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Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Surgical reconstruction of the proximal vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I; de los Reyes, R A; Pearce, J; Shrontz, C; Pak, H; Turcotte, J

    1984-11-01

    The authors have reviewed their experience in the management of 55 patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital with symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and associated proximal vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. In 48 patients, the symptoms occurred as multiple repeated events, five of which resulted in permanent deficits. The remaining seven patients had single events, four of which caused permanent deficit. These patients had been treated unsuccessfully with antiplatelet agents (37 cases) and with anticoagulant drugs (15 cases) before surgery. Most patients had multiple angiographic abnormalities, including bilateral vertebral stenosis in 19 cases, unilateral vertebral stenosis and contralateral occlusion in 18, unilateral vertebral hypoplasia and contralateral stenosis in 10, subclavian artery stenosis with steal in seven, and bilateral vertebral artery occlusion in one case. Posterior communicating arteries could not be demonstrated angiographically in 18 patients. Thirty-four patients had associated stenotic or occlusive lesions of the internal carotid artery. Forty-eight underwent a vertebral-to-carotid artery transposition. Of these, 18 had an associated carotid endarterectomy and seven had a vertebral artery endarterectomy immediately before the transposition. Two patients had saphenous vein grafts, one from the subclavian and one from the common carotid artery to the vertebral artery. Other surgical procedures included vertebral artery ligation in one case, transposition of the vertebral artery to the thyrocervical trunk in two cases and to the subclavian artery in one case, and endarterectomy of the origin of the vertebral artery in one case. All but two patients had complete resolution of their symptoms: one had persistent dizziness and the other had syncopal episodes. Complications included transient Horner's syndrome (30 cases) which became permanent in four cases, vocal cord paralysis (three cases), elevated hemidiaphragm without respiratory difficulty (two cases), and superficial would infection (one case). There were no deaths. Although the presentation of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency is generally characteristic, we believe that a specific diagnosis can be established only by angiographic means. Anticoagulants have been used to alleviate symptoms in some cases but are ineffective in solving the primary hemodynamic problem. Surgical reconstruction of the affected area deserves further evaluation in the management of these patients. PMID:6491733

  2. Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management. PMID:23024840

  3. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  4. Endarterectomy of the vertebral artery from C2 to posterior inferior cerebellar artery intracranially.

    PubMed

    Ausman, J I; Diaz, F G; Pearce, J E; de los Reyes, R A; Leuchter, W; Mehta, B; Patel, S

    1982-12-01

    A new technical approach to endarterectomy of the vertebral artery at the cranial cervical junction is discussed. A patient had symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency on clinical examination. Angiography demonstrated a stenotic plaque in the vertebral artery at the level of C1, and an additional tandem lesion at the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. He underwent vertebral endarterectomy and was symptomatically improved postoperatively. The surgical approach used and possible alternatives will be discussed in detail. PMID:7163958

  5. Carotid and vertebral arterial variations in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Dong; Yu, Ke; Chen, Yang; Li, Ling; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Huadong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of carotid and vertebral arterial morphological variations on cognitive function impairment remain unclear. We investigated the association between extracranial carotid and vertebral arterial variations and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A prospective study with a 5-year followup was conducted from July 2008 to June 2013. A total of 1741 subjects (50 years of age and older) were examined for carotid and vertebral arterial variations using computed tomography angiography (CTA) and completed the study follow-up. Variations of the carotid and vertebral arteries were classified as tortuosity, kinking and coiling, according to the Weibel and Fields criteria. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Activities of Daily Living scale. We analyzed the association between arterial variations and the risk of AD by using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models. The prevalence of carotid arterial variations was 38.4%, and the prevalence of vertebral arterial variations was 86.6%. Among the 1741 subjects who completed the study follow-up, 134 AD cases were detected. The subjects diagnosed with AD displayed greater kinking and coiling in the carotid artery (P<0.01) and vertebral artery (P<0.05) than the subjects without AD. After adjusting for potential confounders, kinking and coiling (hazard ratio [HR]=1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 2.86, P<0.01) in the carotid artery were significantly associated with AD. Additionally, after adjusting for potential confounders, kinking and coiling (HR=1.73, 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.31, P<0.01) in the vertebral artery were significantly associated with the risk of AD. We determined that age, hypertension and smoking status were significant predictors of AD in the multivariable models with carotid and vertebral arterial variation. The results of the current study indicate that severe carotid and vertebral arterial variations are associated with a significantly increased risk of AD. Further investigation into the association between these variations and AD would be useful for preventing AD. PMID:25817257

  6. Observation of vertebral artery damage using angioscopy in autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Sato, Kaoru; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-11-01

    The vertebral arteries are important blood vessels that supply the cerebral circulation in conjunction with the internal carotid arteries. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is necessary to examine the vertebral arteries as potential sources of bleeding due to blunt trauma (head and neck) or of cerebral embolism that originated on the surface of the damaged intima as a result of hyperflexion or hyperextension. However, a considerable part of the vertebral arterial surface is surrounded by bone, resulting in challenges during examination in a routine autopsy. In this study, angioscopy was used to inspect the vertebral artery intima for damage in cases of neck injury, head injury, or neck strangulation. Intimal damage was detected in 34 out of the total 75 cases. Of the 28 cases with cervical discopathy or fracture, 61% had intimal damage. In addition, postmortem application of computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the injured vessel in a case with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and a perforated hole was detected using angioscopy, which did not introduce autopsy-related artifacts. Therefore, angioscopy may be a useful and nondestructive method to identify intimal damage in the vertebral arteries during an autopsy. PMID:25030189

  7. Chiropractic Response to a Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tarola, Gary; Phillips, Reed B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which early detection and proper follow-up of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection led to satisfactory outcomes. Clinical Features A 34-year old white woman reported to a chiropractic clinic with a constant burning pain at the right side of her neck and shoulder with a limited ability to turn her head from side to side, periods of blurred vision, and muffled hearing. Dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, and balance difficulty abated within 1 hour of onset and were not present at the time of evaluation. A pain drawing indicated burning pain in the suboccipital area, neck, and upper shoulder on the right and a pins and needles sensation on the dorsal surface of both forearms. Turning her head from side-to-side aggravated the pain, and the application of heat brought temporary relief. The Neck Disability Index score of 44 placed the patient’s pain in the most severe category. Intervention and Outcome The patient was not treated on the initial visit but was advised of the possibility of a vertebral artery or carotid artery dissection and was recommended to the emergency department for immediate evaluation. The patient declined but later was convinced by her chiropractor to present to the emergency department. A magnetic resonance angiogram of the neck and carotid arteries was performed showing that the left vertebral artery was hypoplastic and appeared to terminate at the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. There was an abrupt moderately long segment of narrowing involving the right vertebral artery beginning near the junction of the V1 and V2 segments. The radiologist noted a concern regarding right vertebral artery dissection. Symptoms resolved and the patient was cleared of any medications but advised that if symptoms reoccurred she was to go for emergency care immediately. Conclusion Recognition and rapid response by the chiropractic physician provided the optimum outcome for this particular patient. PMID:26778932

  8. [The vertebral artery syndrome and patient management tactics].

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, E A

    2012-01-01

    The data of literature on vertebral artery syndrome, its clinical presentations, etiology and pathogenesis are summarized. Based on the own studies, the author considers possibilities for a pathogenetic treatment of this syndrome with sermion (nicergoline). Twenty-two patients, aged 21-71 years (a half of them were outpatients and another half were inpatients), were treated with sermion. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 6 months. The positive effect of sermion on the most frequent clinical symptoms of the vertebral artery syndrome, including headache, vertigo and persistent or sudden increase in the blood pressure, was noted. The long-term treatment with sermion revealed a significant improvement in patient's quality of life measured with SF-36. The treatment was effective in any variant of vertebral artery syndrome regardless of its causes. PMID:23388592

  9. Vertebral artery thrombosis: a rare presentation of primary polycythaemia

    PubMed Central

    Gul, H L; Lau, S Y M; Chan-Lam, D; Ng, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Primary polycythaemia, also known as polycythaemia vera (PV), is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) which is associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and which can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Arterial thrombosis accounts for a large proportion of PV-related thrombotic events which may manifest as stroke and myocardial infarction. There is an abundance of literature documenting thrombosis arising in the cerebral vasculature secondary to PV. However, vertebral artery thrombosis associated with PV has not been previously described. We present a case of vertebral artery thrombosis as the presenting manifestation of PV. This case demonstrates the importance of recognising MPNs as a cause of an unusual presentation of thrombosis. PMID:24862411

  10. Management strategy for bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Karagiozov, Kostadin L

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms (BCoVAAns) have no established strategy of management. We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unruptured BCoVAAns between January 2006 and December 2012. Considering surgical risks of lower cranial nerve (LCN) injuries and eventual growth of an opposite side lesion after unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion, we proposed a strategy of combined open and interventional treatment using revascularization. We applied the following several specific techniques: (1) proximal clipping and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) and/or superficial temporary artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses; (2) Distal blood pressure, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) monitoring after parent artery temporary occlusion for safe permanent occlusion of the proximal portions of VA and PICA; (3) V3 to V4 bypass using radial artery (RA) graft with proximal clipping or trapping, two of them combined with OA-PICA bypass; (4) VA fenestration as an opportunity to preserve the flow of the parent artery. Two patients were treated bilaterally and 3 unilaterally, with modified Rankin scale assessed at 39 months postoperatively in average 0 in 2, 1 in 2, and 2 in 1, respectively, and the untreated opposite side lesions without regrowth or bleeding. Two patients with patent V3-RA-V4 bypass complained of dysphagia due to LCN palsies. One of them however suffered a cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the OA-PICA bypass. When BCoVAAns require surgical treatment, revascularization or preservation of the VA should be considered at the first operation. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm can be effectively occluded by coil embolization, even with VA sacrifice if required. PMID:26564148

  11. Left hemibody myoclonus due to anomalous right vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel; Marti, Maria J; Valls-Solé, Josep; Pujol, Teresa; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with sporadic, sudden, brief, and involuntary jerks of his left limbs and trunk muscles. The electromyographic recordings showed short-lasting highly synchronized bursts, compatible with myoclonus limited to the left hemibody. Blink reflex, masseter silent period, cortical and spinal magnetic stimulation, somatosensory cortical evoked potentials, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal; the EEG back-averaging showed no spikes preceding the myoclonus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography showed the presence of an anomalous nonectasic right vertebral artery compressing the right side of ventral medulla oblongata. We hypothesize that the aberrant right vertebral artery induced abnormal activation of descending motor tracts responsible for the myoclonus. PMID:15390038

  12. Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

  13. Numerical simulation of vertebral artery stenosis treated with different stents.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aike; Zhang, Zhanzhu

    2014-04-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of endovascular stents with different links for treating stenotic vertebral artery and to determine the relationship between the shape of the link and in-stent restenosis (ISR). We also attempted to provide scientific guidelines for stent design and selection for clinical procedures. Models of three types of stent with different links (L-stent, V-stent, and S-stent) and an idealized stenotic vertebral artery were established. The deployment procedure for the stent in the stenotic vertebral artery was simulated for solid mechanics analysis. Next, the deformed models were extracted to construct the blood flow domain, and numerical simulations of the hemodynamics in these models were performed using the finite element method. The numerical results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with the L-stent and V-stent, the S-stent has a better flexibility and induces less stress in the stent strut. Furthermore, less stress is generated in the arterial wall. (2) Vascular straightening is scarcely influenced by the shape of the link, but it is closely related to the flexibility of the stent. (3) The S-stent has the smallest foreshortening among the three types of stents. (4) Compared with the V-stent and S-stent, the L-stent causes a smaller area with low wall shear stress, less blood stagnation area, and better blood flow close to the artery wall. From the viewpoint of the combination of solid mechanics and hemodynamics, the S-stent has better therapeutic effects because of its lower potential for inducing ISR and its better prospects in clinical applications compared with the L-stent and V-stent. PMID:24337228

  14. Endovascular treatment of a symptomatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Inaraja Pérez, Gabriel Cristian; Rodríguez Morata, Alejandro; Reyes Ortega, Juan Pedro; Gómez Medialdea, Rafael; Cabezudo García, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    A 35-year-old patient was brought to the emergency department referring dysarthria, left ear tinnitus for 5 min, and short-lasting blindness, with headache in the 45 min before the clinical presentation. In the magnetic resonance imaging, an acute-subacute lesion in the cerebellum right-anterior lobe (in the territory of the cerebellum anterior artery) and a dilatation near the ostium of the right vertebral artery were seen. For a better assessment, an Angio-CT was done, showing a 9-mm saccular pseudoaneurysm of the right vertebral artery close to the origin of the vessel, without being able to determine if it had been caused because of a dissection. The rest of the study (cerebral vessels and supra-aortic vessels) showed no disorders. He was operated under local anesthesia and sedation a week after the onset of the symptoms. Through a 0.014 wire, a Biotronik PK Papyrus balloon-expandable covered cobalt-chromium stent was deployed covering the hole in the artery. Antiplatelet drugs were prescribed, and the patient was discharged 24 hr after surgery. He has remained symptom free since then. PMID:25770383

  15. Improvement of sudden bilateral hearing loss after vertebral artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hwa; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia. We report a case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion which dramatically improved after stenting. A 54-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset of bilateral deafness, vertigo, and drowsy mental status. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI showed acute infarction involving both the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and left posterior cerebral artery territory. Cerebral angiography showed bilateral distal VA occlusion, and emergency intracranial stenting was performed in the left VA. After reperfusion therapy his symptoms gradually improved, including hearing impairment. Endovascular stenting may be helpful in a patient with sudden deafness caused by bilateral VA occlusion. PMID:25712982

  16. Sudden cerebral infarction after interventional vertebral artery embolism for vertebral artery injury during removal of C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Liu, Hao; Ma, Litai; Zeng, Jiancheng; Song, Yueming; Xie, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury (VAI) is a rare but serious complication of cervical spine surgery. Instrumented posterior surgery of the upper cervical spine places the vertebral artery at the highest risk of injury. However, VAI during removal of cervical internal fixation is really rare and unexpected. We present a case of 52-year-old male patient who suffered VAI during removal of C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation. An interventional vertebral artery embolism was performed and the patient suffered a sudden cerebral infarction one day after interventional vertebral artery embolism. From this case, removal of upper cervical pedicle screws of malposition is not recommended if it is not really necessary for some other reasons. Interventional vertebral artery embolism is an effective and less invasive procedure than open ligation surgery in the treatment of haemorrhage resulted from VAI but potential risk of cerebral infarction should not be ignored. PMID:26629224

  17. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  18. Injury of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, F; Caricato, A; Pennisi Mariano, A; Pappalardo, F; Piazza, O; Rollo, M

    1999-09-01

    Two case reports characterized by the complete occlusion of the basilar artery, secondary to dissection of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma are described. These lesions, often clinically silent in the beginning, were able to cause severe neurologic impairment, even after minor head trauma in healthy individuals without predisposing structural disorders. Early detection, based upon the knowledge of the modality of the trauma and upon a correct diagnostic approach, is mandatory to reduce secondary injury. The authors suggest an extensive use of cerebral angiography or angio-magnetic resonance in all cases where clinical conditions are more severe than the computed tomography scan, particularly if the trauma produced a cervical injury with a movement of flexo-extension of the neck. Therapeutic management is discussed. Anti-coagulants, thrombolytic agents or surgical ligation of the vessel has been proposed to prevent the extension of the lesion and to improve the outcome. PMID:10622393

  19. A Novel Canine Model of Acute Vertebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Jin, Min; Du, Bin; Lin, Hao; Xu, Chengyong; Jiang, Weijian; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Background The extended time window and theoretic reduction in hemorrhage make mechanical strategies an attractive approach for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. However, a limited availability of suitable animal models of cerebrovascular thrombosis has hampered the study of novel endovascular interventions. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique for site-specific placement of a thrombus in a canine model that would allow for the evaluation of mechanical thrombectomy and clot retrieval methods and the visualization of thrombus dislocation or fragmentation during angiographic manipulation. Methods Angiography and embolization with a preformed thrombus were performed in 12 canines. Under fluoroscopic guidance, an embolism protection device (EPD) was anchored to the middle segment of the left vertebral artery (VA) via the left femoral arterial sheath. A preformed radiopaque clot was injected through the guide catheter into the left VA, via the contralateral femoral artery, proximal to the EPD. After 15 min of occlusion, the EPD was removed and persistent occlusion of the VA was documented angiographically. Results Angiography performed during the observation period confirmed the persistence of VA occlusion in each case, and displacement of the radiopaque clots did not occur during the 3-hour observation period. The technique allowed selective embolization of targeted vessels without thrombus fragmentation. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, a canine model of post-circulation embolism induced by autologous blood clot placement. This model can be rapidly formed and easily operated, and the site of thrombosis can be readily controlled. PMID:26545253

  20. Reconstructive endovascular treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissection involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takahiro; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Saito, Akira; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    Two cases with ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissection involving the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are presented. Endovascular proximal occlusion of the dissected segment proximal to the PICA origin was performed, leaving the PICA patent in the acute stage. Stent placement from the PICA to the VA through the contralateral VA and coil embolization were added to the residual dissection in the chronic stage. Rebleedings were not observed. This is the first report of a staged, combined strategy for the treatment of a ruptured PICA involving VA dissection, which enabled preservation of the PICA without bypass surgery. PMID:27038168

  1. Usefulness of Intraoperative Monitoring during Microsurgical Decompression of Cervicomedullary Compression Caused by an Anomalous Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Dong Mun; Lee, Kun Soo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of cervicomedullary compression by an anomalous vertebral artery treated using microsurgical decompression with intraoperative monitoring. A 68-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. MRI revealed multiple abnormalities, including an anomalous vertebral artery that compressed the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. Suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy was performed. The spinal cord was found to be compressed by the vertebral arteries, which were retracted dorsolaterally. At that time, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changed. After release of the vertebral artery, the SSEP signal normalized instantly. The vertebral artery was then lifted gently and anchored to the dura. There was no other procedural complication. The patient's symptoms improved. This case demonstrates that intraoperative monitoring may be useful for preventing procedural complications during spinal cord microsurgical decompression. PMID:25628814

  2. Anatomical variations of the carotid-vertebral arteries: "double-vessel" sign on Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatih; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Gulsen, Fatih; Besirli, Kazim; Mihmanli, Ismail

    2011-10-01

    We describe the "double-vessel" sign and its relevance for the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial anatomical variations in a series of four patients with stroke. In these four patients, two arteries could be seen at the expected location of the common carotid artery (CCA), leading to the diagnosis of anatomical variations including separate origin of internal and external carotid artery from the aortic arch on the left side and from the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian artery on the right side, early bifurcation of the CCA on both sides, and an aberrant course of the vertebral artery on the left side. The presence of two arteries at the expected location of the CCA should raise the suspicion of carotid or vertebral arterial variations. PMID:21469149

  3. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  4. Spatial Relationship between Hypoglossal Schwannoma and the Vertebral Artery Using the Far-Lateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Saeko; TAKAHASHI, Satoshi; SHIDOH, Satoka; YOSHIDA, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    In hypoglossal schwannoma removal via the far-lateral approach needs care as the vertebral arteries are usually adjacent to the tumors. Thus, it is important to understand their location respective to schwannoma to conduct a safe surgery. We reviewed the data of eight patients with hypoglossal schwannoma who underwent surgery in Keio University Hospital in 2005–2013. There were five males and three females (mean age at initial presentation was 48.6 years, range 38–72 years). We especially focused on the spatial relationship between the vertebral artery and the tumor, and evaluated their spatial relationship from intraoperative findings. All eight hypoglossal schwannomas included in the current study were type B according to Kaye’s classification. As for spatial relationship between the tumor and the vertebral artery, in six out of eight cases, the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath the tumor; in contrast, in the other two cases, it was pushed out by the tumor and identified just after dural opening. Through the far-lateral approach, we found that the vertebral artery was located inside or beneath in most hypoglossal schwannoma; however, the vertebral artery was occasionally located on the tumor surface. From an anatomical perspective, we speculate this unique location of the vertebral artery in these cases is due to the unusual course of the hypoglossal nerve of tumor origin. PMID:26345663

  5. Therapeutic internal carotid or vertebral artery occlusion using the WEB device.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Willem Jan; Sluzewski, Menno; Bechan, Ratna; Peluso, Jo Pp

    2016-06-01

    The WEB device was used to occlude the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery as treatment for large aneurysms. The WEB could be placed accurately at the desired position inside the vessel. Two WEBs were sufficient to occlude the parent artery. PMID:26861025

  6. Vertebral Artery Injury during Routine Posterior Cervical Exposure: Case Reports and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Chimenti, Peter C.; Molinari, Robert; Gruhn, William

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Objective We report the unusual occurrence of vertebral artery injury (VAI) during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine. The importance of preoperative planning to identify the course of the bilateral vertebral arteries during routine posterior cervical spine surgery is emphasized. Methods VAI is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spinal surgery. Most reports of VAI are related to anterior surgical exposure or screw placement in the posterior cervical spine. VAI incurred during posterior cervical spinal exposure surgery is not adequately addressed in the existing literature. Two cases of VAI that occurred during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine in the region of C2 are described. Results VAI was incurred unexpectedly in the region of the midportion of the posterior C1–C2 interval during the initial surgical exposure phase of the operation. An aberrant vertebral artery course in the V2 anatomical section in the region between C1 and C2 intervals was identified postoperatively in both patients. A literature review demonstrates a relatively high incidence of vertebral artery anomalies in the upper cervical spine; however, the literature is deficient in reporting vertebral artery injury in this region. Recommendations for preoperative vertebral artery imaging also remain unclear at this time. Conclusions Successful management of this unexpected complication was achieved in both cases. This case report and review of the literature highlights the importance of preoperative vertebral artery imaging and knowledge of the course of the vertebral arteries prior to planned routine posterior exposure of the upper cervical spine. In both cases, aberrancy of the vertebral artery was present and not investigated or detected preoperatively. PMID:26682106

  7. Vertebral Artery Injury during Routine Posterior Cervical Exposure: Case Reports and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Robert W; Chimenti, Peter C; Molinari, Robert; Gruhn, William

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Case series. Objective We report the unusual occurrence of vertebral artery injury (VAI) during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine. The importance of preoperative planning to identify the course of the bilateral vertebral arteries during routine posterior cervical spine surgery is emphasized. Methods VAI is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spinal surgery. Most reports of VAI are related to anterior surgical exposure or screw placement in the posterior cervical spine. VAI incurred during posterior cervical spinal exposure surgery is not adequately addressed in the existing literature. Two cases of VAI that occurred during routine posterior exposure of the cervical spine in the region of C2 are described. Results VAI was incurred unexpectedly in the region of the midportion of the posterior C1-C2 interval during the initial surgical exposure phase of the operation. An aberrant vertebral artery course in the V2 anatomical section in the region between C1 and C2 intervals was identified postoperatively in both patients. A literature review demonstrates a relatively high incidence of vertebral artery anomalies in the upper cervical spine; however, the literature is deficient in reporting vertebral artery injury in this region. Recommendations for preoperative vertebral artery imaging also remain unclear at this time. Conclusions Successful management of this unexpected complication was achieved in both cases. This case report and review of the literature highlights the importance of preoperative vertebral artery imaging and knowledge of the course of the vertebral arteries prior to planned routine posterior exposure of the upper cervical spine. In both cases, aberrancy of the vertebral artery was present and not investigated or detected preoperatively. PMID:26682106

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Dissection. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Sharma, Priti; Robinson, Karen A.; Arnan, Martinson; Tsui, Megan; Ladha, Karim; Newman-Toker, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is an important cause of stroke in the young. It can present nonspecifically and may be misdiagnosed with adverse consequences. We assessed the frequency of head/neck pain, other neurological symptoms, and cerebrovascular events in symptomatic VAD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) for English-language manuscripts with >5 subjects with clinical or radiological features of VAD. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion; a third adjudicated differences. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and clinical data were abstracted. Pooled proportions were calculated. Results Of 3996 citations, we screened 511manuscripts and selected 75 studies describing 1,972 VAD patients. The most common symptoms were dizziness/vertigo (58%), headache (51%) and neck pain (46%). Stroke was common (63%), especially with extracranial dissections (66% vs. 32%, p<0.0001), while TIA (14%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (10%) were uncommon. SAH was seen only with intracranial dissections (57% vs. 0%, p=0.003). Fewer than half of the patients had obvious trauma, and only 7.9% had a known connective tissue disease. Outcome was good (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1) in 67% and poor (mRS 5-6) in 10%. Conclusion VAD is associated with nonspecific symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, headache, or neck pain. Ischemic stroke is the most common reported cerebrovascular complication. VAD should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with dizziness or craniocervical pain, even in the absence of other risk factors. Future studies should compare clinical findings as predictors in well-defined, undifferentiated populations of clinical VAD suspects. PMID:22931728

  9. Hemodynamics in stented vertebral artery ostial stenosis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aike; Dai, Xuan; Niu, Jing; Jiao, Liqun

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic factors may affect the potential occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after intervention procedure of vertebral artery ostial stenosis (VAOS). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of stent protrusion length in implantation strategy on the local hemodynamics of the VAOS. CTA images of a 58-year-old female patient with posterior circulation transient ischemic attack were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of the vertebral artery. Five models of the vertebral artery before and after the stent implantation were established. Model 1 was without stent implantation, Model 2-5 was with stent protruding into the subclavian artery for 0, 1, 2, 3 mm, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics simulations based on finite element analysis were employed to mimic the blood flow in arteries and to assess hemodynamic conditions, particularly the blood flow velocity and wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS and the blood flow velocity at the vertebral artery ostium were reduced by 85.33 and 35.36% respectively after stents implantation. The phenomenon of helical flow disappeared. Hemodynamics comparison showed that stent struts that protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery induced the least decrease in blood speed and WSS. The results suggest that stent implantation can improve the hemodynamics of VAOS, while stent struts that had protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery would result in less thrombogenesis and neointimal hyperplasia and most likely decrease the risk of ISR. PMID:26691981

  10. Duplicated Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery: A Case Report and Embryological Review

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    The duplicated origin of vertebral artery (VA) is a very rare condition. It could be easily misdiagnosed as an arterial dissection on selective catheter angiography, especially in a patient with acute cerebellar infarction of unknown etiology. We report a patient with an acute cerebellar infarction and duplicated origin of the left VA, which was found during the selective catheter angiography. PMID:26958414

  11. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

  12. Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Bora, Aydin; Yazmalar, Levent; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gülşen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Because loss of cervical lordosis leads to disrupted biomechanics, the natural lordotic curvature is considered to be an ideal posture for the cervical spine. The vertebral arteries proceed in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Considering that the vertebral arteries travel in close anatomical relationship to the cervical spine, we speculated that the loss of cervical lordosis may affect vertebral artery hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the vertebral artery values between subjects with and without loss of cervical lordosis. Material/Methods Thirty patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 30 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index were included in the study. Sixty vertebral arteries in patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 60 in controls without loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Vertebral artery hemodynamics, including lumen diameter, flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index, were measured, and determined values were statistically compared between the patient and the control groups. Results The means of diameter (p=0.003), flow volume (p=0.002), and peak systolic velocity (p=0.014) in patients were significantly lower as compared to controls. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of the end-diastolic velocity (p=0.276) and resistive index (p=0.536) parameters. Conclusions The present study revealed a significant association between loss of cervical lordosis and decreased vertebral artery hemodynamics, including diameter, flow volume, and peak systolic velocity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to investigate their possible clinical implications. PMID:26876295

  13. Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Bora, Aydin; Yazmalar, Levent; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gülşen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because loss of cervical lordosis leads to disrupted biomechanics, the natural lordotic curvature is considered to be an ideal posture for the cervical spine. The vertebral arteries proceed in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Considering that the vertebral arteries travel in close anatomical relationship to the cervical spine, we speculated that the loss of cervical lordosis may affect vertebral artery hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the vertebral artery values between subjects with and without loss of cervical lordosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 30 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index were included in the study. Sixty vertebral arteries in patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 60 in controls without loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Vertebral artery hemodynamics, including lumen diameter, flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index, were measured, and determined values were statistically compared between the patient and the control groups. RESULTS The means of diameter (p=0.003), flow volume (p=0.002), and peak systolic velocity (p=0.014) in patients were significantly lower as compared to controls. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of the end-diastolic velocity (p=0.276) and resistive index (p=0.536) parameters. CONCLUSIONS The present study revealed a significant association between loss of cervical lordosis and decreased vertebral artery hemodynamics, including diameter, flow volume, and peak systolic velocity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to investigate their possible clinical implications. PMID:26876295

  14. Endovascular Management of Pediatric High-Flow Vertebro-Vertebral Fistula with Reversed Basilar Artery Flow

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, A.R.; Ansari, S.A.; Alden, T.D.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Hurley, M.C.; Rahman, O.; Shaibani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

  15. Segmental arterial mediolysis of varying phases affecting both the intra-abdominal and intracranial vertebral arteries: an autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2010-01-01

    We report an autopsy case of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) of various phases occurring in both the intracranial vertebral artery (IVA) and intra-abdominal arteries. The patient was a 70-year-old male found dead in his house. The cause of death was massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage owing to a ruptured right gastroepiploic artery. Histopathological examination revealed that there was a broad arterial dissection as long as 20 cm in the right gastroepiploic artery associated with SAM in the injurious phase. In addition, SAM in the reparative phase was observed as organized arterial dissections in the left gastric artery. Furthermore, SAM in the reparative phase was detected as an arterial dissection in the right IVA undergoing an organizing process. These three lesions were considered to have developed at different times. SAM occurring in both the intra-abdominal and intracranial vertebral arteries is extremely rare. This coincidence may provide a clue to the relationship between SAM and spontaneous IVA dissection. PMID:19375356

  16. Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

  17. Post Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm Arising from V4 Segment of Vertebral Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Chae Wook; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Choi, Chang Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a traumatic pseudoaneurysm arising from the right V4 segment of the vertebral artery, near the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Post-traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm is rare, but associated with a high mortality rate. We report on an extremely rare case of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery with delayed manifestation. A 9-year-old child was admitted to the emergency room after a pedestrian car accident. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), multiple facial bones, and temporal bone fracture. External ventricular drainage and decompressive suboccipital craniectomy were performed for acute hydrocephalus and posterior fossa swelling. The patient's clinical condition became suddenly aggravated on the 15th hospital day, and brain CT confirmed appearance of a new 4th ventricle IVH. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a ruptured pseudoaneurysm arising from the right V4 segment of the vertebral artery. Parent artery occlusion using detachable coils was achieved. Despite intensive care, the patient's clinical condition showed continuous deterioration and the patient died of respiratory complications on the 52nd hospital day. PMID:27169084

  18. A Case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Associated with Vertebral Artery Vasculitis Treated Successfully with Tocilizumab and Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kae; Rajderkar, Dhanashree A.; Modica, Renee F.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric polyarteritis nodosa is rare systemic necrotizing arteritis involving small- and medium-sized muscular arteries characterized by aneurysmal dilatations involving the vessel wall. Aneurysms associated with polyarteritis nodosa are common in visceral arteries; however intracranial aneurysms have also been reported and can be associated with central nervous system symptoms, significant morbidity, and mortality. To our knowledge extracranial involvement of the vertebral arteries has not been reported but has the potential to be deleterious due to fact that they supply the central nervous system vasculature. We present a case of a 3-year-old Haitian boy with polyarteritis nodosa that presented with extracranial vessel involvement of his vertebral arteries. After thorough diagnostic imaging, including a bone scan, ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Angiography, and Computed Tomography Angiography, he was noted to have vertebral artery vasculitis, periostitis, subacute epididymoorchitis, arthritis, and myositis. He met diagnostic criteria for polyarteritis nodosa and was treated with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and tocilizumab, which resulted in improvement of his inflammatory markers, radiographic findings, and physical symptoms after treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of vertebral artery vasculitis in polyarteritis nodosa as well as successful treatment of the condition using the combination cyclophosphamide and tocilizumab for this condition. PMID:27018080

  19. Post Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm Arising from V4 Segment of Vertebral Artery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Huh, Chae Wook; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-10-01

    This case report describes a traumatic pseudoaneurysm arising from the right V4 segment of the vertebral artery, near the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Post-traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm is rare, but associated with a high mortality rate. We report on an extremely rare case of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery with delayed manifestation. A 9-year-old child was admitted to the emergency room after a pedestrian car accident. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), multiple facial bones, and temporal bone fracture. External ventricular drainage and decompressive suboccipital craniectomy were performed for acute hydrocephalus and posterior fossa swelling. The patient's clinical condition became suddenly aggravated on the 15th hospital day, and brain CT confirmed appearance of a new 4th ventricle IVH. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a ruptured pseudoaneurysm arising from the right V4 segment of the vertebral artery. Parent artery occlusion using detachable coils was achieved. Despite intensive care, the patient's clinical condition showed continuous deterioration and the patient died of respiratory complications on the 52nd hospital day. PMID:27169084

  20. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    PubMed

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome. PMID:25417970

  1. 3-T MRI detects inflammatory stenosis of the vertebral artery in giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J; Uhl, M; Peter, H H; Langer, M; Bley, T A

    2008-05-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis. Early diagnosis is important for the initiation of corticosteroid treatment because the arteritis can result in blindness. In most of the cases, the superficial cranial arteries are affected. However, extracranial involvement of various arteries is known. Here, we report a case of histologically proven GCA with an inflammatory stenosis of the right vertebral artery. For complete evaluation of the extension of the disease, an optimized protocol of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T in combination with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography was performed. This non-invasive method facilitates the differentiation of inflamed and healthy segments of small cranial arteries, may help to find appropriate sites for biopsy, and allows the assessment of affected extracranial vessels. In this patient case, even the cause of vertebral stenosis--inflammatory versus arteriosclerotic--could be elucidated. PMID:18172573

  2. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

  3. Pseudoaneurysm of Lumbar Artery following a Vertebral Biopsy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Yutaka; Yagi, Masayoshi; Iwasaki, Yasunobu; Doita, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man developed a severe low back pain and a fever. In the initial examinations, a collapse of the L5 anterosuperior vertebral body and narrowing of the L4/5 disc space were identified on radiographs, and the laboratory data showed inflammatory results. A computed tomography (CT) and a magnetic resonance imaging showed collapse of L5. A needle biopsy was performed to make a diagnosis; however, an abdominal pain and a hypotension appeared after the biopsy. An abdominal CT showed a hematoma in the retroperitoneal space, and an angiography revealed a left fourth lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with transcatheter placement of microcoils. Although haemorrhagic complications following needle biopsy are very rare, patients with large amounts of vertebral destruction may have unusual anatomical positions of the lumber artery. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of lumbar artery injury during a needle biopsy and take care of prebiopsy plans. PMID:22606563

  4. Stenting of the vertebral artery origin with ostium dilation: technical note.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2013-09-01

    Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery (VA) origin stenosis typically requires placement of the proximal end of the stent within the lumen of the subclavian artery or aorta to provide complete coverage of the ostial lesion. This configuration may complicate subsequent endovascular access into the stented VA. We describe a technique modification of VA origin stenting and angioplasty with a monorail angioplasty balloon system designed specifically for dilation of the ostial origin which may be helpful in conforming the proximal portion of the stent to the VA origin. Simplified endovascular access to the VA origin after angioplasty is demonstrated. PMID:22935348

  5. Torticollis manifest after a minor fall with underlying bony anomalies and a hypoplastic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Samdani, Amer F; Williams, Reed Conly; Danish, Shabbar; Betz, Randal

    2009-09-01

    The etiologies of torticollis are numerous. We describe a unique patient who presented with torticollis with head tilting to the right after sustaining a minor fall. Computed tomography scan with two and three-dimensional reconstructions revealed an underlying hypoplasia of the right lateral mass of C1 and occipital condyle. Further study with MRI/magnetic resonance angiography showed hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery with compensatory dilatation of the left vertebral artery. We postulate these underlying anomalies predisposed the patient to torticollis, which became apparent after his fall. We discuss the surgical options available, and the rationale for a single C1-C2 transarticular screw with iliac crest bone graft and cable. In the literature, there are four reported cases of vascular anomalies resulting in torticollis. Our patient is the first, to our knowledge, who harbored both bony and vascular anomalies. PMID:19550358

  6. Congenital Spinal Malformation and Stroke: Aneurysmal Dilatations and Bilateral Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Patricia; Martínez-Zabaleta, Maria Teresa; Pardo, Edurne; Samprón, Nicolás; Mondragón-Rezola, Elisabet; Arruti González, Maialen; Larrea, Jose Ángel; Martí-Massó, José Félix

    2016-03-01

    A 30-year-old woman suffered from acute vertebrobasilar stroke. Cranial tomography (CT) scans showed multiple vertebral abnormalities suggestive of congenital spine malformation, and angiographic CT revealed aneurysmal dilatations (ADs) at segment V2 of both vertebral arteries (VAs). Dynamic neuroimaging tests including angiography and angio-CT were performed and showed occlusion of both VAs at the point of the ADs with contralateral rotation of the neck. The presence of a bony structure causing the artery compression was excluded and embolic phenomena originating at the AD was proposed as the likely source of stroke. Even if infrequent, the presence of craniocervical anomalies should be considered in vertebrobasilar stroke of indeterminate etiology. PMID:26679068

  7. Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Adrian C.; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Hami, Danyal; Santoro, Massimo M.; Torres, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21040422

  8. The effect of head rotation on the geometry and hemodynamics of healthy vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Aristokleous, Nicolas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Georgiou, Georgios C; Nicolaides, Andrew; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2015-06-01

    The geometric and hemodynamic characteristics of the left and right vertebral arteries (LVA, RVA) of six healthy volunteers were investigated for the supine (S) and the prone position (P) a common sleeping posture with head rotation. MRI images were used to reconstruct the subject specific three-dimensional solid models of the LVA and RVA from the level of the carotid bifurcation to the vertebrobasilar junction (VJ). Geometric parameters such as cross sectional area ratio, curvature, tortuosity and branch angle were estimated. MR-PCA was used to obtain the blood flow waveforms for the two positions and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to assess the flow field in terms of wall shear stress (WSS) relative residence times (RRT) and localized normalized helicity (LNH). Significant geometric changes but moderate flow changes were observed for both vertebral arteries with head rotation. The CFD results at the VJ show that head rotation causes changes in the WSS distribution, RRT and LNH. Further studies are warranted to assess the clinical significance of the results in terms of atherosclerosis development at the VJ and how the observed geometric changes may affect blood flow to the brain in healthy subjects and vertebral artery stenosis patients, and in terms of increased rapture susceptibility in vertebrobasilar aneurysm patients. PMID:26014360

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  10. Outflow Occlusion with Occipital Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass for Growing Vertebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm with Ischemic Onset: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Ryuzaburo; Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Sato, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Shin-ichiro; Osawa, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-08-01

    Surgical treatments should be considered for vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms, which become symptomatic due to cerebral ischemia or mass effect. Ischemic complication is one of the major problems after surgical or endovascular trapping, which is associated with unfavorable outcomes. The authors present a case with growing vertebral artery (VA) fusiform aneurysm with ischemic onset successfully treated with outflow occlusion with occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) bypass. A 50-year-old woman presented with left PICA territory infarction. Left vertebral angiography (VAG) showed occlusion of the left VA at the proximal V4 segment. Right VAG revealed that the distal part of the left V4 segment with fusiform aneurysmal dilatation was reconstituted through vertebrobasilar junction, and the left PICA was the outlet of the blood flow from the fusiform aneurysm. Although the patient was treated conservatively, enlargement of the left VA fusiform aneurysm was observed 8 months after the initial presentation. Considering the potential risks for future stroke or bleeding, we performed clip occlusion of the origin of the left PICA, which could achieve outflow occlusion of the fusiform aneurysm with preservation of the perforators arising around the aneurysm. We created OA-PICA anastomosis for revascularization of the distal PICA. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the postoperative right VAG revealed occlusion of the fusiform aneurysm. Outflow occlusion instead of trapping is an effective surgical option for VA fusiform aneurysm to achieve obliterate the aneurysm with preservation of the perforator at the blind end. PMID:25979424

  11. Dissecting aneurysm of vertebral artery manifestating as contralateral abducens nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Sue; Lee, Sang Hyung; Son, Young-Je; Chung, Young Seob

    2013-03-01

    Isolated abducens nerve paresis related to ruptured vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is rare. It usually occurs bilaterally or ipsilaterally to the pathologic lesions. We report the case of a contralateral sixth nerve palsy following ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. A 38-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a 6-day history of headache. Abnormalities were not seen on initial computed tomography (CT). On admission, the patient was alert and no signs reflecting neurologic deficits were noted. Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography revealed a fusiform dilatation of the right VA involving origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient suddenly suffered from severe headache with diplopia the day before the scheduled cerebral angiography. Neurologic examination disclosed nuchal rigidity and isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Emergent CT scan showed high density in the basal and prepontine cistern compatible with ruptured aneurismal hemorrhage. Right vertebral angiography illustrated a right VA dissecting aneurysm with prominent displaced vertebrobasilar artery to inferiorly on left side. Double-stent placement was conducted for the treatment of ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. No diffusion restriction signals were observed in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem. Eleven weeks later, full recovery of left sixth nerve palsy was documented photographically. In conclusion, isolated contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with ruptured VA aneurysm may develop due to direct nerve compression by displaced verterobasilar artery triggered by primary thick clot in the prepontine cistern. PMID:23634273

  12. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K.; Youssef, Ali A.; Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J.

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  13. Bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection after a horse-riding injury.

    PubMed

    Keilani, Zeid M; Berne, John D; Agko, Mouchammed

    2010-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries, defined as blunt injuries to the internal carotid or vertebral arteries, are uncommon and usually occur in victims of high-speed deceleration motor vehicle crashes. A blunt cerebrovascular injury after an equestrian accident is an extremely unusual presentation. In recent years, advances in screening and treatment with pharmacologic anticoagulation before the onset of neurologic symptoms have improved outcomes for these patients. Endovascular stenting and embolization, although unproven, offer a new potential approach for these complex injuries. We present a unique case of four-vessel blunt cerebrovascular injuries after a horse-riding injury that required multidisciplinary management. PMID:20888534

  14. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rabellino, Martin; Garcia Nielsen, L.; Baldi, S.; Zander, T.; Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I.; Maynar, M.

    2009-01-15

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  15. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  16. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  17. An Infected Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery Treated with a Stent-graft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMOTO, Kenji; ISAKA, Fumiaki; YAMASHITA, Kohsuke

    2015-01-01

    In a 75-year-old man, a growing vertebral artery aneurysm at the C3/4 intervertebral level was found at postoperative evaluation of cervical abscess, which was diagnosed as a complication of sepsis subsequent to cholangitis. Even after a successful antibiotic treatment and a surgical drainage, the aneurysm grew enough to cause compression of esophagus and trachea. The aneurysm was judged to be infection-related, based on the clinical course and the anatomical vicinity to the abscess. Following a dual antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg and aspirin 100 mg per day) for a week, the patient underwent endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with a stent-graft. Postoperative angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with preserving patency of the vertebral artery. A dual antiplatelet treatment was continued for 6 months and was changed to a single antiplatelet treatment (clopidogrel 75 mg per day) thereafter. Neither recurrence of the aneurysm nor stent-graft infection was observed for 4 years of follow-up. This case illustrates the potential use of a stent-graft in the treatment of an infected aneurysm. PMID:26437795

  18. Rotational vertebrobasilar ischemia due to vertebral artery dynamic stenoses complicated by an ostial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Natello, Gregory W; Carroll, Christine M; Katwal, Arabindra B

    2009-08-01

    We describe a patient with rotational vertebrobasilar ischemia (RVBI) due to vertebral artery (VA) compressive stenoses during neck rotation, complicated by an ostial atherosclerotic stenosis (OAS). Referred for 'near-syncopal spells', inquiry revealed a symptom-complex consistent with vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) provoked by head rotation. VA dynamic angiography with imaging via prevertebral subclavian injections in neck-rotated positions while reproducing symptoms, demonstrated two compressive stenoses not present in the neck-neutral position, establishing the diagnosis of RVBI due to CT-demonstrated cervical spondylosis. There was an occluded contralateral VA, isolated posterior circulation, and absent vertebral collateral flow. Disabling symptoms persisted despite using a cervical collar. Surgical decompression of the dynamic stenoses would not address the OAS, was considered high risk, and absence of a suitable donor artery precluded distal VA reconstruction. RVBI resolved with ostial stent placement by improving perfusion pressure across the compressive stenoses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of RVBI in which the affected VA had an obstructive atherosclerotic stenosis in addition to the characteristic rotation-induced dynamic stenoses, and the first report of stent placement in the culprit artery to treat this disorder. Diagnosis depends on recognizing the association of symptoms with positional neck changes and VA dynamic angiography demonstrating the compressive stenosis while reproducing symptoms. This case illustrates the management complexities when there are coexisting abnormalities, emphasizing the need to individualize treatment. RVBI is a potentially correctable cause of TIAs and particularly relevant due to the aging population which has a significant incidence of both degenerative cervical and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:19651677

  19. The Use of Aspiration Catheter Systems for Embolic Protection during Intracranial Vertebral Artery Angioplasty and Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Gesheva, Silvia I.; Hastings, Laurel H.; Wilson, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior circulation strokes comprise approximately 20-25% of all strokes of ischemic origin. Strokes affecting this area carry a significantly higher risk for subsequent stroke or death as compared to anterior circulation strokes. Embolic protection device (EPD) use for carotid artery stenosis has translated into percutaneous interventions of proximal vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. However, the use of EPDs when treating intracranial lesions has yet to be studied and may not be feasible as the vessel caliber is frequently smaller than in existing devices. Objective: The aim of this study is to describe a proximal aspiration technique used during the treatment of intracranial VA and basilar artery (BA) atherosclerotic disease. Methods: Proximal embolic protection was utilized during the treatment of intracranial VA/BA stenosis with angioplasty and stenting in patients with medically refractory disease. Results: Three patients with severe symptomatic posterior circulation stenosis refractory to medical management were treated with angioplasty and stenting utilizing proximal aspiration. Pre- and post-treatment angiograms and MRIs were compared. Treated vascular stenoses were significantly improved, without new neurological deficits or ischemic injury identified on imaging. Conclusions: The proposed technique of proximal embolic protection may help overcome the challenge of embolus propagation inherent to the treatment modality that was encountered during the treatment of intracranial VA/BA stenosis. PMID:27051407

  20. Spastic Quadriparesis Caused by Anomalous Vertebral Artery Compression of Spinal Cord at the Cervico-Medullary Junction

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Adkatalwar, Vijayendra; Shiva, Meyyappan; Agrawal, Nitesh; Ramakrishnan, K G

    2015-01-01

    Vascular compression of medulla or spinal cord at the cervico-medullary junction has been commonly described in the literature and is often attributed to dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar arteries. We describe a case of anomalous course of the cervical segments of the bilateral vertebral arteries which were seen entering the spinal canal directly after exiting the transverse foramen of axis and causing significant cord compression at the cervico-medullary region leading to spastic quadriparesis. PMID:25924176

  1. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Distal to the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery: Stenting or Trapping?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yi-Bin Zhao, Kai-Jun Wu, Yi-Na Zhou, Yu Li, Qiang Yang, Peng-Fei Huang, Qing-Hai Zhao, Wen-Yuan Xu, Yi Liu, Jian-Min

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) continues to be controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) for ruptured VADAs distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (supra-PICA VADAs), which is the most common subset.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted of 39 consecutive ruptured supra-PICA VADAs treated with internal trapping (n = 20) or with SAC (n = 19) at our institution. The clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively compared.ResultsThe immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was 80 % in the trapping group, which improved to 88.9 % at the follow-ups (45 months on average). Unwanted occlusions of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were detected in three trapped cases. Incomplete obliteration of the VADA or unwanted occlusions of the PICA were detected primarily in the VADAs closest to the PICA. In the stenting group, the immediate total occlusion rate was 47.4 %, which improved to 100 % at the follow-ups (39 months on average). The immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was higher in the trapping group (p < 0.05), but the later total occlusion was slightly higher in the stenting group (p > 0.05).ConclusionsOur preliminary results showed that internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling are both technically feasible for treating ruptured supra-PICA VADAs. Although not statistically significant, procedural related complications occurred more frequently in the trapping group. When the VADAs are close to the PICA, we suggest that the lesions should be treated using SAC.

  2. Vertebral artery dolicoectasia with brainstem compression: role of microvascular decompression in relieving pyramidal weakness.

    PubMed

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral artery dolicoectasia (VAD) can cause brainstem compression and dysfunction. Reports of pyramidal tract involvement by brainstem compression and the surgical benefits and its long-term results are sparsely reported. We hereby report three cases of medullary compression by VAD causing pyramidal weakness. Two patients with bilateral compression with quadriparesis did not want surgical treatment and were still disabled at 58 months and 50 months of follow-up, respectively. One patient with unilateral medullary compression with hemiparesis underwent microvascular decompression using Teflon sling retraction. This patient was relieved of symptoms and is asymptomatic at 14-month follow-up. This report emphasizes the need of surgical decompression in cases of brainstem compression by VAD with caution about appropriate case selection. PMID:26821837

  3. Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

  4. Imaging anatomy and variation of vertebral artery and bone structure at craniocervical junction

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shaomao; Ye, Feng; Lin, Qingchi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to display the vertebral artery and bone structure at the craniocervical junction (CJVA and C0-1-2) with three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA) and identify their anatomic features and variations. Eighty-eight subjects without pathology of vertebral artery (VA) and C0-1-2 were selected from head–neck CTA examination. 3D images were formed with volume rendering (VR) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). On the 3D images, CJVA and C0-1-2 were measured, and their variations were observed. CJVA goes along C0-1-2 with five curves, of which three curves are visibly away from C0-1-2, one is 0.0–8.3 mm away at the second curve with 0.0–11.2 mm in width, another is 0.0–9.2 mm away at the fourth with 2.8–14.8 mm and the other is 0.0–6.2 mm away at the fifth. Statistical comparisons show that there is no significant difference in the measurements between left and right, and that the curves become smaller and farther away from C0-1-2 with the increase of age. CJVA is not equal in size, with the biggest in the fourth curve and the smallest in the fifth. Statistical comparison shows the left CJVA is larger than the right in the fifth curve. Variations were found on CJVA in 16 cases and on C1 in 12 cases. The anatomy and variations of CJVA and C0-1-2 are complicated. It is of vital significance to identify their anatomic features in clinical practice. PMID:19288143

  5. The forgotten disease: Bilateral lemierre’s disease with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Parikh, Kaushal; Puri, Sonam; Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Sharma, Divakar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Lemierre’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • fever • headache • tachycardia • tachypnoe Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Lemierre’s disease, also known as the forgotten disease, postanginal sepsis, or necrobacillosis, was first reported in 1890 by Courmont and Cade, but it was Dr. Andre Lemierre, a professor of microbiology, who described this disease in 1936. The typical causative agent is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other organisms may be involved. The pathogenesis of Lemierre’s disease is not well understood. It is characterized by a primary oropharyngeal infection associated with septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and metastatic septic emboli. Case Report: We report a case of Lemierre’s disease with bilateral internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis and metastatic septic emboli to the lungs and brain, associated with epidural abscess and mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery, which is quite rare in Lemierre’s disease. This is the first report of a case of Lemierre’s disease associated with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Conclusions: Lemierre’s disease is a rare and perplexing medical entity. Clinical suspicion should be high in previously healthy young adults presenting with fever and neck pain following oropharyngeal infection. Dr. Lemierre stated that ‘symptoms and signs of Lemierre’s disease are so characteristic that it permits diagnosis before bacteriological examination’. The prognosis of patients with Lemierre’s disease is generally good, provided prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. PMID:24883173

  6. [Administration of the cervical torsion test by the examination of Doppler's blood flows in vertebral arteries and basilar artery in patients with degenerative cervical spine changes].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, J; Zalewski, P; Machała, W; Gaszyński, W

    1994-01-01

    Using the neck rotation test during examination of Doppler's blood flows in vertebral arteries and basilar artery, the authors examined 60 subjects aged 16-60 years, including 20 healthy ones and 40 with cervical spondylarthrosis. The Transpect-TCD was used. Half the patients with cervical spine changes had also receptive hearing damage of low degree. The study demonstrated that neck rotation affected of patological Doppler's blood flows in one or in both vertebral arteries at 50% patients with cervical spondylarthrosis, but without clinical symptoms, and at 70% patients with cervical spondylarthrosis and clinical symptoms. The neck rotation test can have diagnostic significance by examination of sufficiency in vertebrobasilar system, or qualitative significance to microsurgical treatment. PMID:7870428

  7. [Multiple brain abscesses in the territory of the vertebral-basilar artery resulting from an infected aortic arch graft].

    PubMed

    Otani, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawauchi, Satoshi; Uneda, Atsuhito; Kajitani, Takumi; Watanabe, Kyoichi; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kiriyama, Hideki; Tokunaga, Koji; Matsumoto, Kengo

    2015-03-01

    A 62-year-old man with high fever and in a state of disorientation was transferred to our hospital. One year before this transfer, he had undergone total arch replacement surgery for thoracic aortic dissection. On admission to our hospital, head MRI revealed multiple brain abscesses in the territory of the vertebral-basilar artery, and chest CT showed gas around the aortic graft, in particular, at the origin of the left subclavian artery. We diagnosed him with brain abscesses in the left vertebral-basilar artery resulting from an infected aortic graft. We immediately began administration of intravenous antibiotics. Although his blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were negative, fortunately, the brain abscesses and ectopic gas disappeared. Since reports of only antibiotic use for treating brain abscesses due to aortic graft infection are rare, the appropriate duration of antibiotic administration has not been established yet. Therefore, careful observation is required in this case. PMID:25748809

  8. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  9. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  10. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy. A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs. Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  11. Anomalous Right Vertebral Artery Originating from the Aortic Arch Distal to the Left Subclavian Artery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Case, David; Seinfeld, Joshua; Folzenlogen, Zach; Kumpe, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Present a case report of an anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian along with a review of cases reported to date in the literature. METHODS Provide background information on this rare anomaly, present the case report, review the literature using PubMed, summarize previously reported cases to date, and discuss the underlying embryologic development of this anomaly along with its significance. RESULTS We report a 54-year-old man presenting with a subarachnoid hemorrhage referred for diagnostic cerebral arteriography who was found to have an anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery in conjunction with a bovine arch. We also report 13 previously reported cases along with their other associated variant anatomy. CONCLUSIONS Based upon our present case and previously documented cases to date, this anomaly is a rare finding. An understanding of aberrant anatomy and its embryologic basis is paramount to avoiding inadvertent vascular injury during diagnostic cerebral angiography. Therefore, this abnormality must be considered if selective vertebral artery catheterization is difficult or unsuccessful. PMID:26301027

  12. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm. PMID:7611084

  13. [Case of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction presenting with acute brachial diplegia due to right vertebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Santa, Yo; Akutagawa, Noriko; Nagano, Sukehisa; Yoshimura, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of sudden onset of dizziness, bilateral shoulder pain, and brachial diplegia. Neurological examination revealed severe bilateral weakness of the triceps brachii, wrist flexor, and wrist extensor muscles. There was no paresis of the lower limbs. His gait was ataxic. Pinprick and temperature sensations were diminished at the bilateral C6-C8 dermatomes. Vibration and position senses were intact. An MRI of the head revealed a right cerebellar infarction and occlusion of the right vertebral artery. An MRI of the cervical spine on T₂ weighted imaging (T₂WI) showed cord compression at the C3/4-C5/6 level secondary to spondylotic degeneration without any intramedullary signal changes of the cord. On the following day, however, high-signal lesions on T₂WI appeared in the C5-C6 spinal cord, suggesting cord infarction. Unilateral vertebral artery occlusion does not usually result in cervical cord infarction because of anastomosis of arteries. Because of the long-term mechanical compression in our case, it was likely that cervical cord ischemia was present before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of chronic cord compression, our case suggests that occlusion of a unilateral vertebral artery could cause cervical cord infarction. PMID:22790805

  14. Detection of anomalous vertebral arteries by ultrasound as an alternative to radiological methods.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Beckerman, Inessa; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2011-12-01

    In order to examine 'ultrasound' approach in detecting the course of the vertebral artery (VA) and its anomalies important for neck surgery. An observational study with retrospective analysis of ultrasound images. 500 VAs on 250 3D CT angiographies and 500 ultrasound images performed on the same set of patients were analyzed. The relationship between the extraosseous portions of the VA to the neck organs with a special emphasis to the thyroid gland area, and the abnormal position of the VA were detected. Ultrasound and CT 3D images were compared. Ultrasound detected that 29 out of 500 VAs were anomalous (5.8%), 3D CT detected 30 cases. These anomalies were found in 22 patients (8.8%) (23 for 3D CT; 9.2%), in 7 (31.8%) of them bilaterally. An abnormal level of entrance (C3, C4, and C5) was observed in all anomalous cases. An additional case detected by 3D CT indicated C7 level of entrance. The ultrasound data correspond the CT data in 96.7% of cases. In ten cases (33.3%) the anomalous VA run close to the thyroid gland even touching the lower pole (16.7%; n = 5) or the upper pole (10.0%; n = 3) of the gland. In ten cases (33.3%) the anomalous VA crossed common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein by a way of a median loop. The incidence of anatomic variations of the VA is significant. Preoperative ultrasound investigation allows precise identification of anomalous VAs. Radiation-free ultrasound investigation of blood vessels is as precise as CT 3D imaging. PMID:21400128

  15. Locked in and out: a case of emerging basilar artery obstruction secondary to vertebral artery dissection thrombolysed with intravenous rt-PA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Raweshidy, Y H; Sinha, D M; Coward, L J; Guyler, P C; O’Brien, A

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case in which intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) potentially saved a young man from locked-in syndrome or life threatening consequences. The patient presented with acute stroke secondary to vertebral artery dissection and was treated with intravenous rt-PA. There were no post thrombolysis complications and the patient left hospital with mild neurological symptoms. Our report suggests that in cases of acute posterior circulation stroke due to arterial dissection, treatment with intravenous thrombolysis is safe, practicable and effective. PMID:22696744

  16. Vertebral artery dissection due to an esophageal foreign body migration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, Najib; Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmlih, Amine; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional foreign bodies' swallowing is a fairly common occurrence in ENT consultation especially among children. They usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. It represents about 1% to 4% of all cases of foreign bodies' ingestion. A 16 year's old female patient has presented to ENT emergency with a painful dysphagia following an accidental ingestion of a metallic pin. Cervical X ray confirmed the presence of the pin while endoscopic investigations have shown no foreign body. Cervical CT scan revealed the migration of the foreign body through the esophageal wall with left vertebral artery dissection. Endoscopic management has been sufficient with an uneventful post operative follow up. Esophageal foreign bodies are very diverse mainly dominated by fish bones (60%) and chicken bones (16%). Metallic pins are rare. The major risks of migration of those foreign bodies are cervical abscess, mediastinitis and oeso-vascular fistulae. Cases of self extrusion through the skin have been reported. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. Endoscopic management has been sufficient. PMID:25018833

  17. Vertebral artery dissection due to an esophageal foreign body migration: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Benmansour, Najib; Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmlih, Amine; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional foreign bodies‘ swallowing is a fairly common occurrence in ENT consultation especially among children. They usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. It represents about 1% to 4% of all cases of foreign bodies‘ ingestion. A 16 year's old female patient has presented to ENT emergency with a painful dysphagia following an accidental ingestion of a metallic pin. Cervical X ray confirmed the presence of the pin while endoscopic investigations have shown no foreign body. Cervical CT scan revealed the migration of the foreign body through the esophageal wall with left vertebral artery dissection. Endoscopic management has been sufficient with an uneventful post operative follow up. Esophageal foreign bodies are very diverse mainly dominated by fish bones (60%) and chicken bones (16%). Metallic pins are rare. The major risks of migration of those foreign bodies are cervical abscess, mediastinitis and oeso-vascular fistulae. Cases of self extrusion through the skin have been reported. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. Endoscopic management has been sufficient. PMID:25018833

  18. Radical surgical treatment for recurrent giant fusiform thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled

    PubMed Central

    J-O’Shanahan, Aruma; Noda, Kosumo; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Ota, Nakao; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Tanikawa, Rokuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fusiform aneurysms are rare (<1%) and the underlying pathophysiology is not well known. Endovascular coiling is the standard of treatment; however, a surgical procedure with vascular reconstruction by excluding the pathological segment of the vessel and restoring the blood flow, seems to be the most effective and definitive treatment. Case Description: We report a patient who presented a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled which developed a giant enlargement and a new contralateral fusiform aneurysm. Hemodynamic changes resulting in the formation of contralateral aneurysm might be the result of aneurysm occlusion without revascularization. In addition, continued blood flow to the aneurysmal wall through the vasa vasorum might result in aneurysm recanalization or regrowth. In order to account for these possible sources of complications, we performed a vascular reconstruction with high and low flow bypasses after trapping the aneurysm. Conclusions: We hypothesize that, in this and similar cases, surgical vascular reconstruction should be the first and definitive treatment under experienced cerebrovascular surgeons. PMID:27127714

  19. Complex aortic arch anomaly: Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, fenestrated proximal right and duplicated proximal left vertebral arteries-CT angiography findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elizabeth; Rizvi, Tanvir; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2015-08-01

    Congenital aortic arch and vertebral artery anomalies are a relatively rare finding discovered on imaging either incidentally or for evaluation of entities like dysphagia or subclavian steal. Right aortic arch is an uncommon anatomical anomaly that occurs in less than 0.1% of the population, and in half of these cases the left subclavian artery is also aberrant.(1) Unilateral vertebral artery (VA) duplication is rare with an observed prevalence of 0.72% in cadavers.(2) Fenestration of the VA is more common than duplication, with a prevalence of approximately 0.23%-1.95%.(3,4) We describe the case of a 25-year-old female who was found to have a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, duplicated left vertebral artery and a fenestrated right vertebral artery on CT angiography performed for evaluation of dysphagia. This combination of findings has not been reported before, to the best of our knowledge. We review the embryologic mechanism for the development of the normal aortic arch, right aortic arch, vertebral artery duplication and vertebral artery fenestration. The incidence of these entities, resultant symptoms and clinical implications are also reviewed. The increased associated incidence of aneurysm formation, dissection, arteriovenous malformations and thromboembolic events with fenestration is also discussed. PMID:26306929

  20. Wall Imaging for Unilateral Intracranial Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia with Three-dimensional High-isotropic Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xian-Jin; Wang, Wu; Du, Bin; Liu, Lei; He, Xin-Xin; Hu, Li-Bin; Zhang, Xue-Bin; Liu, Zun-Jing; Jiang, Wei-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies for evaluating wall characteristics of intracranial vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH). The aim of this study was to determine wall characteristics of VAH with three-dimensional volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (3D VISTA) images and differentiate between acquired atherosclerotic stenosis and VAH. Methods: Thirty patients with suspicious VAH by luminograms were retrospectively enrolled between January 2014 and February 2015. The patients were classified as “acquired atherosclerotic stenosis” or “VAH” based on 3D VISTA images. The wall characteristics of VAH were assessed to determine the presence of atherosclerotic lesions, and the patients were classified into two subgroups (VAH with atherosclerosis and VAH with normal wall). Wall characteristics of basilar arteries and vertebral arteries were also assessed. The clinical and wall characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results: Five of 30 patients with suspicious VAH were finally diagnosed as acquired atherosclerotic stenosis by 3D VISTA images. 25 patients were finally diagnosed as VAH including 16 (64.00%) patients with atherosclerosis and 9 (36.00%) patients with normal wall. In the 16 patients with atherosclerosis, plaque was found in 9 patients, slight wall thickening in 6 patients, and thrombus and wall thickening in 1 patient. Compared with VAH patients with normal wall, VAH patients with atherosclerosis showed atherosclerotic basilar arteries and dominant vertebral arteries more frequently (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Three-dimensional VISTA images enable differentiation between the acquired atherosclerotic stenosis and VAH. VAH was also prone to atherosclerotic processes. PMID:26063361

  1. Comparison of Vertebral Artery and Middle Cerebral Artery Monitoring for Right-to-left Shunt Detection by Contrast-enhanced Transcranial Doppler.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Zhu; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Niu, Peng-Peng; Yang, Yi; Xing, Ying-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is a reliable and reproducible method for right-to-left shunt (RLS) detection, with high sensitivity. Monitoring the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an optimal choice, yet for patients with insufficient temporal bone windows or severe stenosis of carotid arteries, an alternative should be established. The aim of the present study was to further establish whether c-TCD with vertebral artery (VA) monitoring is as effective as MCA monitoring for RLS detection. We evaluated 194 subjects for RLS detection with VA and MCA monitoring simultaneously. There was no significant difference between the positive rates of VA and MCA monitoring for RLS detection. c-TCD with VA monitoring could be an alternative for RLS detection, with high sensitivity and specificity both at rest and during the Valsalva manoeuvre. PMID:27098054

  2. Comparison of Vertebral Artery and Middle Cerebral Artery Monitoring for Right-to-left Shunt Detection by Contrast-enhanced Transcranial Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Zhu; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Niu, Peng-Peng; Yang, Yi; Xing, Ying-qi

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is a reliable and reproducible method for right-to-left shunt (RLS) detection, with high sensitivity. Monitoring the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an optimal choice, yet for patients with insufficient temporal bone windows or severe stenosis of carotid arteries, an alternative should be established. The aim of the present study was to further establish whether c-TCD with vertebral artery (VA) monitoring is as effective as MCA monitoring for RLS detection. We evaluated 194 subjects for RLS detection with VA and MCA monitoring simultaneously. There was no significant difference between the positive rates of VA and MCA monitoring for RLS detection. c-TCD with VA monitoring could be an alternative for RLS detection, with high sensitivity and specificity both at rest and during the Valsalva manoeuvre. PMID:27098054

  3. Effect of acute hypoxia on blood flow in vertebral and internal carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2013-03-01

    Hypoxia changes the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow and stimulates the ventilatory chemoreflex, thereby reducing CO2 tension. We examined the effects of both hypoxia and isocapnic hypoxia on acute changes in internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow. Ten healthy male subjects underwent the following two randomly assigned respiratory interventions after a resting baseline period with room air: (i) hypoxia; and (ii) isocapnic hypoxia with a controlled gas mixture (12% O2; inspiratory mmHg). In the isocapnic hypoxia intervention, subjects were instructed to maintain the rate and depth of breathing to maintain the level of end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ( ) during the resting baseline period. The ICA and VA blood flow (velocity × cross-sectional area) were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. The was decreased (-6.3 ± 0.9%, P < 0.001) during hypoxia by hyperventilation (minute ventilation +12.9 ± 2.2%, P < 0.001), while was unchanged during isocapnic hypoxia. The ICA blood flow was unchanged (P = 0.429), while VA blood flow increased (+10.3 ± 3.1%, P = 0.010) during hypoxia. In contrast, isocapnic hypoxia increased both ICA (+14.5 ± 1.4%, P < 0.001) and VA blood flows (+10.9 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Thus, hypoxic vasodilatation outweighed hypocapnic vasoconstriction in the VA, but not in the ICA. These findings suggest that acute hypoxia elicits an increase in posterior cerebral blood flow, possibly to maintain essential homeostatic functions of the brainstem. PMID:23143991

  4. The influence of arm ischaemia and arm hyperaemia on subclavian and vertebral artery blood flow in patients with occlusive disease of the subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk. A peroperative study.

    PubMed

    Magaard, F; Ekeström, S

    1975-01-01

    A peroperative study of blood flow and flow direction was performed in series of patients with occlusive disease of the subclavian artery. Particular attention was focused on the flow variations caused by arm ischaemia and postischaemic hyperaemia and on the effect of injection of a vasodilator into the distal subclavian artery. The effect on blood flow and flow direction was measured with the aid of an electromagnetic flowmeter. During arm ischaemia induced by an inflated cuff on the arm, the subclavian flow diminished, as did the vertebral artery flow when it was retrograde. If the vertebral artery flow was anterograde, it increased during arm ischaemia. The postischaemic hyperaemia caused an increase of the subclavian flow and of reversed vertebral flow. If the vertebral flow was anterograde, it diminished during the postischaemic hyperaemia. Similar findings were obtained with intra-arterial injection of a vasodilator. The large amount of blood flow passing through the vertebral artery, as well as the flow variations caused by reactive arm hyperaemia, emphasize the role of this artery as a collateral vessel to the upper limb in cases of the subclavian steal phenomenon. PMID:1855

  5. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI) occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008), all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49%) and car-pedestrian accidents (24%) were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4%) presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8%) presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III). Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality. PMID:20579381

  6. Extracranial Segments of the Vertebral Artery: Insight in the Developmental Changes up to the 21st Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Ljiljana, Vasović; Ivan, Jovanović; Slađana, Ugrenović; Slobodan, Vlajković; Predrag, Jovanović; Gordana, Dorđević

    2014-01-01

    The vertebral artery (VA) bilaterally arises usually from the subclavian artery and courses within the bony canals of cervical vertebrae, and then it reverses directions on the first vertebra before piercing the dura to enter the cranium.The aim was to follow (ab)normal developmental changes of extracranial VA from prenatal status to age 21. This chapter included a brief description of the arterial embryology and morphofunctional specificity of the VA in prevertebral, cervical, and atlantic parts, during prenatal and postnatal period.The authors concluded that the subclavian origin of the VA was in most of fetal and adult cases. The incidences of variable VA origins and domination of one of the VAs were different from one series of human specimens to the second one. Although in most of cases, anomalous origin and/or variable course of the extracranial VA had little or did not result in clinical symptoms in infants and young adults, the true value of their discovery is in the diagnostic gain before vascular surgery of supra-aortic arteries. PMID:24265044

  7. Using the Endoscopic Endonasal Transclival Approach to Access Aneurysms Arising from AICA, PICA, and Vertebral Artery: An Anatomical Study.

    PubMed

    Doan, Vivian; Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Unnithan, Ajay; Recinos, Pablo F; Zanation, Adam M; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna M

    2016-06-01

    Objective To explore the use of the endoscopic endonasal transclival approach (EEA) for clipping anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms. Design Anatomical study. Participants Fifteen adult cadavers. Main Outcome Measures Length of artery exposed and distance from the nasal ala to the arteries. Results The length of the right and left VA exposed were 1.7 ± 0.6 cm and 1.6 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The distance to the right VA was 11.1 ± 0.9 cm and to the left was 11.1 ± 0.8 cm. Right and left AICA were exposed for an average length of 1.1 ± 0.3 cm and 0.8 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. The distance to the right AICA was 10.3 ± 0.8 cm and to the left was 10.3 ± 0.8 cm. The right PICA was exposed for a length of 0.5 ± 0.2 cm at a distance of 10.9 ± 0.5 cm. The left PICA was exposed for a length of 0.5 ± 0.2 cm at a distance of 11.1 ± 0.9 cm. Conclusion The EEA can provide direct access to AICA, PICA, and VA, making it a potential alternative to the traditional approaches for the clipping of aneurysms arising from those arteries. PMID:27175314

  8. Three cases of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection (SVAD), resulting in two cases of Wallenberg syndrome and one case of Foville syndrome in young, healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Canepa Raggio, Carlo; Dasgupta, Aban

    2014-01-01

    First patient, presented with sudden onset of headache, left hypoacusia and right hemiparesis, posteriorly developing gaze-evoked nystagmus and worsening right-sided weakness. Diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection and Foville Syndrome were made through clinical assessment and CT-carotid angiogram–MR angiography. Second patient, presented with four episodes of pain over left side of the nose and left eye pain over 1 month; admitted for acute facial pain without limb weakness. During admission, tingling over V1/V2 facial territory, vertigo, hypotension, uvula deviation and right lower limb numbness. CT-carotid angiogram confirmed vertebral artery with dissection. MRI revealed left lateral medullary infarct. Third patient, presented with sudden onset of left facial numbness and right upper limb weakness; 1 day after, right arm and leg hypoesthesia with hoarseness. MRA revealed dissection of left distal vertebral artery and MRI showed infarction in lower medulla oblongata. PMID:24777086

  9. Differences in anatomical relationship between vertebral artery and internal jugular vein in children and adults measured by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Katsuyuki; Yamaura, Ken; Karashima, Yuji; Akiyoshi, Kozaburo; Hoka, Sumio

    2016-04-01

    Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) under ultrasound guidance can reduce complications, such as common carotid artery (CCA) puncture, accidental vertebral artery (VA) puncture. However, these complications still occur, especially in pediatric patients probably due to anatomical predisposition of VA. This study compared differences in anatomical location of VA and IJV between pediatric and adult patients. Children with body weight <20 kg (n = 16) and adults who required central venous or pulmonary arterial pressure monitoring (n = 21) were enrolled. After induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, patients were positioned for IJV cannulation. Images of the right CCA, IJV and VA were recorded by ultrasonography. The size of each vessel, anatomical relationship of other vessels, distance between vessels and between each vessel and skin were measured. The size of VA relative to IJV was significantly larger in children than in adults (14 vs 7 %, P < 0.001). The absolute and relative distance between IJV and VA were significantly shorter in children than those in adults (P < 0.01). The anatomical relationships between IJV and CCA and that between IJV and VA were not different between children and adults. In children, VA was relatively larger and located closer to IJV than adults. The results call for careful attention to the position of VA during ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation especially in children. PMID:26018456

  10. Combined reconstruction of the vertebral and carotid artery in one single procedure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I; de los Reyes, R A; Pearce, J; Shrontz, C; Mehta, B; Patel, S; Dujovny, M

    1983-06-01

    Patients suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency frequently have multiple areas of involvement in the extracranial circulation. Eight patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital had symptoms suggestive of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and angiograms showing multiple abnormalities. A combined operation that reconstructed the carotid and vertebral circulations in one single procedure was completed in all patients with minimal morbidity and no mortality. The surgical procedure is described in detail. PMID:6877544

  11. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:25657727

  12. [Stent-assisted embolization for ruptured vertebral artery dissection involving the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery:a case report of staged strategy].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kenji; Higashi, Toshio; Yoshioka, Tsutomu; Shigemori, Yutaka; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Miki, Koichi; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-04-01

    We report a ruptured vertebral artery dissection (VAD) involving the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery(PICA)treated by a staged strategy with stent-assisted coil embolization. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a ruptured right VAD involving the origin of the developed PICA. Endovascular internal trapping of the enlarged distal VAD was performed (Stage 1). After 1 month, following confirmation of platelet inhabitation (Stage 2) an Enterprise stent (Cordis Neurovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) placement from the PICA to the proximal VA with coil embolization for proximal VAD was performed under dual antiplatelet therapy. The dissected VA segment was occluded by coil embolization and the PICA was preserved. Advantages of this staged treatment are the avoidance of ischemic/hemorrhagic complications due to antithrombotic therapy when stent placement to the PICA is planned during the acute stage of SAH and confirmation of platelet inhabitation before stent placement in second treatment. VAD can be occluded, and this challenging endovascular treatment can be a therapeutic option for a ruptured VAD. PMID:25838304

  13. Infrequent life-threatening complication of descending necrotizing mediastinitis; vertebral artery, internal jugular and subclavian vein rupture.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis; Vucetic, Borki

    2008-12-01

    We present a case of left proximal vertebral artery (PVA), internal jugular and subclavian vein rupture after descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) initially treated in another surgical institution with antibiotic therapy and left-sided cervicotomy, collar incision and drainage of the left thorax. On day 23 followed by surgical intervention due to the disease propagation, after daily dressing exchange of wound healed on second intention, a life-threatening complication of mixed, massive arterial and venous bleeding developed. The patient was emergency transferred to University Clinic and undergo prompt surgical repair. The jugular and subclavian veins destroyed by suppurative process were sutured. Vein bypass to the PVA was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged home on the 30th postoperative day. We performed the evaluation of DNM-literature review. The articles were collected from 1970 to 2005 (44 reports). Our search did not find any adequate published studies of the relationship between vascular complications described in these case and DNM. We report this case because there have been no previous reports in the literature. PMID:19059137

  14. Fluid structure interaction analysis reveals facial nerve palsy caused by vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoaki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kambayashi, Yukinao; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Shinohara, Sho; Fujiwara, Hidemoto; Nakazato, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Dahmani, Chiheb; Yamamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko; Murayama, Yuichi

    2015-11-01

    Cranial nerve palsy caused by aneurysmal compression has not been fully evaluated. The main causes of symptoms are considered to be direct mechanical compression and aneurysm pulsations. Recent studies indicate that nerve dysfunction is mainly induced by pulsation rather than by direct compression, and successful cases of endovascular surgery have been reported. We describe a patient with an unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysm compressing the facial nerve at the root exit zone (REZ). The patient presented with peripheral facial nerve palsy but not hemifacial spasm and was successfully treated by coil embolization. To investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral facial nerve palsy, fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis can approximate displacement and the magnitude of aneurysmal wall motion due to hemodynamic forces. In our case, maximum mesh displacement was observed at the aneurysmal wall attached to the facial nerve inside the pons rather than the REZ, which explains the clinical manifestation of facial nerve palsy in the absence of hemifacial spasm. This preliminary report demonstrates the utility of FSI analysis for investigating cranial nerve neuropathy. PMID:26453756

  15. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Examination of extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Elwertowski, Michał; Małek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    The role of a standard is to describe examination techniques, recommended norms as well as principles necessary to obtain results and draw appropriate conclusions, rather than a description of pathologies. The paper presents a technique for carotid artery examination as well as currently recommended standards. According to San Francisco Consensus from 2003, a significant stenosis of 70% may be detected when systolic velocity in the internal carotid artery stenosis is >230 cm/s, and the diastolic velocity is >100 cm/s. The common carotid artery velocity is also taken into account. Hemodynamic evaluation is therefore the primary method for the assessment of the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis. It is important that the examination is performed at an insonation angle of 60° as measurements at higher angles result in an exponential increase in measurement error. Also, an extended version of standards involving measurements performed behind stenosis, which are used in some clinics, is included in the paper. The paper further presents guidelines for the description of the identified pathologies, which ensure that the findings prove unambiguous for clinicians, especially when stenosis eligible for surgical intervention is detected. Morphological measurement of stenosis (according to NASCET criteria) is only of supplementary character (confirming morphological grounds for the increase of velocity) and has no critical importance, especially due to high measurement divergence. Description of atherosclerotic plaques, especially hypoechoic ones, which are considered potentially unstable and may lead to a raised risk of stroke, is a very important element of examination. The paper is based on Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society and updated based on the latest literature reports. PMID:26673158

  16. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

  17. Screening CT angiography for detection of blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury in the setting of combat-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Timpone, Vincent; Schneider, Brett E; Sherman, Paul M

    2013-04-01

    Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI) is a relatively rare injury reported in the civilian sector and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to use an optimized computed tomography angiography protocol in the deployed setting to determine the prevalence of BCVI in a consecutive patient population having experienced recent wartime-related traumatic injuries. From July 2008 to September 2009, a total of 307 consecutive trauma patients were included in this study. At least 233 (76%) patients were known to have experienced blast-related traumatic injuries. 135 (44%) patients had injuries to the head, face, or neck. 4 patients (1.3%) sustained BCVI. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of BCVI in the deployed setting and the civilian sector. We speculate that in our study population, the relatively decreased prevalence of cervical spinal fractures (3.3%) observed may counter the theoretical increased risk of vascular injury from blast trauma, ultimately producing a similar prevalence of overall BCVI compared to civilian study populations. Based on our observations, we cannot advocate for or against more liberalized screening of BCVI in the deployed setting, and military physicians may elect to continue screening for these injuries with currently established and accepted practice guidelines developed in civilian trauma populations. PMID:23707827

  18. The importance of the origin of vertebral arteries in cerebral ischemia in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether experimentally induced total cerebral ischemia in rabbits actually corresponds to total ischemia on the basis of the origin of certain vessels. We observed morphological variations in the origin and course of the arteria vertebralis as one of the vessels supplying the brain with blood. Investigations were carried out on 50 adult New Zealand rabbits. We prepared corrosion casts of the arterial system using Duracryl Dental. We found that in 86% of cases (43 animals) the arteria vertebralis sinistra originated directly from the arteria subclavia sinistra, in 10% of cases (5 animals) it originated from the arcus aortae as an independent branch, and in 4% of cases (2 animals) it arose from the arcus aortae as a common trunk with the arteria scapularis descendens. The arteria vertebralis dextra originated from the arteria subclavia dextra in 98% (49 animals) of cases. In one case we observed two arteria vertebralis dextra with two different origins. Bilateral variability in the origin of the arteria vertebralis was observed in 12% of cases (6 animals). Our results show that ligation of the truncus brachiocephalicus and of the arteria subclavia sinistra do not necessarily cause total cerebral ischemia. PMID:19902322

  19. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes. PMID:27017772

  20. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  1. Redundant anomalous vertebral artery in a case of congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation: Emphasizing on the differences from the first intersegemental artery and operative steps to prevent injury while performing C1-2 joint manipulation.

    PubMed

    Patra, Devi P; Salunke, Pravin S; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Ghuman, Mandeep S

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous vertebral artery (VA), commonly the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA) is often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). An unusual redundant/ectatic loop of VA passing below the C1 (upside down VA) has been described below and appears to be different from FIA. The operative technique to protect it while C1-2 joint manipulation has been described. A 35 year old male presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis after trivial trauma. Radiology showed irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation with occipitalised C1 and C2-3 fusion. The left VA was anomalous passing beneath the C1 arch with a redundant loop lying posterior to the C1-2 joint. This was unlike the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA) and was safeguarded while dissecting the C1-2 facet. The artery was dissected and safeguarded while performing C1-2 joint manipulation. A redundant/ectatic loop lying posterior to C1-2 joint is an unusual variant of anomalous VA. Evaluation of preoperative radiology helps in diagnosing such anomalous VA. Dissection of the entire redundant loop of the anomalous artery is important in opening the C1-2 joint required for reduction and placement of spacer/ bone grafts to achieve good bony fusion. Also mobilizing the loop allows safe insertion of lateral mass screw. Care needs to be taken while fastening screws to prevent compression of the loop. PMID:26527042

  2. Fatal outcome after brain stem infarction related to bilateral vertebral artery occlusion - case report of a detrimental complication of cervical spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after blunt cervical trauma occurs more frequently than historically believed. The symptoms due to vertebral artery (VA) occlusion usually manifest within the first 24 hours after trauma. Misdiagnosed VAI or delay in diagnosis has been reported to cause acute deterioration of previously conscious and neurologically intact patients. Case presentation A 67 year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) sustaining multiple injuries. Initial evaluation by the emergency medical response team revealed that he was alert, oriented, and neurologically intact. He was transferred to the local hospital where cervical spine computed tomography (CT) revealed several abnormalities. Distraction and subluxation was present at C5-C6 and a comminuted fracture of the left lateral mass of C6 with violation of the transverse foramen was noted. Unavailability of a spine specialist prompted the patient's transfer to an area medical center equipped with spine care capabilities. After arrival, the patient became unresponsive and neurological deficits were noted. His continued deterioration prompted yet another transfer to our Level 1 regional trauma center. A repeat cervical spine CT at our institution revealed significantly worsened subluxation at C5-C6. CT angiogram also revealed complete occlusion of bilateral VA. The following day, a repeat CT of the head revealed brain stem infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion. Shortly following, the patient was diagnosed with brain death and care was withdrawn. Conclusion Brain stem infarction secondary to bilateral VA occlusion following cervical spine trauma resulted in fatal outcome. Prompt imaging evaluation is necessary to assess for VAI in cervical trauma cases with facet joint subluxation/dislocation or transverse foramen fracture so that treatment is not delayed. Additionally, multiple transportation events are risk factors for worsening when unstable cervical injuries are present. Close attention to proper immobilization and neck position depending on the mechanism of injury is mandatory. PMID:21756312

  3. Evaluation of the origin and branching patterns of the iliolumbar artery and its implications on pelvic and vertebral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Turan; Gilan, İsmail Y.; Aktekin, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Zeliha; Dağtekin, Ahmet; Aytaç, Güneş; Coşgun, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the origin, distribution pattern, branches, and neighboring structures of the iliolumbar artery (ILA) concerning the anterolateral surgical approaches to the spine. Methods: This study was performed in the Anatomy Department of Medical School, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Pelvises of 11 male formalin-fixed human cadavers were dissected by anterior and posterior approaches under surgical microscope. The origins, distribution patterns, calibers, and distances to certain structures were measured. Results: The ILA was found as a single trunk on 17 sides arising either from the IIA (12 sides, 70.6%) or the PT (5 sides, 29.4%). The average caliber of those originated from the posterior trunk was significantly larger (p=0.010). The ILA started as a single trunk in 17 sides, while its lumbar and iliac branches separately originating from different arteries in 4 sides. The close relation of the posterior rami of both the lumbar and iliac branches with transverse process and spinal nerve were noted. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the ILA and its branches may have different and significant patterns, which may be crucial to consider during certain surgical procedures, such as far lateral disc herniation and posterior pelvic fixations. PMID:27052291

  4. Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis. PMID:21697983

  5. Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected. PMID:24363853

  6. Vertebral Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sharon H; Vokes, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no agreement about the criteria by which to arrive at an imaging diagnosis of a vertebral fracture. Because high-grade fractures result in alterations in vertebral shape, 1 possible avenue of diagnosis has been to quantitate changes in vertebral shape. The result has been a variety of methods for the relative and absolute measurements of vertebral dimensions. Such measurements have also lent themselves to automated computed analysis. The number of techniques reflects the absence of any consensus about the best. The semiquantitative technique proposed by Genant has become the most widely used and has served the field well for comparative purposes. Its use in higher grade fractures has been widely endorsed, if some concepts (e.g., short vertebral height-vertebrae) are at variance with lower grades of fracturing. Vertebral morphometry may be the only recourse in high volume epidemiological and interventional studies. PMID:26349790

  7. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to previous page En español Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy Chronic Obstructive ... large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by 2 smaller vertebral arteries at the ...

  8. Characterization of the time course of the superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, internal carotid and vertebral arteries blood flow response to the oral glucose challenge test using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Totman, J J; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Campbell, E; Hoad, C L; Macdonald, I A; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2009-10-01

    Blood flow to the splanchnic circulation increases postprandially which may cause a reduction in systemic and cerebral perfusion leading to postprandial syncope in the elderly who lack adequate cardiovascular reserve. We used multi-station 2D phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) with the aim of characterizing the time course of the haemodynamic response to an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) in the large arteries perfusing the splanchnic, systemic and cerebral circulations (superior mesenteric artery SMA, abdominal aorta AA, internal carotid arteries, ICA and vertebral arteries VA). In this study nine fasted healthy volunteers were studied. Separate cine PC-MRI scans were acquired in the neck and in the abdomen every 88 s, these two measurements being interleaved for ten baseline scans at each station with the scanner automatically moving the subject between the two stations. After ingestion of the OGCT, a further 30 cine PC-MRI scans were acquired at each station. Using this technique we were able to characterize with frequent sampling of volumetric blood flow the time course of blood flow response to the OGCT of the SMA, AA and both VA and ICA. We found a substantial variation between individuals in the amplitude and the time to the peak of the SMA blood flow response to the OGCT which correlated positively with body mass index. MRI provides a robust, non-invasive method of studying normal physiology that could be valuable in studies of diseases such as postprandial hypotension. PMID:19759401

  9. Vertebral spinal osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671

  10. Stent fracture and restenosis after placement of a drug-eluting device in the vertebral artery origin and treatment with the stent-in-stent technique. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Rim; Baik, Min-Woo; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Park, Ik-Seong; Kim, Sang-Don; Kim, Moon-Chan

    2007-05-01

    The authors report two cases of stent fracture and restenosis after placement of a drug-eluting device in the vertebral artery (VA) origin, and describe management of restenosis with the stent-in-stent technique. Two women, one 62 and the other 67 years of age, underwent stent placement in the VA origin to treat symptomatic and angiographically significant stenosis in this vessel. Sirolimus-eluting coronary stents (Cypher) were used in both cases. Four months after placement of the devices, the symptoms recurred. Follow-up angiography performed 5 months after insertion of the devices revealed a transverse stent fracture with separation of the fragments and severe in-stent restenosis in both cases. The restenoses were treated with reinsertion of coronary stents (Cypher and Jostent FlexMaster) by using the stent-in-stent technique. After stent reinsertion, the patients exhibited relief of symptoms. This paper is the first report of fracture in a drug-eluting stent and restenosis after stent placement in the VA origin. Restenosis caused by such a fracture can be managed successfully by performing the stent-in-stent maneuver. The physical properties of metallic devices, stent strut geometry, and anatomical peculiarities of the subclavian artery may be associated with stent fractures. Earlier follow-up angiography studies (within 6 months) are warranted. PMID:17542539

  11. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  12. Vertebrate skeletogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

  13. Osteolytic mass bridging two cervical vertebrae: Unusual presentation of a vertebral body hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Dane; Sag, Alan Alper; Krishnan, Anant; Silbergleit, Richard; Roy, Anindya; Dulai, Mohanpal

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangioma is the most common spinal axis tumor. This rare presentation of a vertebral hemangioma extended contiguously from one cervical vertebra to another, encasing the vertebral artery, and thereby mimicking other tumors of the spine. We discuss the differential diagnosis of bridging vertebral masses. PMID:27190555

  14. Epidemiology of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, John T

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are one of the most common fractures associated with skeletal fragility and can cause as much morbidity as hip fractures. However, the epidemiology of vertebral fractures differs from that of osteoporotic fractures at other skeletal sites in important ways, largely because only one quarter to one-third of vertebral fractures are recognized clinically at the time of their occurrence and otherwise require lateral spine imaging to be recognized. This article first reviews the prevalence and incidence of clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in populations across the globe and secular trends in the incidence of vertebral fracture over time. Next, associations of vertebral fractures with measures of bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture are reviewed followed by associations of vertebral fracture with various textural measures of trabecular bone, including trabecular bone score. Finally, the article reviews clinical risk factors for vertebral fracture and the association of vertebral fractures with morbidity, mortality, and other subsequent adverse health outcomes. PMID:26349789

  15. Intradural vertebral endarterectomy with nonautologous patch angioplasty for refractory vertebrobasilar ischemia: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Uschold, Timothy; Abla, Adib A.; Wilson, David A.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: The natural history of patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms due to chronic bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease is progressive, and poses significant challenges when refractory to medical therapy. Surgical treatment options depend largely on location and characteristics of the atheroma (s), and generally include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement, posterior circulation revascularization (bypass), extracranial vertebral artery reconstruction, or vertebral artery endarterectomy. Case Description: We present the case of a 56-year-old male with progressive vertebrobasilar ischemia due to tandem lesions in the right vertebral artery at the origin and intracranially in the V4 segment. The contralateral vertebral artery was occluded to the level of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and posterior communicating arteries were absent. Following PTA and stent placement at the right vertebral artery origin, the patient was successfully treated with intradural vertebral artery endarterectomy (V4EA) and patch angioplasty via the far lateral approach. Distal endovascular intervention at the V4 segment proved not technically feasible after multiple attempts. Conclusions: V4EA is an uncommonly performed procedure, but may be considered for carefully selected patients. The authors’ techniques and indications are discussed. Historical outcomes, relevant anatomic considerations, and lessons learned are reviewed from the literature. PMID:25558424

  16. Imaging of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Udismita

    2014-05-01

    Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

  17. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire

  18. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  19. Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat; Arat, Anil Cil, Barbaros E.; Sahin, Gurdal; Turkbey, Baris; Elibol, Bulent

    2007-04-15

    A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

  20. [Cardiotoxicity of vertebrates venoms].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Targosz, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    Vertebrate species (fish, amphibians and reptiles) with cardiotoxic venoms properties are described in the paper. A regulatory problems related to breeding of venomous animals are also included. PMID:14569883

  1. Vertebrate axis formation.

    PubMed

    Niehrs, C; De Robertis, E M

    1992-08-01

    Molecular understanding of axis formation has recently taken a great leap forward with the identification and functional characterization of regulatory genes that appear to act at the top of the hierarchy leading to positional specification in the vertebrate. Analysis of these genes, which encode peptide growth factors and their receptors as well as transcription factors, is disclosing principles of early cell fate specification that are common to all vertebrates. PMID:1356042

  2. Type I persistent proatlantal artery associated with fusiform subclavian artery aneurysm: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Krunoslav; Hegeduš, Ivana; Gilman Kuric, Tihana; Salha, Tamer; Tomić, Svetlana; Butković Soldo, Silva; Buljan, Vesna; Šošić, Đurđica

    2015-08-01

    We report a 61 years old male presenting with a right cerebral infarction, along with a type I persistent left proatlantal artery (PA), which is a form of primitive carotid-basilar anastomosis. The patient had an absence of the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) and hypoplasia of the contralateral VA, while the basilar artery was supplied by the PA. Other vascular anomalies present were a fusiform aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, and an A1 segment aplasia of the hypoplastic anterior right cerebral artery, which originated from the anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge these anomalies were not described previously. PMID:26436940

  3. Subclavian artery aneurysm in a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shota; Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Uranaka, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-02-01

    We describe our experience of surgical treatment in a 28-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A right subclavian artery aneurysm was detected. The right vertebral artery arose from the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography showed interruption of the left vertebral artery. The aneurysm was excised and the right vertebral artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the right common carotid artery under deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The patient remained very well 4 years after surgery, with no late vascular complication. PMID:25293415

  4. Were vertebrates octoploid?

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Rebecca F; Holland, Peter W H

    2002-01-01

    It has long been suggested that gene and genome duplication play important roles in the evolution of organismal complexity. For example, work by Ohno proposed that two rounds of whole genome doubling (tetraploidy) occurred during the evolution of vertebrates: the extra genes permitting an increase in physiological and anatomical complexity. Several modifications of this 'two tetraploidies' hypothesis have been proposed, taking into account accumulating data, and there is wide acceptance of the basic scheme. In the past few years, however, several authors have raised doubts, citing lack of direct support or even evidence to the contrary. Here, we review the evidence for and against the occurrence of tetraploidies in early vertebrate evolution, and present a new compilation of molecular phylogenetic data for amphioxus. We argue that evidence in favour of tetraploidy, based primarily on genome and gene family analyses, is strong. Furthermore, we show that two observations used as evidence against genome duplication are in fact compatible with the hypothesis: but only if the genome doubling occurred by two closely spaced sequential rounds of autotetraploidy. We propose that early vertebrates passed through an autoautooctoploid phase in the evolution of their genomes. PMID:12028790

  5. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lo, Lai Wan; Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony Kt

    2015-02-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented. PMID:25763297

  6. Vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Diaz-Lopez, Jose Bernardino; Diaz-Corte, Carmen; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcifications and the bone fractures caused by abnormal bone fragility, also called osteoporotic fractures, are frequent complications associated with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vascular calcifications, osteoporotic bone fractures and survival in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods. A total of 193 HD patients were followed up to 2 years. Vascular calcifications and osteoporotic vertebral fractures (quoted just as vertebral fractures in the text) were assessed by thoracic, lumbar spine, pelvic and hand X-rays and graded according to their severity. Clinical, biochemical and therapeutic data gathered during the total time spent on HD were collected. Results. The prevalence of aortic calcifications was higher in HD patients than in a random-based general population (79% versus 37.5%, P < 0.001). Total time on any renal replacement therapy (RRT) and diabetes were positively associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcifications. In addition to these factors, time on HD was also positively associated with the severity of vascular calcifications, and higher haemoglobin levels were associated with a lower prevalence of severe vascular calcifications in large and medium calibre arteries. The prevalence of vertebral fractures in HD patients was similar to that of the general population (26.5% versus 24.1%). Age and time on HD showed a positive and statistically significant association with the prevalence of vertebral fractures. Vascular calcifications in the medium calibre arteries were associated with a higher rate of prevalent vertebral fractures. In women, severe vascular calcifications and vertebral fractures were positively associated with mortality [RR = 3.2 (1.0–10.0) and RR = 4.8 (1.7–13.4), respectively]. Conclusions. Positive associations between vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality have been found in patients on HD. PMID:18725376

  7. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

  8. A fatal iatrogenic right vertebral injury after transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization for a type II odontoid fracture.

    PubMed

    Scalici, Edoardo; Indorato, Francesca; Portelli, Francesca; Savì, Tommaso; Maresi, Emiliano; Busardò, Francesco P

    2014-02-01

    The authors present a singular case of an iatrogenic right vertebral artery injury, involving a 67 year-old man, who reported a type II odontoid fracture (Anderson and D'Alonzo Classification) and posterior atlantoaxial dislocation following a road traffic accident. A small injury involving the right vertebral artery occurred as a consequence of transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization. It was caused by bone spicules of spinal origin and their presence was confirmed by the histological section of the right vertebral artery at the level of C1-C2. The case confirms how iatrogenic vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery may be potentially lethal, especially where complications arise some days after surgery. PMID:24485420

  9. What's new in vertebral cementoplasty?

    PubMed

    Muto, Mario; Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Giurazza, Francesco; Manfr, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Vertebral cementoplasty is a well-known mini-invasive treatment to obtain pain relief in patients affected by vertebral porotic fractures, primary or secondary spine lesions and spine trauma through intrametameric cement injection. Two major categories of treatment are included within the term vertebral cementoplasty: the first is vertebroplasty in which a simple cement injection in the vertebral body is performed; the second is assisted technique in which a device is positioned inside the metamer before the cement injection to restore vertebral height and allow a better cement distribution, reducing the kyphotic deformity of the spine, trying to obtain an almost normal spine biomechanics. We will describe the most advanced techniques and indications of vertebral cementoplasty, having recently expanded the field of applications to not only patients with porotic fractures but also spine tumours and trauma. PMID:26728798

  10. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25772659

  11. Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

  12. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  13. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  14. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. PMID:26412139

  15. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  16. Genetics of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Oei, Ling; Zillikens, M Carola; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Oei, Edwin H G

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the genetic control of skeletogenesis and bone remodeling is increasing, and in addition to various nongenetic risk factors, a positive family history confers an increased risk of fracture. Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures and they are often a first manifestation of osteoporosis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the genetic basis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and, additionally, of structural vertebral deformities resembling osteoporotic vertebral fractures but which may have their own genetic basis. We conclude that, apart from tentative screening for rare monogenic forms of osteoporosis in very unusual case presentations, not enough is currently known to encourage routine genetic screening in regular osteoporotic vertebral fracture cases. PMID:26376172

  17. Cervicocerebral artery dissections.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, H A; Gerraty, R P; Davis, S M; Cameron, P A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiology, frequency, presentation, and outcome of blunt cervicocerebral arterial dissection presentations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases were retrospectively identified through the stroke registers at Royal Melbourne Hospital (a tertiary teaching hospital) and Geelong Hospital (a regional referral centre). Medical notes were then reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 18 cases were identified, with ages ranging from 28 to 53 years. Fifty five per cent of the injuries sustained were to the internal carotid artery and 45% to the vertebral artery. The majority of the injuries were either spontaneous or associated with trivial forces. Other causes included motor vehicle accidents, falls, and cervical manipulations. Fifty five per cent of patients complained of significant neck pain before presentation. Most patients had delayed presentations, with only 39% presenting on the day of the incident. Seventy eight per cent presented with a neurological deficit. Initial computed tomography was normal in 71% of patients. The majority of patients were managed with anticoagulation, and had minimal functional deficit on discharge. Other treatment modalities included surgery (one patient) and thrombolysis (two patients). One patient was managed conservatively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of blunt cervicocerebral arterial dissection is unknown; however it is an uncommon diagnosis. The most common presentation is that of a delayed neurological event. Initial brain computed tomography is usually normal. Minimal adverse outcomes at discharge were noted in patients treated with anticoagulation only. PMID:10572814

  18. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  19. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ≈450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  20. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  1. Lower vertebral-epidural spinal arteriovenous fistulas: a unique subtype of vertebrovertebral arteriovenous fistula, treatable with coil and Penumbra Occlusion Device embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Orbach, Darren B

    2016-06-01

    A vertebral-epidural spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an abnormal arteriovenous shunt connecting the vertebral artery to the spinal epidural venous plexus, and may occur spontaneously or secondary to a variety of causes. These unique lesions are uncommon in adults and rarer still in children. Previous reports have grouped together a heterogeneous collection of such arteriovenous lesions, including arterial contributions from the upper and lower vertebral artery, with venous drainage into a variety of spinal and paraspinal collectors. Here, through two cases, we delineate a distinct entity, the lower vertebral-to-epidural AVF. The salient clinical and anatomic features are summarized and contextualized within the broader constellation of vertebrovertebral AVF, the utility of a transarterial intravenous/retrograde intra-arterial endovascular approach is highlighted, and a new use of the Penumbra Occlusion Device (Penumbra Inc) for this purpose is reported. PMID:25964377

  2. The Incidence of New Vertebral Fractures Following Vertebral Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Wan, Chao; Ding, Jinyong; Zhang, Shuncong; Jiang, Xiaobing; Xu, Jixi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed that compares the relationship between percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) and conservative treatments with the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Using meta-analytic techniques, this study compares PVA and conservative treatment for incidence of new vertebral fractures, particularly incidence of adjacent fractures that occur following treatment. A focus of clinicians has been on whether PVA increases the risk of new vertebral fractures. Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to retrieve literature published from the establishment of the databases until April 28, 2015. Literature of related areas was searched manually. The main outcome indicator was the incidence of new vertebral fractures at final follow-up appointment. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of new vertebral fractures in different follow-up periods and the incidence of adjacent fractures. The RevMan 5.3 software program of the Cochrane Collaboration was used to analyze the data. For dichotomous variables, the risk ratio (RR) and a confidence interval (CI) of 95% were used to express the heterogeneity of the effect size. Seven randomized controlled trial studies were selected from the literature. The studies include 871 patients, 436 of whom received PVA treatment and the rest received conservative treatment. Combined analysis of the 7 studies showed that the numbers of new vertebral fractures in the 2 groups are not significantly different. Six studies reported the numbers of new adjacent fractures. Considering the heterogeneity among the studies, 2 subgroups were formed. The 5 studies in the European group showed that the incidence of new adjacent fractures in the PVA-treated group is higher than that in the conservatively treated group, and the difference is statistically significant. The one study in the Asian group showed no significant difference between the incidences of adjacent fractures in the 2 groups. PVA treatment does not increase the incidence of new vertebral fractures. Most studies reported that PVA increases the incidence of adjacent fractures, yet it is rarely stated that both PVA and conservative treatment lead to the same incidence of adjacent fractures. PMID:26376401

  3. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  4. [Control of respiration in teleostean fishes: existence of chemoreceptors, physiologically analogous to those of higher vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Eclancher, B; Dejours, P

    1975-01-27

    Injection of NaCN or lobeline into the ventral aorta of the trout or carp provokes hyperventilation and bradycardia within 5 seconds, responses which are the weaker the higher the oxygen tension of the ambient water. The reactions, precisely similar to the chemoreflexes of higher vertebrates, suggest that these fish also possess arterial chemoreceptors. PMID:806384

  5. Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

  6. Anatomy of the thoracolumbar vertebral region.

    PubMed

    Haussler, K K

    1999-04-01

    A thorough understanding of the structure and function of the equine vertebral column can provide a clearer understanding of thoracolumbar spinal disorders. Three primary functions of the vertebral column include protection of the spinal cord, support for weight bearing, and flexibility for locomotion. Osseous structures provide structural support and vary from one vertebral region to another as functional requirements change. The spinal musculature produces complex vertebral movements while the spinal ligaments provide stability to the vertebral column. Proprioception and nociception are two important neurologic functions of the vertebral articulations. PMID:10218239

  7. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  8. Arterial embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

  9. The arterial supply to the brain of the yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanping; Shao, Baoping; Wang, Jianlin

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen head specimens of the yak were dissected to study the arterial supply to the brain. The supply comes from the internal carotid, maxillary, occipital and vertebral arteries. Except for the internal carotid artery, the branches of the above-mentioned arteries contributed in the formation of the rete mirable of which the vascular diameter was larger and the wall was thinner. The brain was mainly supplied by branches from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in which the blood is oxygenated. These branches joined to form the circle of Willis (Circulus arterious cerebri) in the region of the pituitary gland. The arterial supply to the cerebrum was mainly provided by the middle and rostral cerebral arteries, which arose from the internal carotid. The basilar, cerebellar and caudal cerebral arteries came from the vertebral artery. However, the adult yaks do not have the rostral communicating artery. The outer diameter at the origin of the vessels ranged from 0.40 to 2.60 mm. The outer diameter of the left arterial vessel at its origin was larger than the same vessel of the right by about 0.20 mm in the all samples. PMID:17319606

  10. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Bradford J

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were developed to reduce pain and improve quality of life for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the use of vertebral augmentation has been debated and questioned since its inception. This article addresses some of these issues. PMID:26490134

  11. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  12. Development of the vertebrate tailbud.

    PubMed

    Beck, Caroline W

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from the tailbud undoubtedly involves unique and distinct mechanisms for forming axial tissues, such as the secondary neurulation process that generates the tailbud-derived spinal cord. Tailbud formation in the frog Xenopus laevis has been demonstrated to involve interaction of three posterior regions of the embryo that first come into alignment at the end of gastrulation, and molecular models for tailbud outgrowth and patterning have been proposed. While classical studies of other vertebrate models, such as the chicken, initially appeared to draw incompatible conclusions, molecular studies have subsequently shown the involvement of at least some similar genetic pathways. Finally, there is an emerging consensus that at least some vertebrate tailbud cells are multipotent progenitors with the ability to form tissues normally derived from different germ layers- a trait normally associated with regeneration of complex appendages, or stem-like cells. PMID:25382697

  13. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  14. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  15. Vertebral Fractures: Clinical Importance and Management.

    PubMed

    Kendler, D L; Bauer, D C; Davison, K S; Dian, L; Hanley, D A; Harris, S T; McClung, M R; Miller, P D; Schousboe, J T; Yuen, C K; Lewiecki, E M

    2016-02-01

    Vertebral fractures are common and can result in acute and chronic pain, decreases in quality of life, and diminished lifespan. The identification of vertebral fractures is important because they are robust predictors of future fractures. The majority of vertebral fractures do not come to clinical attention. Numerous modalities exist for visualizing suspected vertebral fracture. Although differing definitions of vertebral fracture may present challenges in comparing data between different investigations, at least 1 in 5 men and women aged >50 years have one or more vertebral fractures. There is clinical guidance to target spine imaging to individuals with a high probability of vertebral fracture. Radiology reports of vertebral fracture need to clearly state that the patient has a "fracture," with further pertinent details such as the number, recency, and severity of vertebral fracture, each of which is associated with risk of future fractures. Patients with vertebral fracture should be considered for antifracture therapy. Physical and pharmacologic modalities of pain control and exercises or physiotherapy to maintain spinal movement and strength are important components in the care of vertebral fracture patients. PMID:26524708

  16. Identification of vertebral fractures: an update.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, L; Jiang, G; Adams, J; Eastell, R

    2005-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fracture is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. As a powerful predictor of future fracture risk, the identification of vertebral fracture helps target individuals who will benefit from anti-fracture therapy. The identification of vertebral fractures is problematic because (1) "normal" radiological appearances in the spine vary greatly both among and within individuals; (2) "normal" vertebrae may exhibit misleading radiological appearances due to radiographic projection error; and (3) "abnormal" appearances due to non-fracture deformities and normal variants are common, but can be difficult to differentiate from true vertebral fracture. Various methods of vertebral fracture definition have been proposed, but there is no agreed gold standard. Quantitative methods of vertebral fracture definition are objective and reproducible, but the major limitation of these methods is their inability to differentiate between vertebral deformity and vertebral fracture. The qualitative visual approach draws on the expertise of the reader, but it is a subjective method with poor interobserver agreement. Semiquantitative assessment of vertebral fracture is a standardized visual method, which is commonly applied in research studies as a surrogate gold standard. This method is more objective and reproducible than a purely qualitative approach, but can be difficult to apply. The established methods focus primarily on the identification of "reduced" or short vertebral height as an indication of vertebral fracture, but this is also a feature of some non-fracture deformities and normal variants. A modified visual approach known as algorithm-based qualitative assessment of vertebral fracture (ABQ) has recently been introduced, and this focuses on radiological evidence of change at the vertebral endplate as the primary indicator of fracture. Preliminary testing of the ABQ method has produced promising results, but the method requires further evaluation. Vertebral imaging by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner produces images of near-radiographic quality at a fraction of the radiation dose incurred by conventional radiography. There is growing interest in vertebral fracture assessment using this technique as a means of assessing a patient's fracture risk. Given the increasing availability of new technology and the importance of accurate diagnosis of vertebral fracture, there is an urgent need for better awareness of and training in the definition of vertebral fracture. Methods of vertebral fracture definition should be validated by testing the association with clinical outcomes of vertebral fracture, in particular the prediction of incident fractures. PMID:15868071

  17. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  18. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  19. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  20. Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

  1. The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. PMID:24106047

  2. Eye marks in vertebrates: AIDS to vision.

    PubMed

    Ficken, R W; Matthiae, P E; Horwich, R

    1971-09-01

    Lines leading forward from the eye may function as aiming sights in many small vertebrates. The chief evidence is the correlation of distribution and positions of eye-lines in various vertebrate groups with predatory feeding habits. Dark patches around the eye may serve to reduce glare in species in bright environments. Facial patterns often have multiple functions. PMID:17751319

  3. Problems with six-point vertebral morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jill C.; Yaffe, Laurence G.; Johansen, Jennifer M.; von Ingersleben, Gabriel; Chestnut, Charles H., III

    1998-06-01

    In this study we have examined errors in measurements of vertebral heights and vertebral area resulting from spin rotation and projection effects in x-ray images. Measurement errors were evaluated with phantom images, and simulated rotations of a 3D spine model. An active contour model (snake) was used for measurements of vertebral area. The model contained two pressure parameters which were needed to obtain good fits of the snake to upper and lower edges (endplates) of rotated vertebral bodies. Details of the snake model are included in this report. The results of this study indicate that six point vertebral morphometry can result to significant measurement errors, representing an overestimation of vertebral height and area, in cases showing projection effects and concealed endplate contours. In serial studies, such errors could produce the erroneous appearance of `growing' vertebral bodies. One can improve the accuracy of the morphometric analysis by using additional fiducial points placed on corresponding endplate contours. Additional useful information on fracture and vertebral deformity can be obtained by accurately tracking edge contours, using an active contour model, or comparable techniques.

  4. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... when a clot in a vein enters the right side of the heart and passes through a hole into the left side. The clot can then move to an artery and block blood flow to the brain (stroke) or other organs. If a clot involves ...

  5. Assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the vertebrate hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misato; Cha, Young R.; Pham, Van N.; Sakurai, Atsuko; Roman, Beth L.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2011-01-01

    The cranial vasculature is essential for the survival and development of the central nervous system and is important in stroke and other brain pathologies. Cranial vessels form in a reproducible and evolutionarily conserved manner, but the process by which these vessels assemble and acquire their stereotypic patterning remains unclear. Here, we examine the stepwise assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the zebrafish hindbrain. The major artery supplying the hindbrain, the basilar artery, runs along the ventral keel of the hindbrain in all vertebrates. We show that this artery forms by a novel process of medial sprouting and migration of endothelial cells from a bilateral pair of primitive veins, the primordial hindbrain channels. Subsequently, a second wave of dorsal sprouting from the primordial hindbrain channels gives rise to angiogenic central arteries that penetrate into and innervate the hindbrain. The chemokine receptor cxcr4a is expressed in migrating endothelial cells of the primordial hindbrain channels, whereas its ligand cxcl12b is expressed in the hindbrain neural keel immediately adjacent to the assembling basilar artery. Knockdown of either cxcl12b or cxcr4a results in defects in basilar artery formation, showing that the assembly and patterning of this crucial artery depends on chemokine signaling. PMID:21429985

  6. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  7. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

  8. Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

  9. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  10. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S19-S36, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26808105

  11. Heterogeneity of vertebrate brain tubulins.

    PubMed Central

    Field, D J; Collins, R A; Lee, J C

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the extent of brain tubulin heterogeneity in six vertebrate species commonly used in tubulin research (rat, calf, pig, chicken, human, and lamb) using isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional electrophoresis, and peptide mapping procedures that provide higher resolution than previously available. The extent of heterogeneity is extremely similar in all of these organisms, as judged by number, range of isoelectric points, and distribution of the isotubulins. A minimum of 6 alpha and 12 beta tubulins was resolved from all sources. Even the pattern of spots on two-dimensional peptide maps is remarkably similar. These similarities suggest that the populations of tubulin in all of these brains should have similar overall physical properties. It is particularly interesting that chicken, which has only four or five beta-tubulin genes, contains approximately 12 beta tubulins. Thus, post-translational modification must generate at least some of the tubulin heterogeneity. Mammalian species, which contain 15-20 tubulin DNA sequences, do not show any more tubulin protein heterogeneity than does chicken. This suggests that expression of only a small number of the mammalian genes may be required to generate the observed tubulin heterogeneity. Images PMID:6588378

  12. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  13. Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

  14. Immunosenescence in vertebrates and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as “immunosenescence”. Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and the evolutionary emergence of adaptive and innate immunity? The immune system is assumed to have evolved to protect the organism against pathogens, but the way in which this is accomplished is different in the innate-vs-adaptive arms, and it is unclear why the latter is necessary. Are there special characteristics of adaptive immunity which might make the system more susceptible to age-associated dysfunction? Given recent accumulating findings that actually there are age-associated changes to innate immunity and that these are broadly similar in vertebrates and invertebrates, we suggest here that it is the special property of memory in the adaptive immune system which results in the accumulation of cells with a restricted receptor repertoire, dependent on the immunological history of the individual’s exposures to pathogens over the lifetime, and which is commonly taken as a hallmark of “immunosenescence”. However, we further hypothesize that this immunological remodelling per se does not necessarily convey a disadvantage to the individual (ie. is not necessarily “senescence” if it is not deleterious). Indeed, under certain circumstances, or potentially even as a rule, this adaptation to the individual host environment may confer an actual survival advantage. PMID:23547999

  15. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty. PMID:24046041

  16. Transverse subisthmic course of the innominate artery in an adult: detailed anatomy and additional variation.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Boşcu, A L

    2010-11-01

    A rare morphology of an aberrant innominate artery (IA) is reported here, together with additional arterial variation encountered in the respective specimen. The IA originated in the aortic arch on the left side of the trachea, coursed on that side of the trachea to reach the left thyroid lobe, turned in at a right angle to pass anterior to the trachea and immediately inferior and parallel to the thyroid isthmus, and finally it divided inferior to the right thyroid lobe into the right subclavian and common carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery immediately turned at a right angle to ascend in the neck. Thus the terminal branches of the IA had origins in a higher position than is usually expected. This aberrant course of the IA determined a step-like morphology in the sagittal plane of the left common carotid artery. Additional variations were also encountered: (a) a lateralised right external carotid artery with the superior thyroid artery initially coursing over the internal carotid artery; (b) the right vertebral artery coursing over the inferior thyroid artery and entering the transverse process of the fifth cervical vertebra; (c) the left subclavian and vertebral arteries were tortuous. Knowledge of the presence of this IA variant, with a transverse subisthmic segment, appears to be important in various surgical approaches, such as tracheostomies, thyroidectomies, and mediastinoscopies; in addition, the variations of the IA and the vertebral arteries are relevant for lower cervical spine approaches. Nevertheless, the lateralised external carotid artery may lead, if unidentified, to hemorrhagic complications during carotid space approaches. It is important for surgeons to be aware that if an aberrant IA is identified it may not be the only variation in that patient. PMID:21120815

  17. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study

    PubMed Central

    Jaremko, Jacob Lester; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N.; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin; O’Brien, Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and growing awareness has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiologic beaking, and spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid’s bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  18. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory B; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin H; O'Brien, Mary Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and growing awareness of this has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly, which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiological beaking, or spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid's bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  19. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  20. Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sues, Hans-Dieter

    2000-08-01

    Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

  1. The Radiology of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures Redux.

    PubMed

    Lentle, Brian; Trollip, Jacques; Lian, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    When a low-energy fracture occurs, then osteoporosis has progressed to the point of bony structural failure. Because vertebral fractures are the commonest type of osteoporotic fracture, the correct identification of them becomes important for diagnosis, risk estimation, and management. However, there are no uniformly agreed criteria for their diagnosis. The purpose of this review was to examine the diagnostic radiological strategies available and suggest a coherent approach to diagnosis. Diagnosis had come to focus on comparative changes in vertebral dimensions. However, it has become apparent that mild reductions in vertebral height are of uncertain implication. The importance of structural damage in diagnosis has become recognized in parallel. Relative reductions in vertebral height may not be a necessary nor sufficient criterion by which to diagnose a fracture. PMID:26428658

  2. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (~420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ~505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. PMID:26095697

  3. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. PMID:26878338

  4. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  5. Age-related trends in vertebral dimensions.

    PubMed

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Niskanen, Markku; Maijanen, Heli; Väre, Tiina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Nieminen, Miika T; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ruff, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated age-related changes in vertebral dimensions. Vertebral size has been reported to increase among elderly adults, with periosteal apposition resulting in increased cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral corpus combined with reduction in bone mineral density. These changes in CSA are observed to be sex-specific, as the pronounced increase of vertebral CSA is found only in elderly males. However, the reduction in bone mineral density in old age is apparent within both sexes. It is thus hypothesized that higher fracture risk in elderly women is a result of their incapacity to increase vertebral size and thus adapt to bone mineral reduction. In this study, our aim was to explore whether the onset of these changes could be ascribed to specific age intervals and whether the proposed differences between the sexes are as great as previously suggested. To conduct this study we utilized two large early 20th century skeletal collections known as Terry and Bass (n = 181). We also utilized data from two lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging samples as a modern-day reference (n = 497). Age, sex and ethnicity of all individuals were known. Vertebral CSA was determined by measuring three width and length dimensions from the corpus of the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4). Our results indicate only a moderate association between age and vertebral CSA. This association was observed to be relatively similar in both sexes, and we thus conclude that there is no clear sex-specific compensatory mechanism for age-related bone loss in vertebral size. PMID:25913516

  6. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  7. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. PMID:25923673

  8. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  9. The origins of colour vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P; Trezise, Ann E O

    2004-07-01

    The capacity for colour vision is mediated by the comparison of the signal intensities from photoreceptors of two or more types that differ in spectral sensitivity. Morphological, physiological and molecular analyses of the retina in an agnathan (jawless) fish, the lamprey Geotria australis, may hold important clues to the origins of colour vision in vertebrates. Lampreys are extant representatives of an ancient group of vertebrates, the origins of which are thought to date back to at least the early Cambrian, approximately 540 million years ago. G. australis possesses five photoreceptor types, each with cone-like ultrastructural features and different spectral sensitivities. Recent molecular genetic studies have also revealed that five visual pigment (opsin) genes are expressed in the retina, each of which is orthologous to the major classes of vertebrate opsin genes. These findings reveal that multiple opsin genes originated very early in vertebrate evolution, prior to the separation of the jawed and jawless vertebrate lineages, thereby providing the genetic basis for colour vision in all vertebrates. PMID:15312025

  10. Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

    1998-01-01

    We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

  11. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Anas; Abduljabbar, Fahad H.; Abduljabbar, Ahmed H.; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism. PMID:26221556

  12. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  13. Coronary artery fistula (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A coronary artery fistula generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries fails to form properly during the development of the baby. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  15. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  16. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  17. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  18. Subclavian steal syndrome secondary to subclavian artery thrombosis in a patient with homocysteinemia and its successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Marium; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain; Tariq, Muhammad; Hanif, Hashim Muhammed

    2012-10-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is a rare condition. It results from subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. It is characterized by cerebral ischaemia with associated symptoms of vertebrobasilar hypoperfusion and/or symptoms of brainstem or arm ischaemia. We describe a case of a 35 year old male who presented with persistent vertigo for two months, blue discoloration and pain in the left fingers for two weeks. A diagnosis of SSS was made and patient was treated with a gortex graft from the arch of the aorta to the second portion of the left subclavian artery. Treatment is aimed at restoring permanent antegrade blood flow to the affected vertebral artery. This abolishes vertebral basilar symptoms and other manifestations of SSS. Several modalities exist, however surgical correction is the treatment of choice. PMID:23866465

  19. Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

  20. Gravity, blood circulation, and the adaptation of form and function in lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, H B

    Gravitational force influences musculoskeletal systems, fluid distribution, and hydrodynamics of the circulation, especially in larger terrestrial vertebrates. The disturbance to hydrodynamics and distribution of body fluids relates largely to the effects of hydrostatic pressure gradients acting in vertical blood columns. These, in turn, are linked to the evolution of adaptive countermeasures involving modifications of structure and function. Comparative studies of snakes suggest there are four generalizations concerning adaptive countermeasures to gravity stress that seem relevant to lower vertebrates generally. First, increasing levels of regulated arterial blood pressure are expected to evolve with some relation to gravitational stresses incurred by the effects of height and posture on vertical blood columns above the heart. Second, aspects of gross anatomical organization are expected to evolve in relation to gravitational influence incurred by habitat and behavior. Third, natural selection coupled to gravitational stresses has favored morphological features that reduce the compliance of perivascular tissues and provide an anatomical "antigravity suit." Fourth, natural selection has produced gradients or regional differences of vascular characteristics in tall or elongated vertebrates that are active in high gravity stress environments. Consideration or awareness of these principles should be incorporated into interpretations of structure and function in lower vertebrates. PMID:8676096

  1. [Intra-arterial thrombolysis of a basilar vascular accident during coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Battikh, K; Rihani, R; Lemahieu, J M; Mokahal, M; Houchaymi, Z; Cornaert, P; Dutoit, A

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 67 year old man with a previous history of aortobifemoral arterial graft who had unstable angina after carotid endarterectomy. Coronary angiography by the right brachial artery was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident with a reactive coma, convulsions and respiratory problems. Selective angiography of the right vertebral artery showed an image of occlusive thrombosis of the basilar artery. In view of the clinical state and angiographic appearances, the authors decided on immediate intra-arterial thrombolysis with Urokinase which dissolved the clot and reestablished flow in the basilar artery, the cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries. The outcome was favourable with immediate and good recovery of consciousness and hospital discharge on the sixth day without neurological or radiological sequellae. Cerebrovascular accident is a rare and potentially serious complication of left heart catheterisation which requires immediate cerebral angiography to determine the mechanism and propose an appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:11603067

  2. Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Sole Patent Cerebral Artery in Two Patients with Takayasu’s Aortoarteritis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Kiron; Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M.

    2016-01-01

    We report two female patients with Takayasu’s aortoarteritis, who presented with symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to critical stenosis of the sole patent cerebral artery. Both had occlusion of both vertebral arteries and one carotid artery with critical stenosis of the other carotid artery and presented with hemiparesis contralateral to the patent but stenosed cerebral artery. They also had transient ischemic attacks attributable to the culprit vessel. In the first patient, balloon angioplasty alone was not successful, and hence, a self-expanding stent was deployed in the right common carotid artery. In the second patient, successful balloon angioplasty was performed for the left common carotid artery. Distal protection devices were not used, and neither patient experienced any periprocedural neurological event. Clinical follow-up at six months revealed no significant cerebral events. PMID:27042151

  3. Segmental vertebral rotation in early scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, B; Sevastik, J; Hedlund, R; Sevastik, B

    1993-06-01

    In order to investigate the development of the vertebral axial rotation in patients with early scoliosis, the vertebral rotation angle (VRA) was quantified on the basis of 132 anteroposterior radiographs obtained from patients with diagnosed or suspected scoliosis. The rotation was measured in the apical vertebra and in the two suprajacent and two subjacent vertebrae. The radiographic material was divided into a control reference group and three scoliotic groups with varying Cobb angle from 4 degrees up to 30 degrees. In the reference group a slight vertebral rotation was significantly more often seen to the right. In the scoliotic groups, the rotation was most pronounced in the apical segments. The mean VRA toward the convex side was significantly increased in the vertebrae just suprajacent to the apex in curves with a Cobb angle of 8 degrees-15 degrees and in the cranial four vertebrae in curves with a Cobb angle of 16 degrees-30 degrees. Atypical vertebral rotation to the opposite side of the major curve was observed in 12.8% of the cases. There was a significant positive correlation between the VRA and the Cobb angle. These results show that a slight VRA to the right is a common feature in the normal spine, and that the VRA increases with progressive lateral deviation of the spine. It is concluded that the coronal plane deformity in early idiopathic scoliosis is accompanied and probably coupled to vertebral rotation in the horizontal plane. PMID:20058446

  4. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  5. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  6. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles. PMID:26165811

  7. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ≤1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  8. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joel J.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi, and is an important structural molecule. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin, however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

  9. The immunoglobulin light chain in poikilothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pilström, L; Lundqvist, M L; Wermenstam, N E

    1998-12-01

    The immunoglobulin light chains are classified as kappa or lambda in mammals and birds (homeothermic vertebrates), but the traditional criteria for this classification are not applicable to the light chains found in poikilothermic vertebrates. Still it is possible to find some relationships between Ig light chain sequences in these animals and in those of the homeothermic animals. It is generally accepted that the Ig light chains contribute to the antigen binding capacity of antibodies and the variability is approximately similar in all studied vertebrate species except the elasmobranchs. This might be explained by the organisation of the Ig light chain locus in these animals and the fact that the variable and joining DNA segments are joined in the genome. These conclusions are limited by the small number of species studied in this respect. PMID:9914907

  10. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  11. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  12. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  13. The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P; Davies, Wayne L; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M

    2009-10-12

    Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these 'living fossils', we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

  14. Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D

    2013-09-01

    Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

  15. The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

  16. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  17. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index.

  18. Renal-vertebral index in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Bacopoulos, C; Papahatzi-Kalmadi, M; Karpathios, T; Thomaidis, T; Matsaniotis, N

    1981-01-01

    The renal-vertebral index is a simple method of evaluating the renal length in children and is convenient for everyday clinical work. The results of 822 normal children aged between 3 days and 14 years are reported. Infants of up to 1 year were found to have an index of about 4 to 5, pre-school children are an index of 3 1/2 to 4 1/2, and schoolchildren an index of 3 1/2 to 4. There was no significant difference in renal-vertebral index between boys and girls. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7259261

  19. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  20. Cervical Posterior Spinal Artery Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Wakida, Kenji; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of left upper cervical posterior spinal artery (PSA) syndrome caused by atherosclerosis of the left vertebral artery. A 70-year-old female experienced sudden dizziness and paralysis of the left upper and lower limbs. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of the brain showed high signal intensity at the vermis and lower left hemisphere of the cerebellum, and magnetic resonance angiography showed that the entire left vertebral artery was thin. The patient was treated with an intravenous infusion of tissue plasminogen activator 2 hours after symptom onset and made a full recovery. Repeat DWI, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, and T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the left upper cervical PSA area from the lower medulla oblongata to the C2 level in addition to the cerebellum. Previously reported cases of cervical posterior artery syndrome are reviewed. PMID:27012218

  1. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wang, Hao-Kwan; Syu, Fei-Kai; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation. Methods We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure) and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses. Results The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36), advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08), diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88), cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76), dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33), blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95), hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47), and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22). Patients taking calcium/vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93), bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61), or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77) were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08), acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41) were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation. Conclusion We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations. PMID:25848240

  2. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  3. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  4. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  5. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (∼420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ∼505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07166.001 PMID:26095697

  6. Ancestral vertebrate complexity of the opioid system.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina; Sundström, Görel

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the opioid peptides and nociceptin/orphanin as well as their receptors has been difficult to resolve due to variable evolutionary rates. By combining sequence comparisons with information on the chromosomal locations of the genes, we have deduced the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate predecessor had one opioid precursor gene and one receptor gene. The two genome doublings before the vertebrate radiation resulted in three peptide precursor genes whereupon a fourth copy arose by a local gene duplication. These four precursors diverged to become the prepropeptides for endorphin (POMC), enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin, respectively. The ancestral receptor gene was quadrupled in the genome doublings leading to delta, kappa, and mu and the nociceptin/orphanin receptor. This scenario is corroborated by new data presented here for coelacanth and spotted gar, representing two basal branches in the vertebrate tree. A third genome doubling in the ancestor of teleost fishes generated additional gene copies. These results show that the opioid system was quite complex already in the first vertebrates and that it has more components in teleost fishes than in mammals. From an evolutionary point of view, nociceptin and its receptor can be considered full-fledged members of the opioid system. PMID:25677769

  7. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  8. Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

  9. Radial Approach in the Treatment of Supraaortic Arterial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Théron, J.; Guimaraens, L.; Casasco, A.; Sola, T.; Saleme, S.; Courtheoux, P.; Hamon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Radial approach (mainly right) has been used in the treatment of 67 supraaortic lesions including 56 carotid, nine vertebral and two subclavian artery stenoses. This approach offers new possibilities and solves most of the remaining technical difficulties or impossibilities encountered in the endovascular treatment of supraaortic lesions. The current technique is described. The results of this first series have been very satisfactory without complication. MR angiography allows selection of patients suitable for radial approach. PMID:20566141

  10. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type I Misdiagnosed as a Giant Aneurysm *

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, G.; Assmann, U.; Bender, A.; Lehmann, T. N.; Lanksch, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Summary A 59-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with bruits and neck pain due to a space occupying lesion in the right neck tissue. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the right extracranial vertebral artery (VA) with a giant venous pouch and an intracranial berry aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). First, the MCA aneurysm was surgically clipped, then the patient was treated by embolisation with coils. The coils were placed transarterially from the left VA resulting in a partial thrombosis of the venous pouch. Complete closure was achieved secondarily by retrograde transvenous catheterization. Etiology and treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:20667184

  11. Morphology of the human vertebral endplate

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Azucena G.; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Berven, Sigurd; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    It is presumed that poor intervertebral disc cell nutrition is a contributing factor in degeneration, and is exacerbated by vertebral endplate sclerosis. Yet, quantitative relationships between endplate morphology and degeneration are unavailable. We investigated how endplate bone microstructure relates to indices of disc degeneration, such as morphologic grade, proteoglycan content, and cell density. Intervertebral core samples [n=96, 14 subjects, L1–L5 level, ages 35–85 (64±16 yrs.), degeneration grade 1(n=4), grade 2(n=32), grade 3(n=44), grade 4(n=10), grade 5(n=6)] that included subchondral bone, cartilage endplate and adjacent nucleus were harvested from human cadaveric lumbar spines. The morphology of the vertebral endplate was analyzed using μCT and the adjacent nucleus tissue was collected for biochemical and cellular analyses. Relationships between vertebral endplate morphology and adjacent disc degeneration were analyzed. Contrary to the prevailing notion, vertebral endplate porosity increased between 50 and 130% and trabecular thickness decreased by between 20 and 50% with advancing disc degeneration (p<0.05). We also observed that nucleus cell density increased (R2=0.33, p<0.05) and proteoglycan content decreased (R2=0.47, p<0.05) as the endplate became more porous. Our data suggest that endplate sclerosis is not a fundamental factor contributing to disc degeneration. Rather, the opposite was observed in our samples, as the endplate became progressively more porous with age and degeneration. Since ischemic disc cell behavior is commonly associated with degenerative change, this may be related to other factors such as the quality of vertebral capillaries, as opposed to decreased permeability of intervening tissues. PMID:21812023

  12. The shifting of the aortic origin of the brachial arteries in the metamorphosing eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), with remarks on the shifting mechanisms in arterial junctions in general.

    PubMed

    Willemse, J J; Markus-Silvis, L

    1985-01-01

    In silver eels the arteries supplying the pectoral girdles and fins, arise from a common trunk which branches off from the dorsal aspect of the dorsal aorta, while the origin of this trunk is found at the ventral aspect of the aorta in the leptocephalus larva. The rearrangement of the origin of this trunk is mainly accomplished during metamorphosis, and is related to the rearrangement of the junction of the epibranchial arteries and the aorta. The processes of remodelling the wall of the vessels involved in these rearrangements are discussed against the background of data on similar remodelling, accompanying the rearrangement of arterial junctions during the development of higher vertebrates. PMID:4013636

  13. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean ± SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 ± 6.2; VBS: 3.7 ± 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 ± 9.4; VBS: 13.3 ± 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation. PMID:20191393

  14. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  15. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  16. Cortex-sparing infarction in triple cervical artery dissection following chiropractic neck manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Melikyan, Gayane; Kamran, Saadat; Akhtar, Naveed; Deleu, Dirk; Miyares, Francisco Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multivessel cervical dissection with cortical sparing is exceptional in clinical practice. Case presentation: A 55-year-old man presented with acute-onset neck pain with associated sudden onset right-sided hemiparesis and dysphasia after chiropractic manipulation for chronic neck pain. Results and Discussion: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral internal carotid artery dissection and left extracranial vertebral artery dissection with bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarctions and large cortical-sparing left middle cerebral artery infarction. This suggests the presence of functionally patent and interconnecting leptomeningeal anastomoses between cerebral arteries, which may provide sufficient blood flow to salvage penumbral regions when a supplying artery is occluded. Conclusion: Chiropractic cervical manipulation can result in catastrophic vascular lesions preventable if these practices are limited to highly specialized personnel under very specific situations. PMID:26835412

  17. Unusual aortic arch variation: distal origin of common carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Sparks, C D

    2001-01-01

    As part of a larger study, the aortic arch and its branches were removed en bloc at autopsy from men of Japanese ancestry born in Hawaii. Of the 193 arterial trees examined, 182 (94.3%) had a typical branching pattern (e.g., brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, in that order). Two specimens had only two branches arising from the aortic arch, a common trunk uniting the brachiocephalic and left common carotid arteries and a left subclavian artery. Nine individuals (4.6%) had four branches off the aortic arch; in eight of these cases (4.1%), the left vertebral artery originated directly off the aortic arch just proximal to, or as a common trunk with, the left subclavian artery. A unique aortic arch branching pattern was found in one of these men. The four arteries arising from the arch of the aorta were, in sequence: right subclavian, left subclavian, right common carotid, and left common carotid. The literature on aortic arch variations is reviewed and the possible embryonic development of these branching patterns and their clinical significance is discussed briefly. PMID:11135402

  18. Fatal case of cervical blunt vascular injury with cervical vertebral fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Okura, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Ukai, Junichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is usually caused by neck trauma that predominantly occurs in high-impact injuries. BCVI may occur due to damage to both the vertebral and carotid arteries, and may be fatal in the absence of appropriate treatment and early diagnosis. Here, we describe a case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery by a direct blunt external force in a 52-year-old man. Initially, there was no effect on consciousness, but 6 hours later loss of consciousness occurred due to traumatic dissection of the carotid artery that resulted in a cerebral infarction. Brain edema was so extensive that decompression by emergency craniectomy and internal decompression were performed by a neurosurgeon, but with no effect, and the patient died on day 7. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery. The case suggests that cervical vascular injury should be considered in a patient with a blunt neck trauma and that additional imaging should be performed. PMID:26412898

  19. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa; Shin, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Woo

    2006-04-15

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  20. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication Overview What is peripheral arterial disease? Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a problem with blood flow in the arteries, ...

  1. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  2. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  4. Carotid and vertebral injury study (CAVIS) technique for characterization of blunt traumatic aneurysms with reliability assessment

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Kicielinski, Kimberly P; Deveikis, John P; Walters, Beverly C; Harrigan, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic aneurysms occur in up to 20% of blunt traumatic extracranial carotid artery injuries. Currently there is no standardized method for characterization of traumatic aneurysms. For the carotid and vertebral injury study (CAVIS), a prospective study of traumatic cerebrovascular injury, we established a method for aneurysm characterization and tested its reliability. Saccular aneurysm size was defined as the greatest linear distance between the expected location of the normal artery wall and the outer edge of the aneurysm lumen (“depth”). Fusiform aneurysm size was defined as the “depth” and longitudinal distance (“length”) paralleling the normal artery. The size of the aneurysm relative to the normal artery was also assessed. Reliability measurements were made using four raters who independently reviewed 15 computed tomographic angiograms (CTAs) and 13 digital subtraction angiograms (DSAs) demonstrating a traumatic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. Raters categorized the aneurysms as either “saccular” or “fusiform” and made measurements. Five scans of each imaging modality were repeated to evaluate intra-rater reliability. Fleiss’s free-marginal multi-rater kappa (κ), Cohen’s kappa (κ), and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) determined inter- and intra-rater reliability. Inter-rater agreement as to the aneurysm “shape” was almost perfect for CTA (κ = 0.82) and DSA (κ = 0.897). Agreements on aneurysm “depth,” “length,” “aneurysm plus parent artery,” and “parent artery” for CTA and DSA were excellent (ICC > 0.75). Intra-rater agreement as to aneurysm “shape” was substantial to almost perfect (κ > 0.60). The CAVIS method of traumatic aneurysm characterization has remarkable inter- and intra-rater reliability and will facilitate further studies of the natural history and management of extracranial cerebrovascular traumatic aneurysms. PMID:25943846

  5. Radial artery graft vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Gabe, E D; Figal, J C; Wisner, J N; Laguens, R

    2001-01-01

    We report an unusual case of vasospasm of a grafted radial artery complicated with ventricular fibrillation during the postoperative course of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of a radial artery graft spasm leading to a severe arrhythmia. The arrhythmia resolved spontaneously. Radial artery graft spasm was demonstrated by angiography and was successfully resolved by intravenous nitroglycerin administration. PMID:11163573

  6. Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8–T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

  7. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  10. Clinical Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCF's) are the most common form of osteoporotic fractures. Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, they both represent a high risk for not only vertebral but also nonvertebral fractures in untreated populations. This high risk of future fracture after a VCF is independent of the T-score because bone strength is a combination of bone mineral density and bone quality. VCFs are the single greatest risk for future fractures at all other skeletal sites in untreated populations, including hip fractures. They are often unrecognized despite their exceptionally high prevalence in all genders and most ethnic groups as age increases. This article highlights some of the key messages about VCF's, and how assessment for their presence and then management will reduce the risk of all osteoporotic fractures. PMID:26439186

  11. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Joseph A; Reh, Thomas A

    2015-10-01

    Photoreceptors--the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina--have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  12. Fetal development of the mesonephric artery in humans with reference to replacement by the adrenal and renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Ryoji; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Miyake, Hideaki; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-11-01

    According to the classical ladder theory, the mesonephric arteries (MAs) have a segmental arrangement and persist after regression of the mesonephros, with some of these vessels becoming definitive renal arteries. To avoid interruption of blood flow, such a vascular switching would require an intermediate stage in which two or more segmental MAs are connected to a definitive renal artery. To examine developmental changes, especially changes in the segmental distribution of MAs, we studied serial paraffin sections of 26 human embryos (approximately 5-7 weeks). At 5-6 weeks, 1-2 pairs of MAs ran anterolaterally or laterally within each of the lower thoracic vertebral segments, while 2-5 pairs of MAs were present in each of the lumbar vertebral segments, but they were usually asymmetrical. The initial metanephros, extending along the aorta from the first lumbar to first sacral vertebra, had no arterial supply despite the presence of multiple MAs running immediately anterior to it. Depending on increased sizes of the adrenal and metanephros, the MAs were reduced in number and restricted in levels from the twelfth thoracic to the second lumbar vertebra. The elimination of MAs first became evident at a level of the major, inferior parts of the metanephros. Therefore, a hypothetical arterial ladder was lost before development of glomeruli in the metanephros. At 7 weeks, after complete elimination of MAs, a pair of symmetrical renal arteries appeared near the superior end of the metanephros. In conclusion, the MAs appear not to persist to become a definitive renal artery. PMID:26335195

  13. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  14. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2′paralogs, the 2′ isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  15. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Fishbach, Ronald S.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Dahlgren, James G.

    1973-01-01

    The diagnosis of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis was made in seven narcotic addicts between 1967 and 1972. Vertebrae involved were either cervical or lumbar. Bacteriologic diagnosis was made in each case by percutaneous needle biopsy and aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in two patients. Five patients had infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter. All patients were cured by treatment with antibiotics and immobilization. PMID:4199351

  16. Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gary E.; de Grip, Willem J.; Turton, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Foster, Russell G.; Douglas, Ron H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that melanopsin is localised in cells around the central pore of lateral line neuromasts in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Since melanopsin is a known photoreceptor pigment with diverse functions in vertebrates, we suggest that the lateral line of Xenopus laevis, which is primarily a mechanoreceptor, might also be light sensitive. Potential functions of such photosensitivity are discussed, including its role in mediating locomotor responses following dermal illumination. PMID:26206352

  17. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  18. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  19. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  20. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  1. Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity > 4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age < 6 months. After treatment, patients were followed through hospital discharge and returned for visits after 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Back pain severity improved 66% (P < 0.001), from 7.9 (95% CI: 7.1 to 8.6) at pretreatment to 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0) at 3 months. Back function improved 46% (P < 0.001), from 74 (95% CI: 69% to 79%) at pretreatment to 40 (95% CI: 33% to 47%) at 3 months. The percentage of patients regularly consuming pain medication was 70% at pretreatment and only 21% at 3 months. No adverse events related to the device or procedure were reported. RF-TVA reduces back pain severity, improves back function, and reduces pain medication requirements with no observed complications in patients with osteoporotic VCF. PMID:24228187

  2. Double Origin of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Diagnosed by MR Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Naoko; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) frequently arises from the fenestrated segment of the intracranial vertebral artery (VA), and this common variation can be misinterpreted as or confused with a PICA of double origin. Rarely, a PICA of true double origin occurs when two branches of the PICA arise separately from the intracranial VA and fuse to form an arterial ring. We discovered this rare variation incidentally while interpreting images of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. This is the first report of MR angiographic findings of this rare variation. PMID:25923681

  3. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  4. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  5. Basilar artery thrombosis after reduction of cervical spondyloptosis: a cautionary report.

    PubMed

    Tumialán, Luis M; Theodore, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a rare clinical entity typically associated with complete neurological deficit. The inherent mechanics of this fracture-dislocation pattern contorts the vertebral arteries in such a way that it may result in dissection or compromised flow through those vessels. Thus, intimal injury or thrombus from stasis of flow may result. Reduction of the spondyloptosis restores flow to the vertebral arteries, but it also may mobilize thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection within the previously contorted vessel. The authors review their experience in the care of a 43-year-old man who sustained C4-5 spondyloptosis while riding an all-terrain vehicle. On arrival, the patient demonstrated no motor function below C-4 but had sensation to the nipple line (American Spinal Injury Association Spinal Cord Injury Classification B). The patient's cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated complete spondyloptosis at C4-5. The patient was immediately placed in cervical traction and taken to the operating room for open reduction of the fracture dislocation, decompression of the spinal cord, and stabilization with an interbody graft and cervical plate. Preoperative cervical traction was successful in only partial reduction of the fracture dislocation. Open reduction was achieved with exposure of the C-4 and C-5 bodies and sequential distraction. After anatomical alignment was achieved, an interbody graft was placed and a cervical plate secured. A subsequent decline in the patient's level of consciousness prompted CT of the head, which showed evidence of a basilar artery thrombosis. A CT angiographic study demonstrated patency of the vertebral arteries, but a mid-basilar artery thrombosis. The patient progressed to brain death 24 hours after reduction of the fracture dislocation. The degree of contortion of the vertebral arteries in cervical spondyloptosis in the upper cervical spine may result in stasis of flow with subsequent formation of thrombus or intimal injury. After anatomical reduction, restoration of flow within the vertebral arteries may mobilize the thrombus or propagate an intimal dissection and result in subsequent embolic events. Endovascular evaluation may be warranted immediately after anatomical reduction of a high cervical spondyloptosis for evaluation of the vertebral arteries and possible thrombus dissolution or retrieval. PMID:22385083

  6. Early Bone Marrow Edema Pattern of the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture : Can Be Predictor of Vertebral Deformity Types and Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Kim, Sung Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an early bone marrow edema pattern predicts vertebral deformity types and prognosis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 64 patients with 75 acute OVCFs who underwent early MRI and followed up MRI. On early MRI, the low SI pattern of OVCF on T1WI were assessed and classified into 3 types (diffuse, globular or patchy, band-like). On followed up MRI, the vertebral deformity types (anterior wedge, biconcave, crush), degree of vertebral body height loss, incidence of vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis were assessed for each vertebral fracture types. Results According to the early bone marrow edema pattern on T1WI, 26 vertebrae were type 1, 14 vertebrae were type 2 and 35 vertebrae were type 3. On followed up MRI, the crush-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 1 OVCFs, the biconcave-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 2 OVCFs and the anterior wedge-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 3 OVCFs (p<0.001). In addition, type 1 early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI were associated with higher incidence of severe degree vertebral body height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis on the follow up MRI. Conclusion Early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI, significant correlated with vertebral deformity types on the follow up MRI. The severe degree of vertebral height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis, and spinal stenosis were more frequent in patients with diffuse low SI pattern. PMID:26962419

  7. Distinct Notch signaling outputs pattern the developing arterial system

    PubMed Central

    Quillien, Aurelie; Moore, John C.; Shin, Masahiro; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Smith, Tom; Pan, Luyuan; Moens, Cecilia B.; Parsons, Michael J.; Lawson, Nathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of arteries and veins is essential for the development of a functional circulatory system. In vertebrate embryos, genetic manipulation of Notch signaling has demonstrated the importance of this pathway in driving artery endothelial cell differentiation. However, when and where Notch activation occurs to affect endothelial cell fate is less clear. Using transgenic zebrafish bearing a Notch-responsive reporter, we demonstrate that Notch is activated in endothelial progenitors during vasculogenesis prior to blood vessel morphogenesis and is maintained in arterial endothelial cells throughout larval stages. Furthermore, we find that endothelial progenitors in which Notch is activated are committed to a dorsal aorta fate. Interestingly, some arterial endothelial cells subsequently downregulate Notch signaling and then contribute to veins during vascular remodeling. Lineage analysis, together with perturbation of both Notch receptor and ligand function, further suggests several distinct developmental windows in which Notch signaling acts to promote artery commitment and maintenance. Together, these findings demonstrate that Notch acts in distinct contexts to initiate and maintain artery identity during embryogenesis. PMID:24598161

  8. Evolutionary history of the vertebrate period genes.

    PubMed

    von Schantz, Malcolm; Jenkins, Aaron; Archer, Simon N

    2006-06-01

    Circadian clock genes are remarkably conserved between eucoelomates. Although Drosophila has one copy of each major component, vertebrates have two or (in the case of the Period genes) three paralogs (Per1-3). We investigated the possibility that the vertebrate Per genes arose through two genome duplications during the emergence of vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees have placed zebrafish and mammalian Per1 and 2 together in a separate branch from Per3. The positions of four coding region splice sites were conserved between Drosophila per and the human paralogs, the fifth one being unique to Drosophila. The human PER genes shared the positions of all coding region splice sites, except the first two in PER1 and PER2 (which PER3 lacks). The phases of all splice sites were conserved between all four genes with two exceptions. Analysis of all genes within 10 Mb of the human PER1-3 genes, which are located 7.8-8.8 Mb from the telomeres on chromosomes 17, 2, and 1, identified several orthologous neighbors shared by at least two PER genes. Two gene families, HES (hairy and Enhancer of Split) and KIF1 (kinesin-like protein 1), were represented in all three of these paralogons. Although no functional fourth human PER paralog exists, five representatives from the same gene families were found close to the telomer of chromosome 3. We conclude that the ancestral chordate Per gene underwent two duplication events, giving rise to Per1-3 and a lost fourth paralog. PMID:16752210

  9. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  10. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    PubMed

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  12. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  13. A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

  14. Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

  15. Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by an Intraneural Spiral Trigeminocerebellar Artery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Naoki; Abe, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Masani; Higashi, Toshio; Ueba, Tetsuya; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-07-01

    The trigeminocerebellar artery (TCA) is a branch of the basilar artery that may have an intraneural course and may cause trigeminal neuralgia. We report a case of trigeminal neuralgia with right vertebral artery aneurysm caused by an intraneural TCA that compressed the trigeminal nerve in multiple places. We performed proximal trapping for the fusiform aneurysm with extra-intracranial bypass to preserve flow of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, followed by microvascular decompression that successfully changed the course of the TCA. This procedure provided relief from the neuralgia without direct bisection of the trigeminal nerve that may cause severe nerve injury. Reshaping of the course of the artery can achieve good pain relief. PMID:26251812

  16. Comparative anatomical studies on the thyroid and thymic arteries. VI. Diprotodont marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    The thyroid and thymic arteries in 44 specimens from 18 species belonging to the diprotodont marsupials were investigated. The results were compared with those of polyprotodont marsupials, suncuses, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and man. The superior thyroid artery was constant in three superfamily groups. The inferior thyroid artery was extremely rare. The superior thymic artery arising from the thyrocervical trunk was observed in 1 phalangeroid and 2 macropodoids, and that arising from the vertebral artery occurred in 1 macropodoid. The middle thymic artery occurred in 1 phalangeroid, but was abundant in macropodoids. The inferior thymic artery was constant in koalas and phalangeroids, but was absent in half of the macropodoids. The thyroid ima, middle thymothyroid, and the supreme thymic arteries were absent in all diprotodonts. In addition to the usual thymus, diprotodonts have the superficial cervical thymus, which is only shared with guinea pigs. The superior superficial cervical thymic artery was absent in koalas and in half of the macropodoids, but was abundant in the phalangeroids. Conversely, the inferior superficial cervical thymic artery was constant in koalas and was dominant in the macropodoids. These results show that variations in the arterial patterns for both organs were much more prevalent in macropodoids than in phalangeroids, while the arterial patterns in koalas were characteristic. As a whole, the arteries for both organs were more complex in diprotodonts than in polyprotodonts or rats, but more simple than those in rabbits or man. The superior superficial cervical thymic arteries, which showed various patterns, were compared with those in guinea pigs. PMID:26472114

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun Jun; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

  18. Vertebrate Endothelial Lipase: Comparative Studies of an Ancient Gene and Protein in Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S; VandeBerg, John L; Cox, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endothelial lipase (LIPG; E.C.3.1.1.3) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from 15 other human lipase genes examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a ‘stop’ codon’ within exon 9. Vertebrate LIPG protein subunits shared 58–97% sequence identity as compared with 38–45% sequence identities with human LIPC (hepatic lipase) and LIPL (lipoprotein lipase). Four previously reported human LIPG N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate LIPG sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key LIPG amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (LIPP) (Bourne et al., 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the 5′-untranslated regions of the human, mouse and rat LIPG genes; a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3′-untranslated region and several transcription factor binding sites within the human LIPG gene. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families [LIPC and LIPL], other neutral lipase gene families [LIPP, LIPR1, LIPR2, LIPR3, LIPI, LIPH and LIPS], and the extended family of mammalian acid lipases (LIPA, LIPF, LIPJ, LIPK, LIPM, LIPN and LIPO). It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution > 500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

  19. [The etiology research progress of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Fan, Yue; Chen, Xiaowei

    2015-12-01

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS), also known as Goldenhar syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia and facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, is a developmental disorder associated with the first and second branchial arches. Most cases are sporadic, while some familial instances observed suggested that the etiology of OAVS heterogeneous. In this review, we summarize the OAVS epidemiology, classification and mainlyheterogeneous etiology. PMID:27093828

  20. The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

  1. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  2. Flexible device for vertebral body replacement.

    PubMed

    Main, J A; Wells, M E; Spengler, D M; Strauss, A M; Keller, T S

    1989-03-01

    A novel vertebral prosthesis is presented. The prosthesis was developed for surgical procedures requiring the resection of a complete vertebral body and the adjacent intervertebral discs, the design objective being to develop a flexible implant that would be robust enough to withstand the in vivo stress environment of the human spine. In theory, a flexible implant should preserve a more normal range of motion and apply less stress to surrounding tissue than a rigid implant. A prototype implant was constructed so as to combine a rigid stainless steel structure with flexible silicon rubber elements in order to form an implant with static and dynamic mechanical characteristics similar to those of the anterior spinal column. Implant flexibility characteristics were determined from ex vivo stress-strain behaviour during bending and compressive creep testing. Results from the bending tests indicated good agreement for the lateral and sagittal bending characteristics in comparison with in vitro bending tests of human lumbar motion segments. Comparison of the implant compressive creep response with similar in vitro tests on human lumbar intervertebral discs also demonstrated similarities in the time-dependent mechanical parameters. PMID:2704210

  3. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Marjorie; Reynaert, Nicole; Chávez, Myra N; Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L; Egaña, José T

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  4. A Membrane-Bound Vertebrate Globin

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Miriam; Wollberg, Jessica; Gerlach, Frank; Reimann, Katja; Roesner, Anja; Hankeln, Thomas; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E.; Burmester, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O2 binding with a variable affinity (P50∼1.3–12.5 torr), depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein. PMID:21949889

  5. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  6. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons. PMID:25959851

  7. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  8. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  9. Neural induction and early patterning in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Kintner, Chris; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2013-07-01

    In vertebrates, the development of the nervous system is triggered by signals from a powerful 'organizing' region of the early embryo during gastrulation. This phenomenon--neural induction--was originally discovered and given conceptual definition by experimental embryologists working with amphibian embryos. Work on the molecular circuitry underlying neural induction, also in the same model system, demonstrated that elimination of ongoing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in the ectoderm is the hallmark of anterior neural-fate acquisition. This observation is the basis of the 'default' model of neural induction. Endogenous neural inducers are secreted proteins that act to inhibit TGFβ ligands in the dorsal ectoderm. In the ventral ectoderm, where the signaling ligands escape the inhibitors, a non-neural fate is induced. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway has now been demonstrated to be sufficient to directly induce neural fate in mammalian embryos as well as pluripotent mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Hence the molecular process that delineates neural from non-neural ectoderm is conserved across a broad range of organisms in the evolutionary tree. The availability of embryonic stem cells from mouse, primates, and humans will facilitate further understanding of the role of signaling pathways and their downstream mediators in neural induction in vertebrate embryos. PMID:24014419

  10. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution. PMID:22537233

  11. Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Stachura, David L; Machoňová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Jiří; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bartůněk, Petr

    2014-07-10

    In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

  12. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  13. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a “RS-exon” that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5′ splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5′ splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  14. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  15. Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development. PMID:21356103

  16. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  17. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G.; Prosser, Haydn M.; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P.; Tabin, Clifford J.; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-01-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3′ UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. PMID:26283362

  18. Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

    2002-01-01

    Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

  19. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  20. Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.

    PubMed

    Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

    1992-05-29

    From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago). PMID:1598573

  1. Candidal Vertebral Osteomyelitis in the Midst of Renal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gopinathan, Anusha; Kumar, Anil; Rao, Srivatsa Nagaraja; Kumar, Krishna; Karim, Shamsul

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis also known as discitis/pyogenic spondylitis refers to inflammation of the vertebral disc space. It is commonly seen in men and adults more than 50 years of age. Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare scenario compared to its bacterial counterpart. Spinal epidural abscess is a dangerous complication associated with vertebral osteomyelitis. Here, we report two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Candida tropicalis in patients with renal disorders (stage 5 chronic kidney disease and nephropathy). One of the case discussed here presented with spinal epidural abscess. Both the patients were started on antifungal therapy. One patient responded to treatment while the other was lost to follow up. PMID:27190806

  2. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. PMID:25943906

  3. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  4. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  5. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  6. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

  7. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

  8. "To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alzimami, Khalid S; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Almagli, Babikir; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of “to-and-fro” waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and “to-and-fro” flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional “to-and-fro” waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the “to-and-fro” waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative. PMID:26029351

  9. Management of the left subclavian artery during endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nadim; Sadat, Umar; Hayes, Paul D; Thompson, Matthew M; Boyle, Jonathan R

    2008-04-01

    Endovascular repair is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for thoracic aortic disease, which oftentimes involves or lies in close proximity to the left subclavian artery (LSA). In order to extend the proximal landing zone for the stent-graft and obtain an adequate seal, the LSA ostium is often covered, with or without concomitant subclavian artery revascularization. In this article, we review the LSA anatomy and consequences of LSA coverage as a backdrop for a discussion of the ramifications of LSA coverage during endovascular thoracic aortic repair (TEVAR). Early series reported high rates of LSA revascularization as an adjunct to endovascular repair for aortic pathology adjacent to the LSA ostium. Initial reports of low morbidity associated with simple LSA ostium coverage are not supported by contemporary literature, which suggests revascularization reduces the risks of cerebrovascular accident and spinal cord ischemia. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization may be justified only in emergency situations or when thorough investigations of cerebral and vertebrobasilar circulation have concluded that the risk to brain and spinal cord is low. Subclavian revascularization should be considered in the presence of a dominant left vertebral artery, bilateral carotid artery disease, an occluded/stenosed right vertebral artery, presence of a left internal mammary artery graft, or when a long length of thoracic aorta is covered. PMID:18426279

  10. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  11. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  12. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  13. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral

  14. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  15. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

  16. Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

  17. Occurrence of plant sterols in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Takagi, T; Sakai, A; Hayashi, K; Itabashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Plant sterols were found by gas liquid chromatography in the sterols of five species of aquatic vertebrates; mackerel (Scomber japonicus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), smelt (Osmerus dentex), sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) and chimera (Chimera phantasma). The sterols of chimera liver, sardine flesh and sardine viscera contained 9.0, 2.4 and 3.1% of C28 and C29 sterols in addition to 86.7, 96.6 and 95.2% of cholesterol. The occurrence of norcholestandienol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and C28 stanol was shown by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) sterols consisted of more than 99% cholesterol with only traces of 22-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:423710

  18. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  19. De Novo Genesis of Enhancers in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Eichenlaub, Michael P.; Ettwiller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary innovation relies partially on changes in gene regulation. While a growing body of evidence demonstrates that such innovation is generated by functional changes or translocation of regulatory elements via mobile genetic elements, the de novo generation of enhancers from non-regulatory/non-mobile sequences has, to our knowledge, not previously been demonstrated. Here we show evidence for the de novo genesis of enhancers in vertebrates. For this, we took advantage of the massive gene loss following the last whole genome duplication in teleosts to systematically identify regions that have lost their coding capacity but retain sequence conservation with mammals. We found that these regions show enhancer activity while the orthologous coding regions have no regulatory activity. These results demonstrate that these enhancers have been de novo generated in fish. By revealing that minor changes in non-regulatory sequences are sufficient to generate new enhancers, our study highlights an important playground for creating new regulatory variability and evolutionary innovation. PMID:22069375

  20. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  1. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Amer; Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  2. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  3. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hau Wei; Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L T

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  4. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Solís-Garcia del Pozo, J; Martinez-Alfaro, E; Abad, L; Solera, J

    2000-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a rare cause of vertebral osteomyelitis. We present four cases of spondylitis caused by this micro-organism and a review of 20 cases previously described in the literature. Only seven patients (29%) were under 50 years of age. Diabetes mellitus and neoplasms were the most frequent underlying conditions, although 37.5% of the patients did not have any predisposition. Neck or back pain was the most common symptom. Diagnosis depended mainly on magnetic resonance imaging. Blood cultures were positive in 50% of the patients. The duration of antibiotic therapy was 6 weeks for most patients. The outcome was favourable, with none of the patients suffering serious sequelae. PMID:10942645

  5. Cell fate determination in the vertebrate retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cepko, C L; Austin, C P; Yang, X; Alexiades, M; Ezzeddine, D

    1996-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, the retina has been a useful model for studies of cell fate determination. Recent results from studies conducted in vitro and in vivo suggest a model of retinal development in which both the progenitor cells and the environment change over time. The model is based upon the notion that the mitotic cells within the retina change in their response properties, or "competence", during development. These changes presage the ordered appearance of distinct cell types during development and appear to be necessary for the production of the distinct cell types. As the response properties of the cells change, so too do the environmental signals that the cells encounter. Together, intrinsic properties and extrinsic cues direct the choice of cell fate. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8570600

  6. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  7. Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carrillo, Maira; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates. PMID:20037653

  8. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  9. Positional behavior and vertebral morphology in atelines and cebines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S E; Shapiro, L J

    1998-03-01

    Atelines are of particular interest to primate evolutionary studies because they converge with hominoids in postcranial anatomy, including the vertebral column. Currently, our understanding of ateline vertebral morphology is limited to mainly qualitative descriptions and functional interpretations based on general categories of positional behavior. Even less is known about the vertebrae of other platyrrhines. This study more closely examines vertebral form and function in atelines and cebines by combining direct field observations of axial postures and movements, assessments of spinal loading regimes, and a detailed vertebral morphometric analysis. Field observations (Corcovado, Costa Rica) on Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii were quantified in conjunction with a morphometric analysis of ateline and cebine lumbar vertebrae. Hylobates was also included for comparison. Compared to Cebus and Saimiri, atelines engage more frequently in postures and locomotor behaviors that induce pronounced bending loads on the spine. All atelines share lumbar adaptations for resisting bending, including ventrodorsally elongated vertebral bodies and perpendicularly oriented transverse processes. Among atelines, lumbar region lengths and vertebral bodies are shortest in Ateles and Brachyteles, longest in Alouatta (resembling Cebus), and intermediate in Lagothrix. Compared to Cebus and all atelines, Saimiri has a relatively longer lumbar region, longer and less ventrodorsally expanded vertebral bodies, and more ventrally oriented transverse processes. These features accentuate bending loads, but increase the sagittal flexibility required for leaping. Vertebral convergence between hylobatids and atelines is more readily interpretable as a product of shared spinal loading patterns than shared positional behaviors. PMID:9545076

  10. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  11. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish

  12. Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  13. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  14. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  15. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes. PMID:24533544

  16. Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

  17. Deep deuterostome origins of vertebrate brain signalling centres

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Ariel M.; Mullarkey, Erin E.; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Assimacopoulos, Stavroula; Grove, Elizabeth A.; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroectodermal signalling centres induce and pattern many novel vertebrate brain structures but are absent, or divergent, in invertebrate chordates. This has led to the hypothesis that signalling centre genetic programs were first assembled in stem vertebrates, which potentially drove morphological innovations. However, this scenario presumes that extant cephalochordates accurately represent ancestral chordate characters, which has not been tested using close chordate outgroups. Here, we report that genetic programs homologous to three vertebrate signalling centres; the anterior neural ridge, zona limitans intrathalamica, and isthmic organizer are present in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Fgf8/17/18, sfrp1/5, hh, and wnt1 are expressed in vertebrate-like arrangements in hemichordate ectoderm, and homologous genetic mechanisms regulate ectodermal patterning in both animals. We propose these genetic programs were components of an unexpectedly complex, ancient genetic regulatory scaffold for deuterostome body patterning that degenerated in amphioxus and ascidians, but was retained to pattern divergent structures in hemichordates and vertebrates. PMID:22422262

  18. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  19. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  20. Termination of the vertebral veins: Evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Miyake, H; Kiyosue, H; Tanoue, S; Goto, Y; Mori, H; Fujikura, Y

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the topographic anatomy of the vertebral vein (VV) in the lower neck and thoracic inlet using CT scans. Enhanced CT scans using 32-MDCT were obtained for 199 consecutive patients. Reconstructed images with 1-mm section thickness/intervals were evaluated by two radiologists examining the drainage point, number, and route of VVs using frame forwarding and the rewind function on the DICOM viewer. The VV was classified into four types as follows: Type A (80.6%), a VV that descended ventral to the subclavian artery (SA) and drained into the upper portion of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV); Type B (5.8%), a VV that descended dorsal to the SA and drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV; Type C (8.3%), a doubled VVs that crossed both sides of the SA and drained into the upper portion of the BCV and formed a common trunk; Type D (5.3%), a VV ventral to the SA that drained into the upper portion of the BCV and another VV dorsal to the SA drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV. Some variations were observed in regard to the drainage point, number, and route of the VVs. Classification of the VV may be useful for interpreting chest CT scans and in better understanding the embryologic development of the vertebral vein. PMID:20533515

  1. Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

  2. Lumbar artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Flügel, P C; Henschke, S; Peck, W; Neumann, F-J; Zeller, T

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of lumbar artery aneurysm. We report the case of a 54-years-old male patient who was misdiagnosed over years having a chronic infrarenal aortic aneurysm. A 64-slice CT at our institution revealed a large lumbar artery aneurysm. The conclusion of this case report is that a lumbar or accessory renal artery aneurysm has to be taken into consideration if there is a localized enlargement of the lower abdominal aorta and a high resolution CT-scan is strongly recommended to make the exact diagnosis. PMID:19229807

  3. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  4. Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2009-01-01

    All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is becoming possible to infer some general aspects of the early evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity. All jawed vertebrates assemble their antigen-receptor genes through combinatorial recombination of different “diversity” segments into immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. However, the jawless vertebrates employ an analogous, but independently-derived set of immune receptors in order to recognize and bind antigens: the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The means by which this locus generates receptor diversity and achieves antigen specificity is of considerable interest because these mechanisms represent a completely independent strategy for building a large immune repertoire. Therefore, studies of the VLR system are providing insight into the fundamental principles and evolutionary potential of adaptive immune recognition systems. Here we review and synthesize the wealth of data that have been generated towards understanding the evolution of the adaptive immune system in the jawless vertebrates. PMID:20056434

  5. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  6. Observer agreement in pediatric semi-quantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary-Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Genant semi-quantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults, but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in pediatrics. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. Objective To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Materials and methods Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. Results An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen’s kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Conclusion Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. PMID:24323185

  7. Coronary Artery Anomalies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the development of the coronary arteries in the fetal heart . If anything goes wrong during any of these steps, it can lead to a CAA. Some congenital heart diseases are strongly linked to CAAs, including persistent truncus ...

  8. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability. PMID:25661070

  9. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  10. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly or it is affecting the only working kidney. Treatment to open the artery may include: Clot-dissolving medicines (thrombolytics) Medicines that prevent the blood from ... kidney failure. Medicines to lower cholesterol may be needed ...

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  12. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  13. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... they are rarely used. Breathing in (inhaling) a carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture. This treatment causes the arteries ... PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3; chap 14. Reiss GR, Sipperley JO, Gaitan JR. Glaucoma associated ...

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  15. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  16. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  17. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  18. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  19. Semaphorin Signaling in Vertebrate Neural Circuit Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration, and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity. PMID:22685427

  20. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock’s collective period depends on delayed coupling. We derive an expression for pattern wavelength across the PSM and show how this can be used to fit dynamic wildtype gene-expression patterns, revealing the quantitative values of parameters controlling spatial and temporal organization of the oscillators in the system. Our theory can be used to analyze experimental perturbations, thereby identifying roles of genes involved in segmentation. PMID:19492022

  1. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  2. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  3. Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Lindsey A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination. PMID:19152784

  4. Non-retroviral fossils in vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2011-10-01

    Although no physical fossils of viruses have been found, retroviruses are known to leave their molecular fossils in the genomes of their hosts, the so-called endogenous retroviral elements. These have provided us with important information about retroviruses in the past and their co-evolution with their hosts. On the other hand, because non-retroviral viruses were considered not to leave such fossils, even the existence of prehistoric non-retroviral viruses has been enigmatic. Recently, we discovered that elements derived from ancient bornaviruses, non-segmented, negative strand RNA viruses, are found in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans. In addition, at approximately the same time, several endogenous elements of RNA viruses, DNA viruses and reverse-transcribing DNA viruses have been independently reported, which revealed that non-retroviral viruses have played significant roles in the evolution of their hosts and provided novel insights into virology and cell biology. Here we review non-retroviral virus-like elements in vertebrate genomes, non-retroviral integration and the knowledge obtained from these endogenous non-retroviral virus-like elements. PMID:22069518

  5. Cell death in the developing vertebrate retina.

    PubMed

    Vecino, Elena; Hernández, María; García, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    Programmed cell death occurs naturally, as a physiological process, during the embryonic development of multicellular organisms. In the retina, which belongs to the central nervous system, at least two phases of cell death have been reported to occur during development. An early phase takes place concomitant with the processes of neurogenesis, cell migration and cell differentiation. A later phase affecting mainly neurons occurs when connections are established and synapses are formed, resulting in selective elimination of inappropriate connections. This pattern of cell death in the developing retina is common among different vertebrates. However, the timing and magnitude of retinal cell death varies among species. In addition, a precise regulation of apoptosis during retinal development has been described. Factors such as neurotrophins, among many others, and electrical activity influence the survival of retinal cells during the course of development. In this paper, we present a summary of these different aspects of programmed cell death during retinal development, and examine how these differ among different species. PMID:15558487

  6. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  7. The pulmonary artery catheter.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) has been widely used for monitoring of critically ill patients over the years, but with advances in less invasive monitoring techniques, notably echocardiography, there are fewer indications for PAC insertion. Nevertheless, the PAC provides simultaneous monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac filling, cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation, and still has an important role in complex cases. Adequate and continued training are required to ensure that PAC-derived data are correctly interpreted and applied. PMID:22886686

  8. Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica.

    PubMed

    Wynne-Davies, R

    1975-09-01

    A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for any one of these defects. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Solitary hemivertebrae and localized anterior defects of the vertebral bodies causing kyphoscoliosis are sporadic (non-familial) in nature, carrying no risk to subsequent sibs. PMID:1100836

  9. Conservative management of a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the artery of cervical enlargement-anterior spinal artery junction.

    PubMed

    Boeris, Davide; Mortimer, Alex; Sakthithasan, Mathuri; Evins, Alexander Ian; Sandeman, David; Renowden, Shelly

    2016-04-01

    A 22-year-old man suffered severe sudden onset head and neck pain after being pushed from behind during an assault. Physical examination was normal. Cervical MRI demonstrated an intradural hematoma, anterior to the cord, between C2-4. Subsequent contrast enhanced MR angiography and digital subtraction vertebral angiography confirmed that the cause of the hemorrhage was a fusiform (presumed dissecting) pseudoaneurysm of the artery of the cervical enlargement at its junction with the anterior spinal artery. The aneurysm was managed conservatively. Follow-up angiography demonstrated that the aneurysm had spontaneously thrombosed within 10 days and remained occluded at 2 months. The patient remained occluded at 6 months following the initial injury. Anterior spinal aneurysms represent a management dilemma and options are discussed. PMID:25817516

  10. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of soft cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

  11. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  12. GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

  13. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  14. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes. PMID:26616198

  15. The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2012-12-21

    How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

  16. Explaining large-scale patterns of vertebrate diversity.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J

    2015-07-01

    The major clades of vertebrates differ dramatically in their current species richness, from 2 to more than 32,000 species each, but the causes of this variation remain poorly understood. For example, a previous study noted that vertebrate clades differ in their diversification rates, but did not explain why they differ. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogenetic comparative methods, I show that most variation in diversification rates among 12 major vertebrate clades has a simple ecological explanation: predominantly terrestrial clades (i.e. birds, mammals, and lizards and snakes) have higher net diversification rates than predominantly aquatic clades (i.e. amphibians, crocodilians, turtles and all fish clades). These differences in diversification rates are then strongly related to patterns of species richness. Habitat may be more important than other potential explanations for richness patterns in vertebrates (such as climate and metabolic rates) and may also help explain patterns of species richness in many other groups of organisms. PMID:26202428

  17. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

  18. Balloon kyphoplasty in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, Douglas; Van Meirhaeghe, Jan; Ranstam, Jonas; Bastian, Leonard; Boonen, Steven

    2012-07-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure indicated for treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures. During BKP, cannulae are placed percutaneously into the vertebral body, allowing insertion of inflatable balloons. Inflating the balloons partially restores vertebral body height, compacts the bone and creates a cavity for placement of bone cement after balloon removal. Placement of the cement reduces and stabilizes the fracture. BKP differs from vertebroplasty in that it aims to restore vertebral height and reduce kyphotic deformity. Case reports and observational studies have consistently shown that BKP significantly reduces pain, increases mobility and functional capacity and improves quality of life for up to 3 years. Clinically significant adverse events have been rarely reported. These findings were confirmed in randomized and nonrandomized prospective controlled studies. The objective of this review is to describe the surgical procedures involved in BKP and to review the evidence supporting its use. PMID:22905846

  19. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... significant complications involving cement leakage following vertebroplasty. Some stud- ies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been ... physi- cal role, vitality, and bodily pain. Other stud- 10 ies also cite significant improvement in qual- ...

  20. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. PMID:20399726

  1. Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

  2. Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nithianantharajah, J.; Komiyama, N.H.; McKechanie, A.; Johnstone, M.; Blackwood, D. H.; St Clair, D.; Emes, R.D.; van de Lagemaat, L. N.; Saksida, L.M.; Bussey, T.J.; Grant, S.G.N.

    2014-01-01

    The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 My ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in all four Dlg paralogs show simple associative learning required Dlg4, while Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to play opposing roles in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed Dlg2’s role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 My. Dlg family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders suggesting genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

  3. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  4. Lung Transplant for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension After Arterial Switch Operation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Adachi, Osamu; Suzuki, Yasuto; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Niikawa, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Yasushi; Noda, Masafumi; Sado, Tetsu; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Akiba, Miki; Tatebe, Shunsuke; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Okada, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries is an infrequent but life-threatening complication. We report successful lung transplantation in a case of pulmonary hypertension after arterial switch operation. Cardiopulmonary bypass outflow was established through the right subclavian and femoral arteries because of the previous arterial switch operation. Abnormal anatomy and severe pleural and pericardial adhesions as a result of previous operations resulted in prolonged graft ischemic and operation times. Despite delayed left heart adaptation and primary graft dysfunction requiring prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the recipient was eventually discharged without activity limitations. PMID:26652570

  5. Structural conservation of interferon gamma among vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Savan, Ram; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R.; Sakai, Masahiro; Young, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), being the hallmark of the T cell TH1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian and piscine species and we have identified the gene in the frog genome. Based on these identified DNA sequences, we have constructed an evolutionary history of IFN-γ that shows this molecule can be traced back more than 450 million years ago. Our analysis shows that type II interferon (IFN-γ) function evolved before the tetrapod-fish split, a finding that contrasts earlier studies showing its origins in tetrapods. The IFN-γ gene has undergone a further duplication event in teleosts after the tetrapod-fish split suggesting a specific-evolutionary adaptation in fish. The analyses of IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-26 genomic region in mammals, chicken, frog and fish reveal an evolutionary conservation of the loci and several regulatory elements controlling IFN-γ gene transcription. Furthermore, across the vertebrata, the first intron of IFN-γ gene contains a polymorphic microsatellite that has been closely correlated with disease susceptibility. Comparative-modeling of IFN-γ structure revealed differences among the representative species but with an overall conservation of the fold, dimer interface and some interactions with the receptor. The structural and functional conservation of IFN-γ suggests the presence of an innate, natural killer (NK) like response or even an adaptive TH1 immune response in lower vertebrates. PMID:19268624

  6. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  7. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years. PMID:26982721

  8. The vertebrate urinary bladder: osmoregulatory and other uses.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The bladder may serve more biological uses than simple storage. The importance of bladder functions can be inferred from its presence among vertebrates, its anatomy and histology. From an evolutionary perspective, bladders have evolved at least twice in the vertebrates. The variability of permeability of the urinary bladder to water and solutes among species is discussed. Finally, the urinary bladder may play an osmoregulatory role. PMID:538956

  9. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

  10. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of β-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate β-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of β-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact β-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the β-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of β-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact β-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The β-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of β-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate β-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how β-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  11. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  12. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. PMID:26258298

  13. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2013-10-24

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

  14. Violet Fox: A Clinical View of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus E

    2016-01-01

    Had Violet's abdominal MR not been performed, or its findings not appreciated, the cause of her clinical event might never have been known because our current concept of osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) is substantially predicated on a change in either vertebral height or shape on lateral or sagittal spine imaging. The intention of this commentary is to stimulate a multidisciplinary conversation of osteoporotic VFs from an integrated clinical, physiological, and imaging perspective. For research and epidemiological purposes, osteoporotic VFs have been defined as a reduction in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral height although the required minimum height reduction (e.g., 15% or 20%) varies among definition schemes. We further classify osteoporotic VFs to be "clinical" when they are accompanied by back pain and "morphometric" when they are not, and we have generally accepted the assertion that most of the osteoporotic VFs are painless, that is, morphometric. This dichotomous VF definition scheme has been the foundation of osteoporosis epidemiology and the primary endpoint in most pivotal osteoporosis pharmaceutical trials. Although, having served the osteoporosis community well, our clinical experience, refined by recent insights into vertebral anatomy and spinal biomechanics, advances in vertebral imaging, and 2 decades of vertebral augmentation suggest that the spectrum of osteoporotic VFs is more complicated than this scheme suggests. PMID:26356546

  15. Amphioxus FGF signaling predicts the acquisition of vertebrate morphological traits

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Camasses, Alain; Somorjai, Ildiko; Belgacem, Mohamed R.; Chabrol, Olivier; Escande, Marie-Line; Pontarotti, Pierre; Escriva, Hector

    2011-01-01

    FGF signaling is one of the few cell–cell signaling pathways conserved among all metazoans. The diversity of FGF gene content among different phyla suggests that evolution of FGF signaling may have participated in generating the current variety of animal forms. Vertebrates possess the greatest number of FGF genes, the functional evolution of which may have been implicated in the acquisition of vertebrate-specific morphological traits. In this study, we have investigated the roles of the FGF signal during embryogenesis of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the best proxy for the chordate ancestor. We first isolate the full FGF gene complement and determine the evolutionary relationships between amphioxus and vertebrate FGFs via phylogenetic and synteny conservation analysis. Using pharmacological treatments, we inhibit the FGF signaling pathway in amphioxus embryos in different time windows. Our results show that the requirement for FGF signaling during gastrulation is a conserved character among chordates, whereas this signal is not necessary for neural induction in amphioxus, in contrast to what is known in vertebrates. We also show that FGF signal, acting through the MAPK pathway, is necessary for the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus, whereas more posterior somite formation is not FGF-dependent. This result leads us to propose that modification of the FGF signal function in the anterior paraxial mesoderm in an amphioxus-like vertebrate ancestor might have contributed to the loss of segmentation in the preotic paraxial mesoderm of the vertebrate head. PMID:21571634

  16. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  17. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula following tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Keçeligil, H T; Erk, M K; Kolbakir, F; Yildirim, A; Yilman, M; Unal, R

    1995-10-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a relatively rare but highly lethal complication occurring in patients with long-standing tracheostomies. Early evaluation of this problem and prompt aggressive therapy are necessary. When massive haemorrhage begins, immediate arterial compression, control of the airway and subsequent treatment of the injured artery may be lifesaving. Immediate surgical exploration through a median sternotomy is necessary to control the proximal and distal innominate artery. After the damaged artery has been excised, vascular reconstruction can be performed to preserve the connection between the proximal and distal ends of the innominate artery. A pedicled pericardial patch was successfully used for the tracheal reconstruction. PMID:8574535

  18. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  19. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack in the Setting of Carotid Atheromatous Disease with a Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery Successfully Treated with Stenting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moisi, Marc; Zwillman, Michael E; Volpi, John J; Diaz, Orlando; Klucznik, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Fetal brain perfusion is supplied by the primitive dorsal aorta anteriorly, longitudinal neural arteries posteriorly, and anastomotic transverse segmentals. Most notable of these connections are the primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal arteries. With cranial-cervical circulatory maturation and development of the posterior communicating segments and vertebro-basilar system, these primitive segmental anastomoses normally regress. Anomalous neurovascular development can result in persistence of these anastomoses. Due to its territory of perfusion, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is associated with vertebral artery and posterior communicating artery hypoplasia or aplasia. As a consequence, primary blood supply to the hindbrain comes chiefly from this single artery. Although usually clinically silent, PPHA is susceptible to common cerebrovascular disorders including athero-ischemic disease and saccular aneurysmal dilation to name a few. We present a case of transient ischemic attack in a patient with a PPHA and proximal atherosclerotic disease treated by endovascular stenting.

  1. Transient Ischemic Attack in the Setting of Carotid Atheromatous Disease with a Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery Successfully Treated with Stenting: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Moisi, Marc; Zwillman, Michael E; Volpi, John J; Diaz, Orlando; Klucznik, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Fetal brain perfusion is supplied by the primitive dorsal aorta anteriorly, longitudinal neural arteries posteriorly, and anastomotic transverse segmentals. Most notable of these connections are the primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal arteries. With cranial-cervical circulatory maturation and development of the posterior communicating segments and vertebro-basilar system, these primitive segmental anastomoses normally regress. Anomalous neurovascular development can result in persistence of these anastomoses. Due to its territory of perfusion, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is associated with vertebral artery and posterior communicating artery hypoplasia or aplasia. As a consequence, primary blood supply to the hindbrain comes chiefly from this single artery. Although usually clinically silent, PPHA is susceptible to common cerebrovascular disorders including athero-ischemic disease and saccular aneurysmal dilation to name a few. We present a case of transient ischemic attack in a patient with a PPHA and proximal atherosclerotic disease treated by endovascular stenting. PMID:26929891

  2. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  4. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  5. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates. PMID:26419477

  6. Health Care Associated Hematogenous Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis. Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987–1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000–2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases. Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05). Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  7. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in metatherians and monotremes with non-human eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of the internal diameters of cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) and the aorta in developing non-human eutherians, metatherians and monotremes has been made, with the aim of determining if there are differences in cerebral arterial flow between the three infraclasses of mammals such as might reflect differences in metabolism of the developing brain. There were no significant differences between eutherians and metatherians in the internal radius of the aorta or the thickness of the aortic wall, but aortic internal radius was significantly smaller in developing monotremes than therians at the < 10 mm body length range. Aortic thickness in the developing monotremes also rose at a slower rate relative to body length than in metatherians or eutherians. The sums of the internal calibres of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries were significantly lower in metatherians as a group and monotremes compared with non-human eutherians at body lengths up to 20 mm and in metatherians at > 20 mm body length. The internal calibre of the internal carotids relative to the sum of all cerebral feeder arteries was also significantly lower in monotremes at < 10 mm body length compared with eutherians. It was noted that dasyurids differed from other metatherians in several measures of cerebral arterial calibre and aortic internal calibre. The findings suggest that: (i) both aortic outflow and cerebral arterial inflow may be lower in developing monotremes than in therians, particularly at small body size (< 20 mm); (ii) cerebral inflow may be lower in some developing metatherians than non-human eutherians; and (iii) dasyurids have unusual features of cerebral arteries possibly related to the extreme immaturity and small size at which they are born. The findings have implications for nutritional sourcing of the developing brain in the three infraclasses of mammals. PMID:26644330

  8. Morphological Assessment of Cadaveric Radial, Brachial and Subclavian Arteries: A Neurointerventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ali; Ozkul, Ayca; Shin, Dong Seong; Im, Soo-Bin; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transradial catheterization (TRC) is becoming widespread, primarily for neurointerventions. Therefore, the evaluation of radial artery puncture in clinical practice and a better understanding of the anatomy are important to improve the safety of neuroendovascular surgery. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult Korean cadavers were dissected to expose radial artery (RA), brachial artery (BrA) and subclvian artery (ScA), bilaterally. Vessel lengths and diameters were meaured using a caliper and distance between the specific point of vessels and the anatomical landmarks including the radial styloid process, the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the sternoclavicular joint, and the vertebral artery orifice were also measured. Results The average length between the radial (RAPS) and the BrA puncture sites (BrAPS) and between the vertebral artery orifice (VAO) and the BrA bifurcation (BrAB) did not differ between sides (p>0.05). The average length between the radial styloid process (RSP) and the RAPS was 13.41±2.19 mm, and the RSP was 26.85±2.47 mm from the median nerve (MN). The mean length between the medial epicondyle (ME) and the BrAPS as 44.23±5.47 mm, whereas the distance between the ME and the MN was 42.23±4.77 mm. The average VAO-ScA angle was 70.94±6.12°, and the length between the ScA junction (SCJ) and the VAO was 60.30±8.48 mm. Conclusion This study provides basic anatomical information about the radial artery and the brachial route and can help improving new techniques, selection of size and shape of catheters for TRC. This can help neurointerventionists who adopt a transradial neuroendovascular approach and offers comprehensive and safe care to their patients. PMID:26819682

  9. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Al-Fares, Fatin; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation.

  10. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  11. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... angioplasty (AN-gee-oh-plas-tee), also called balloon angioplasty , a narrow tube with a balloon attached is inserted and threaded into an artery. Then the balloon is inflated, opening the narrowed artery. Awire tube, ...

  12. Effect of Denosumab Administration on Lumbar Vertebral Strength of Patients with Vertebral Bony Metastases: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Wakao, Norimitsu; Murotani, Kenta; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Sato, Keiji; Deie, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of administration of denosumab (antibody against tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11) as a preventative therapy for skeletal-related events (SREs), such as fracture or paralysis, by computed-tomography (CT)-based on the finite element method (FEM). Patients who had undergone treatment for vertebral metastases with denosumab administration from December 2013 to August 2015 at our Institution were reviewed. We investigated patient data at the time before denosumab administration and at 1, 3 and 6 months using CT. A total of six patients were eligible; four males and two females, with ages ranging from 35 to 73 years, with a mean age of 56 years. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant increase (p=0.0055, F=10.67). To our knowledge, this is the first article to substantiate the effects of the SRE-preventative drug denosumab. PMID:26976994

  13. High Serum SHBG Predicts Incident Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Kwok, Timothy; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-03-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow-up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X-rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow-up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91-1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age-adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12-1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26391196

  14. High Serum SHBG Predicts Incident Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund‐Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi‐Xiang; Kwok, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow‐up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X‐rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow‐up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91–1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age‐adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12–1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26391196

  15. [A case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pulmonary infection with vertebral osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Asuka; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Matsutake, Toyoji; Soejima, Yoshifumi; Naito, Shinji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-09-01

    A 78-year-old woman seen in June 2005 for chest abnormal shadows after 3 months of steroid therapy for vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies was found in chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bronchiectasis and small nodules in the right middle lobe and left lingula. Sputum cultures were positive for Mycobacterium intracellulare. Based on a diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the woman underwent antimycobacterial therapy with clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 months. She was then admitted in June 2009 with right chest pain. Chest CT showed consolidation shadows with bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe and the left lingula and left pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that Th7-Th8 vertebral bodies had collapsed. A vertebral body specimen obtained by CT-guided biopsy was positive for M. intracellulare. Based on a diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis due to M. intracellulare, she underwent antimycobacterial therapy with clarithromycin (800 mg), rifampicin (450 mg), ethambutol hydrochloride (750 mg), and streptomycin (750 mg). After 4 weeks of antimycobacterial therapy, she underwent radical debridement and decompression surgery with anterior and posterior spinal fusion. Four weeks postoperatively, streptomycin was discontinued. We continued clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol hydrochloride for 18 months, and no recurrence was detected. Although vertebral osteomyelitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria is rare, clinicians should consider the combination of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis and vertebral osteomyelitis in cases such at these. PMID:22117384

  16. Amines from vertebrates guide triatomine bugs to resources.

    PubMed

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Guerin, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Most triatomine bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are nest-living insects that require vertebrate blood or invertebrate haemolymph to complete their life cycle. Vertebrates accumulate excretory products in or near their nesting sites and we hypothesize that triatomines use emanations from such host wastes when searching for resources. Here we recount how triatomine bugs increase upwind locomotion on a servosphere in response to volatile amine constituents of vertebrate excretions. Fresh chicken faeces is strongly attractive to Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. Ammonia induces attraction and an increase in both speed and total path length by R. prolixus on the servosphere. Whereas ethylamine and dimethylamine attract R. prolixus, Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus geniculatus, other amine constituents of vertebrate excretions such as isobutylamine and hexylamine induce R. prolixus nymphs to walk faster and for a longer period. These amines are derived from generally occurring metabolites of vertebrates and from gut flora metabolism. We conclude that amines and other products associated with nesting hosts serve as signals for foraging triatomines. PMID:25260571

  17. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. PMID:26874222

  18. Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling.

    PubMed

    Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

  19. Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

  20. Evolution and ecology of retinal photoreception in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P

    2010-01-01

    Visual ecology or the relationship between the visual system of an animal and its environment has proven to be a crucial research field for establishing general concepts of adaptation, specialization and evolution. The visual neuroscientist is indeed confronted with a plethora of different visual characteristics, each seemingly optimised for each species' ecological niche, but often without a clear understanding of the evolutionary constraints at play. However, before we are able to fully understand the influence(s) of ecology and phylogeny on visual system design in vertebrates, it is first necessary to understand the basic bauplan of key representatives of each taxa. This review examines photoreception in hagfishes, lampreys, cartilaginous fishes and lungfishes with an eye to their ecology using a range of neurobiological methods including anatomy, microspectrophotometry and molecular genetics. These early vertebrates represent critical stages in evolution and surprisingly possess a level of visual complexity that is almost unrivalled in other vertebrates. PMID:20733293

  1. GONAD MORPHOGENESIS IN VERTEBRATES: DIVERGENT MEANS TO A CONVERGENT END

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    A critical element of successful sexual reproduction is the generation of sexually dimorphic adult reproductive organs, the testis and ovary, which produce functional gametes. The examination of different vertebrate species shows that the adult gonad is remarkably similar in its morphology across different phylogenetic classes. Surprisingly, however, the cellular and molecular programs employed to create similar organs are not evolutionarily conserved. We highlight the mechanisms used by different vertebrate model systems to generate the somatic architecture necessary to support gametogenesis. In addition, we examine the different vertebrate patterns of germ cell migration from their site of origin to colonize the gonad, and highlight their roles in sex-specific morphogenesis. We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology. PMID:19807280

  2. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  3. Conserved and Divergent Patterns of DNA Methylation in Higher Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a “global” methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called “CpG islands.” Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

  4. Active DNA demethylation at enhancers during the vertebrate phylotypic period.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Smits, Arne H; de la Calle Mustienes, Elisa; Tena, Juan J; Ford, Ethan; Williams, Ruth; Senanayake, Upeka; Schultz, Matthew D; Hontelez, Saartje; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Rayon, Teresa; Gnerlich, Felix; Carell, Thomas; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Manzanares, Miguel; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ecker, Joseph R; Vermeulen, Michiel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Lister, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage. However, the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis and mouse. These enhancers are linked to developmental genes that display coordinated transcriptional and epigenomic changes in the diverse vertebrates during embryogenesis. Binding of Tet proteins to (hydroxy)methylated DNA and enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in these regions implicated active DNA demethylation in this process. Furthermore, loss of function of Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3 in zebrafish reduced chromatin accessibility and increased methylation levels specifically at these enhancers, indicative of DNA methylation being an upstream regulator of phylotypic enhancer function. Overall, our study highlights a regulatory module associated with the most conserved phase of vertebrate embryogenesis and suggests an ancient developmental role for Tet dioxygenases. PMID:26928226

  5. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  6. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

  7. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. PMID:26476056

  8. Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25084791

  9. A comparative view of regenerative neurogenesis in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Alunni, Alessandro; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2016-01-01

    In all vertebrate species studied thus far, the adult central nervous system harbors neural stem cells that sustain constitutive neurogenesis, as well as latent neural progenitors that can be awakened in lesional contexts. In spite of this common theme, many species differ dramatically in their ability to recruit constitutive progenitors, to awaken latent progenitors, or to enhance or bias neural progenitor fate to achieve successful neuronal repair. This Review summarizes the striking similarities in the essential molecular and cellular properties of adult neural stem cells between different vertebrate species, both under physiological and reparative conditions. It also emphasizes the differences in the reparative process across evolution and how the study of non-mammalian models can provide insights into both basic neural stem cell properties and stimulatory cues shared between vertebrates, and subsequent neurogenic events, which are abortive under reparative conditions in mammals. PMID:26932669

  10. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C

    2015-07-21

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  11. Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

    2014-04-01

    Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

  12. Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.

    PubMed

    Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

  13. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Yost, H Joseph

    2015-10-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development. PMID:26487777

  14. Quantification of Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Content using 3 Tesla MR spectroscopy: Reproducibility, Vertebral Variation and Applications in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; Kuo, Daniel; Schafer, Anne L.; Porzig, Anne; Link, Thomas M.; Black, Dennis; Schwartz, Ann V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reproducibility of proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for assessing vertebral bone marrow adiposity at 3 Tesla (T); to evaluate variation of marrow adiposity at different vertebral levels; and to demonstrate the feasibility of using 1H-MRS at 3 T for evaluating marrow adiposity in subjects with low bone density. Materials and Methods Single voxel MRS was acquired at vertebral body L1 to L4 at 3 T in 51 post-menopausal females including healthy controls (n = 13) and patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia (n = 38). Marrow fat contents were compared between vertebral levels and between groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Six subjects were scanned twice to evaluate technique reproducibility. Results The average coefficient of variation of vertebral marrow fat content quantification was 1.7%. Marrow fat content significantly increased from L1 to L4. The average fat content was significantly elevated in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and in patients with diabetes compared to controls, adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05). Conclusions In vivo MRS at high field strength provides reliable measurement of marrow adiposity with excellent reproducibility and can be a valuable tool for providing complementary information on bone quality and potentially also fracture risk. PMID:21448966

  15. [Arterial disobliteration by the laser].

    PubMed

    Geschwind, H; Teisseire, B; Boussignac, G; Benhaiem, N; Vieilledent, C; Laurent, D

    1985-06-01

    In order to determine the optimal conditions for disobliteration of occluded arteries without damaging the arterial wall, the effects of a Nd-YAG laser connected to a 0.2 mm diameter fibre optic system were studied on post-mortem coronary arteries and popliteal and tibial arteries of amputated limbs. Vaporisation of atheromatous plaques was consistently obtained with energies of 300 to 600 joules associated with perfusion of the vessel with dilated blood (3 g/100 ml of haemoglobin) at a flow rate of 20 ml/min. Protection of the arterial wall was ensured by introducing the fibre aortic system through a balloon catheter and by cooling with the perfusion liquid. The reproducibity of these results in the absence of major arterial wall damage, and the facility of manipulation of the fibre optic system due to its flexibility and narrow diameter, encouraged us to use this method clinically. The first three applications on peripheral arteries (femoral and popliteal arteries) confirmed that this method of arterial disobliteration can be used with a certain degree of efficacy with only a slight risk of arterial perforation. Further studies are essential to improve the degree of laser penetration of the arterial obstruction and to increase the diameter of the tunnel of recanalisation. PMID:3929725

  16. [Scoliosis, metabolism and growth of the vertebral column (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, H

    1976-06-18

    Modern investigators incline to the opinion, that more biochemical than biomechanical disorders take part in cause of the "idiopathic'' scolioses. It seems, however, that there is not only one cause but more in some subgroups. Idiopathic scolioses, which have symptomes of arachnodactyly, seem to be a big one of these subgroups. These cases allow to state a hypothesis, in which kind a disordered metabolism leads to a deviation of the spine. This hypothesis is basing on the fact, that the enchondral growth in the length and the periostal growth in the width of "long bones'' are not regulated in the same endocrinological kind and that the enchondral growth of the vertebral-bodies-column happens in cranio-caudal direction, the enchondral growth of the vertebral-archies-column, however, in anterior-posterior direction. If the balance between enchondral and periostal growth is disturbed, you can see typical chances on the long bones, which resemble either an "arachnodactyly" or a "chondrodysplasy". The same disturbance will cause a "kyphosis" respectively a "lordosis" (or scoliosis) on the vertebral spine; either the bodies-column or the archies-column will become longer (higher). The results of metabolism research are suitable to these facts. If the balance between enchondral and periostal growth,--basing on a dysbolism,--is disturbed in such a kind, that the vertebral-bodies-column is growing faster than the vertebral-archies-column, the vertebral spine is forced to change into a lordosis respectively into a scoliosis. If you want to cure an idiopathic scoliosis, you first have to remove or to paralyse the dysbolism. The aim of all research has to be to find an effective chemotherapeutical treatment of mindst a part of all idiopathic scolioses. PMID:779736

  17. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52) and union (n = 43) players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23), T9 (n = 18) and T10 (n = 21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  18. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  19. Does hair cell differentiation predate the vertebrate appearance?

    PubMed

    Burighel, Paolo; Caicci, Federico; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Gasparini, Fabio; Degasperi, Valentina; Manni, Lucia

    2008-03-18

    It is generally accepted that the three main chordate groups (tunicates, cephalochordates and vertebrates) originated from a common ancestor having the basic features of the chordate body plan, i.e. a neural tube and a notochord flanked by striated musculature. There is now increasing evidence that tunicates, rather than cephalochordates, are the vertebrate sister-group. Correlated with this, tunicates have sensory structures similar to those derived from placodes or neural crest in vertebrates. In this context, we discuss here whether the precursors of vertebrate hair cells, which are placodal in origin, were present in ancestral chordates. The ascidian tunicates possess a coronal organ, consisting of a row of mechanosensory cells that runs around the base of the oral siphon. Its function is to monitor the incoming water flow. The cells are secondary sensory cells, i.e. they lack axons and synapse with neurons whose somata lie in the cerebral ganglion. They are accompanied by supporting cells and, as in vertebrates, have varying morphologies in the species so far examined: in one order (Enterogona), they are multiciliate; in the other (Pleurogona), they may possess an apical apparatus, consisting of one or two cilia accompanied by stereovilli, that are graded in length. Coronal cells thus resemble vertebrate hair cells closely in their morphology, embryonic origin and arrangement, which suggests they originated early in ancestral chordates. We are continuing our study of the coronal organ in other ascidian species, and report new data here on Botrylloides leachi, which conforms with the pattern of Pleurogona and, in particular, with previously published results on other botryllid ascidians. PMID:18331894

  20. Function-structure relationship of elastic arteries in evolution: from microfibrils to elastin and elastic fibres.

    PubMed

    Faury, G

    2001-05-01

    Evolution of species has led to the appearance of circulatory systems including blood vessels and one or more pulsatile pumps, typically resulting in a low-pressurised open circulation in most invertebrates and a high-pressurised closed circulation in vertebrates. In both open and closed circulations, the large elastic arteries proximal to the heart damp out the pulsatile flow and blood pressure delivered by the heart, in order to limit distal shear stress and to allow regular irrigation of downstream organs. To achieve this goal, networks of resilient and stiff proteins adapted to each situation--i.e. low or high blood pressure--have been developed in the arterial wall to provide it with non-linear elasticity. In the low-pressurised circulation of some invertebrates, the mechanical properties of arteries can almost be entirely microfibril-based, whereas, in high-pressurised circulations, they are due to an interplay between a highly resilient protein, an elastomer in the octopus and elastin in most vertebrates, and the rather stiff protein collagen. In vertebrate development, elastin is incorporated in elastic fibres, on a earlier deposited scaffold of microfibrils. The elastic fibres are then arranged in functional concentric elastic lamellae and, with the smooth muscle cells, lamellar units. The microfibrils may also play a direct functional role in all mature arteries of high- and low-pressurised circulations. Finally, since blood pressure regularly increases with developmental stages, it appears possible that the early deposition of microfibrils, which are highly-conserved in evolution, corresponds, at least in part, to an early microfibril-driven elasticity in low-pressurised arteries, present across species. In vertebrates, when pressure developmentally rises above a threshold value, the vascular wall stress may turn on the expression of other resilient protein genes, including the elastin gene. Elastin would then be deposited on microfibrils and resulting in the elastic fibre network and elastic lamellae whose mechanical properties are adapted to allow for proper arterial work at higher pressures. PMID:11428167

  1. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Brauner, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  2. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  3. Cyclostome studies in the context of vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    McCauley, David W; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-10-01

    The proceedings in this volume follow from the 15(th) Center for Developmental Biology meeting on "Advances in Cyclostome Research" that we organized. The meeting was held at the CDB RIKEN Kobe Institute on 24 and 25 January 2008 with support from the CDB. Jawless vertebrates have been of interest to embryologists and comparative morphologists for more than a century. While the comparative morphology among lampreys, hagfishes, and gnathostomes has long been recognized in contributing to understanding the origin of jaws and other gnathostome traits, the availability of modern molecular methods has rekindled interest in these topics, and evolutionary developmental biology coupled with paleontology has opened new avenues into the study of gnathostome origins. Within the last decade, because of renewed interest in evolutionary developmental biology, the importance of lampreys and hagfishes to our understanding of vertebrate evolution has undergone resurgence in interest, as evidenced by the sea lamprey genome project currently underway at the National Human Genome Research Institute. As new molecular and imaging techniques become available, both paleontological and neontological questions are being readdressed and are providing new insights and speculation into vertebrate evolution. Thus, we determined the timing was optimal to bring together many of the researchers currently contributing to our understanding of the biology of agnathans. The diversity of speakers at the meeting included evolutionary developmental biologists, phylogenetics and genomics investigators, paleontologists, and endocrinology researchers, because as we move into the 21(st) century, integration among these disciplines has encouraged synergistic activities to develop. The goal of this meeting was to highlight in a single setting the most recent advances in this important basal group of vertebrates to facilitate interactions among the cyclostome community. Secondarily, we also hope that this gathering will enhance the visibility of jawless vertebrates as important models in the vertebrate "evo-devo" community. Several topics for further discussion emerged at this symposium, including: genomic data that have spurred renewed interest in gene duplications and their contribution to our understanding of cyclostome phylogeny and vertebrate evolution; the use of paleontology coupled with modern imaging techniques to clarify vertebrate phylogeny; and the evolution of the neuroendocrine and adaptive immune systems. These were among the topics that led to fruitful discussion. Here we summarize key research topics from the symposium that continue to advance as we move forward in the 21(st) century. PMID:19267629

  4. Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

    2010-05-01

    Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

  5. Continuum theory of gene expression waves during vertebrate segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörg, David J.; Morelli, Luis G.; Soroldoni, Daniele; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The segmentation of the vertebrate body plan during embryonic development is a rhythmic and sequential process governed by genetic oscillations. These genetic oscillations give rise to traveling waves of gene expression in the segmenting tissue. Here we present a minimal continuum theory of vertebrate segmentation that captures the key principles governing the dynamic patterns of gene expression including the effects of shortening of the oscillating tissue. We show that our theory can quantitatively account for the key features of segmentation observed in zebrafish, in particular the shape of the wave patterns, the period of segmentation and the segment length as a function of time.

  6. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:20381650

  7. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  8. The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2015-04-23

    Fossils of early gnathostomes (or jawed vertebrates) have been the focus of study for nearly two centuries. They yield key clues about the evolutionary assembly of the group's common body plan, as well the divergence of the two living gnathostome lineages: the cartilaginous and bony vertebrates. A series of remarkable new palaeontological discoveries, analytical advances and innovative reinterpretations of existing fossil archives have fundamentally altered a decades-old consensus on the relationships of extinct gnathostomes, delivering a new evolutionary framework for exploring major questions that remain unanswered, including the origin of jaws. PMID:25903631

  9. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. PMID:26944489

  10. Kyphoplasty for Vertebral Augmentation in the Elderly With Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Scenarios and Review of Recent Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bednar, Timothy; Heyde, Christoph E.; Bednar, Grace; Nguyen, David; Volpi, Elena; Przkora, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis are among the most common fractures in the elderly. The treatment focuses on pain control, maintenance of independence, and management of the osteoporosis. Elderly patients often encounter adverse effects to pain medications, do not tolerate bed rest, and are not ideal candidates for invasive spinal reconstructive surgery. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) has become popular as a less-invasive alternative. However, studies have questioned the effectiveness of these procedures. Methods The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using relevant search terms including osteoporosis, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, elderly, kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Case summary/Results Two elderly patients presented with a fracture of their third and first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. One patient progressed well with conservative treatment, whereas the other patient was hospitalized secondary to pain after conservative measures failed to offer improvement. The hospitalized patient subsequently opted for a kyphoplasty and was able to resume his normal daily activities after the procedure. Conclusions Selecting patients on an individual case-by-case basis can optimize the effectiveness and outcomes of a vertebral augmentation. This process includes the documentation of an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with the aide of imaging studies, including the acuity of the fracture as well as the correlation with the physical examination findings. Patients who are functional and improving under a conservative regimen are not candidates for kyphoplasty. However, if the conservative management is not successful after 4 to 6 weeks and the patient is at risk to become bedridden, an augmentation should be considered. A kyphoplasty procedure may be preferred over vertebroplasty, given the lower risk profile and better outcomes regarding spinal alignment. PMID:24139093

  11. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Katie; Radwan, Rami; Shingler, Guy; Davies, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an elderly man who presented with an upper arm swelling that had developed following a humeral fracture 8 months previously. The swelling was painless but associated with significantly diminished motor function of his right hand and concurrent paraesthaesia. On examination, a large pulsatile mass was identified and CT angiography confirmed the presence of an 11×7 cm brachial artery pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent surgical repair in which a fragment of the humerus was found to have punctured the brachial artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative period and was discharged 2 days later having regained some motor function in his right hand. PMID:24859555

  12. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  13. Renal-Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Lance D.; Cooper, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old former smoker with a history of hypertension and dyslipidemia presents to the emergency department with shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/75 mm Hg, heart rate 60 beats per minute, and respiratory rate 24 breaths per minute. Chest auscultation reveals diffuse rales, and there is 1+ pitting edema. The serum creatinine level is 1.4 mg per deciliter (124 µmol per liter) (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 52 ml per minute), and urinalysis shows 1+ protein. His condition improves after treatment with intravenous diuretics, but his systolic blood pressure remains elevated, at 170 mm Hg. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) reveals a diseased aorta, a high-grade ostial lesion of the left renal artery that is consistent with atherosclerotic stenosis, and a normal right renal artery. How should he be further evaluated and treated? PMID:19907044

  14. [Renal artery angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Pisco, J M; dos Santos, M O; Carvalheiro, V M; Pego, G M; Martins, J M; Baptista, A M; Garcia, V; Ramos, H V

    1992-05-01

    In the 59 hypertensive patients submitted to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the renal artery, there was an immediate success in the blood pressure in 91.5% and a later one of 79.6%. In these patients we obtained better results: 81.4% in the unilateral lesions, more than in the bilateral ones--72.7%; 82.5% in the renal artery trunk lesions, more than in the ostium ones--71.4%; 88.9% in the lesions of fibromuscular origin, more than in the aterosclerotic ones--75%; 84.4% in up to 55 years old patients, more than in older ones--71.4%. These differences were not significant. The results of renal angioplasty in renovascular hypertension suggest this type of intervention as an alternative treatment. PMID:1386957

  15. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  16. Retinal arterial macroaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rabb, M F; Gagliano, D A; Teske, M P

    1988-01-01

    Retinal arterial macroaneurysms represent a distinct clinical entity. Macroaneurysms are seen in the elderly with a marked female predominance and a strong association with hypertension and arteriosclerotic vascular changes. The classic appearance provides an easy diagnosis; however, variable presentations, such as subretinal hemorrhage, macular exudate, and epiretinal membranes can make the diagnosis difficult. The differential diagnosis of retinal arterial macroaneurysms include retinal telangiectasia, angiomatosis retinae, venous macroaneurysms, background diabetic retinopathy, and cavernous hemangioma. The clinical characteristics of the reported cases are summarized, and our series of 60 patients is presented. The natural history of most macroaneurysms is spontaneous involution without loss of vision. However, visual loss may occur secondary to macular edema, exudate, hemorrhage and neurosensory retinal detachment, and photocoagulation may expedite visual recovery. Photocoagulation treatment may be applied directly to the macroaneurysm, indirectly by surrounding the macroaneurysm, or as a combination of these two methods. PMID:3055391

  17. The clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and the prevention of new vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weifeng; Jia, Yongwei; Wang, Jianjie; Cheng, Liming; Zeng, Zhili; Yu, Yan; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical effect of percutaneous kyphoplasty and the precautions against adjacent vertebral refractures in the treatment of multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) with multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from July 2007 to December 2013 treated with percutaneous kyphoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. 36 cases of them suffered from bi-segment vertebral fractures, 16 cases with tri-segment vertebral fractures and 2 cases with quadri-segment vertebral fractures. The operative effect was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) score and oswestry disability index (ODI) score. Then the reasons for adjacent vertebral refractures were analyzed and the precautions were proposed. 54 cases (128 vertebrae) were admitted with percutaneous kyphoplasty successfully. No pulmonary embolism, spinal cord injury and other serious complications were found. The follow-up took 3-33 months with the average of 12 months. There was significant difference of VAS scores and ODI scores between pre-operation and post-operation (P<0.05). Bone cement leakage occurred in 23 vertebrae, and the incidence rate was 18.0%. 8 cases sustained adjacent vertebral refractures including 3 cases in the contiguous vertebral bodies and 5 cases in the interval vertebral bodies, and the incidence rate was 14.8%. 5 cases gained fracture healing after additional percutaneous kyphoplasty procedures while the other 3 cases were healed basically after conservative treatment for three months. In conclusion, percutaneous kyphoplasty is safe and effective to treat multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the risk of new adjacent vertebral fractures in the multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures is higher than that in the single osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Timely and proper treatment can reduce refractures. PMID:26550284

  18. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sbastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. PMID:23913504

  19. Arterial aging: pathophysiological principles.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michael F

    2007-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, prior to the introduction of the cuff sphygmomanometer, arteriosclerosis (stiffening of arteries) was recognized by clinicians and by life insurance companies as an indicator of vascular aging and cardiovascular risk, even in asymptomatic individuals. Through the twentieth century, views on aging came to focus on values of systolic and diastolic pressure and on obstructive atherosclerotic disease. Such focus deflected attention from the primary aging change which occurs in all societies, and is represented by stiffening and dilation of the proximal aorta. This review emphasizes the cushioning function of elastic arteries - principally the aorta - and how in youth this results in optimal interaction with the heart, and optimal steady flow through peripheral resistance vessels. Aortic stiffening with age is principally due to fatigue and fracture of elastin lamellae, with transfer of stress to stiffer collagenous components. Stiffening increases left ventricular load and myocardial blood requirement, but limits the capacity for blood supply during diastole. Consequences are cardiac failure and predisposition to ischaemia. The second, under-appreciated effect of aortic stiffening is transmission of flow pulsations downstream into vasodilated organs, principally brain and kidney, where pulsatile energy is dissipated and fragile microvessels are damaged. This accounts for micro infarcts and microhaemorrhages, with specialized cell damage, cognitive decline and renal failure. The aging process can be best monitored by change in the arterial pressure wave rather than by reliance on the cuff sphygmomanometer. This reintroduces the approaches by clinicians and life insurance examiners of the nineteenth century, endorses modern treatments for established disease, and holds the promise of detecting premature arterial degeneration, and better applying lifestyle measures and vasoactive medications to modify the aging process. PMID:18048471

  20. Robotic coronary artery bypass for aberrant right coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Teefy, Patrick; Kiaii, Bob; Vezina, William C; Chu, Michael Wa

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries that course between the aorta and pulmonary artery are subject to compressive forces and can manifest angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. The current report presents a young, female patient who presented with a short duration of severe, rapidly progressive angina despite optimal medical therapy. Combined computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scanning identified an anomalous dominant right coronary artery that appeared kinked at its origin between the aorta and main pulmonary artery. A robot-assisted right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery bypass was performed, which was confirmed to be widely patent (FitzGibbon grade A) on routine intraoperative angiography. The procedure completely resolved the patient's angina symptoms. PMID:20931103

  1. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. Case Description: The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent right interfascial pterional craniotomy, with anterior temporal approach. The aneurysm was successfully clipped with the preservation of both the PCoA and the thalamoperforating artery. Conclusion: We speculated that blood flow into the PCoA gradually increased after occlusion of the left vertebral artery, which induced tortuosity of the PCoA. As a result, hemodynamic stress might increase near the curvature and cause aneurysm formation. PMID:26110082

  2. The origin of the myelination program in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zalc, B; Goujet, D; Colman, D

    2008-06-24

    The myelin sheath was a transformative vertebrate acquisition, enabling great increases in impulse propagation velocity along axons. Not all vertebrates possess myelinated axons, however, and when myelin first appeared in the vertebrate lineage is an important open question. It has been suggested that the dual, apparently unrelated acquisitions of myelin and the hinged jaw were actually coupled in evolution [1,2]. If so, it would be expected that myelin was first acquired during the Devonian period by the oldest jawed fish, the placoderms [3]. Although myelin itself is not retained in the fossil record, within the skulls of fossilized Paleozoic vertebrate fish are exquisitely preserved imprints of cranial nerves and the foramina they traversed. Examination of these structures now suggests how the nerves functioned in vivo. In placoderms, the first hinge-jawed fish, oculomotor nerve diameters remained constant, but nerve lengths were ten times longer than in the jawless osteostraci. We infer that to accommodate this ten-fold increase in length, while maintaining a constant diameter, the oculomotor system in placoderms must have been myelinated to function as a rapidly conducting motor pathway. Placoderms were the first fish with hinged jaws and some can grow to formidable lengths, requiring a rapid conduction system, so it is highly likely that they were the first organisms with myelinated axons in the craniate lineage. PMID:18579089

  3. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED...

  4. Shifted magnetic alignment in vertebrates: Evidence for neural lateralization?

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E Pascal; Painter, Michael S; Landler, Lukas

    2016-06-21

    A wealth of evidence provides support for magnetic alignment (MA) behavior in a variety of disparate species within the animal kingdom, in which an animal, or a group of animals, show a tendency to align the body axis in a consistent orientation relative to the geomagnetic field lines. Interestingly, among vertebrates, MA typically coincides with the north-south magnetic axis, however, the mean directional preferences of an individual or group of organisms is often rotated clockwise from the north-south axis. We hypothesize that this shift is not a coincidence, and future studies of this subtle, yet consistent phenomenon may help to reveal some properties of the underlying sensory or processing mechanisms, that, to date, are not well understood. Furthermore, characterizing the fine structure exhibited in MA behaviors may provide key insights to the biophysical substrates mediating magnetoreception in vertebrates. Therefore, in order to determine if a consistent shift is exhibited in taxonomically diverse vertebrates, we performed a meta-analysis on published MA datasets from 23 vertebrate species that exhibited an axial north-south preference. This analysis revealed a significant clockwise shift from the north-south magnetic axis. We summarize and discuss possible competing hypotheses regarding the proximate mechanisms underlying the clockwise shifted MA and conclude that the most likely cause of such a shift would be a lateralization in central processing of magnetic information. PMID:27059891

  5. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  6. The Vertebral Fracture Cascade: Etiology and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Broy, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    A vertebral fracture is a marker of bone fragility and is associated with a downward spiral of recurrent fractures known as the vertebral fracture cascade. Etiology of this unfortunate cascade includes bone and muscle loss from immobility, changes in spinal mechanics causing increased loading on adjacent vertebrae, and the development of an increased thoracic kyphosis (hyperkyphosis [HK]). Degenerative disc disease, common in osteoporotic patients, can also cause HK. HK of any etiology has been associated with decreased thoracic extensor muscle strength, unstable gait, increased body sway, decreased physical and pulmonary functions, chronic pain, and increased spinal loads contributing to the vertebral fracture cascade. Preventing this downward spiral requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes early identification, consideration of pharmacologic treatment, early mobilization of the fracture patient, appropriate exercise, and back protection. Exercise should include weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening activities, but caution is needed to avoid undue stress on the back. Physical therapy can be particularly helpful by teaching the patient how to safely perform daily activities and can assist the patient in establishing a safe exercise program that avoids flexion but promotes back extension and weight-bearing activities. Hopefully, these measures will decrease pain, prevent falls, improve posture, prevent additional bone and muscle loss, and potentially abort the devastating downward spiral of the vertebral fracture cascade. PMID:26363627

  7. Testing the evolutionary conservation of vocal motoneurons in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Albersheim-Carter, Jacob; Blubaum, Aleksandar; Ballagh, Irene H; Missaghi, Kianoush; Siuda, Edward R; McMurray, George; Bass, Andrew H; Dubuc, Réjean; Kelley, Darcy B; Schmidt, Marc F; Wilson, Richard J A; Gray, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    Medullary motoneurons drive vocalization in many vertebrate lineages including fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The developmental history of vocal motoneuron populations in each of these lineages remains largely unknown. The highly conserved transcription factor Paired-like Homeobox 2b (Phox2b) is presumed to be expressed in all vertebrate hindbrain branchial motoneurons, including laryngeal motoneurons essential for vocalization in humans. We used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to examine Phox2b protein and mRNA expression in caudal hindbrain and rostral spinal cord motoneuron populations in seven species across five chordate classes. Phox2b was present in motoneurons dedicated to sound production in mice and frogs (bullfrog, African clawed frog), but not those in bird (zebra finch) or bony fish (midshipman, channel catfish). Overall, the pattern of caudal medullary motoneuron Phox2b expression was conserved across vertebrates and similar to expression in sea lamprey. These observations suggest that motoneurons dedicated to sound production in vertebrates are not derived from a single developmentally or evolutionarily conserved progenitor pool. PMID:26160673

  8. NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

  9. Widespread regulatory activity of vertebrate microRNA* species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jr-Shiuan; Phillips, Michael D.; Betel, Doron; Mu, Ping; Ventura, Andrea; Siepel, Adam C.; Chen, Kevin C.; Lai, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    An obligate intermediate during microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is an ∼22-nucleotide RNA duplex, from which the mature miRNA is preferentially incorporated into a silencing complex. Its partner miRNA* species is generally regarded as a passenger RNA, whose regulatory capacity has not been systematically examined in vertebrates. Our bioinformatic analyses demonstrate that a substantial fraction of miRNA* species are stringently conserved over vertebrate evolution, collectively exhibit greatest conservation in their seed regions, and define complementary motifs whose conservation across vertebrate 3′-UTR evolution is statistically significant. Functional tests of 22 miRNA expression constructs revealed that a majority could repress both miRNA and miRNA* perfect match reporters, and the ratio of miRNA:miRNA* sensor repression was correlated with the endogenous ratio of miRNA:miRNA* reads. Analysis of microarray data provided transcriptome-wide evidence for the regulation of seed-matched targets for both mature and star strand species of several miRNAs relevant to oncogenesis, including mir-17, mir-34a, and mir-19. Finally, 3′-UTR sensor assays and mutagenesis tests confirmed direct repression of five miR-19* targets via star seed sites. Overall, our data demonstrate that miRNA* species have demonstrable impact on vertebrate regulatory networks and should be taken into account in studies of miRNA functions and their contribution to disease states. PMID:21177881

  10. Interpreting indices of physiological stress in free-living vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D; Lill, Alan

    2012-10-01

    When vertebrate physiological ecologists use the terms 'stress' or 'physiological stress', they typically mean the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activation. Measurements of stress hormone concentrations (e.g. glucocorticoids in blood, urine or faeces), leukocytes (e.g. the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio or heterophil equivalent), immunofunction (e.g. innate, cell-mediated or humoral immunity measures) and regenerative anaemia (e.g. mean erythrocyte volume and red blood cell distribution width) have all been used to estimate HPA-axis activity in free-living vertebrates. Stress metrics have provided insights into aspects of autecology or population regulation that could not have been easily obtained using other indices of population wellbeing, such as body condition or relative abundance. However, short- and long-term stress (often problematically termed acute and chronic stress, respectively) can interact in unpredictable ways. When animals experience trapping and handling stress before blood, faeces and/or urine is sampled, the interaction of short- and long-term stress can confound interpretation of the data, a fact not always acknowledged in studies of stress in free-living vertebrates. This review examines how stress metrics can be confounded when estimates of HPA-axis activation are collected for free-living vertebrates and outlines some approaches that can be used to help circumvent the influence of potentially confounding factors. PMID:22415475

  11. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra. PMID:26588498

  12. Conserved restriction sites within the ribosomal RNA genes of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tanhauser, S M; Hauswirth, W W; Laipis, P J

    1986-02-24

    We have mapped the cleavage sites of four restriction enzymes which recognize six-base sequences within the nuclear ribosomal (rRNA) genes of twelve vertebrates, including several placental mammals (Homo sapiens, man; Bos taurus, cow; Equus caballus, horse; Sus scofra, pig; Ovis aries, sheep; Rattus rattus, rat), a marsupial (Didelphis marsupialis, opossum), a bird (Gallus domesticus, chicken), an amphibian (Xenopus laevis), a reptile (Alligator mississipiensis), a bony fish (Cynoscion nebulosus, sea trout), and a cartilagenous fish (Carcharhinus species, requiem shark). These animals represent a span of approx. 400 million years of evolutionary divergence. Our data identify restriction sites in the rRNA genes which are highly conserved among higher vertebrates and therefore are likely to be in functionally important regions. Additionally, the restriction enzyme sites identified will be useful in cloning and sequencing the rRNA genes in any vertebrate. Finally, the consistent size and conserved sequence homology suggests that these rRNA gene segments will be useful as internal controls in hybridization experiments involving other genomic regions in vertebrates. PMID:3004584

  13. A multidimensional approach for detecting species patterns in Malagasy vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Anne D.; Olson, Link E.; Hanley, Carol; Heckman, Kellie L.; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Russell, Amy L.; Ranivo, Julie; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Karanth, K. Praveen; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The biodiversity of Madagascar is extraordinarily distinctive, diverse, and endangered. It is therefore urgent that steps be taken to document, describe, interpret, and protect this exceptional biota. As a collaborative group of field and laboratory biologists, we employ a suite of methodological and analytical tools to investigate the vertebrate portion of Madagascar's fauna. Given that species are the fundamental unit of evolution, where micro- and macroevolutionary forces converge to generate biological diversity, a thorough understanding of species distribution and abundance is critical for understanding the evolutionary, ecological, and biogeographic forces that have shaped Malagasy vertebrate diversity. We illustrate the means by which we apply Mayr's “three basic tasks” of the systematist [Mayr, E. (1942) Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA)] to identify, classify, and study the organisms that together constitute Madagascar's vertebrate community. Using field inventory methods, specimen-based studies, and morphological and molecular analyses, we formulate hypotheses of species identity that then serve as the foundation for subsequent studies of biology and history. Our experience, as well as that of other investigators, has shown that much of the vertebrate species diversity in Madagascar is “cryptic” for both biological and practical reasons. Beyond issues of cryptic biological diversity, the resolution of species identity in Madagascar has been hampered because of a lack of vouchered comparative material at the population level. Through our activities, we are attempting to remedy these limitations while simultaneously enhancing research capacity in Madagascar. PMID:15851666

  14. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to coccobacilli of the HB group.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, M; Eykyn, S J; Walker, M; Warren, R E

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurred in which unusual, fastidious, Gram negative coccobacilli belonging to the "HB" group were isolated. The organisms were Haemophilus aphrophilus in case 1, intermediate between H aphrophilus and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in case 2, and Eikenella corrodens in case 3. All HB bacteria are sensitive to a wide range of antibiotics. PMID:6416539

  15. Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrate fauna, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, W.A.; Allison, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Closely related terrestrial vertebrates in Cretaceous mid-latitude (30/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/) faunas of North America and Asia as well as scattered occurrences of footprints and skin impressions suggested that in the Late Mesozoic the Alaskan North Slope supported a diverse fauna. In 1961 abundant skeletal elements of Cretaceous, Alaskan dinosaurs (hadrosaurids) were discovered by the late R.L. Liscomb. This material is being described by K.L. Davies. Additional fossils collected by E.M. Brouwers and her associates include skeletal elements of hadrosaurid and carnosaurian (.tyrannosaurid) dinosaurs and other vertebrates. The fossil locality on the North Slope is not at about 70/sup 0/N. In the Late Cretaceous the members of this fauna were subject to the daylight regime and environment at a paleolatitude closer to 80/sup 0/N. Current hypotheses attributing extinctions of dinosaurs and some other terrestrial vertebrates to impact of an extraterrestrial object cite periods of darkness, decreased temperature (possibly followed by extreme warming) and acid rain as the direct causes of their demise. Unless members of this North Slope fauna undertook long-distance migrations, their high latitude occurrence indicates groups of dinosaurs and other terrestrial vertebrates regularly tolerated months of darkness.

  16. [Revision surgery after implantation of a vertebral disc prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Hopf, C

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the revisability of surgery after the endoprosthetic replacement of vertebral discs shows that the surgical approach depends on the time of revision surgery and the reason why it is carried out. Our experience is based on nine revision operations out of 152 cervical vertebra prostheses of the Bryan and Prodisc C types implanted from 2003 to 2007 and 312 endoprostheses of the Charité and Prodisc types implanted from 1999 to 2007. Our own results show differing approaches in perioperative or late postoperative revision operations. Operations to exchange implants were not possible, whereas a change of surgical procedure is the rule. The same access route can usually be selected in the cervical spine, but in the lumbar spine this can only be done perioperatively; if revision surgery is carried out at a later date, an alternative access route must be used. Using strict indications for the primary implant is the only way to prevent postoperative revision surgery that is due to an inaccurate primary assessment and not to the vertebral endoprosthesis (e.g. post-discotomy syndrome, facet joint arthropathy, rotation instability, vertebral slip). The next generation of vertebral disc endoprostheses must incorporate reduced load of the zygapophyseal joints and improved revisability. PMID:18340432

  17. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds. PMID:24709390

  18. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  19. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Grant, Seth G N

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  20. Vertebrates that regenerate as models for guiding stem cels.

    PubMed

    Antos, Christopher L; Tanaka, Elly M

    2010-01-01

    There are several animal model organisms that have the ability to regenerate severe injuries by stimulating local cells to restore damaged and lost organs and appendages. In this chapter, we will describe how various vertebrate animals regenerate different structures (central nervous system, heart and appendages) as well as detail specific cellular and molecular features concerning the regeneration of these structures. PMID:21222207

  1. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  2. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  3. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, C; Genovesi, P; Jeschke, J M

    2016-01-27

    Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence on biodiversity, and if so, which taxonomic groups are threatened and where they are threatened. We found that centres of IAS-threatened vertebrates are concentrated in the Americas, India, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. The areas in which IAS-threatened species are located do not fully match the current hotspots of invasions, or the current hotspots of threatened species. The relative importance of biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss clearly varies across regions and taxa, and changes over time, with mammals from India, Indonesia, Australia and Europe are increasingly being threatened by IAS. The chytrid fungus primarily threatens amphibians, whereas invasive mammals primarily threaten other vertebrates. The differences in IAS threats between regions and taxa can help efficiently target IAS, which is essential for achieving the Strategic Plan 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26817767

  4. Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, Jess; Komiyama, Noboru H; McKechanie, Andrew; Johnstone, Mandy; Blackwood, Douglas H; St Clair, David; Emes, Richard D; van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Grant, Seth G N

    2013-01-01

    The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions, including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions, are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 million years ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in each of the four Dlg paralogs showed that simple associative learning required Dlg4, whereas Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to have opposing functions in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed that Dlg2's role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 million years. Dlg-family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders, suggesting that genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

  5. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  6. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  7. Trabecular rod buckling index in thoraco-lumbar vertebral bonedagger.

    PubMed

    Sutton-Smith, Peter; Parkinson, Ian H; Linn, Andrew M J; Kooke, Simone A; Fazzalari, Nicola L

    2006-01-01

    The need for improved mechanistic understanding of cancellous bone failure is at the core of important clinical problems such as osteoporosis, as well as basic biological issues such as bone formation and adaptation. Three-dimensional (3D) anaglyphs were produced from 15 T12 and L1 vertebral bodies, which encompass the adult life span in both sexes. The anaglyphs were viewed with red-green stereo glasses, using an image analyzer, and trabecular thickness and trabecular length were measured. From biomechanical principles, the strength of individual trabeculae can be estimated from measurement of trabecular rod thickness and trabecular rod length as the load to buckling index. The distribution of the load to buckling index was best described by a log normal curve. Trabecular rod thickness, trabecular rod length, and load to buckling index for males were consistently greater than for females. With aging, trabecular rod thickness, and the load to buckling index decrease for males while trabecular rod length increases for females. In this study, the load to buckling index for thoraco-lumbar vertebral trabecular rods potentially quantifies a greater risk of vertebral fracture for females. Decreased trabecular rod thickness or increased trabecular rod length result in the strength of trabeculae shifting closer to a putative fracture threshold. The corollary being that there is a reduced safety margin for resistance to mechanical loads for the vertebral bodies. The 3D anaglyph technique for measuring trabecular dimensions provides an accurate and precise methodology by which these morphological studies can be undertaken. PMID:16092135

  8. The role of accessory obturator arteries in prostatic arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Pinheiro, Luís Campos; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lúcia; Pereira, José A

    2014-06-01

    In 9 of 491 patients (1.8%) who underwent prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for benign prostatic hyperplasia from March 2009-November 2013, prostatic arteries arose from the external iliac artery via an accessory obturator artery (AOA). Computed tomography angiography performed before the procedure identified the variant and allowed planning before the procedure. The nine AOAs were catheterized from a contralateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was technically successful in the nine patients. There was a mean decrease in international prostate symptom score of 6.5 points and a mean prostate volume reduction of 15.1% (mean follow-up, 4.8 mo) in the nine patients. PMID:24857944

  9. Subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization of vertebrate Lef/Tcf transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Klingel, Susanne; Morath, Iris; Strietz, Juliane; Menzel, Katharina; Holstein, Thomas W; Gradl, Dietmar

    2012-08-01

    Invertebrates express a multitude of Wnt ligands and all Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways converge to only one nuclear Lef/Tcf. In vertebrates, however, four distinct Lef/Tcfs, i.e. Tcf-1, Lef, Tcf-3, and Tcf-4 fulfill this function. At present, it is largely unknown to what extent the various Lef/Tcfs are functionally similar or diversified in vertebrates. In particular, it is not known which domains are responsible for the Tcf subtype specific functions. We investigated the conserved and non-conserved functions of the various Tcfs by using Xenopus laevis as a model organism and testing Tcfs from Hydra magnipapillata, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In order to identify domains relevant for the individual properties we created series of chimeric constructs consisting of parts of XTcf-3, XTcf-1 and HyTcf. Rescue experiments in Xenopus morphants revealed that the three invertebrate Tcfs tested compensated the loss of distinct Xenopus Tcfs: Drosophila Tcf (Pangolin) can substitute for the loss of XTcf-1, XTcf-3 and XTcf-4. By comparison, Caenorhabditis Tcf (Pop-1) and Hydra Tcf (HyTcf) can substitute for the loss of only XTcf-3 and XTcf-4, respectively. The domain, which is responsible for subtype specific functions is the regulatory CRD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separates Tcf-1/Lef-1 from the sister group Tcf-3/4 in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that the vertebrate specific diversification of Tcfs in vertebrates resulted in subfunctionalization of a Tcf that already united most of the Lef/Tcf functions. PMID:22641013

  10. MicroRNAs and the advent of vertebrate morphological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Heimberg, Alysha M.; Sempere, Lorenzo F.; Moy, Vanessa N.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Peterson, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The causal basis of vertebrate complexity has been sought in genome duplication events (GDEs) that occurred during the emergence of vertebrates, but evidence beyond coincidence is wanting. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a viable causal factor in increasing organismal complexity through the action of these ?22-nt noncoding RNAs in regulating gene expression. Because miRNAs are continuously being added to animalian genomes, and, once integrated into a gene regulatory network, are strongly conserved in primary sequence and rarely secondarily lost, their evolutionary history can be accurately reconstructed. Here, using a combination of Northern analyses and genomic searches, we show that 41 miRNA families evolved at the base of Vertebrata, as they are found and/or detected in lamprey, but not in either ascidians or amphioxus (or any other nonchordate taxon). When placed into temporal context, the rate of miRNA acquisition and the extent of phenotypic evolution are anomalously high early in vertebrate history, far outstripping any other episode in chordate evolution. The genomic position of miRNA paralogues in humans, together with gene trees incorporating lamprey orthologues, indicates that although GDEs can account for an increase in the diversity of miRNA family members, which occurred before the last common ancestor of all living vertebrates, GDEs cannot account for the origin of these novel families themselves. We hypothesize that lying behind the origin of vertebrate complexity is the dramatic expansion of the noncoding RNA inventory including miRNAs, rather than an increase in the protein-encoding inventory caused by GDEs. PMID:18287013

  11. Cells, molecules and morphogenesis: The making of the vertebrate ear

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Pauley, Sarah; Beisel, Kirk W.

    2014-01-01

    The development and evolution of mechanosensory cells and the vertebrate ear is reviewed with an emphasis on delineating the cellular, molecular and developmental basis of these changes. Outgroup comparisons suggests that mechanosensory cells are ancient features of multicellular organisms. Molecular evidence suggests that key genes involved in mechanosensory cell function and development are also conserved among metazoans. The divergent morphology of mechanosensory cells across phyla is interpreted here as ‘deep molecular homology’ that was in parallel shaped into different forms in each lineage. The vertebrate mechanosensory hair cell and its associated neuron are interpreted as uniquely derived features of vertebrates. It is proposed that the vertebrate otic placode presents a unique embryonic adaptation in which the diffusely distributed ancestral mechanosensory cells became concentrated to generate a large neurosensory precursor population. Morphogenesis of the inner ear is reviewed and shown to depend on genes expressed in and around the hindbrain that interact with the otic placode to define boundaries and polarities. These patterning genes affect downstream genes needed to maintain proliferation and to execute ear morphogenesis. We propose that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are a crucial central node to translate patterning into the complex morphology of the vertebrate ear. Unfortunately, the FGF and FGFR genes have not been fully analyzed in the many mutants with morphogenetic ear defects described thus far. Likewise, little information exists on the ear histogenesis and neurogenesis in many mutants. Nevertheless, a molecular mechanism is now emerging for the formation of the horizontal canal, an evolutionary novelty of the gnathostome ear. The existing general module mediating vertical canal growth and morphogenesis was modified by two sets of new genes: one set responsible for horizontal canal morphogenesis and another set for neurosensory formation of the horizontal crista and associated sensory neurons. The dramatic progress in deciphering the molecular basis of ear morphogenesis offers grounds for optimism for translational research toward intervention in human morphogenetic defects of the ear. PMID:16643865

  12. Comparison of Ultra-Conserved Elements in Drosophilids and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, Igor V.; Shloma, Viktor V.; Stephen, Stuart J.; Pheasant, Michael; Belyakin, Stepan N.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan genomes contain many ultra-conserved elements (UCEs), long sequences identical between distant species. In this study we identified UCEs in drosophilid and vertebrate species with a similar level of phylogenetic divergence measured at protein-coding regions, and demonstrated that both the length and number of UCEs are larger in vertebrates. The proportion of non-exonic UCEs declines in distant drosophilids whilst an opposite trend was observed in vertebrates. We generated a set of 2,126 Sophophora UCEs by merging elements identified in several drosophila species and compared these to the eutherian UCEs identified in placental mammals. In contrast to vertebrates, the Sophophora UCEs are depleted around transcription start sites. Analysis of 52,954 P-element, piggyBac and Minos insertions in the D. melanogaster genome revealed depletion of the P-element and piggyBac insertions in and around the Sophophora UCEs. We examined eleven fly strains with transposon insertions into the intergenic UCEs and identified associated phenotypes in five strains. Four insertions behave as recessive lethals, and in one case we observed a suppression of the marker gene within the transgene, presumably by silenced chromatin around the integration site. To confirm the lethality is caused by integration of transposons we performed a phenotype rescue experiment for two stocks and demonstrated that the excision of the transposons from the intergenic UCEs restores viability. Sequencing of DNA after the transposon excision in one fly strain with the restored viability revealed a 47 bp insertion at the original transposon integration site suggesting that the nature of the mutation is important for the appearance of the phenotype. Our results suggest that the UCEs in flies and vertebrates have both common and distinct features, and demonstrate that a significant proportion of intergenic drosophila UCEs are sensitive to disruption. PMID:24349264

  13. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  14. Carotid artery dissection following adenoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Singh, Yeeshu; Singh, Pankaj; Goel, Gaurav; Bhuyan, Susant

    2016-03-01

    Carotid dissection and cerebral infarction are extremely rare complications of adenoidectomy. We describe the case of seven year old girl, who suffered from left internal carotid artery dissection following adenoidectomy, leading to right hemiplegia with global aphasia. A CT angiogram confirmed a loop in contralateral right internal carotid artery. It is presumed that a similar loop also existed in left internal carotid artery, which possibly extended medially close to posterior pharyngeal wall and was injured during the course of surgery. PMID:26857324

  15. Management of tracheoinnominate artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Wright, C D

    1996-11-01

    TIF is a rare and often fatal complication of tracheostomy. Bleeding from the trachea after tracheostomy demands urgent investigation. Bronchoscopy is the diagnostic procedure of choice. Bedside control of hemorrhage by cuff overinflation or digital arterial compression can be lifesaving. Prompt operation with division of the innominate artery and separation of the trachea from the divided artery by viable tissue is indicated. Neurologic complications are rare. PMID:8934014

  16. Diagnosis and Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistulas in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Y.; Goto, K.; Ogata, N.; Uda, K.

    2000-01-01

    Summary We present diagnostic problems, strategies, techniques and material selection for endovascular treatment of high flow arteriovenous fistula (ΛVF) of tortuous and fragile vertebral artery (VA) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Diagnosis of NF1 was easy in four of our cases because of neurofibromatosis, skin pigmentation and various skeletal abnormalities. These stigmas of NF1 were lacking in one case, and the only clue to the diagnosis was ovoid bone defects of the skull vault. Diagnosis was made by performing biopsy of scalp neurofibromas incidentally found on CT. In two initial cases, venous varix were packed with coils by transvenous approach after the transarterial embolisation failed to completely cure the fistula. In three recent cases, blood flow through the fistula was markedly reduced as an initial step by placing detachable coils into the distal and proximal stumps of the afferent VA. Then a liquid adhesive was injected under systemic hypotension to completely occlude the fistula. Control angiography revealed that the AVFs were completely occluded in all cases. Long-term angiographical and clinical status have been stable in all cases. Trying to attain complete occlusion of fistulas using detachable balloons is not an appropriate treatment option for high flow fistulas situated on markedly dilated, tortuous and fragile VAs of patients with NFL Also, trapping of fistulas is not justified because of the numerous potential feeding pedicles, and makes the following procedure difficult. PMID:20667203

  17. Proinflammation of Aging Central Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is a cornerstone of organismal aging. The central arterial wall structurally and functionally remodels under chronic proinflammatory stress over a lifetime. The low grade proinflammation that accompanies advancing age causes arterial wall thickening and stiffening. These structural and functional alterations are consequences of adverse molecular and cellular events, e.g., an increase in local angiotensin II signaling that induces an inflammatory phenotypic shift of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, interventions to restrict proinflammatory signaling are a rational approach to delay or prevent age-associated adverse arterial remodeling. PMID:25171100

  18. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  19. Arterial Abnormalities Leading to Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy R; Serulle, Yafell; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Tinnitus is a common symptom that usually originates in the middle ear. Vascular causes of pulsatile tinnitus are categorized by the location of the source of the noise within the cerebral-cervical vasculature: arterial, arteriovenous, and venous. Arterial stenosis secondary to atherosclerotic disease or dissection, arterial anatomic variants at the skull base, and vascular skull base tumors are some of the more common causes of arterial and arteriovenous pulsatile tinnitus. Noninvasive imaging is indicated to evaluate for possible causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and should be followed by catheter angiography if there is a strong clinical suspicion for a dural arteriovenous fistula. PMID:27154605

  20. Radiative transport in large arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Theodor, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A refined model for the photon energy distribution in a living artery is established by solving the radiative transfer equation in a cylindrical geometry, using the Monte Carlo method. Combining this model with the most recent experimental values for the optical properties of flowing blood and the biomechanics of a blood-filled artery subject to a pulsatile pressure, we find that the optical intensity transmitted through large arteries decreases linearly with increasing arterial distension. This finding provides a solid theoretical foundation for measuring photoplethysmograms. PMID:24466476