced four cases of severe paradoxical reactions in tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. Four cases of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis were confirmed by an acid-fast bacilli smear or culture. The patients were human immunodeficiency virus negative, and were all initially treated with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Their symptoms improved with anti-TB drugs. However, after 2-12 weeks, their symptoms had recurred, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at the time of readmission revealed an aggravation of vertebral osteomyelitis. Operations were carried out to relieve severe pain or spinal cord decompression. Through continued anti-TB drug therapy, all patients recovered without sequelae. PMID:25692354

  17. A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove: outcrossing; selfing; heterozygosity; mangrove killifish; Kryptolebias marmoratus 1. INTRODUCTION Three). The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus lives in and around red mangrove forests along the eastern

  18. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  19. Three Periods of Regulatory Innovation During Vertebrate Evolution

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    The gain, loss, and modification of gene regulatory elements may underlie a substantial proportion of phenotypic changes on animal lineages. To investigate the gain of regulatory elements throughout vertebrate evolution, ...

  20. Evolution of Tetrapod Vertebrates inferred from fossil record

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Evolution of Tetrapod Vertebrates inferred from fossil record Labyrinthodonts ­ first tetrapod reconstruction #12;Behavior of fossil species can be difficult to interpret Frogfishes (Antennarius) have limb Tiktaalik Acanthostega #12;Evolution of Reptiles from Amphibians inferred from fossil record Synapsids

  1. Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

  2. Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna

    E-print Network

    Vences, Miguel

    prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic

  3. The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2012-12-21

    How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

  4. Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Couzin, Iain D.

    attempting to explain fetal development (Keynes and Stern, 1988), patterns on the coats of mammals (Murray of others). Applying such a self-organization viewpoint to vertebrate groupings is a more recent development

  5. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  6. A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Niksch, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

  7. VERTEBRATE CHEMICAL DEFENSE: SECRETED AND TOPICALLY ACQUIRED DETERRENTS OF ARTHROPODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropods profoundly affect the fitness of terrestrial vertebrates. Some arachnids, centipedes, and insects opportunistically prey on small tetrapods. Some social hymenopterans launch massive foraging swarms and fiercely defend their colonies via stinging or biting attacks. Pelage- or plumage-degr...

  8. GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

  9. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes. PMID:26616198

  10. Vertebrate fossils from late Cenozoic deposits of central Kansas

    E-print Network

    Hibbard, C. W.

    1952-03-20

    PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA ARTICLE 2 Pages 1-14, Figures 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD UNIVERS= OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MARCH 20, 1952 PRINTED BY FERD VOILAND, JR.. STATE PRINTER TOPEKA.... KANSAS 1952 24-975 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA, ARTICLE 2, PAGES 1-14, FIGLTRES 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD CONTENTS PAGE 3 Microtus (Pedomys) Ilanensis...

  11. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

  12. A Platform for Rapid Exploration of Aging and Diseases in a Naturally Short-Lived Vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Anne

    -Lived Vertebrate Graphical Abstract Highlights d The turquoise killifish is the shortest-lived vertebrate species-lived vertebrate, the African turquoise killifish, opens the door to high-throughput in vivo modeling of vertebrate, using the naturally short-lived African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic

  13. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  14. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of ?-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate ?-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of ?-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact ?-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ?-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of ?-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact ?-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The ?-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of ?-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate ?-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how ?-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  15. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. PMID:26258298

  16. The role of the notochord in vertebral column formation

    PubMed Central

    FLEMING, ANGELEEN; KEYNES, ROGER J.; TANNAHILL, DAVID

    2001-01-01

    The backbone or vertebral column is the defining feature of vertebrates and is clearly metameric. Given that vertebrae arise from segmented paraxial mesoderm in the embryo, this metamerism is not surprising. Fate mapping studies in a variety of species have shown that ventromedial sclerotome cells of the differentiated somite contribute to the developing vertebrae and ribs. Nevertheless, extensive studies in amniote embryos have produced conflicting data on exactly how embryonic segments relate to those of the adult. To date, much attention has focused on the derivatives of the somites, while relatively little is known about the contribution of other tissues to the formation of the vertebral column. In particular, while it is clear that signals from the notochord induce and maintain proliferation of the sclerotome, and later promote chondrogenesis, the role of the notochord in vertebral segmentation has been largely overlooked. Here, we review the established role of the notochord in vertebral development, and suggest an additional role for the notochord in the segmental patterning of the vertebral column. PMID:11523820

  17. A central role for the notochord in vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Keynes, Roger; Tannahill, David

    2004-02-01

    The vertebrates are defined by their segmented vertebral column, and vertebral periodicity is thought to originate from embryonic segments, the somites. According to the widely accepted 'resegmentation' model, a single vertebra forms from the recombination of the anterior and posterior halves of two adjacent sclerotomes on both sides of the embryo. Although there is supporting evidence for this model in amniotes, it remains uncertain whether it applies to all vertebrates. To explore this, we have investigated vertebral patterning in the zebrafish. Surprisingly, we find that vertebral bodies (centra) arise by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord rather than somites; centra do not form via a cartilage intermediate stage, nor do they contain osteoblasts. Moreover, isolated, cultured notochords secrete bone matrix in vitro, and ablation of notochord cells at segmentally reiterated positions in vivo prevents the formation of centra. Analysis of fss mutant embryos, in which sclerotome segmentation is disrupted, shows that whereas neural arch segmentation is also disrupted, centrum development proceeds normally. These findings suggest that the notochord plays a key, perhaps ancient, role in the segmental patterning of vertebrae. PMID:14736741

  18. The role of the notochord in vertebral column formation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A; Keynes, R J; Tannahill, D

    2001-01-01

    The backbone or vertebral column is the defining feature of vertebrates and is clearly metameric. Given that vertebrae arise from segmented paraxial mesoderm in the embryo, this metamerism is not surprising. Fate mapping studies in a variety of species have shown that ventromedial sclerotome cells of the differentiated somite contribute to the developing vertebrae and ribs. Nevertheless, extensive studies in amniote embryos have produced conflicting data on exactly how embryonic segments relate to those of the adult. To date, much attention has focused on the derivatives of the somites, while relatively little is known about the contribution of other tissues to the formation of the vertebral column. In particular, while it is clear that signals from the notochord induce and maintain proliferation of the sclerotome, and later promote chondrogenesis, the role of the notochord in vertebral segmentation has been largely overlooked. Here, we review the established role of the notochord in vertebral development, and suggest an additional role for the notochord in the segmental patterning of the vertebral column. PMID:11523820

  19. Amphioxus FGF signaling predicts the acquisition of vertebrate morphological traits

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Camasses, Alain; Somorjai, Ildiko; Belgacem, Mohamed R.; Chabrol, Olivier; Escande, Marie-Line; Pontarotti, Pierre; Escriva, Hector

    2011-01-01

    FGF signaling is one of the few cell–cell signaling pathways conserved among all metazoans. The diversity of FGF gene content among different phyla suggests that evolution of FGF signaling may have participated in generating the current variety of animal forms. Vertebrates possess the greatest number of FGF genes, the functional evolution of which may have been implicated in the acquisition of vertebrate-specific morphological traits. In this study, we have investigated the roles of the FGF signal during embryogenesis of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the best proxy for the chordate ancestor. We first isolate the full FGF gene complement and determine the evolutionary relationships between amphioxus and vertebrate FGFs via phylogenetic and synteny conservation analysis. Using pharmacological treatments, we inhibit the FGF signaling pathway in amphioxus embryos in different time windows. Our results show that the requirement for FGF signaling during gastrulation is a conserved character among chordates, whereas this signal is not necessary for neural induction in amphioxus, in contrast to what is known in vertebrates. We also show that FGF signal, acting through the MAPK pathway, is necessary for the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus, whereas more posterior somite formation is not FGF-dependent. This result leads us to propose that modification of the FGF signal function in the anterior paraxial mesoderm in an amphioxus-like vertebrate ancestor might have contributed to the loss of segmentation in the preotic paraxial mesoderm of the vertebrate head. PMID:21571634

  20. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  1. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  2. Reconfiguration of the Carotid Artery after Angioplasty and Stenting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gelin; Fan, Xinying; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Severe carotid stenosis or occlusion may cause insufficient blood flow and lead to distal artery wall collapse and extensive lumen contraction. Whether this ‘adaptive narrowing’ can restitute after carotid recanalization is unclear. We report a patient with global ischemia due to occlusions of bilateral carotid and right vertebral arteries. The occluded left carotid was recanalized successfully with angioplasty and stenting. The adaptively narrowed distal carotid did not restitute immediately but regained its morphology 1 week after the procedure. Carotid adaptive narrow distal occlusion or stenosis may not regain its original morphology immediately but several days after recanalization. This knowledge is instructive for treating occlusive carotid diseases.

  3. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  4. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, D M; Keeling, J W

    1978-01-01

    A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level. Images Fig. PMID:666361

  5. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates. PMID:26419477

  6. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  7. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  8. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850?ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm?Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  9. Health Care Associated Hematogenous Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis. Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987–1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000–2011 period (P?

  10. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  11. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  12. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  13. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  14. Amines from vertebrates guide triatomine bugs to resources.

    PubMed

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Guerin, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Most triatomine bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are nest-living insects that require vertebrate blood or invertebrate haemolymph to complete their life cycle. Vertebrates accumulate excretory products in or near their nesting sites and we hypothesize that triatomines use emanations from such host wastes when searching for resources. Here we recount how triatomine bugs increase upwind locomotion on a servosphere in response to volatile amine constituents of vertebrate excretions. Fresh chicken faeces is strongly attractive to Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. Ammonia induces attraction and an increase in both speed and total path length by R. prolixus on the servosphere. Whereas ethylamine and dimethylamine attract R. prolixus, Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus geniculatus, other amine constituents of vertebrate excretions such as isobutylamine and hexylamine induce R. prolixus nymphs to walk faster and for a longer period. These amines are derived from generally occurring metabolites of vertebrates and from gut flora metabolism. We conclude that amines and other products associated with nesting hosts serve as signals for foraging triatomines. PMID:25260571

  15. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Brauner, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (?pHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (?PO2) associated with ?pHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ?pHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ?pHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  16. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (?pHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (?PO2) associated with ?pHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ?pHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ?pHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  17. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  18. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  19. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  20. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Pulmonary arterial hypertension On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed September 2012 What is pulmonary arterial hypertension? Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized ...

  2. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

  3. Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.

    PubMed

    Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

  4. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  5. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  6. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  7. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C

    2015-07-21

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  8. Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25084791

  9. The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Clare V H; Modrell, Melinda S; Gillis, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

  10. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  11. Distribution of arterial supply to the large intestine in the anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla).

    PubMed

    Mortoza, Amanda Rocha; Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Oliveira, Carina da Costa; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-08-01

    The blood supply in the large intestine of seven specimens of the lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, studied. The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water, injection of colored latex, fixation in formaldehyde, and preservation in ethanol. For our description and analyses, we performed dissections under mesoscopic light and made photo documentation of our observations. The large intestine of T. tetradactyla is irrigated by the caudal mesenteric artery (rectum, left colic fold, descending colon and transverse colon) and cranial mesenteric artery (right colic fold, cecal pouch). We observed that the large intestine in these animals is implied in the abdominal wall without becoming affixed to the wall, or developing adhesions on individual segments. The caudal mesenteric artery feeds the straight collateral branches (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and a few juxtacolic arched branches (first and second order). The straight branches emerge from the arched branches, bifurcate, and embrace the intestinal loop to irrigate it. The presence of anastomoses between the CaMA and the CrMA apparently ensures a relatively stable flow in the event of failure of either. This is very important, as the peritoneum in this species is completely dependent on blood from these two arteries. The model of vascularization and fixation of the large intestine into the abdominal wall of T. tetradactyla is different from that in other vertebrates. PMID:23915161

  12. Cervical Artery Dissection: A Review of the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Christina A.; Yaghi, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Context Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a common cause of stroke in young adults. There is controversy over whether anticoagulation is superior to antiplatelet therapy in preventing stroke in patients with CAD, although meta-analyses to date have not shown any difference between the two treatments. Evidence acquisition We performed a PubMed search using each of the keywords: “Cervical artery dissection”, “Dissection”, “Carotid dissection”, and “Vertebral dissection” between January 1st, 1990 and July 1st 2015. We identified evidence-based peer-reviewed articles, including randomized trials, case series and reports, and retrospective reviews that encompass the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of cervical artery dissection. Results This paper highlights the mechanisms of cervical artery dissection and stroke in patients with dissection as well as the natural history and treatment. Conclusion Given the relatively rare incidence of this disease, multicenter studies with collaborative effort among stroke centers worldwide should be considered to enroll patients with cervical artery dissection in a randomized trial comparing the two treatments. PMID:26478890

  13. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  14. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  15. Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

    2010-05-01

    Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

  16. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2015-04-23

    Fossils of early gnathostomes (or jawed vertebrates) have been the focus of study for nearly two centuries. They yield key clues about the evolutionary assembly of the group's common body plan, as well the divergence of the two living gnathostome lineages: the cartilaginous and bony vertebrates. A series of remarkable new palaeontological discoveries, analytical advances and innovative reinterpretations of existing fossil archives have fundamentally altered a decades-old consensus on the relationships of extinct gnathostomes, delivering a new evolutionary framework for exploring major questions that remain unanswered, including the origin of jaws. PMID:25903631

  17. Continuum theory of gene expression waves during vertebrate segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörg, David J.; Morelli, Luis G.; Soroldoni, Daniele; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The segmentation of the vertebrate body plan during embryonic development is a rhythmic and sequential process governed by genetic oscillations. These genetic oscillations give rise to traveling waves of gene expression in the segmenting tissue. Here we present a minimal continuum theory of vertebrate segmentation that captures the key principles governing the dynamic patterns of gene expression including the effects of shortening of the oscillating tissue. We show that our theory can quantitatively account for the key features of segmentation observed in zebrafish, in particular the shape of the wave patterns, the period of segmentation and the segment length as a function of time.

  18. The clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and the prevention of new vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weifeng; Jia, Yongwei; Wang, Jianjie; Cheng, Liming; Zeng, Zhili; Yu, Yan; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty and the precautions against adjacent vertebral refractures in the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) with multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from July 2007 to December 2013 treated with percutaneous kyphoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. 36 cases of them suffered from bi-segment vertebral fractures, 16 cases with tri-segment vertebral fractures and 2 cases with quadri-segment vertebral fractures. The operative effect was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) score and oswestry disability index (ODI) score. Then the reasons for adjacent vertebral refractures were analyzed and the precautions were proposed. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) were admitted with percutaneous kyphoplasty successfully. No pulmonary embolism, spinal cord injury and other serious complications were found. The follow-up took 3-33 months with the average of 12 months. There was significant difference of VAS scores and ODI scores between pre-operation and post-operation (P<0.05). Bone cement leakage occurred in 23 vertebrae, and the incidence rate was 18.0%. 8 cases sustained adjacent vertebral refractures including 3 cases in the contiguous vertebral bodies and 5 cases in the interval vertebral bodies, and the incidence rate was 14.8%. 5 cases gained fracture healing after additional percutaneous kyphoplasty procedures while the other 3 cases were healed basically after conservative treatment for three months. In conclusion, percutaneous kyphoplasty is safe and effective to treat multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the risk of new adjacent vertebral fractures in the multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures is higher than that in the single osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Timely and proper treatment can reduce refractures. PMID:26550284

  19. Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Özden, ?lgin; Do?an, Öner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

  20. Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

  1. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  2. The FASEB Journal Review Vertebrate nucleoplasmin and NASP: egg histone

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    with multiple chaperone activities Ron M. Finn,*,1 Katherine Ellard,*,1 José M. Eirín-López, and Juan Ausió*,2 within different taxa.--Finn, R. M., Ellard, K., Eirín-López, J. M., Ausió, J. Vertebrate nucleoplasmin and NASP: egg histone storage proteins with multiple chaperone activities. FASEB J. 26, 4788­4804 (2012

  3. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds. PMID:24709390

  4. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    797 Cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in vertebrates Martha U some behavioral rhythms. Consensus is emerging that circadian mechanisms are conserved across phylogeny with near Z-l-hour periods. Thus, these daily oscillations in behaviors are termed `circadian rhythms

  5. HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN

    E-print Network

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN Philip D. Gingerich Abstract. INTRODUCTION One hundred years of paleontological research on early Cenozoic faunas in the Bighorn Basin have also been found on the margin of the Bighorn Basin. The history of paleontological field work

  6. Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew insects, castes (6). In societies of mammals with a reproductive division of labor, the breeding female

  7. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  8. NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

  9. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Grant, Seth G N

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  10. Vertebrate cranial placodes as evolutionary innovations--the ancestor's tale.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations often arise by tinkering with preexisting components building new regulatory networks by the rewiring of old parts. The cranial placodes of vertebrates, ectodermal thickenings that give rise to many of the cranial sense organs (ear, nose, lateral line) and ganglia, originated as such novel structures, when vertebrate ancestors elaborated their head in support of a more active and exploratory life style. This review addresses the question of how cranial placodes evolved by tinkering with ectodermal patterning mechanisms and sensory and neurosecretory cell types that have their own evolutionary history. With phylogenetic relationships among the major branches of metazoans now relatively well established, a comparative approach is used to infer, which structures evolved in which lineages and allows us to trace the origin of placodes and their components back from ancestor to ancestor. Some of the core networks of ectodermal patterning and sensory and neurosecretory differentiation were already established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians and were greatly elaborated in the bilaterian ancestor (with BMP- and Wnt-dependent patterning of dorsoventral and anteroposterior ectoderm and multiple neurosecretory and sensory cell types). Rostral and caudal protoplacodal domains, giving rise to some neurosecretory and sensory cells, were then established in the ectoderm of the chordate and tunicate-vertebrate ancestor, respectively. However, proper cranial placodes as clusters of proliferating progenitors producing high-density arrays of neurosecretory and sensory cells only evolved and diversified in the ancestors of vertebrates. PMID:25662263

  11. INTRODUCTION Vertebrate Hox genes are clustered in four unlinked complexes

    E-print Network

    Desplan, Claude

    of the complexes (Duboule and Dolle, 1989; Graham et al., 1989). The four vertebrate clusters arose from are coordinately expressed in the limb and genital tubercle (Dolle et al., 1991b, 1989; Yokouchi et al., 1991). One of the 13 paralogs, and it appears that the same paralo- gous subsets are maintained in mice and humans

  12. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to coccobacilli of the HB group.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, M; Eykyn, S J; Walker, M; Warren, R E

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurred in which unusual, fastidious, Gram negative coccobacilli belonging to the "HB" group were isolated. The organisms were Haemophilus aphrophilus in case 1, intermediate between H aphrophilus and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in case 2, and Eikenella corrodens in case 3. All HB bacteria are sensitive to a wide range of antibiotics. PMID:6416539

  13. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  14. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED...

  15. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED...

  16. ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY Neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk in vertebrates and

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    : the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Rather than acting independently of one another, these systems immunology, energetics, stress, octopapine, glucocorticoids, leptin, dis- ease ecology, sickness Neuro-endocrine Summary 1. Communication among cells, tissues and organ systems is essential for survival. Vertebrate

  17. Extraordinary Diversity of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Repertoires Among Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    gene repertoires is a result of adaptations of individual species to their environments and diets. 1 and discrimination, toxin and predator avoidance, mating, and territoriality (Prasad and Reed 1999). Vertebrate taste may result in aversion and therefore is a defensive mechanism against ingestion of toxins (Herness

  18. Positional Behavior and Vertebral Morphology in Atelines and Cebines

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Liza

    studies because they converge with hominoids in postcranial anatomy, including the vertebral column and cebines by combining direct field observations of axial postures and movements, assess- ments of spinal and atelines is more readily interpretable as a product of shared spinal loading patterns than shared

  19. INTRODUCTION The fertilizing sperm activates all vertebrate and invertebrate

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    INTRODUCTION The fertilizing sperm activates all vertebrate and invertebrate eggs by generating [Ca: sperm may bind to a receptor, generating inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) via a G-protein pathway on the idea that an acti- vating diffusible messenger is introduced into the egg by the sperm when the sperm

  20. Microevolution and the Genetic Basis of Vertebrate Diversity

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    333 19 Microevolution and the Genetic Basis of Vertebrate Diversity: Examples from Teleost Fishes controlled genetic crosses between birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs to map the key genetic changes distantly related to allow traditional genetic approaches, which require the pro- duction of fertile

  1. Wildlife In Old Growth Forests Review of wildlife (terrestrial vertebrates)

    E-print Network

    Franklin, Jerry

    forests (West 1991) Forest Shrews Forest Deer Mouse Red-backed Vole Vagrant Shrew (field species) #12 in Northwest (Red Tree Vole, Carey 1996) · But, vertebrates may be important "top-down" organizers · Woodpeckers ­ Hairy, Pileated, Red-bellied Sapsucker · Secondary Cavity Nesters ­ Northern Spotted Owl

  2. Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrate fauna, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, W.A.; Allison, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Closely related terrestrial vertebrates in Cretaceous mid-latitude (30/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/) faunas of North America and Asia as well as scattered occurrences of footprints and skin impressions suggested that in the Late Mesozoic the Alaskan North Slope supported a diverse fauna. In 1961 abundant skeletal elements of Cretaceous, Alaskan dinosaurs (hadrosaurids) were discovered by the late R.L. Liscomb. This material is being described by K.L. Davies. Additional fossils collected by E.M. Brouwers and her associates include skeletal elements of hadrosaurid and carnosaurian (.tyrannosaurid) dinosaurs and other vertebrates. The fossil locality on the North Slope is not at about 70/sup 0/N. In the Late Cretaceous the members of this fauna were subject to the daylight regime and environment at a paleolatitude closer to 80/sup 0/N. Current hypotheses attributing extinctions of dinosaurs and some other terrestrial vertebrates to impact of an extraterrestrial object cite periods of darkness, decreased temperature (possibly followed by extreme warming) and acid rain as the direct causes of their demise. Unless members of this North Slope fauna undertook long-distance migrations, their high latitude occurrence indicates groups of dinosaurs and other terrestrial vertebrates regularly tolerated months of darkness.

  3. Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

  4. The origin of the myelination program in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zalc, B; Goujet, D; Colman, D

    2008-06-24

    The myelin sheath was a transformative vertebrate acquisition, enabling great increases in impulse propagation velocity along axons. Not all vertebrates possess myelinated axons, however, and when myelin first appeared in the vertebrate lineage is an important open question. It has been suggested that the dual, apparently unrelated acquisitions of myelin and the hinged jaw were actually coupled in evolution [1,2]. If so, it would be expected that myelin was first acquired during the Devonian period by the oldest jawed fish, the placoderms [3]. Although myelin itself is not retained in the fossil record, within the skulls of fossilized Paleozoic vertebrate fish are exquisitely preserved imprints of cranial nerves and the foramina they traversed. Examination of these structures now suggests how the nerves functioned in vivo. In placoderms, the first hinge-jawed fish, oculomotor nerve diameters remained constant, but nerve lengths were ten times longer than in the jawless osteostraci. We infer that to accommodate this ten-fold increase in length, while maintaining a constant diameter, the oculomotor system in placoderms must have been myelinated to function as a rapidly conducting motor pathway. Placoderms were the first fish with hinged jaws and some can grow to formidable lengths, requiring a rapid conduction system, so it is highly likely that they were the first organisms with myelinated axons in the craniate lineage. PMID:18579089

  5. Fertile Triploid Males--An Uncommon Case Among Hybrid Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Fertile Triploid Males--An Uncommon Case Among Hybrid Vertebrates CARLA SOUSA-SANTOS1Ã, MARIA JOA described for diploid hybrids. The presence of different types of fertile males (nonhybrid diploids with normal meiosis and both diploid and triploid hybrids) coupled with hybridogenetic meiosis in females

  6. Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

  7. Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three-

    E-print Network

    Lowery, Laura Anne

    2057 Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three- dimensional structure, the development of which is not well understood. Brain morphogenesis begins during, and continues subsequent to, neural tube closure. One aspect of brain structure that is highly conserved throughout

  8. INTRODUCTION Numerous marine vertebrates undergo long-distance migrations,

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2504 INTRODUCTION Numerous marine vertebrates undergo long-distance migrations, including various migratory routes that span hundreds or thousands of kilometres (Bolten et al., 1998; Kooyman et al., 1996 along the migratory route, hatchling loggerheads responded by swimming in directions that would, in each

  9. Vertebrates that regenerate as models for guiding stem cels.

    PubMed

    Antos, Christopher L; Tanaka, Elly M

    2010-01-01

    There are several animal model organisms that have the ability to regenerate severe injuries by stimulating local cells to restore damaged and lost organs and appendages. In this chapter, we will describe how various vertebrate animals regenerate different structures (central nervous system, heart and appendages) as well as detail specific cellular and molecular features concerning the regeneration of these structures. PMID:21222207

  10. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  11. OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate. Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit predators: supporting evidence to a dramatic increase in the population of invertebrate fruit predators. Evidence consistent

  12. Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern Newark Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, in Philadelphia. This paper is essentially an updated

  13. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality. We present a case of PAH that spontaneously resolved after termination of pregnancy and recurred during each of two subsequent pregnancies. To our knowledge, this case is unique, because no cases of spontaneous resolution of idiopathic PAH have been reported in adults, nor have there been any reports of pulmonary hypertension that is isolated to the gestational period. PMID:26697182

  14. Subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization of vertebrate Lef/Tcf transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Klingel, Susanne; Morath, Iris; Strietz, Juliane; Menzel, Katharina; Holstein, Thomas W; Gradl, Dietmar

    2012-08-01

    Invertebrates express a multitude of Wnt ligands and all Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways converge to only one nuclear Lef/Tcf. In vertebrates, however, four distinct Lef/Tcfs, i.e. Tcf-1, Lef, Tcf-3, and Tcf-4 fulfill this function. At present, it is largely unknown to what extent the various Lef/Tcfs are functionally similar or diversified in vertebrates. In particular, it is not known which domains are responsible for the Tcf subtype specific functions. We investigated the conserved and non-conserved functions of the various Tcfs by using Xenopus laevis as a model organism and testing Tcfs from Hydra magnipapillata, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In order to identify domains relevant for the individual properties we created series of chimeric constructs consisting of parts of XTcf-3, XTcf-1 and HyTcf. Rescue experiments in Xenopus morphants revealed that the three invertebrate Tcfs tested compensated the loss of distinct Xenopus Tcfs: Drosophila Tcf (Pangolin) can substitute for the loss of XTcf-1, XTcf-3 and XTcf-4. By comparison, Caenorhabditis Tcf (Pop-1) and Hydra Tcf (HyTcf) can substitute for the loss of only XTcf-3 and XTcf-4, respectively. The domain, which is responsible for subtype specific functions is the regulatory CRD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separates Tcf-1/Lef-1 from the sister group Tcf-3/4 in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that the vertebrate specific diversification of Tcfs in vertebrates resulted in subfunctionalization of a Tcf that already united most of the Lef/Tcf functions. PMID:22641013

  15. Comparison of ultra-conserved elements in drosophilids and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Makunin, Igor V; Shloma, Viktor V; Stephen, Stuart J; Pheasant, Michael; Belyakin, Stepan N

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan genomes contain many ultra-conserved elements (UCEs), long sequences identical between distant species. In this study we identified UCEs in drosophilid and vertebrate species with a similar level of phylogenetic divergence measured at protein-coding regions, and demonstrated that both the length and number of UCEs are larger in vertebrates. The proportion of non-exonic UCEs declines in distant drosophilids whilst an opposite trend was observed in vertebrates. We generated a set of 2,126 Sophophora UCEs by merging elements identified in several drosophila species and compared these to the eutherian UCEs identified in placental mammals. In contrast to vertebrates, the Sophophora UCEs are depleted around transcription start sites. Analysis of 52,954 P-element, piggyBac and Minos insertions in the D. melanogaster genome revealed depletion of the P-element and piggyBac insertions in and around the Sophophora UCEs. We examined eleven fly strains with transposon insertions into the intergenic UCEs and identified associated phenotypes in five strains. Four insertions behave as recessive lethals, and in one case we observed a suppression of the marker gene within the transgene, presumably by silenced chromatin around the integration site. To confirm the lethality is caused by integration of transposons we performed a phenotype rescue experiment for two stocks and demonstrated that the excision of the transposons from the intergenic UCEs restores viability. Sequencing of DNA after the transposon excision in one fly strain with the restored viability revealed a 47 bp insertion at the original transposon integration site suggesting that the nature of the mutation is important for the appearance of the phenotype. Our results suggest that the UCEs in flies and vertebrates have both common and distinct features, and demonstrate that a significant proportion of intergenic drosophila UCEs are sensitive to disruption. PMID:24349264

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Patients on Hemodialysis With Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Ryota; Aoyama, Naoyoshi; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Patients on hemodialysis (HD; n = 210) were examined for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI). The prevalence of PAD was 38.1%. Among patients with PAD, 87.5% were newly diagnosed with PAD, 42.5% were diagnosed with TBI <0.6 despite ABI ? 0.9, and 68.7% had no lower limb symptoms. In patients with PAD, the prevalence rate of cerebrovascular disease was 36.3%, coronary artery disease was 42.5%, spinal stenosis was 33.2%, and vertebral fracture 15.0% and was significantly higher than those of the non-PAD patients. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most important biomarker among patients with PAD. PAD has been underdiagnosed and untreated in patients on HD because most patients do not have symptoms that could be due to diabetic neuropathy or have insufficient daily activity to experience exertional leg symptoms. Screening for PAD using the ABI and TBI increased diagnostic efficiency in patients on HD and may lead to effective early treatments, including pharmacotherapy, revascularization therapy, and exercise rehabilitation to avoid the worst possible scenario such as lower limb amputation, cardiovascular event, and death. PMID:25694516

  17. Athletics, minor trauma, and pediatric arterial ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sepelyak, Kathryn; Gailloud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke may occur as the result of trivial head or neck trauma sustained during a sports activity. We describe three cases of sports-related stroke in previously healthy school-age children and discuss acute and long-term stroke care. Possible mechanisms of sports-related stroke are addressed, as is evaluation for cause of stroke in children. In one of the reported cases, the child was found to have a vertebral artery dissection as the cause of his stroke, but no definitive cause of stroke was identified in the other two cases despite extensive evaluation. The advisability and timing of returning to athletic activities after stroke is also discussed. Many children with sports-related stroke are initially seen by a sports trainer, a pediatrician, or an ER physician. Thus, it is particularly important that these professionals are aware of the possibility of ischemic stroke occurring after even mild athletic injury. Childhood stroke may result from injuries sustained during athletic activities and should be considered when a child has acute focal neurologic signs. PMID:19760434

  18. Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stressstrain relationship in vivo

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stress­strain relationship in revised form 20 September 2011 Accepted 20 September 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arterial stiffness Carotid artery Collagen Elastin Stress­strain relationship a b s t r a c t Arterial stiffness

  19. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  20. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm formation with superior mesenteric artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Deguchi, Juno; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  1. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  2. Comparative and Functional Anatomy of Vertebrates (Biology 281) Syllabus, Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Comparative and Functional Anatomy of Vertebrates (Biology 281) Syllabus, Spring 2008 (REVISED.J. (2005). Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy: A Laboratory Dissection Guide, 4th Ed. McGraw Hill. Abbreviated of the Vertebrates: An Evolutionary Perspective, 3rd Ed. Brooks Cole. Abbreviated LBWG below. Other readings

  3. Copyright Atlantic Geology 2013 Donald Baird (19262011), an influential and innovative vertebrate paleontologist with a scientific

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    of expertise in the study of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic vertebrates and their life traces. Beginning in 1956 assemblages of Carboniferous vertebrates as well as an unexpectedly diverse record of early Mesozoic tetrapods of Carboniferous and early Mesozoic continental vertebrates. Donald Baird and his discoveries of Carboniferous

  4. Numerical Response of Small Vertebrates to Prescribed Fire in a California Oak

    E-print Network

    Numerical Response of Small Vertebrates to Prescribed Fire in a California Oak Woodland1 Justin K and fuel load is increasing in California oak woodlands, but its effects on vertebrate wildlife are unknown-central California and assessed vegetation change and numerical response of small, non-game vertebrates, to the fire

  5. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2015 Other Animals: Vertebrates as Pests Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2015 Other Animals: Vertebrates as Pests Table of Contents Other Animals ................................................................................................................................ 8-9 #12;HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2015 #12;HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2015 Other Animals: Vertebrates as Pests 8-1 Other Animals: Vertebrates as Pests James A. Parkhurst, Extension Wildlife Specialist

  6. MDCT angiography of isolated right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Paç, Ay?enur; Kiziltepe, U?ursay; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of a subclavian artery is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the aortic arch in which one subclavian artery loses its connection with the aorta and originates from the homolateral pulmonary artery by way of a ductus arteriosus. Isolation of the left subclavian artery in patients with a right aortic arch is well known. However, isolated right subclavian artery with a left-sided aortic arch is an extremely rare condition. In this report, we present multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography findings of an isolated right subclavian artery associated with a common carotid trunk and an anomalous origin and proximal interruption of the left pulmonary artery. PMID:21428206

  7. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  8. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  9. Design of mechanical arterial simulator

    E-print Network

    Chai, Lauren (Lauren Amy)

    2012-01-01

    A force controlled ultrasound probe is being explored as a new method of measuring blood pressure. An arterial simulator was designed and built for experiments. For this simulator, the vessels and bulk material were designed ...

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  11. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jani?, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovi?, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  12. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  13. Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500?Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

  14. Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Ruth E.; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Hamady, Micah; Knight, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Here we use published 16S rRNA gene sequences to compare the bacterial assemblages associated with humans, other mammals, other metazoa, and free-living microbial communities spanning a range of environmental conditions. The composition of the vertebrate gut microbiota is influenced by diet, host morphology and phylogeny, and in this respect the human gut bacterial community is typical for an omnivorous primate. However, a wider view reveals that the vertebrate gut microbiota is highly differentiated from free-living communities not associated with animal body habitats. The recently initiated international Human Microbiome Project should strive to include a broad representation of humans, as well as other mammals and environmental samples: comparative analyses of microbiotas and their microbiomes are a powerful way to explore the evolutionary history of the biosphere. PMID:18794915

  15. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals vertebrate phylotypic period during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Naoki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    One of the central issues in evolutionary developmental biology is how we can formulate the relationships between evolutionary and developmental processes. Two major models have been proposed: the 'funnel-like' model, in which the earliest embryo shows the most conserved morphological pattern, followed by diversifying later stages, and the 'hourglass' model, in which constraints are imposed to conserve organogenesis stages, which is called the phylotypic period. Here we perform a quantitative comparative transcriptome analysis of several model vertebrate embryos and show that the pharyngula stage is most conserved, whereas earlier and later stages are rather divergent. These results allow us to predict approximate developmental timetables between different species, and indicate that pharyngula embryos have the most conserved gene expression profiles, which may be the source of the basic body plan of vertebrates. PMID:21427719

  17. The Current Status of Vertebrate Cellular mRNA IRESs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites/segments (IRESs) were first discovered over 20 years ago in picornaviruses, followed by the discovery of two other types of IRES in hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the dicistroviruses, which infect invertebrates. In the meantime, reports of IRESs in eukaryotic cellular mRNAs started to appear, and the list of such putative IRESs continues to grow to the point in which it now stands at ?100, 80% of them in vertebrate mRNAs. Despite initial skepticism from some quarters, there now seems universal agreement that there is genuine internal ribosome entry on the viral IRESs. However, the same cannot be said for cellular mRNA IRESs, which continue to be shrouded in controversy. The aim of this article is to explain why vertebrate mRNA IRESs remain controversial, and to discuss ways in which these controversies might be resolved. PMID:23378589

  18. Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217

  19. Vertebrate seed dispersers maintain the composition of tropical forest seedbanks.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, E M; Dunham, A E; Miller, R H; Rogers, H S

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of seeds in the soil (the seedbank) can set the template for the early regeneration of habitats following disturbance. Seed dispersal is an important factor determining the pattern of seed rain, which affects the interactions those seeds experience. For this reason, seed dispersal should play an important role in structuring forest seedbanks, yet we know little about how that happens. Using the functional extirpation of frugivorous vertebrates from the island of Guam, together with two nearby islands (Saipan and Rota) that each support relatively intact disperser assemblages, we aimed to identify the role of vertebrate dispersers in structuring forest seedbanks. We sampled the seedbank on Guam where dispersers are absent, and compared this with the seedbank on Saipan and Rota where they are present. Almost twice as many species found in the seedbank on Guam, when compared with Saipan and Rota, had a conspecific adult within 2 m. This indicates a strong role of vertebrate dispersal in determining the identity of seeds in the seedbank. In addition, on Guam, a greater proportion of samples contained no seeds and overall species richness was lower than on Saipan. Differences in seed abundance and richness between Guam and Rota were less clear, as seedbanks on Rota also contained fewer species than Saipan, possibly due to increased post-dispersal seed predation. Our findings suggest that vertebrate seed dispersers can have a strong influence on the species composition of seedbanks. Regardless of post-dispersal processes, without dispersal, seedbanks no longer serve to increase the species pool of recruits during regeneration. PMID:26578741

  20. Comparative anatomy of the vestibular nuclear complex in submammalian vertebrates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A synopsis of the literature on the natural history of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) in lower vertebrates is presented in an attempt to assess the knowledge available. The review discloses that there is considerable descriptive information that is widely dispersed in the literature. However, information about the topology, number, and cellular composition of the cell groups that compose the VNC is sketchy. Major cytological and hodological information is still needed to establish which parts of the VNC actually are homologous.

  1. New insights into the vertebral Hox code of archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Variation in axial formulae (i.e., number and identity of vertebrae) is an important feature in the evolution of vertebrates. Vertebrae at different axial positions exhibit a region-specific morphology. Key determinants for the establishment of particular vertebral shapes are the highly conserved Hox genes. Here, we analyzed Hox gene expression in the presacral vertebral column in the Nile crocodile in order to complement and extend a previous examination in the alligator and thus establish a Hox code for the axial skeleton of crocodilians in general. The newly determined expression of HoxA-4, C-5, B-7, and B-8 all revealed a crocodilian-specific pattern. HoxA-4 and HoxC-5 characterize cervical morphologies and the latter furthermore is associated with the position of the forelimb relative to the axial skeleton. HoxB-7 and HoxB-8 map exclusively to the dorsal vertebral region. The resulting expression patterns of these two Hox genes is the first description of their exact expression in the archosaurian embryo. Our comparative analyses of the Hox code in several amniote taxa provide new evidence that evolutionary differences in the axial skeleton correspond to changes in Hox gene expression domains. We detect two general processes: (i) expansion of a Hox gene's expression domain as well as (ii) a shift of gene expression. We infer that the ancestral archosaur Hox code may have resembled that of the crocodile. In association with the evolution of morphological traits, it may have been modified to patterns that can be observed in birds. PMID:26372060

  2. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  3. Pan-vertebrate comparative genomics unmasks retrovirus macroevolution

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Alexander; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Jern, Patric

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive research has demonstrated host-retrovirus microevolutionary dynamics, it has been difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the macroevolutionary patterns of host–retrovirus interactions. Here we use recent technological advances to infer broad patterns in retroviral diversity, evolution, and host–virus relationships by using a large-scale phylogenomic approach using endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Retroviruses insert a proviral DNA copy into the host cell genome to produce new viruses. ERVs are provirus insertions in germline cells that are inherited down the host lineage and consequently present a record of past host–viral associations. By mining ERVs from 65 host genomes sampled across vertebrate diversity, we uncover a great diversity of ERVs, indicating that retroviral sequences are much more prevalent and widespread across vertebrates than previously appreciated. The majority of ERV clades that we recover do not contain known retroviruses, implying either that retroviral lineages are highly transient over evolutionary time or that a considerable number of retroviruses remain to be identified. By characterizing the distribution of ERVs, we show that no major vertebrate lineage has escaped retroviral activity and that retroviruses are extreme host generalists, having an unprecedented ability for rampant host switching among distantly related vertebrates. In addition, we examine whether the distribution of ERVs can be explained by host factors predicted to influence viral transmission and find that internal fertilization has a pronounced effect on retroviral colonization of host genomes. By capturing the mode and pattern of retroviral evolution and contrasting ERV diversity with known retroviral diversity, our study provides a cohesive framework to understand host–virus coevolution better. PMID:25535393

  4. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Wheat, Rachel E; Allen, Jennifer M; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  5. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel E.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  6. Origins, Innovations, and Diversification of Suction Feeding in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Peter C; McGee, Matthew D; Longo, Sarah J; Hernandez, L Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We review the origins, prominent innovations, and major patterns of diversification in suction feeding by vertebrates. Non-vertebrate chordates and larval lamprey suspension-feed by capturing small particles in pharyngeal mucous. In most of these lineages the gentle flows that transport particles are generated by buccal cilia, although larval lamprey and thaliacean urochordates have independently evolved a weak buccal pump to generate an oscillating flow of water that is powered by elastic recovery of the pharynx following compression by buccal muscles. The evolution of jaws and the hyoid facilitated powerful buccal expansion and high-performance suction feeding as found today throughout aquatic vertebrates. We highlight three major innovations in suction feeding. Most vertebrate suction feeders have mechanisms that occlude the corners of the open mouth during feeding. This produces a planar opening that is often nearly circular in shape. Both features contribute to efficient flow of water into the mouth and help direct the flow to the area directly in front of the mouth's aperture. Among several functions that have been identified for protrusion of the upper jaw, is an increase in the hydrodynamic forces that suction feeders exert on their prey. Protrusion of the upper jaw has evolved five times in ray-finned fishes, including in two of the most successful teleost radiations, cypriniforms and acanthomorphs, and is found in about 60% of living teleost species. Diversification of the mechanisms of suction feeding and of feeding behavior reveals that suction feeders with high capacity for suction rarely approach their prey rapidly, while slender-bodied predators with low capacity for suction show the full range of attack speeds. We hypothesize that a dominant axis of diversification among suction feeders involves a trade-off between the forces that are exerted on prey and the volume of water that is ingested. PMID:25920508

  7. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    L. C. Natarajan; A. L. Melott; B. M. Rothschild; L. D. Martin

    2007-10-16

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  8. Vertebrate seed dispersers maintain the composition of tropical forest seedbanks

    PubMed Central

    Wandrag, E. M.; Dunham, A. E.; Miller, R. H.; Rogers, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of seeds in the soil (the seedbank) can set the template for the early regeneration of habitats following disturbance. Seed dispersal is an important factor determining the pattern of seed rain, which affects the interactions those seeds experience. For this reason, seed dispersal should play an important role in structuring forest seedbanks, yet we know little about how that happens. Using the functional extirpation of frugivorous vertebrates from the island of Guam, together with two nearby islands (Saipan and Rota) that each support relatively intact disperser assemblages, we aimed to identify the role of vertebrate dispersers in structuring forest seedbanks. We sampled the seedbank on Guam where dispersers are absent, and compared this with the seedbank on Saipan and Rota where they are present. Almost twice as many species found in the seedbank on Guam, when compared with Saipan and Rota, had a conspecific adult within 2 m. This indicates a strong role of vertebrate dispersal in determining the identity of seeds in the seedbank. In addition, on Guam, a greater proportion of samples contained no seeds and overall species richness was lower than on Saipan. Differences in seed abundance and richness between Guam and Rota were less clear, as seedbanks on Rota also contained fewer species than Saipan, possibly due to increased post-dispersal seed predation. Our findings suggest that vertebrate seed dispersers can have a strong influence on the species composition of seedbanks. Regardless of post-dispersal processes, without dispersal, seedbanks no longer serve to increase the species pool of recruits during regeneration. PMID:26578741

  9. Primary Stenting of Subclavian and Innominate Artery Occlusive Disease: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, E. N. Petersen, B.; Binkert, C.; Panagiotou, I.; Kaufman, J. A.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To review immediate and midterm results of primary stenting for innominate and subclavian artery occlusive lesions. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from 48 consecutive symptomatic patients (27 men and 21 women, median age 64 years) having 49 subclavian and innominate artery lesions treated with stenting. Of the patients 52% had concomitant ischemic heart disease, and 30% had carotid and/or vertebral artery disease. Indication for treatment was vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) in 16.6% of the patients; upper limb ischemia (ULI) in 31.3%; VBI and ULI in 12.5%; transient ischemic attack in 16.7%; angina in 12.5% before or after left internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery bypass grafting; and leg claudication in 10.4% before or after axillofemoral bypass grafting. Balloon-expandable stents were used in 44 lesions and self-expandable stents in 5 lesions. In total, 53 stents were placed in 48 patients. Results: Technical success was 96%, and clinical success 94%. We encountered four complications (two puncture site hematomas, one distal hand embolization and one transient cerebral ischemia). Two patients died within 30 days from other causes, and seven patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 16.7 months (range 0.3 to 68.2). Five patients had recurrent lesions treated by surgical (n = 2) or endovascular (n = 3) means. Cumulative primary patency rate was 91.7% and 77% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Cumulative secondary patency rate was 96.5% and 91.7% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: Stenting of subclavian and innominate artery lesions resulted in immediate resolution of patients' symptoms with durable midterm effect and few complications in a larger patient group with serious comorbid conditions.

  10. Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

  11. Evolutionary aspects of self- and world consciousness in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Franco; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Bergamasco, Massimo; Clarici, Andrea; Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Although most aspects of world and self-consciousness are inherently subjective, neuroscience studies in humans and non-human animals provide correlational and causative indices of specific links between brain activity and representation of the self and the world. In this article we review neuroanatomic, neurophysiological and neuropsychological data supporting the hypothesis that different levels of self and world representation in vertebrates rely upon (i) a “basal” subcortical system that includes brainstem, hypothalamus and central thalamic nuclei and that may underpin the primary (or anoetic) consciousness likely present in all vertebrates; and (ii) a forebrain system that include the medial and lateral structures of the cerebral hemispheres and may sustain the most sophisticated forms of consciousness [e.g., noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic, reflective knowledge]. We posit a mutual, bidirectional functional influence between these two major brain circuits. We conclude that basic aspects of consciousness like primary self and core self (based on anoetic and noetic consciousness) are present in many species of vertebrates and that, even self-consciousness (autonoetic consciousness) does not seem to be a prerogative of humans and of some non-human primates but may, to a certain extent, be present in some other mammals and birds PMID:25859205

  12. Recent findings on vertebrate developmental immunity using the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    To grant survival against sterile or microbe induced inflammation, all animals rely on correct immune system functioning. The development of immunity occurs in vertebrates during embryogenesis in a process called hematopoiesis, which is characterized by the formation of blood cellular components such as embryonic erythrocytes and primitive macrophages. These cells are formed in a sterile environment from a rare subset of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during a brief period of the primitive hematopoietic wave. Diverse signals, like Notch, are indispensable in HSC emergence and differentiation. However, to successfully replicate the process in vitro using pluripotent precursors, the full set of required signals is still a matter of debate. Among the latest findings, proinflammatory signals produced by transient primitive myelocites in zebrafish have been seen to act as essential mediators in establishing the HSC program of the adult vertebrate hematopoietic system. In this regard, the zebrafish immune model has emerged as a feasible live vertebrate model for examining developmental immunity and related host-microbe interactions, both at the molecular and cellular level. Thus, using the zebrafish embryo, this review summarizes recent findings, on the signals required for immune development and further maturation of the system, in a context where no adaptive immune response has yet been developed. PMID:26589453

  13. Stereocontrol of Arachidonic Acid Oxygenation by Vertebrate Lipoxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Christian; Hofheinz, Katharina; Vogel, Robert; Roffeis, Jana; Anton, Monika; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Walther, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Animal lipoxygenases (LOXs) are classified according to their specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation, and previous sequence alignments suggested that S-LOXs contain a conserved Ala at a critical position at the active site but R-LOXs carry a Gly instead. Here we cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel LOX isoform from the model vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish) that carries a Gly at this critical position, classifying this enzyme as putative arachidonic acid R-LOX. Surprisingly, the almost exclusive arachidonic acid oxygenation product was 12S-H(p)ETE (hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid), and extensive mutation around Gly-410 failed to induce R-lipoxygenation. This finding prompted us to explore the importance of the corresponding amino acids in other vertebrate S-LOXs. We found that Ala-to-Gly exchange in human 15-LOX2 and human platelet 12-LOX induced major alterations in the reaction specificity with an increase of specific R-oxygenation products. For mouse 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX from rabbits, men, rhesus monkeys, orangutans, and mice, only minor alterations in the reaction specificity were observed. For these enzymes, S-HETE (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) isomers remained the major oxygenation products, whereas chiral R-HETEs contributed only 10–30% to the total product mixture. Taken together these data indicate that the Ala-versus-Gly concept may not always predict the reaction specificity of vertebrate LOX isoforms. PMID:21880725

  14. Experimental studies of St. Louis encephalitis virus in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Francy, D B; Campos, E G

    1985-04-01

    Serologically negative birds and mammals of species, known from other studies to be exposed naturally to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in Memphis, Tennessee, and other selected species were inoculated experimentally with strains of SLE virus to determine their potential as natural hosts. Mosquitoes (Culex sp.) were allowed to feed on some of the inoculated vertebrate species, held for 14 days, and tested for SLE infection. The cardinals (Richmondena cardinalis), robins (Turdus migratorius), and baby chicks (Gallus gallus) all became viremic; 97% of the bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and 20% of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) became viremic. No viremia was detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), or adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Only 20% of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii), 50% of wood rats (Neotoma mexicana), and 75% of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) but all the young cotton rats and least chipmunks (Eutamias minimus) were susceptible. Robins had the highest titered viremia but were viremic for the shortest period of time. Bobwhites had lower peak viremia titers but for a longer duration. Biologic differences in the response of some vertebrates to different SLE strains were noted. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes readily became infected after feeding on viremic cardinals. Comparisons of the experimental data with information obtained from field investigations provided a better understanding of the contributions of the various vertebrate species to the transmission and maintenance of SLE virus in nature. PMID:3999258

  15. Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wyder, Stefan; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Schröder, Reinhard; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits. Results To consistently quantify losses of orthologous groups of genes, we compared the gene repertoires of five vertebrates and five insects, including honeybee and Tribolium beetle, that represent insect orders outside the previously sequenced Diptera. We found hundreds of lost Urbilateria genes in each of the lineages and assessed their phylogenetic origin. The rate of losses correlates well with the species' rates of molecular evolution and radiation times, without distinction between insects and vertebrates, indicating their stochastic nature. Remarkably, this extends to the universal single-copy orthologs, losses of dozens of which have been tolerated in each species. Nevertheless, the propensity for loss differs substantially among genes, where roughly 20% of the orthologs have an 8-fold higher chance of becoming extinct. Extrapolation of our data also suggests that the Urbilateria genome contained more than 7,000 genes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the seemingly higher number of observed gene losses in insects can be explained by their two- to three-fold higher evolutionary rate. Despite the profound effect of many losses on cellular machinery, overall, they seem to be guided by neutral evolution. PMID:18021399

  16. Evolution and Functional Classification of Vertebrate Gene Deserts

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Loots, G; Nobrega, M; Hardison, R; Miller, W; Stubbs, L

    2004-07-14

    Gene deserts, long stretches of DNA sequence devoid of protein coding genes, span approximately one quarter of the human genome. Through human-chicken genome comparisons we were able to characterized one third of human gene deserts as evolutionarily stable - they are highly conserved in vertebrates, resist chromosomal rearrangements, and contain multiple conserved non-coding elements physically linked to their neighboring genes. A linear relationship was observed between human and chicken orthologous stable gene deserts, where the human deserts appear to have expanded homogeneously by a uniform accumulation of repetitive elements. Stable gene deserts are associated with key vertebrate genes that construct the framework of vertebrate development; many of which encode transcription factors. We show that the regulatory machinery governing genes associated with stable gene deserts operates differently from other regions in the human genome and relies heavily on distant regulatory elements. The regulation guided by these elements is independent of the distance between the gene and its distant regulatory element, or the distance between two distant regulatory cassettes. The location of gene deserts and their associated genes in the genome is independent of chromosomal length or content presenting these regions as well-bounded regions evolving separately from the rest of the genome.

  17. Invasion success of vertebrates in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Strayer, David L

    2005-05-17

    Species become invasive if they (i) are introduced to a new range, (ii) establish themselves, and (iii) spread. To address the global problems caused by invasive species, several studies investigated steps ii and iii of this invasion process. However, only one previous study looked at step i and examined the proportion of species that have been introduced beyond their native range. We extend this research by investigating all three steps for all freshwater fish, mammals, and birds native to Europe or North America. A higher proportion of European species entered North America than vice versa. However, the introduction rate from Europe to North America peaked in the late 19th century, whereas it is still rising in the other direction. There is no clear difference in invasion success between the two directions, so neither the imperialism dogma (that Eurasian species are exceptionally successful invaders) is supported, nor is the contradictory hypothesis that North America offers more biotic resistance to invaders than Europe because of its less disturbed and richer biota. Our results do not support the tens rule either: that approximately 10% of all introduced species establish themselves and that approximately 10% of established species spread. We find a success of approximately 50% at each step. In comparison, only approximately 5% of native vertebrates were introduced in either direction. These figures show that, once a vertebrate is introduced, it has a high potential to become invasive. Thus, it is crucial to minimize the number of species introductions to effectively control invasive vertebrates. PMID:15849267

  18. Meis homeoproteins directly regulate Pax6 during vertebrate lens morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Friedman, Adam; Heaney, Shaun; Purcell, Patricia; Maas, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Pax6 is a pivotal regulator of eye development throughout Metazoa, but the direct upstream regulators of vertebrate Pax6 expression are unknown. In vertebrates, Pax6 is required for formation of the lens placode, an ectodermal thickening that precedes lens development. Here we show that the Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are direct regulators of Pax6 expression in prospective lens ectoderm. In mice, Meis1 and Meis2 are developmentally expressed in a pattern remarkably similar to Pax6 and their expression is Pax6-independent. Biochemical and transgenic experiments reveal that Meis1 and Meis2 bind a specific sequence in the Pax6 lens placode enhancer that is required for its activity. Furthermore, Pax6 and Meis2 exhibit a strong genetic interaction in lens development, and Pax6 expression is elevated in lenses of Meis2-overexpressing transgenic mice. When expressed in embryonic lens ectoderm, dominant-negative forms of Meis down-regulate endogenous Pax6. These results contrast with those in Drosophila, where the single Meis homolog, Homothorax, has been shown to negatively regulate eye formation. Therefore, despite the striking evolutionary conservation of Pax6 function, Pax6 expression in the vertebrate lens is uniquely regulated. PMID:12183364

  19. Vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1: a quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Edmund S.H.; Sawatzky, Bonita; Birch, Patricia; Friedman, Jan M.; Tredwell, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate quantitative differences in vertebral scalloping between children who have scoliosis with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Design A retrospective study. Setting A university-affiliated children’s hospital. Patients Twenty-seven children with scoliosis, 13 of whom had NF1 and 14 of whom did not. Method Existing radiographs of the lumbar vertebrae were used to measure and compare the degree of vertebral scalloping. Main outcome measures The distribution of posterior scalloping ratios in the 2 groups and the most extreme ratio in each subject in each group were compared. Results Scalloping ratios from the children with NF1 were not normally distributed: 31% had ratios greater than 1.20. Scalloping ratios from the non-NF1 children were normally distributed, with a mean ratio (and standard deviation) of 1.13 (0.03). The distribution between the 2 groups was significantly different (p < 0.05). Conclusions In children who have scoliosis but no NF1 there was a range of mild scalloping whereas those with NF1 has severe scalloping. Further studies are needed to determine the possible role of vertebral scalloping in scoliosis severity and progression in children who have NF1. PMID:12067169

  20. Evolutionary aspects of self- and world consciousness in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Franco; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Bergamasco, Massimo; Clarici, Andrea; Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Although most aspects of world and self-consciousness are inherently subjective, neuroscience studies in humans and non-human animals provide correlational and causative indices of specific links between brain activity and representation of the self and the world. In this article we review neuroanatomic, neurophysiological and neuropsychological data supporting the hypothesis that different levels of self and world representation in vertebrates rely upon (i) a "basal" subcortical system that includes brainstem, hypothalamus and central thalamic nuclei and that may underpin the primary (or anoetic) consciousness likely present in all vertebrates; and (ii) a forebrain system that include the medial and lateral structures of the cerebral hemispheres and may sustain the most sophisticated forms of consciousness [e.g., noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic, reflective knowledge]. We posit a mutual, bidirectional functional influence between these two major brain circuits. We conclude that basic aspects of consciousness like primary self and core self (based on anoetic and noetic consciousness) are present in many species of vertebrates and that, even self-consciousness (autonoetic consciousness) does not seem to be a prerogative of humans and of some non-human primates but may, to a certain extent, be present in some other mammals and birds. PMID:25859205

  1. Origin and genetic evolution of the vertebrate skeleton.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    The current understanding of the origin and evolution of the genetic cassette for the vertebrate skeletal system is reviewed. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of fibrillar collagen genes, which encode the main component of both cartilage and mineralized bone, suggest that genome duplications in vertebrate ancestors were essential for producing distinct collagen fibers for cartilage and mineralized bone. Several data Indicate co-expression of the ancestral copy of fibrillar collagen with the SoxE and Runx transcription factors. Therefore, the genetic cassette may have already existed in protochordate ancestors, and may operate in the development of the pharyngeal gill skeleton. Accompanied by genome duplications in vertebrate ancestors, this genetic cassette may have also been duplicated and co-opted for cartilage and bone. Subsequently, the genetic cassette for cartilage recruited novel genetic material via domain shuffling. Aggrecan, acquired by means of domain shuffling, performs an essential role in cartilage as a shock absorber. In contrast, the cassette for bone recruited new genetic material produced by tandem duplication of the SPARC/osteonectin genes. Some of the duplicated copies of SPARC/osteonectin became secretory Cabinding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) performing a central role in mineralization by regulating the calcium phosphate concentration. Comparative genome analysis revealed similar molecular evolutionary histories for the genetic cassettes for cartilage and bone, namely duplication of the ancestral genetic cassette and recruitment of novel genetic material. PMID:20141417

  2. Evolutionary Diversification of the Vertebrate Transferrin Multi-gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.; Friedman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate transferrins (TFs), six major clades (subfamilies) were identified: (1) S, the mammalian serotransferrins; (2) ICA, the mammalian inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (ICA) homologs; (3) L, the mammalian lactoferrins; (4) O, the ovotransferrins of birds and reptiles; (4) M, the melanotransferrins of bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; and (5) M-like, a newly identified TF subfamily found in bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. A phylogenetic tree based on the joint alignment of N-lobes and C-lobes supported the hypothesis that three separate events of internal duplication occurred in vertebrate TFs: (1) in the common ancestor of the M subfamily; (2) in the common ancestor of the M-like subfamily; and (3) in the common ancestor of other vertebrate TFs. The S, ICA, and L subfamilies were found only in placental mammals, and the phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis that these three subfamilies arose by gene duplication after the divergence of placental mammals from marsupials. The M-like subfamily was unusual in several respects, including the presence of a uniquely high proportion of clade-specific conserved residues, including distinctive but conserved residues in the sites homologous to those functioning in carbonate binding of human serotransferrin. The M-like family also showed a unusually high proportion of cationic residues in the positively charged region corresponding to human lactoferrampin, suggesting a distinctive role of this region in the M-like subfamily, perhaps in antimicrobial defense. PMID:25142446

  3. Collapsed L4 Vertebral Body Caused by Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Zühtü; Kazanc?, Burak; Güçlü, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is caused by gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, facultative, intracellular coccobacilli belonging to the genus Brucella. A 50-year-old man working as an employee was admitted to neurosurgery clinic with severe low back, radicular right leg pain and hypoesthesia in right L4-5 dermatomes for 2 months. Brucella tube agglutination (Wright) test was positive in serum sample of the patient with a titer of 1/640. Brucella melitensis was isolated from blood culture. X-ray and MRI of the lomber spine showed massive collapse of L4 vertebral body. Neural tissue was decompressed and then posterior L3-5 short segment transpedicular screw fixation and stabilization was performed. Brucella melitensis was isolated from microbiologic culture of pathologic specimen. Antibiotic therapy was given as doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day for 6 months. Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infection and still an important public health problem in many geographical parts of the world. Vertebral body collapse caused by brucellosis occurs very rarely but represents a neurosurgical emergency because of its potential for causing rapidly progressive spinal cord compression and permanent paralysis. Neurosurgeons, emergency department personnel as well as infectious disease specialists should always keep a high index of suspicion and include brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of vertebral body collapse. PMID:24570819

  4. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, J.C.; Glusman, G.; Rowen, L.; Kaur, A.; Purcell, M.K.; Smith, K.D.; Hood, L.E.; Aderem, A.

    2005-01-01

    The complete sequences of Takifugu Toll-like receptor (TLR) loci and gene predictions from many draft genomes enable comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Strong selective pressure for recognition of and response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns has maintained a largely unchanging TLR recognition in all vertebrates. There are six major families of vertebrate TLRs. This repertoire is distinct from that of invertebrates. TLRs within a family recognize a general class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Most vertebrates have exactly one gene ortholog for each TLR family. The family including TLR1 has more species-specific adaptations than other families. A major family including TLR11 is represented in humans only by a pseudogene. Coincidental evolution plays a minor role in TLR evolution. The sequencing phase of this study produced finished genomic sequences for the 12 Takifugu rubripes TLRs. In addition, we have produced > 70 gene models, including sequences from the opossum, chicken, frog, dog, sea urchin, and sea squirt. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  5. Vertebrate diet decreases winter torpor use in a desert marsupial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavey, Chris R.; Burwell, Chris J.; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2009-06-01

    One of the energetic benefits of daily torpor over prolonged hibernation is that it enables animals to regularly forage and, therefore, replenish food reserves between bouts of torpor. However, little is known about the diet of predators undergoing torpor or whether differences in prey composition among individuals influence torpor characteristics. Here, we test the hypothesis that prey composition affects winter torpor use and patterns of a population of carnivorous marsupial, the brush-tailed mulgara ( Dasycercus blythi), in the Great Sandy Desert, Australia. Mulgaras in the study population captured a wide range of prey including vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, birds), seven insect orders, spiders and centipedes. The proportion of vertebrates in the diet was negatively correlated with both frequency of torpor use and maximum bout duration. This variation in torpor use with diet can be explained by the higher energetic content of vertebrates as well as their larger size. Even assuming uniform intake of prey biomass among individuals, those that subsisted on an invertebrate-dominated diet during winter apparently suffered energetic shortages as a result of the scarcity of invertebrate taxa with high energy content (such as insect larvae). Our study is the first to demonstrate a link between diet composition and daily torpor use in a free-ranging mammal.

  6. Evolution and development of interhemispheric connections in the vertebrate forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Gobius, Ilan; Richards, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal connections between the left and right sides of the brain are crucial for bilateral integration of lateralized sensory, motor, and associative functions. Throughout vertebrate species, forebrain commissures share a conserved developmental plan, a similar position relative to each other within the brain and similar patterns of connectivity. However, major events in the evolution of the vertebrate brain, such as the expansion of the telencephalon in tetrapods and the origin of the six-layered isocortex in mammals, resulted in the emergence and diversification of new commissural routes. These new interhemispheric connections include the pallial commissure, which appeared in the ancestors of tetrapods and connects the left and right sides of the medial pallium (hippocampus in mammals), and the corpus callosum, which is exclusive to eutherian (placental) mammals and connects both isocortical hemispheres. A comparative analysis of commissural systems in vertebrates reveals that the emergence of new commissural routes may have involved co-option of developmental mechanisms and anatomical substrates of preexistent commissural pathways. One of the embryonic regions of interest for studying these processes is the commissural plate, a portion of the early telencephalic midline that provides molecular specification and a cellular scaffold for the development of commissural axons. Further investigations into these embryonic processes in carefully selected species will provide insights not only into the mechanisms driving commissural evolution, but also regarding more general biological problems such as the role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary change. PMID:25071525

  7. Evolution of oxytocin pathways in the brain of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, H. Sophie; Grinevich, Valery

    2014-01-01

    The central oxytocin system transformed tremendously during the evolution, thereby adapting to the expanding properties of species. In more basal vertebrates (paraphyletic taxon Anamnia, which includes agnathans, fish and amphibians), magnocellular neurosecretory neurons producing homologs of oxytocin reside in the wall of the third ventricle of the hypothalamus composing a single hypothalamic structure, the preoptic nucleus. This nucleus further diverged in advanced vertebrates (monophyletic taxon Amniota, which includes reptiles, birds, and mammals) into the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei with accessory nuclei (AN) between them. The individual magnocellular neurons underwent a process of transformation from primitive uni- or bipolar neurons into highly differentiated neurons. Due to these microanatomical and cytological changes, the ancient release modes of oxytocin into the cerebrospinal fluid were largely replaced by vascular release. However, the most fascinating feature of the progressive transformations of the oxytocin system has been the expansion of oxytocin axonal projections to forebrain regions. In the present review we provide a background on these evolutionary advancements. Furthermore, we draw attention to the non-synaptic axonal release in small and defined brain regions with the aim to clearly distinguish this way of oxytocin action from the classical synaptic transmission on one side and from dendritic release followed by a global diffusion on the other side. Finally, we will summarize the effects of oxytocin and its homologs on pro-social reproductive behaviors in representatives of the phylogenetic tree and will propose anatomically plausible pathways of oxytocin release contributing to these behaviors in basal vertebrates and amniots. PMID:24592219

  8. Molecular synapomorphies resolve evolutionary relationships of extant jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Byrappa; Erdmann, Mark V.; Brenner, Sydney

    2001-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), which comprise chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes), lobe-finned fishes (coelacanths and lungfishes), tetrapods, and actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes), have been debated for almost a century. Phylogenetic analyses based on fossils, morphology, and molecular sequences have generated different models of relationships that remain unresolved. We identified 13 derived shared molecular markers (synapomorphies) that define clades in the vertebrate lineage and used them to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of extant jawed vertebrates. Our markers include the presence or absence of insertions and deletions in coding sequences, nuclear introns, and alternatively spliced transcripts. The synapomorphies identified by us are congruent with each other and give rise to a single phylogenetic tree. This tree confirms that chondrichthyans are basal to all living gnathostomes, that lungfishes (Dipnoi) are the closest living relatives of tetrapods, and that bichirs (Cladistia) are the living members of the most ancient family of ray-finned fishes. Our study also provides molecular evidence to support the monophyly of living tetrapods and teleosts. PMID:11553795

  9. The evolution of nasal immune systems in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Ali; Salinas, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory organs of vertebrates are not only extraordinary chemosensory organs but also a powerful defense system against infection. Nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) has been traditionally considered as the first line of defense against inhaled antigens in birds and mammals. Novel work in early vertebrates such as teleost fish has expanded our view of nasal immune systems, now recognized to fight both water-borne and air-borne pathogens reaching the olfactory epithelium. Like other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), NALT of birds and mammals is composed of organized lymphoid tissue (O-NALT) (i.e., tonsils) as well as a diffuse network of immune cells, known as diffuse NALT (D-NALT). In teleosts, only D-NALT is present and shares most of the canonical features of other teleost MALT. This review focuses on the evolution of NALT in vertebrates with an emphasis on the most recent findings in teleosts and lungfish. Whereas teleost are currently the most ancient group where NALT has been found, lungfish appear to be the earliest group to have evolved primitive O-NALT structures. PMID:26391349

  10. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk. The diagnosis was verified by electrocardiogram after exercise, coronary angiography including intravascular ultrasound, and cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The origin of the LMCA was high in the left coronary sinus, facilitating extrinsic compression. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in the LMCA. Extrinsic compression of the LMCA is a severe and potentially fatal complication that should be considered in all patients with PAH and angina. MDCT is the method of choice for first-line diagnosis. PMID:26697183

  11. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary-developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during gastrulation, which initiates the process and constrains possible evolutionary changes within this area; third, incipient structure of the stomodeal primordium at the anterior neural plate border, where the ectoderm component of the prospective primary mouth is formed; and fourth, the prime role of Pitx genes for establishment and later morphogenesis of oral region both in vertebrates and non-vertebrate chordates. PMID:22804777

  12. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tuzigoot National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, E.W.; Halvorson, William Lee; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, P.; Docherty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary From 2002 to 2004, we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tuzigoot National Monument (NM) and adjacent areas in Arizona. This was the first effort of its kind in the area and was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In addition to our own surveys, we also compiled a complete list of species that have been found by previous studies. We found 330 species, including 142 that had not previously been recorded at the monument (Table 1). We found 39 species of non-native plants, 11 non-native fishes, three non-native birds, and one non-native species each of amphibian and mammal. Based on our work and that of others, there have been 597 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. The bird community at the monument had the highest species richness of any national park unit in central and southern Arizona. We found all other taxa to have intermediate species richness compared to other park units in the region. This extraordinary species richness observed for birds, as well as for some other taxa, is due primarily to Tavasci Marsh and the Verde River, two critical sources of perennial water, which provide habitat for many regionally rare or uncommon species. The location of the monument at the northern edge of the Sonoran Desert and at the southern edge of the Mogollon Rim also plays an important role in determining the distribution and community composition of the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our findings, we believe the high number of non-native species, especially fish and plants, should be of particular management concern. We detail other management challenges, most notably the rapid increase in housing and associated commercial development near the monument, which will continue to impact the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our data and a review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring, and research studies and we identify components of our effort that could be improved upon, either through the application of new techniques or by extending the temporal and/or spatial scope of our work.

  13. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during gastrulation, which initiates the process and constrains possible evolutionary changes within this area; third, incipient structure of the stomodeal primordium at the anterior neural plate border, where the ectoderm component of the prospective primary mouth is formed; and fourth, the prime role of Pitx genes for establishment and later morphogenesis of oral region both in vertebrates and non-vertebrate chordates. PMID:22804777

  14. Complication after arterial bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dizon, M; Wallach, P; Matfin, G; Adelman, H M

    1998-10-15

    A 57-year-old man experienced sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory distress 10 days after undergoing four-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The surgery was performed after cardiac catheterization had shown right coronary artery dominance and the presence of lesions occluding 40% of the mid right coronary artery, 20% of the left main coronary artery, and 99% of the lower left anterior descending artery and its first diagonal branch. The patient had initially presented with acute dyspnea following an episode of crushing, nonradiating pain in the left chest and was diagnosed as having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction after cardiac enzyme testing. His hospital course before and immediately after CABG was uneventful. The first sign of difficulty was detected one week after surgery, on day 17. An echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion, moderate to severe concentric thickening of the left ventricle, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.60 (normal, 0.67 +/- 0.08), normal valves, and normal segmental wall motion. The pleural chest pains began two days later, on day 19. PMID:9793541

  15. Achieving safe femoral arterial access.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Kong, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention can lead to vascular access complications that prolong patient hospital stay and costs as well as increase patient morbidity and mortality. Given its ease of use and familiarity, transfemoral access is still the preferred method of approach by many operators. The transfemoral approach is used when large bore access is required or if transradial access is not feasible due to variations in the anatomy of the upper extremity artery. The use of fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and femoral angiography can help the operator obtain proper arteriotomy of the common femoral artery. Measures to decrease vascular access complications include proper technique, optimal pharmacotherapy, and avoiding the use of arterial sheaths >6 Fr. Optimal pharmacotherapy includes the use of bivalirudin and weight-based unfractionated heparin to avoid supratherapeutic activated clotting times, and to avoid glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. When used appropriately, vascular closure devices can decrease the risk of bleeding complications. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these recommendations. PMID:25911441

  16. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle (the coronary arteries) can be narrowed or blocked by this accumulation. If the narrowing is small, ... is a minimally invasive procedure to open up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate unobstructed to ...

  17. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  18. Worse Psoriasis, Less Healthy Arteries, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155049.html Worse Psoriasis, Less Healthy Arteries, Study Finds Chronic skin disorder linked to increase ... News) -- The skin disorder psoriasis appears linked with artery inflammation, raising the odds for heart disease, a ...

  19. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  20. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  1. Mucormycosis causing pulmonary artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Lakshman; Dewan, Sandeep; Kumar, Vishal; Wankhade, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon entity and is usually congenital in origin or secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension. Infections causing PAA are few, tuberculosis and bacterial infections being the common causative organisms. There have been few cases reported previously, in which the organism causing PAA was found to be a rare fungus called mucor. Pulmonary mucormycosis causing PAA is an infrequent and almost fatal complication as most of the diagnosis was made post mortem. This report brings out a case of pulmonary mucormycosis causing ruptured PAA in a patient with diabetes. This patient was cured by a timely treatment of a combination of surgery and medical therapy.

  2. Transcatheter Arterial Coil Embolization of Ruptured Common Hepatic Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Akihiro; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Asahi, Kouichi; Okada, Shingo; Tsuge, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysm is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. We report a case of ruptured common hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the preferred treatment modality in patients at high risk of surgical intervention. PMID:25821623

  3. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  4. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrates at Chiricahua National Monument (NM) in Arizona. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Chiricahua NM to document the presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the monument. This report is also the first summary of previous research from the monument and therefore it provides an important overview of survey efforts to date. We used data from our inventory and previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. We recorded a total of 424 species, including 37 not previously found at the monument (Table 1). We found 10 species of non-native plants and one non-native mammal. Most non-native plants were found along the western boundary of the monument. Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the monument, there have been a total of 1,137 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. We believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network. The mammal community at the monument had the highest species richness (69 species) and the amphibian and reptile community was among the lowest species richness (33 species) of any park in the Sonoran Desert Network. Species richness of the plant and bird communities was intermediate. Among the important determinants of species richness for all groups is the geographic location of the monument at the intergrades between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts with influences from the Great Plains and Madrean ecological provinces. The diversity of plants results from a wide variety of soil types and aspects (from cool, moist canyons to semi-desert grasslands to pine forests). In turn, the vertebrate communities respond to this diversity of vegetation, topography, and microsites. For example, for each taxonomic group we found that some species were only associated with a single community type, most often the riparian areas or semi-desert grasslands. The area of highest species richness for most groups was the western-most portion of Bonita Canyon. The low species richness observed in the amphibian and reptile community was likely because the monument is at the elevational edge of the more species-rich semi-desert grasslands. This report includes management implications from our work and suggestions for how the monument staff might better maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of the monument. We suggest additional inventory, monitoring, and research studies and we identify components of our effort that could be improved upon, either through the application of new techniques (e.g., establishment of vegetation monitoring plots) or by extending the temporal and/or spatial scope of our work.

  5. Comparison of Approaches to Quantify Arterial Damping

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    Comparison of Approaches to Quantify Arterial Damping Capacity From Pressurization Tests on Mouse Conduit Arteries Lian Tian e-mail: ltian22@wisc.edu Zhijie Wang e-mail: zwang48@wisc.edu Department-mail: chesler@engr.wisc.edu Large conduit arteries are not purely elastic, but viscoelastic, which affects

  6. Optimised Computational Functional Imaging for Arteries

    E-print Network

    Nicoud, Franck

    Optimised Computational Functional Imaging for Arteries Ramiro Moreno1 , Ming Chau3 , Shirod Jeetoo of the Optimised Computational Func- tional Imaging for Arteries (OCFIA) program is to introduce high of the complex velocity distribution and biomechanical load on the arterial wall. Nevertheless there is not doubt

  7. Nonlinear problems in arterial ows Giuseppe Pontrelli

    E-print Network

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe

    Nonlinear problems in arterial ows Giuseppe Pontrelli Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in a deformable tube xed at the two ends is presented as a fundamental study. The main application is in arterial and pathological states. Blood ow in arteries is dominated by unsteadiness and by wave propagation phenomena

  8. Diverse of Erythropoiesis Responding to Hypoxia and Low Environmental Temperature in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Shun; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are responsible for transporting oxygen to tissue and are essential for the survival of almost all vertebrate animals. Circulating erythrocyte counts are tightly regulated and respond to erythrocyte mass and oxygen tension. Since the discovery of erythropoietin, the erythropoietic responses to environment and tissue oxygen tension have been investigated in mice and human. Moreover, it has recently become increasingly clear that various environmental stresses could induce the erythropoiesis via various modulating systems, while all vertebrates live in various environments and habitually adapt to environmental stress. Therefore, it is considered that investigations of erythropoiesis in vertebrates provide a lead to the various erythropoietic responses to environmental stress. This paper comparatively introduces the present understanding of erythropoiesis in vertebrates. Indeed, there is a wide range of variations in vertebrates' erythropoiesis. This paper also focused on erythropoietic responses to environmental stress, hypoxia, and lowered temperature in vertebrates. PMID:26557695

  9. Deep Vertebrate Roots for Mammalian Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Li-Hsin; Sun, Younguk; Lu, Xiaochen; Stubbs, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    While many vertebrate transcription factor (TF) families are conserved, the C2H2 zinc finger (ZNF) family stands out as a notable exception. In particular, novel ZNF gene types have arisen, duplicated, and diverged independently throughout evolution to yield many lineage-specific TF genes. This evolutionary dynamic not only raises many intriguing questions but also severely complicates identification of those ZNF genes that remain functionally conserved. To address this problem, we searched for vertebrate “DNA binding orthologs” by mining ZNF loci from eight sequenced genomes and then aligning the patterns of DNA-binding amino acids, or “fingerprints,” extracted from the encoded ZNF motifs. Using this approach, we found hundreds of lineage-specific genes in each species and also hundreds of orthologous groups. Most groups of orthologs displayed some degree of fingerprint divergence between species, but 174 groups showed fingerprint patterns that have been very rigidly conserved. Focusing on the dynamic KRAB-ZNF subfamily—including nearly 400 human genes thought to possess potent KRAB-mediated epigenetic silencing activities—we found only three genes conserved between mammals and nonmammalian groups. These three genes, members of an ancient familial cluster, encode an unusual KRAB domain that functions as a transcriptional activator. Evolutionary analysis confirms the ancient provenance of this activating KRAB and reveals the independent expansion of KRAB-ZNFs in every vertebrate lineage. Most human ZNF genes, from the most deeply conserved to the primate-specific genes, are highly expressed in immune and reproductive tissues, indicating that they have been enlisted to regulate evolutionarily divergent biological traits. PMID:24534434

  10. Microarchitecture Influences Microdamage Accumulation in Human Vertebral Trabecular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Arlot, Monique E; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Roux, Jean-Paul; Vashishth, Deepak; Bouxsein, Mary L; Delmas, Pierre D

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that accumulation of microdamage with age contributes to skeletal fragility. However, data on the age-related increase in microdamage and the association between microdamage and trabecular microarchitecture in human vertebral cancellous bone are limited. We quantified microdamage in cancellous bone from human lumbar (L2) vertebral bodies obtained from 23 donors 54–93 yr of age (8 men and 15 women). Damage was measured using histologic techniques of sequential labeling with chelating agents and was related to 3D microarchitecture, as assessed by high-resolution ?CT. There were no significant differences between sexes, although women tended to have a higher microcrack density (Cr.Dn) than men. Cr.Dn increased exponentially with age (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and was correlated with bone volume fraction (BV/TV; r = ?0.55; p < 0.01), trabecular number (Tb.N; r = ?0.56 p = 0.008), structure model index (SMI; r = 0.59; p = 0.005), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp; r = 0.59; p < 0.009). All architecture parameters were strongly correlated with each other and with BV/TV. Stepwise regression showed that SMI was the best predictor of microdamage, explaining 35% of the variance in Cr.Dn and 20% of the variance in diffuse damage accumulation. In addition, microcrack length was significantly greater in the highest versus lowest tertiles of SMI. In conclusion, in human vertebral cancellous bone, microdamage increases with age and is associated with low BV/TV and a rod-like trabecular architecture. PMID:18518771

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene families.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ju; Tsoi, Stephen C-M; Mannen, Hideyuka; Shoei-lung Li, Steven

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences were found to be larger for a human-killifish pair than a human-lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions separately for several species pairs and found that the transitions tend to be saturated in the distantly related species pair, while transversions are increasing. We conclude that transversions maintain a conservative rate through the evolutionary time. Kimura's two-parameter model for multiple-hit correction on transversions only was used to derive a distance measure and then construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Three findings were revealed from the NJ tree: (i) the branching order of the tree is consistent with the common branch pattern of major vertebrates; (ii) Ldh-A and Ldh-B genes were duplicated near the origin of vertebrates; and (iii) Ldh-C and Ldh-A in mammals were produced by an independent gene duplication in early mammalian history. Furthermore, a relative rate test showed that mammalian Ldh-C evolved more rapidly than mammalian Ldh-A. Under a two-rate model, this duplication event was calibrated to be approximately 247 million years ago (mya), dating back to the Triassic period. Other gene duplication events were also discovered in Xenopus, the first duplication occurring approximately 60-70 mya in both Ldh-A and Ldh-B, followed by another recent gene duplication event, approximately 20 mya, in Ldh-B. PMID:11965434

  12. Vertebral classification using localized pathology-related shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewail, R.; Elsafi, A.; Durdle, N.

    2008-03-01

    Radiographs of the spine are frequently examined for assessment of vertebral abnormalities. Features like osteophytes (bony growth of vertebra's corners), and disc space narrowing are often used as visual evidence of osteoarthris or degenerative joint disease. These symptoms result in remarkable changes in the shapes of the vertebral body. Statistical analysis of anatomical structure has recently gained increased popularity within the medical imaging community, since they have the potential to enhance the automated diagnosis process. In this paper, we present a novel method for computer-assisted vertebral classification using a localized, pathology-related shape model. The new classification scheme is able to assess the condition of multiple vertebrae simultaneously, hence is possible to directly classify the whole spine anatomy according to the condition of interest (anterior osteophites). At the core of this method is a new localized shape model that uses concepts of sparsity, dimension reduction, and statistical independence to extract sets of localized modes of deformations specific to each of the vertebrae under investigation. By projection of the shapes onto any specific set of deformation modes (or basis), we obtain low-dimensional features that are most directly related to the pathology of the vertebra of interest. These features are then used as input to a support vector machine classifier to classify the vertebra under investigation as normal or upnormal. Experiments are conducted using contours from digital x-ray images of five vertebrae of lumbar spine. The accuracy of the classification scheme is assessed using the ROC curves. An average specifity of 96.8 % is achieved with a sensitivity of 80 %.

  13. Threats from Climate Change to Terrestrial Vertebrate Hotspots in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Maiorano, Luigi; Amori, Giovanni; Capula, Massimo; Falcucci, Alessandra; Masi, Monica; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Pottier, Julien; Psomas, Achilleas; Rondinini, Carlo; Russo, Danilo; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2013-01-01

    We identified hotspots of terrestrial vertebrate species diversity in Europe and adjacent islands. Moreover, we assessed the extent to which by the end of the 21st century such hotspots will be exposed to average monthly temperature and precipitation patterns which can be regarded as extreme if compared to the climate experienced during 1950-2000. In particular, we considered the entire European sub-continent plus Turkey and a total of 1149 species of terrestrial vertebrates. For each species, we developed species-specific expert-based distribution models (validated against field data) which we used to calculate species richness maps for mammals, breeding birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Considering four global circulation model outputs and three emission scenarios, we generated an index of risk of exposure to extreme climates, and we used a bivariate local Moran’s I to identify the areas with a significant association between hotspots of diversity and high risk of exposure to extreme climates. Our results outline that the Mediterranean basin represents both an important hotspot for biodiversity and especially for threatened species for all taxa. In particular, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas host particularly high species richness as measured over all groups, while the eastern Mediterranean basin is particularly rich in amphibians and reptiles; the islands (both Macaronesian and Mediterranean) host the highest richness of threatened species for all taxa occurs. Our results suggest that the main hotspots of biodiversity for terrestrial vertebrates may be extensively influenced by the climate change projected to occur over the coming decades, especially in the Mediterranean bioregion, posing serious concerns for biodiversity conservation. PMID:24066162

  14. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats.

    PubMed

    Free, C L; Baxter, G S; Dickman, C R; Lisle, A; Leung, L K-P

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  15. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  16. Spatially Explicit Trends in the Global Conservation Status of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Chanson, Janice; Cox, Neil; Hoffmann, Michael; Stuart, Simon N.

    2014-01-01

    The world's governments have committed to preventing the extinction of threatened species and improving their conservation status by 2020. However, biodiversity is not evenly distributed across space, and neither are the drivers of its decline, and so different regions face very different challenges. Here, we quantify the contribution of regions and countries towards recent global trends in vertebrate conservation status (as measured by the Red List Index), to guide action towards the 2020 target. We found that>50% of the global deterioration in the conservation status of birds, mammals and amphibians is concentrated in <1% of the surface area, 39/1098 ecoregions (4%) and eight/195 countries (4%) – Australia, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and the United States. These countries hold a third of global diversity in these vertebrate groups, partially explaining why they concentrate most of the losses. Yet, other megadiverse countries – most notably Brazil (responsible for 10% of species but just 1% of deterioration), plus India and Madagascar – performed better in conserving their share of global vertebrate diversity. Very few countries, mostly island nations (e.g. Cook Islands, Fiji, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Tonga), have achieved net improvements. Per capita wealth does not explain these patterns, with two of the richest countries – United States and Australia – fairing conspicuously poorly. Different countries were affected by different combinations of threats. Reducing global rates of biodiversity loss will require investment in the regions and countries with the highest responsibility for the world's biodiversity, focusing on conserving those species and areas most in peril and on reducing the drivers with the highest impacts. PMID:25426636

  17. Spatially explicit trends in the global conservation status of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana S L; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Chanson, Janice; Cox, Neil; Hoffmann, Michael; Stuart, Simon N

    2014-01-01

    The world's governments have committed to preventing the extinction of threatened species and improving their conservation status by 2020. However, biodiversity is not evenly distributed across space, and neither are the drivers of its decline, and so different regions face very different challenges. Here, we quantify the contribution of regions and countries towards recent global trends in vertebrate conservation status (as measured by the Red List Index), to guide action towards the 2020 target. We found that>50% of the global deterioration in the conservation status of birds, mammals and amphibians is concentrated in <1% of the surface area, 39/1098 ecoregions (4%) and eight/195 countries (4%) - Australia, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and the United States. These countries hold a third of global diversity in these vertebrate groups, partially explaining why they concentrate most of the losses. Yet, other megadiverse countries - most notably Brazil (responsible for 10% of species but just 1% of deterioration), plus India and Madagascar - performed better in conserving their share of global vertebrate diversity. Very few countries, mostly island nations (e.g. Cook Islands, Fiji, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Tonga), have achieved net improvements. Per capita wealth does not explain these patterns, with two of the richest countries - United States and Australia - fairing conspicuously poorly. Different countries were affected by different combinations of threats. Reducing global rates of biodiversity loss will require investment in the regions and countries with the highest responsibility for the world's biodiversity, focusing on conserving those species and areas most in peril and on reducing the drivers with the highest impacts. PMID:25426636

  18. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  19. Anomalous External Carotid Artery-Internal Carotid Artery Anastomosis in Two Patients with Proximal Internal Carotid Arterial Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Hun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Han, Moon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other. PMID:26175593

  20. Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) constitute a major health care problem, not only because of their high incidence but also because of their direct and indirect negative impacts on both patients’ health-related quality of life and costs to the health care system. Two minimally invasive surgical approaches were developed for the management of symptomatic VCFs: balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of symptomatic VCFs. Methods Between July 2011 and June 2012, one hundred and eighty-seven patients with two hundred and fifty-one vertebras received balloon kyphoplasty in our hospital. There were sixty-five male and one hundred and twenty-two female patients with an average age of 74.5 (range, 61 to 95 years). The pain symptoms and quality of life, were measured before operation and at one day, three months, six months and one year following kyphoplasty. Radiographic data including restoration of kyphotic angle, anterior vertebral height, and any leakage of cement were defined. Results The mean visual analog pain scale decreased from a preoperative value of 7.7 to 2.2 at one day (p?vertebral height increased significantly from 52% before surgery to 74.5% at one day after surgery (p?vertebral compression fractures with balloon kyphoplasty is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive procedure that provides satisfactory clinical results. PMID:24423182

  1. Adult vertebrate behavioural aquatic toxicology: Reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    Current advances in the ability to assay adult aquatic vertebrate behaviour are potentially very useful to aquatic toxicologists wishing to characterise the effects of pollutants on behaviour, cognition or neurodevelopment. This review considers two specific challenges faced by researchers wishing to exploit these technologies: maximising reliability and validity. It will suggest two behavioural procedures, with the potential for automation and high-throughput implementation, which can be used to measure social cohesion and anxiety, two areas of interest in behavioural aquatic toxicology. In addition, the review will make recommendations about how these procedures (and others) could be carried out to maximise reliability and validity. PMID:26358137

  2. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Vertebrate Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Tropepe, Vincent; Hermanson, Ola

    2015-01-01

    The process of neurogenesis, through which the entire nervous system of an organism is formed, has attracted immense scientific attention for decades. How can a single neural stem cell give rise to astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons? Furthermore, how is a neuron led to choose between the hundreds of different neuronal subtypes that the vertebrate CNS contains? Traditionally, niche signals and transcription factors have been on the spotlight. Recent research is increasingly demonstrating that the answer may partially lie in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this article, we comprehensively review the role of post-translational histone modifications in neurogenesis in both the embryonic and adult CNS.

  3. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. PMID:17691425

  4. Compliant transducer measures artery profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Culler, V. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Spears, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument consisting of compliant fingers with attached semiconductor pickups measures inside contours of narrow vessels. Instrument, originally designed to monitor human arteries, is drawn through vessel to allow finges to follow contours. Lead wires transmit electrical signals to external processing equipment.

  5. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  6. Engineering of arteries in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela H.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate the biomechanical environment of the arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and the mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arterial vessels. In addition, this review will introduce and examine various approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically-based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels. PMID:24399290

  7. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin. PMID:19168246

  8. Interpedicular Approach in Percutaneous Sacroplasty for Treatment of Sacral Vertebral Body Pathologic Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I rat, Ahmet Kemal; Guemues, Burcak; Kaya, Emin Kuku, Irfan; Harma, Ahmet

    2011-02-15

    For this technique, bone needle is introduced into the S1 vertebral body through the interpedicular route by penetrating the central spinal canal at the level of S3-4 and passing through the vertebral body of S2-3 parallel to the anterior border of sacrum. With the interpedicular approach, two sacral vertebral bodies can be injected in one session and lower sacral body injection also is available. interpedicular technique is a safe, practical, and effective technique for the treatment of sacral vertebral body pathologic fractures.

  9. Differential segmental growth of the vertebral column of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Philip J; Melin, Amanda D; Russell, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Despite the pervasive occurrence of segmental morphologies in the animal kingdom, the study of segmental growth is almost entirely lacking, but may have significant implications for understanding the development of these organisms. We investigate the segmental and regional growth of the entire vertebral column of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) by fitting a Gompertz curve to length and age data for each vertebra and each vertebral region. Regional lengths are calculated by summing constituent vertebral lengths and intervertebral space lengths for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal regions. Gompertz curves allow for the estimation of parameters representing neonatal and adult vertebral and regional lengths, as well as initial growth rate and the rate of exponential growth decay. Findings demonstrate differences between neonatal and adult rats in terms of relative vertebral lengths, and differential growth rates between sequential vertebrae and vertebral regions. Specifically, relative differences in the length of vertebrae indicate increasing differences caudad. Vertebral length in neonates increases from the atlas to the middle of the thoracic series and decreases in length caudad, while adult vertebral lengths tend to increase caudad. There is also a general trend of increasing vertebral and regional initial growth and rate of growth decay caudad. Anteroposterior patterns of growth are sexually dimorphic, with males having longer vertebrae than females at any given age. Differences are more pronounced (a) increasingly caudad along the body axis, and (b) in adulthood than in neonates. Elucidated patterns of growth are influenced by a combination of developmental, functional, and genetic factors. PMID:16377162

  10. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-Feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The resent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population. PMID:26593994

  11. Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation as case studies

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation: somitogenesis and feather bud formation. We outline mathematical models to describe each patterning mechanism

  12. Late Permian vertebrate community of the Pranhita Godavari valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sanghamitra; Bandyopadhyay, Saswati

    2003-03-01

    The Kundaram Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari valley yields the only Late Permian multispecies terrestrial vertebrate assemblage from India. This includes various medium and small dicynodonts such as Endothiodon, Oudenodon, Kingoria, Emydops, Cistecephalus and Pristerodon. At present two species of Endothiodon ( E. mahalanobisi and E. uniseries) are known. Apart from these dicynodonts, the Kundaram vertebrate fauna also contains a medium-sized gorgonopsian and a small captorhinid. The material, from the red mudstone dominated Kundaram Formation, includes numerous isolated, disarticulated skulls and lower jaws. Postcranial elements are relatively rare except for a few broken limb ends and vertebrae. The bones are encrusted by iron rich matrix and most of them had suffered deformation. This skull dominant accumulation is attributed to prolonged aerial exposure prior to burial resulting in disarticulation of the skeletons and subsequent inundation by floodwater. The limb bones and other postcranial elements of the already disarticulated skeletons were winnowed out by shallow competent flow while the relatively heavier skulls and lower jaws resisting transportation were buried near the site of death. The Late Permian scenario of the Pranhita-Godavari valley was characterised by the dominance of herbivores. This abundance of herbivores at the base and the presence of relatively few carnivores and omnivores at the top of the Kundaram food pyramid indicate a trophic structure similar to that of the modern-day terrestrial ecosystem.

  13. Of mice and genes: evolution of vertebrate brain development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this review the current understanding of genetic and molecular evolution of development, in particular the formation of the major axis of bilateral animals, is critically evaluated, and the early pattern formation in the hindbrain is related as much as possible to these processes. On the genetic level it is proposed that the exuberant multiplication of regulatory genes compared to that of structural genes relates to the increased flexibility of early vertebrate development. In comparisons to fruit flies, many conserved genes are found to be expressed very differently, while many others seem to reflect a comparable pattern and thus suggest a conservation of function. Even genes with a largely conserved pattern of expression may change the level at which they are expressed and the mechanisms by which they are regulated in their expression. Evolution and development of hindbrain motoneurons is reviewed, and it is concluded that both comparative data as well as more recent experimental data suggest a limited importance for the rhombomeres. Clearly, many cell fate-specifying processes work below the level of rhombomeres or in the absence of rhombomeres. It is suggested that more comparative developmental data are needed to establish firmly the relationship between homeobox genes and rhombomere specification in vertebrates other than a few model species.

  14. Genetic control of segmentation of axial structures in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Mglinets, V.A.

    1995-07-01

    The processes of segmentation of axial structures in vertebrates during early embryonic development are reviewed. These processes include the formation of neuromeres, somitomeres, cranial ganglia, and branchial arches in the head and of neuromeres, somites, spinal ganglia, and motor nerves in the body of the embryo. The class of vertebrate homeobox genes Hox is described with respect to the arrangement of these genes in four clusters, the structural and functional similarity of paralogues in gene subfamilies, and the type of Hox gene expression in the head and body. A hypothesis concerning the existence of a genetic Hox code, determining the fate of individual segments in neuroectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives, is discussed. In the context of this hypothesis, phenotypic expression of the mutant Hox genes, accompanied by the loss of their function and cases of excessive and ectopic expression of Hox genes, are analyzed. Only in such cases do mutant phenotypes demonstrate symptoms of actual homeotic transformation, in which specific segmental structures are substituted by their homologues, as has been described for homeotic mutations in Drosophila. 56 refs., 1 fig.

  15. A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Mark; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Turner, Bruce J; Avise, John C

    2006-01-01

    Mixed-mating systems, in which hermaphrodites can either self-fertilize or outcross, are common in many species of plants and invertebrates and have been informative models for studying the selective forces that can maintain both inbreeding and outbreeding in populations. Here, we document a remarkable instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus). In this androdioecious species, most individuals are simultaneous hermaphrodites that characteristically self-fertilize, resulting in local populations that consist of (nearly) homozygous lines. Most demes are also genetically diverse, an observation traditionally attributed to de novo mutation coupled with high levels of inter-site migration. However, data presented here, from a survey of 35 microsatellite loci in Floridian populations, show that genotypic diversity also stems proximally from occasional outcross events that release ‘explosions’ of transient recombinant variation. The result is a local population genetic pattern (of extensive genotypic variety despite low but highly heterogeneous intra-individual heterozygosities) that differs qualitatively from the genetic architectures known in any other vertebrate species. Advantages of a mixed-mating strategy in K. marmoratus probably relate to this fish's solitary lifestyle and its ability to colonize new habitats. PMID:16959634

  16. Zebrafish stripes as a model for vertebrate colour pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2015-01-19

    Colour patterns are prominent features of many animals and have important functions in communication, such as camouflage, kin recognition and mate choice. As targets for natural as well as sexual selection, they are of high evolutionary significance. The molecular mechanisms underlying colour pattern formation in vertebrates are not well understood. Progress in transgenic tools, in vivo imaging and the availability of a large collection of mutants make the zebrafish (Danio rerio) an attractive model to study vertebrate colouration. Zebrafish display golden and blue horizontal stripes that form during metamorphosis as mosaics of yellow xanthophores, silvery or blue iridophores and black melanophores in the hypodermis. Lineage tracing revealed the origin of the adult pigment cells and their individual cellular behaviours during the formation of the striped pattern. Mutant analysis indicated that interactions between all three pigment cell types are required for the formation of the pattern, and a number of cell surface molecules and signalling systems have been identified as mediators of these interactions. The understanding of the mechanisms that underlie colour pattern formation is an important step towards deciphering the genetic basis of variation in evolution. PMID:25602311

  17. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dinerstein, S.L.; Kovarsky, J.

    1984-08-01

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae.

  18. Neural Differentiation Modulates the Vertebrate Brain Specific Splicing Program

    PubMed Central

    Madgwick, Alicia; Fort, Philippe; Hanson, Peter S.; Thibault, Philippe; Gaudreau, Marie-Claude; Lutfalla, Georges; Möröy, Tarik; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chaudhry, Bill; Elliott, David J.; Morris, Christopher M.; Venables, Julian P.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns are known to vary between tissues but these patterns have been found to be predominantly peculiar to one species or another, implying only a limited function in fundamental neural biology. Here we used high-throughput RT-PCR to monitor the expression pattern of all the annotated simple alternative splicing events (ASEs) in the Reference Sequence Database, in different mouse tissues and identified 93 brain-specific events that shift from one isoform to another (switch-like) between brain and other tissues. Consistent with an important function, regulation of a core set of 9 conserved switch-like ASEs is highly conserved, as they have the same pattern of tissue-specific splicing in all vertebrates tested: human, mouse and zebrafish. Several of these ASEs are embedded within genes that encode proteins associated with the neuronal microtubule network, and show a dramatic and concerted shift within a short time window of human neural stem cell differentiation. Similarly these exons are dynamically regulated in zebrafish development. These data demonstrate that although alternative splicing patterns often vary between species, there is nonetheless a core set of vertebrate brain-specific ASEs that are conserved between species and associated with neural differentiation. PMID:25993117

  19. Management of the Elderly With Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Christina L; Chutkan, Norman B; Choma, Theodore J; Orr, R Douglas

    2015-10-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common type of fracture secondary to osteoporosis. These fractures are associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality and annual direct medical expenditures of more than $1 billion in the United States. Although many patients will respond favorably to nonsurgical care of their VCF, contemporary natural history data suggest that more than 40% of patients may fail to achieve significant pain relief within 12 months of symptom onset. As a result, percutaneous vertebral augmentation is often used to hasten symptom resolution and return of function. However, controversy regarding the role of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty in the treatment of symptomatic VCFs exists. The purposes of this review are (1) to outline the epidemiology of VCFs as well as the physical morbidity and economic impact of these injuries, (2) to familiarize the reader with the best available evidence surrounding the operative and nonoperative treatment of VCFs, and (3) to examine the literature pertaining to the cost-effectiveness of surgical management of VCFs with the overarching goal of helping physicians make informed decisions regarding symptomatic VCF treatment. PMID:26378356

  20. The ?-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Is Essential for Vertebrate Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Galen W.; Ulatowski, Lynn; Labut, Edwin M.; Lebold, Katie M.; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Barton, Carrie L.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic ?-tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) is required for optimal ?-tocopherol bioavailability in humans; mutations in the human TTPA gene result in the heritable disorder ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED, OMIM #277460). TTP is also expressed in mammalian uterine and placental cells and in the human embryonic yolk-sac, underscoring TTP’s significance during fetal development. TTP and vitamin E are essential for productive pregnancy in rodents, but their precise physiological role in embryogenesis is unknown. We hypothesize that TTP is required to regulate delivery of ?-tocopherol to critical target sites in the developing embryo. We tested to find if TTP is essential for proper vertebrate development, utilizing the zebrafish as a non-placental model. We verify that TTP is expressed in the adult zebrafish and its amino acid sequence is homologous to the human ortholog. We show that embryonic transcription of TTP mRNA increases >7-fold during the first 24 hours following fertilization. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Ttpa transcripts are localized in the developing brain, eyes and tail bud at 1-day post fertilization. Inhibiting TTP expression using oligonucleotide morpholinos results in severe malformations of the head and eyes in nearly all morpholino-injected embryos (88% compared with 5.6% in those injected with control morpholinos or 1.7% in non-injected embryos). We conclude that TTP is essential for early development of the vertebrate central nervous system. PMID:23077608

  1. Mortality after hip fracture with vertebral compression fracture is poor.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Endo, Naoto; Hoshino, Tadashi; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing elderly population, the prevalence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Japanese patients continues to rise. It is well established that patients with either hip fracture or both symptomatic and asymptomatic morphometric vertebral compression fracture (VCF) have a poor health prognosis compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate vertebral fracture rates among patients with hip fracture and their influence on mortality. We examined 182 cases of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients admitted to our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. The average age at the time of fracture was 85 years. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from all of the participants and the lateral spinal radiographs were examined for evidence of VCF. The patients were classified into two groups, those with VCF and those without. A VCF was identified in approximately 78 % of the patients. The mortality rate 1 year after the hip fracture was approximately 22 % and it was significantly higher in patients with VCF. Through multivariate statistics we found that VCF, post-operative complication, loss of ambulation after operation and medication for osteoporosis were statistically significant. In other words, VCF, post-operative complication and loss of ambulation were considered to be poor prognostic factors and medication for osteoporosis was likely to improve the prognosis. We concluded that the risk of mortality after hip fracture is significantly greater in patients who also have VCF compared to patients without VCF, and that medication for osteoporosis is likely to improve prognosis. PMID:25501699

  2. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  3. Regeneration versus scarring in vertebrate appendages and heart.

    PubMed

    Ja?wi?ska, Anna; Sallin, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to complex human organs, such as the limbs and the heart, result in pathological conditions, for which we often lack adequate treatments. While modern regenerative approaches are based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived cells, natural regeneration in lower vertebrates, such as zebrafish and newts, relies predominantly on the intrinsic plasticity of mature tissues. This property involves local activation of the remaining material at the site of injury to promote cell division, cell migration and complete reproduction of the missing structure. It remains an unresolved question why adult mammals are not equally competent to reactivate morphogenetic programmes. Although organ regeneration depends strongly on the proliferative properties of cells in the injured tissue, it is apparent that various organismic factors, such as innervation, vascularization, hormones, metabolism and the immune system, can affect this process. Here, we focus on a correlation between the regenerative capacity and cellular specialization in the context of functional demands, as illustrated by appendages and heart in diverse vertebrates. Elucidation of the differences between homologous regenerative and non-regenerative tissues from various animal models is essential for understanding the applicability of lessons learned from the study of regenerative biology to clinical strategies for the treatment of injured human organs. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26414617

  4. Major African contributions to Palaeozoic and Mesozoic vertebrate palaeontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. F.

    2005-10-01

    Over more than two centuries, Africa has been an important source of knowledge with regard to the origins, evolution and distribution of important animal taxa. Not only did Africa south of the Sahara contain a second zoogeographical region virtually unknown four centuries ago, but also gave the world the first insight into the palaeontological wealth and the existence of Gondwana. The section on Agnatha includes a discussion on conodonts from South Africa, considered to be the some of the oldest and best-preserved vertebrate fossils in the world. The section on the Gnathostomata includes a very brief overview of the most important fish taxa from the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic of Africa. The section on the Tetrapoda includes an overview of the major taxa found in the fossil record of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic of Africa. The Permian and Triassic tetrapod fossils that indicate the evolution and radiation of the parareptiles, eureptiles and synapsids are highlighted. The most important vertebrate fossils from Africa that contributed to our understanding of the radiation of evolutionary important groups such as the fish, tetrapods, tortoises, snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs and mammals are discussed. The Jurassic and Cretaceous assemblages containing dinosaur and mammal remains, deposited after the break up of Gondwana, are discussed. Finally a perspective on the importance of Africa as fossil repository and the limitations of palaeontological endeavour in Africa is given.

  5. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  6. Experimental evidence of the compressibility of arteries.

    PubMed

    Yosibash, Zohar; Manor, Itay; Gilad, Ilan; Willentz, Udi

    2014-11-01

    A definitive answer to the question whether artery walls are incompressible is to our opinion not yet categorically provided. Experimental-based evidence on the level of compressibility in artery walls is not easily achieved because of the difficulties associated with the measurement of very small differences in volumes under physiological pressure in these biological tissues. Past experiments aimed at addressing the question considered different species, different arteries, the experimental devices were not accurate enough and a statistical analysis of the results was missing. A precise experimental device together with a thorough testing protocol, a careful selection of arteries and a statistical analysis is presented for a definitive evaluation of the artery wall compressibility. We provide experimental evidence that in saphenous and femoral porcine arteries under physiological pressure range a relative compressibility of 2-6% is observed. The pre-assumption of incompressibility in many phenomenological constitutive models of artery walls should probably be re-evaluated. PMID:25173235

  7. Compressive pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with celiac artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wattez, Hélène; Lancelevée, Julien; Perot, Céline; Massouille, David; Chambon, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Peripancreatic artery aneurysms are a rare condition, representing <2% of all splanchnic artery aneurysms, and have been significantly related to celiac axis stenosis. While they are most often asymptomatic, those aneurysms have a strong tendency to rupture (52% rupture rate at the initial presentation) and, in this case, the outcome is often dramatic. Given that reports of this disease are rare, appropriate guidelines are difficult to formulate and different treatment strategies have been proposed. Endovascular management seems to be efficient in the large majority of most recent reports, but open surgery still remains necessary for complex cases, especially when associated with celiac axis stenosis. We report a new occurrence of a symptomatic compressive aneurysm related to common bile duct compression that we treated using a hybrid procedure. PMID:23988551

  8. Built for speed: strain in the cartilaginous vertebral columns of sharks.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E; Diaz, Candido; Sturm, Joshua J; Grotmol, Sindre; Summers, A P; Long, John H

    2014-02-01

    In most bony fishes vertebral column strain during locomotion is almost exclusively in the intervertebral joints, and when these joints move there is the potential to store and release strain energy. Since cartilaginous fishes have poorly mineralized vertebral centra, we tested whether the vertebral bodies undergo substantial strain and thus may be sites of energy storage during locomotion. We measured axial strains of the intervertebral joints and vertebrae in vivo and ex vivo to characterize the dynamic behavior of the vertebral column. We used sonomicrometry to directly measure in vivo and in situ strains of intervertebral joints and vertebrae of Squalus acanthias swimming in a flume. For ex vivo measurements, we used a materials testing system to dynamically bend segments of vertebral column at frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 Hz and a range of physiologically relevant curvatures, which were determined using a kinematic analysis. The vertebral centra of S. acanthias undergo strain during in vivo volitional movements as well as in situ passive movements. Moreover, when isolated segments of vertebral column were tested during mechanical bending, we measured the same magnitudes of strain. These data support our hypothesis that vertebral column strain in lateral bending is not limited to the intervertebral joints. In histological sections, we found that the vertebral column of S. acanthias has an intracentral canal that is open and covered with a velum layer. An open intracentral canal may indicate that the centra are acting as tunics around some sections of a hydrostat, effectively stiffening the vertebral column. These data suggest that the entire vertebral column of sharks, both joints and centra, is mechanically engaged as a dynamic spring during locomotion. PMID:24388493

  9. Evolution of neural crest and placodes: amphioxus as a model for the ancestral vertebrate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. Z.; Holland, N. D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of protochordates (ascidian tunicates and amphioxus) have given insights into possible ancestors of 2 of the characteristic features of the vertebrate head: neural crest and placodes. The neural crest probably evolved from cells on either side of the neural plate-epidermis boundary in a protochordate ancestral to the vertebrates. In amphioxus, homologues of several vertebrate neural crest marker genes (BMP2/4, Pax3/7, Msx, Dll and Snail) are expressed at the edges of the neural plate and/or adjacent nonneural ectoderm. Some of these markers are also similarly expressed in tunicates. In protochordates, however, these cells, unlike vertebrate neural crest, neither migrate as individuals through embryonic tissues nor differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types. Therefore, while the protochordate ancestor of the vertebrates probably had the beginnings of a genetic programme for neural crest formation, this programme was augmented in the earliest vertebrates to attain definitive neural crest. Clear homologues of vertebrate placodes are lacking in protochordates. However, both amphioxus and tunicates have ectodermal sensory cells. In tunicates these are all primary neurons, sending axons to the central nervous system, while in amphioxus, the ectodermal sensory cells include both primary neurons and secondary neurons lacking axons. Comparisons of developmental gene expression suggest that the anterior ectoderm in amphioxus may be homologous to the vertebrate olfactory placode, the only vertebrate placode with primary, not secondary, neurons. Similarly, biochemical, morphological and gene expression data suggest that amphioxus and tunicates also have homologues of the adenohypophysis, one of the few vertebrate structures derived from nonneurogenic placodes. In contrast, the origin of the other vertebrate placodes is very uncertain.

  10. Evolution of neural crest and placodes: amphioxus as a model for the ancestral vertebrate?

    PubMed Central

    HOLLAND, LINDA Z.; HOLLAND, NICHOLAS D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of protochordates (ascidian tunicates and amphioxus) have given insights into possible ancestors of 2 of the characteristic features of the vertebrate head: neural crest and placodes. The neural crest probably evolved from cells on either side of the neural plate–epidermis boundary in a protochordate ancestral to the vertebrates. In amphioxus, homologues of several vertebrate neural crest marker genes (BMP2/4, Pax3/7, Msx, Dll and Snail) are expressed at the edges of the neural plate and/or adjacent nonneural ectoderm. Some of these markers are also similarly expressed in tunicates. In protochordates, however, these cells, unlike vertebrate neural crest, neither migrate as individuals through embryonic tissues nor differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types. Therefore, while the protochordate ancestor of the vertebrates probably had the beginnings of a genetic programme for neural crest formation, this programme was augmented in the earliest vertebrates to attain definitive neural crest. Clear homologues of vertebrate placodes are lacking in protochordates. However, both amphioxus and tunicates have ectodermal sensory cells. In tunicates these are all primary neurons, sending axons to the central nervous system, while in amphioxus, the ectodermal sensory cells include both primary neurons and secondary neurons lacking axons. Comparisons of developmental gene expression suggest that the anterior ectoderm in amphioxus may be homologous to the vertebrate olfactory placode, the only vertebrate placode with primary, not secondary, neurons. Similarly, biochemical, morphological and gene expression data suggest that amphioxus and tunicates also have homologues of the adenohypophysis, one of the few vertebrate structures derived from nonneurogenic placodes. In contrast, the origin of the other vertebrate placodes is very uncertain. PMID:11523831

  11. Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar’s Extant Vertebrate Fauna

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar’s endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history. PMID:23626770

  12. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  13. Emerging paradigms in arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wisler, James W; Becker, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    A traditional perspective of arterial thrombosis begins with vessel wall injury and exposure of subendothelial proteins, including collagen and tissue factor, to circulating cellular and non-cellular components. Adhesion and activation of platelets, mediated by their interaction with von Willebrand protein and collagen, respectively, coupled with tissue factor-mediated activation of coagulation proteins, results in thrombin generation and fibrin formation. While this time-honored paradigm remains firm and soundly based, emerging evidence suggests that arterial thrombosis is much more complex and dynamic than originally believed. Several novel triggers, templates and facilitators, such as cell-free nucleic acids, histones, DNA-histone complexes, polyphosphates, and microvesicles have recently been identified and require inclusion in the expanding universe of thrombosis as a dominant phenotype of human disease. Because these mediators appear to have modest if any effect on physiologic hemostasis, they likely represent acquired and disease or condition-dependent processes that are highly attractive targets for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:24046067

  14. Particle transport near arterial stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendabadi, Sahar; Shadden, Shawn

    2010-11-01

    We will present work towards understanding particle transport near arterial stenoses. Prior studies have shown increased platelet aggregation downstream of stenosis, or analogous geometrical models that induce flow separation and recirculation via abrupt expansion. Stenosis leads to changes in fluid mechanical quantities such as shear stress, flow separation, recirculation and reattachment and there exists several hypotheses on how these conditions influence platelet activation and aggregation. In particular, it is thought that high shear at the stenotic throat "activates" platelets that subsequently aggregate in the low shear separation zone perpetuating thrombotic events. We aim to understand particle (e.g. platelet) transport downstream of a stenosis in close detail. Towards this objective, we have developed numerical models of pulsatile flow near arterial stenoses and methods for particle tracking, including quantification of mechanical stimuli thought to initiate platelet activation. We will discuss results of this effort, comparison with previous studies, and plans for continued numerical and experimental work.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Masala, Salvatore; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Vinicola, Vincenzo; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in 179 consecutive patients (48 males, 131 females; mean age: 72.0 ± 8.59 years; range: 51–93) with single symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting between September 2004 and September 2005 to the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome, Italy. Vertebral fractures usually become manifest due to pain which can be debilitating. Treatment depends on the presence or absence of spinal cord involvement. In the first case, surgical stabilization is mandatory. In the second case, treatment may be performed either by conservative medical therapy (CMT) or percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, costs and cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty. After 2 weeks of analgesic therapy, 153 patients presented refractory pain and were offered treatment by PVT. A total of 58 patients accepted and underwent PVT (PVT group), while 95 refused and underwent conservative medical therapy (CMT group). Follow-up was performed by specialist consults, spine radiography and MRI and a self-assessment questionnaire evaluating pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and function using an ambulation and an Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale. A 12-month follow-up was obtained in 86 of 95 (90.5%) CMT group patients and 54 of 58 (93.1%) PVT group patients. Significant reduction of VAS and improvement of ambulation and ADL was observed in both groups at 1 week and 3 and 12 months (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon signed rank test), however, these results were significantly superior in the PVT group at 1 week and 3 months (P < 0.05; Mann–Whitney U test). Average cost per patient at 1 week and 3 and 12 months were respectively 755.49 ± 661.96, 3791.95 ± 3341.97 and 4299.55 ± 3211.53 € (CMT group) and 3311.35 ± 0.32, 3745.30 ± 3.59 and 4101.05 ± 755.41 € (PVT group). PVT resulted significantly more cost-effective than CMT with regards to the three scales at 1 week (P < 0.05; Mann–Whitney U test). At 3 months PVT was more cost-effective than CMT with regards to the three scales, however, the difference was significant only with regards to ambulation. No significant differences in cost-effectiveness where found between the two groups at 12 months. PVT should be considered the treatment of first choice in symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fractures with refractory pain after a short period of analgesic therapy. PMID:18636280

  16. Fc Receptors for Immunoglobulins and Their Appearance during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Srinivas; Mohammadamin, Sayran; Hellman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR ? chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR. PMID:24816777

  17. Fc receptors for immunoglobulins and their appearance during vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Akula, Srinivas; Mohammadamin, Sayran; Hellman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR ? chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR. PMID:24816777

  18. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tonto National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albrecht, Eric W.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first biological inventory of plants and vertebrates at Tonto National Monument (NM). From 2001 to 2003, we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tonto NM to record species presence. We focused most of our efforts along the Cave Springs riparian area, but surveyed other areas as well. We recorded 149 species in the riparian area, and 369 species overall in the monument, including 65 plant species and four bird species that were previously unrecorded for the monument. We recorded 78 plant species in the riparian area that previous studies had not indicated were present there. Several species of each taxonomic group were found only in the riparian area, suggesting that because of their concentration in this small area these populations are vulnerable to disturbance and may be of management concern. Four of the bird species that we recorded (Bell's vireo, yellow warbler, summer tanager, and Abert's towhee) have been identified as riparian 'obligate' species by other sources. Bird species that are obligated to riparian areas are targets of conservation concern due to widespread degradation of riparian areas in the desert southwest over the last century. The flora and fauna of the riparian area would benefit from continued limited public access. The dependence of the riparian area on the spring and surface flow suggests monitoring of this resource per se would benefit management of the riparian area's flora and fauna as well. The monument would benefit from incorporating monitoring protocols developed by the Sonoran Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring program rather than initiating a separate program for the riparian area. Park managers can encourage the Inventory and Monitoring program to address the unique monitoring challenges presented by small spatial areas such as this riparian area, and can request specific monitoring recommendations. We suggest that repeat inventories for vertebrates, and census (rather than sampling) of perennial vegetation may be the most effective long-term monitoring strategies in the riparian area to verify species persistence through time in this unique and spatially limited environment.

  19. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  20. Arterial Distensibility in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an indicator of arterial distensibility, may play an important role in the stratification of patients based on the cardiovascular risk. PWV inversely correlates with arterial distensibility and relative arterial compliance. Decreased arterial distensibility alters arterial blood pressure and flow dynamics, and disturbes coronary perfusion. Systemic immune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly due to adverse cardiovascular events. Systemic inflammation in these disorders may alter arterial compliance and arterial distensibility and, through this effect, lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated an increase in the carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV that is a technique in which large artery elasticity is assessed from analysis of the peripheral arterial waveform, in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as RA, SLE, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG), sarcoidosis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis except Behçet’s disease (BD). In this review, the issue of arterial stiffness in RA, SLE, as well as WG, psoriasis, FMF, BD, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis (SS) and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is overviewed. PMID:20461114

  1. Major events in the genome evolution of vertebrates: Paranome age and size differ considerably between

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    between ray-finned fishes and land vertebrates Klaas Vandepoele* , Wouter De Vos* , John S. Taylor , Axel Meyer§ , and Yves Van de Peer*¶ *Department of Plant Systems Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute to the additional genome duplication that ray-finned fishes but not land vertebrates experienced. Ohno believed

  2. Chapter 14: Sialic Acids 1. Compare and contrast the structure of sialic acids with other vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Chapter 14: Sialic Acids 1. Compare and contrast the structure of sialic acids with other vertebrate monosaccharides. 2. What advantages does sialic acid diversity provide in vertebrate systems? 3. What are the unique features of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathways in comparison to those of other

  3. Analysis of nuclear receptor pseudogenes in vertebrates: How the silent tell their stories

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    1 Analysis of nuclear receptor pseudogenes in vertebrates: How the silent tell their stories, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA § Corresponding author (E-mail: zdzmg@bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu) Running title: Vertebrate Nuclear Receptor Pseudogenes Keywords: nuclear

  4. Phylogenetic dating and characterization of gene duplications in vertebrates: the cartilaginous fish reference.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Boussau, Bastien; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-03-01

    Vertebrates originated in the lower Cambrian. Their diversification and morphological innovations have been attributed to large-scale gene or genome duplications at the origin of the group. These duplications are predicted to have occurred in two rounds, the "2R" hypothesis, or they may have occurred in one genome duplication plus many segmental duplications, although these hypotheses are disputed. Under such models, most genes that are duplicated in all vertebrates should have originated during the same period. Previous work has shown that indeed duplications started after the speciation between vertebrates and the closest invertebrate, amphioxus, but have not set a clear ending. Consideration of chordate phylogeny immediately shows the key position of cartilaginous vertebrates (Chondrichthyes) to answer this question. Did gene duplications occur as frequently during the 45 Myr between the cartilaginous/bony vertebrate split and the fish/tetrapode split as in the previous approximately 100 Myr? Although the time interval is relatively short, it is crucial to understanding the events at the origin of vertebrates. By a systematic appraisal of gene phylogenies, we show that significantly more duplications occurred before than after the cartilaginous/bony vertebrate split. Our results support rounds of gene or genome duplications during a limited period of early vertebrate evolution and allow a better characterization of these events. PMID:14694077

  5. Realignment of a seventh lumbar vertebral fracture/luxation using a Senn retractor in two puppies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, M L; Bagley, R S

    1998-01-01

    Two puppies, each with fractures of the seventh lumbar (L7) vertebra, had their vertebral canals aligned surgically with the aid of a Senn retractor. The retractor was used to provide leverage during vertebral manipulations. Surgical fixation was achieved using Steinmann pins and polymethylmethacrylate. Both puppies were improved immediately after surgery and were clinically normal six months after surgery. PMID:9728467

  6. Technology and Health Care 16 (2008) 4760 47 Tissue-level failure accumulation in vertebral

    E-print Network

    Gefen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Received 14 August 2007 and psychological implica- tions such as depression and anxiety [5,26]. The main risk factor for vertebral deviation below his/her age-group norm has a 1.9-fold increased risk for a vertebral compression fracture

  7. Genomics and vertebrate adaptive radiation: a celebration of the first cichlid genome

    E-print Network

    Renn, Susan C.P.

    Genomics and vertebrate adaptive radiation: a celebration of the first cichlid genome C. Darrin ``Genomics and Vertebrate Adaptive Radiation: A Celebration of the First Cichlid Genome'' was held the central topic was the genomics of adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes, the symposium integrated speakers

  8. Evolution of Vertebrate Tissues Driven by Differential Modes of Gene Duplication

    E-print Network

    McLysaght, Aoife

    Evolution of Vertebrate Tissues Driven by Differential Modes of Gene Duplication MASANOBU Satake1 of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan1 2011; accepted 4 March 2012) Abstract In this study, we investigated the evolution of vertebrate

  9. Evolution of Vertebrate Voltage-Gated Ion Channel a Chains by Sequential Gene Duplication1

    E-print Network

    Nei, Masatoshi

    of this important family of neuromuscular proteins along the central­ peripheral axis. Key words: Calcium channels and pe- ripheral nervous system cells and that duplication of vertebrate Na+ channel genes has repeatedly that extensive duplications that have occurred in a number of gene families expressed in vertebrate nervous and

  10. The conservation and use of fossil vertebrate sites: British fossil reptile sites

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    The conservation and use of fossil vertebrate sites: British fossil reptile sites Michael J. Benton and William A. Wimbledon BENTON. M. J. & W. A. WIMBLEDON. 19R5. The conservation and use of fossil vertebrate sites: British fossil reptile sites. Proc. Geol. Ass., 96 (I). 1-0. Over a thousand sites in Britain

  11. Functional Analysis of the Vertebral Column based on MR and Direct Volume Rendering

    E-print Network

    Blanz, Volker

    Functional Analysis of the Vertebral Column based on MR and Direct Volume Rendering P. Hastreiter1 of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen­Nuremberg, Germany Abstract. Degenerative diseases of the vertebral column are mainly combined with misalignments of the intervertebral discs and deformations of the spinal cord

  12. Medical Monitoring Program for Vertebrate Animal Users Enrollment and Risk Assessment Form Instructions

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Medical Monitoring Program for Vertebrate Animal Users Enrollment and Risk Assessment Form-8842), Campus Mail (Mail code 4481), or deliver it to 1200 Carothers Hall. Please note that the Medical to the Medical Monitoring Program for Vertebrate Animal Exposure (MMPVAE), feel free to contact us at (850) 644

  13. 63Evolution of vertebrate chromosomal sperm proteins Corresponding author E-mail: jausio@uvic.ca

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    63Evolution of vertebrate chromosomal sperm proteins Corresponding author E-mail: jausio@uvic.ca Evolution of vertebrate chromosomal sperm proteins: implications for fertility and sperm competition Juan major types of sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), histone (H type), protamine-like (PL type

  14. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in dogs with disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    PubMed

    Decker, S De; Volk, H A

    2014-06-21

    Although disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) most often affects the ventral aspect of the vertebral column, this study evaluated the occurrence, nature and clinical relevance of dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in 10 dogs with DISH for which CT or MRI and a complete neurological examination were available. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities were present in eight dogs and included articular process hypertrophy (n=7 dogs), periarticular new bone formation (n=1), pseudoarthrosis between spinous processes (n=4) and thickening of the dorsal lamina (n=4). These dorsal vertebral abnormalities caused clinically relevant vertebral canal stenosis in six dogs and were the only cause of clinical signs in four of these dogs. Although the lumbosacral joint was not affected by DISH, these six dogs demonstrated lumbosacral vertebral canal stenosis and clinical signs of cauda equina compression, which included paraparesis (n=5 dogs), lumbosacral pain (n=4), urinary incontinence (n=4), faecal incontinence (n=1) and urinary and faecal incontinence (n=1). There is a possible association between DISH and hypertrophy of dorsal vertebral structures, potentially resulting in vertebral canal stenosis. Although these changes occurred at segments fused by DISH, they predominantly affected adjacent non-affected segments. PMID:24828088

  15. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  16. Charcot Arthropathy of the Lumbosacral Spine Mimicking a Vertebral Tumor after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Son, Soo-Bum; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury. PMID:24527202

  17. Gene tree of the HoxA11 genes in vertebrates illustrating several

    E-print Network

    Gene tree of the HoxA11 genes in vertebrates illustrating several whole genome duplications (WGD with all the other vertebrate animals, and many developmental genes with invertebrate animals as well. The Hox genes are one class of toolkit genes that specify body plan features such as limbs and fins

  18. Ultrasonic Imaging Of Deep Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.; Heyser, Richard C.; Lecroissette, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Swept-frequency sound replaces pulsed sound. Ultrasonic medical instrument produces images of peripheral and coronary arteries with resolutions higher and at depths greater than attainable by previous ultrasonic systems. Time-delay-spectrometry imager includes scanning, image-processing, and displaying equipment. It sweeps in frequency from 0 to 10 MHz in 20 ms, pauses for 5 ms, and repeats sweep. Intended for use in noninvasive detection and measurement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  19. Arterial closure devices. A review.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J B; Ratnam, L A; Belli, A M

    2007-10-01

    The use of arterial closure devices in achieving haemostasis following arterial puncture has become increasingly popular. This review aims to provide an overview of the currently available closure devices, with an up-to-date summary of the supporting literature. The various devices have their advantages and disadvantages as well as differing mechanisms of actions. Technical aspects of deployment affect the learning curve and ease of use of individual devices. Some complications that arise are device specific where others are related to arterial punctures in general. When choosing a device, all these factors should be taken into account as well as differing clinical requirements and priorities. Most studies of arterial closure devices that are currently in use conclude that the safety profile of closure devices is comparable to manual compression. The literature does not show superiority of any particular device. Caution is advised in extrapolating evidence based on differing patient groups, as many of the study populations are heterogeneous. As physicians become more familiar with the use of closure devices, off-label applications of some devices have emerged, some of which need further evaluation. The ideal closure device should reduce complication rates compared to manual compression, be easy to use with a short learning curve, and have a high rate of deployment success. It should also be usable across a wide range of sheath sizes, not leave any permanent foreign body behind, reduce time to haemostasis and ambulation, allow immediate repuncture, improve patient comfort and be cost effective. In spite of the wide range of devices currently available there remains room for improvement. PMID:17989631

  20. Coronary artery disease in women.

    PubMed Central

    Chiamvimonvat, V.; Sternberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and recognize how presentation, investigation, risk factor modification, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) is different for women than for men. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic data are from well-recognized, peer-reviewed medical journals. Most data on treatment are from randomized controlled trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in women, with incidence after menopause equal to that of men. Diabetes and postmenopausal status without hormone replacement therapy are the strongest risk factors. Women with CAD are more likely to have atypical symptoms, including nonexertional chest pain; pain in other locations, such as jaw, arms, shoulder, back, and epigastrium; and angina-equivalents, such as dyspnea, palpitations, and presyncope. Because women have atypical symptoms, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion. Although newer nonivasive stress imaging modalities provide greater diagnostic accuracy than traditional exercise stress testing, the tests are still less accurate for women. A safe and cost-effective approach to investigation can be guided by clinical likelihood for CAD based on patients' age, chest pain quality, and risk factors. Treatment and preventive strategies are generally similar for women and men. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in women and will continue to gain importance as women's life expectancy increases. Important differences in presentation, risk factors, investigation, and treatment of women exist and should be recognized. PMID:9870124