Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Yeow Tay; Jean Marie U-King-Im; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Justin J. Cross; John R. Davies; Peter L. Weissberg; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based

  2. Vertebral artery stump syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Raymond, J; Mahmoud, M; Weill, A; Roy, D; Guilbert, F

    2008-01-01

    After occlusion of flow in an artery, further ischaemic episodes are not expected due to lack of a flow conduit to carry the embolus. In the carotid stump syndrome, ongoing ischaemic events may continue due to collateral flow via the external carotid artery. We report two patients presenting with posterior circulation strokes after documented vertebral artery occlusion, due to a vertebral stump syndrome. Their presentation, the pathophysiology of cervico-vertebral anastomoses and management are described. PMID:18079301

  3. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

    2008-01-01

    Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed Central

    Schittek, A

    1999-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:10217474

  5. Carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Dumont, Travis M; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Levy, Elad I

    2013-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with stroke symptoms. It is also a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing evaluation as part of a routine examination in the outpatient setting. Several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently available. Treatment strategies include medical and surgical management. Multiple randomized trials conducted over the past decade have laid a foundation for guidelines on the management of extracranial carotid disease. Evaluation and treatment of patients with vertebral artery stenosis is less understood. We review the evidence for the detection and treatment of patients with extracranial carotid artery and vertebral artery disease. PMID:23402465

  6. Vertebral artery reconstruction: Results in 106 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Habozit

    1991-01-01

    Between January 1982 and December 1989, we performed 109 revascularizations of the vertebral artery in 106 patients. Eighty-six patients (81%) had isolated vertebrobasilar insufficiency, 18 (17%) had associated carotid and vertebrobasilar pathology while two (2%) had isolated carotid symptoms. The procedures performed included 98 revascularizations of the proximal vertebral artery and 11 reconstructions of the distal vertebral artery. One distal

  7. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least risk. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy of the vertebral artery is mandatory prior to performing cervical spine surgery, and since the vertebral artery can have a variable course, especially in the upper cervical spine, the surgeon must minimize the possibility of an arterial injury by preoperatively assessing the artery with a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperatively, the surgeon must be aware of when the vertebral artery is most at risk, and take precautions to avoid an injury. In the event of an arterial injury, the surgeon must have a plan of action to (1) Achieve control of the hemorrhage. (2) Prevent acute central nervous system ischemia. (3) Prevent postoperative complications such as embolism and pseudoaneurysm Conclusion: Prior to performing cervical spine surgery, one must understand the four A's of vertebral artery injuries: Anatomy, Assessment, Avoidance, and Action. PMID:24340233

  8. Reconstructive surgery on the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carstensen; Evangelisches Krankenhaus

    1980-01-01

    Summary In the last nine years 32 reconstructive operations were performed on the vertebral artery. In proportion to the 1032 operations on the carotid artery, is not the number of vertebral operations, at 3.1% unusually small? Is vertebro-basilar insufficiency too rarely recognized?

  9. Vertebral artery occlusion and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Ask-Upmark, E; Bickerstaff, E R

    1976-01-01

    If vertebral artery occlusion occurs in degenerative arterial disease it is almost invariably left-sided, but in vertebral artery deficiency syndromes associated with oral contraceptives a striking preponderance of right-sided involvement has been shown. This observation adds support to the view that causes other than changes in the wall of the vessel at the site of occlusion must be sought as an explanation of the occlusion. PMID:1252812

  10. Bilateral spontaneous dissection of extracranial vertebral arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Leys; F. Lesoin; J. P. Pruvo; G. Gozet; M. Jomin; H. Petit

    1987-01-01

    A previously healthy 35-year-old man suddenly developed vertebrobasilar ischaemia while playing tennis. Cerebral arteriography revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the cervical portion of both vertebral arteries. The neurological deficit and the angiographic features resolved with anticoagulant treatment alone. Only 15 patients with non-traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection have been previously reported. It is necessary to recognize the condition very quickly,

  11. Atherosclerotic vertebral artery disease in the neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Caplan

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Atherosclerotic lesions are very common at the origin and first few centimeters of the vertebral artery in the neck. These\\u000a lesions are often missed when using noninvasive diagnostic strategies. These lesions cause transient hypoperfusion and transient\\u000a ischemic attacks, characterized mostly by vestibulocerebellar symptoms. Strokes are caused by embolism from these lesions.\\u000a Patients with nonstenosing vertebral artery plaques should be

  12. Percutaneous vertebral angioplasty before coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Fukuda; Wahei Mihara; Akinobu Sasaki; Seigo Gomi

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male with three-vessel coronary heart disease complicated by stenosis of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Triple coronary bypass grafting, using arterial conduits, was successfully performed after percutaneous balloon angioplasty of the left vertebral artery. Precedent angioplasty of a stenotic vertebral artery is safe and protects the brain from ischemia during extracorporeal circulation.

  13. Treatment of spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, T; Takeichi, Y; Yokoi, T; Fukami, T; Jito, J; Nitta, N; Takagi, K; Nozaki, K

    2011-10-31

    Spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage and often result in devastating damage. Increased use of noninvasive imaging studies has allowed larger numbers of patients to be diagnosed. In addition, intracranial vertebral artery dissection tends to induce multiple lesions affecting both intracranial vertebral arteries recurrently. Although unruptured dissections in this area usually have a benign nature, some authors have reported on the incidence of rupture from this lesion. Once hemorrhage from a dissecting vessel wall has occurred, it needs to be treated in the acute phase because of the high risk of rebleeding resulting in high morbidity and mortality. From December 2004 to July 2010, we managed 47 patients with spontaneous vertebral artery dissection, 31 patients were ruptured and 16 were unruptured. All patients who suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage were treated with endovascular procedures. Most of the patients with unruptured dissection received medical therapy, but if the aneurysmal dilatation persisted or grew, surgical interventions were performed. Stenting with or without coils was deployed for 13 patients with posterior inferior cerebellar artery involvement at the site of dissection and/or were affected on the dominant side. In some patients, stenting was performed even if they were in the acute phase. For other ruptured patients, internal coil trappings were performed. Six patients died due to severe initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and one patient, who underwent stent deployment with coils for the dominant vertebral artery, with bilateral dissection continuing to the basilar artery died due to rerupture while the next additional coiling was planning. There were two cases of complications related to the intervention. During the follow-up period no bleeding occurred in any of the patients except for the previously mentioned patient. In conclusion, internal coil trapping or stent placement with or without coils was effective in preventing rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery dissection. If the dissection is unruptured, it is necessary to detect the risk of bleeding with careful watching and when progress appears to be made, patients should be treated promptly. Stent-assisted therapy for preserving the patency of the parent artery and major branches is a promising treatment for vertebral artery dissection, even in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the risk of acute rerupture and recurrence remains even with the porous stent placement with or without coils. PMID:24059764

  14. Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

  15. Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

    2014-04-01

    Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

  16. Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Han

    2013-11-01

    The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

  17. Clinical significance of retrograde flow in the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Nicholls; Theodore C. Koutlas; D. Eugene Strandness

    1991-01-01

    Although retrograde vertebral artery flow was described over 100 years ago, its relationship to symptoms remains unclear. We documented 43 patients who were found by duplex scanning to have reverse flow in the vertebral artery. Of this group, seven patients (16%) were found to have symptoms described as typical for the “subclavian steal” syndrome. Nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Of the

  18. Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Obidowski, Damian

    2010-01-19

    Vertebral arteries are two arteries whose structure and location in human body result in development of special flow conditions. For some of the arteries, one can observe a significant difference between flow rates in the left and the right arteries during ultrasonography diagnosis. Usually the reason of such a difference was connected with pathology of the artery in which a smaller flow rate was detected. Simulations of the flow through the selected type of the vertebral artery geometry for twenty five cases of artery diameters have been carried out. The main aim of the presented experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be helpful in understanding the phenomena occurring when two relatively large arteries join together to form one vessel. The obtained results have shown that an individual configuration and diameters of particular arteries can exert an influence on the flow in them and affect a significant difference between flow rates for vertebral arteries. It has been assumed in the investigations that modelled arteries were absolutely normal, without any pathology. In the numerical experiment, the non-Newtonian model of blood was employed. PMID:19909956

  19. Transradial approach for vertebral artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Tekieli, ?ukasz; Kab?ak-Ziembicka, Anna; Paluszek, Piotr; Trystu?a, Mariusz; Wójcik-P?dziwiatr, Magdalena; Machnik, Roman; Pieni??ek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introductuion Symptomatic severe vertebral artery (VA) stenosis may be treated safely with stent supported angioplasty via femoral access. There is limited clinical data on transradial approach for VA angioplasty in case of peripheral artery disease. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transradial angioplasty of symptomatic VA stenosis. Material and methods Fifteen patients (age 66 ±7.4 years, 73% men, with VA > 80% stenosis, 11 right-side, all symptomatic from posterior circulation (history of stroke, TIA, or chronic ischaemia symptoms)) with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or unsuccessful attempt via femoral approach were scheduled for VA angioplasty by radial access. Clinical and duplex ultrasound (DUS) follow-up were performed before discharge and 1, 12, and 24 months after VA angioplasty. Results The technical success rate was 100%. In all cases VA angioplasty was performed with the use of single balloon-mounted stent (9 bare metal stents, 6 drug-eluting stents). The mean NASCET VA stenosis was reduced from 85.3% to 5.3% (p < 0.001). No periprocedural death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or transient ischaemic attack occurred. During 24-months follow-up, in 12 of 15 patients chronic ischaemia symptoms release was observed, and no new acute ischaemic neurological symptoms were diagnosed in all patients. One patient died 20 months after intervention from unknown causes. There was one symptomatic borderline VA in-stent stenosis 12 months after angioplasty. Conclusions Transradial VA stenting may be a very effective and safe procedure, and it may constitute an alternative to the femoral approach in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. PMID:25848368

  20. Direct transposition of the distal cervical vertebral artery into the internal carotid artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer; Gérald Rancurel; Amine Bahnini; Carlo Ruotolo; Giulio Illuminati

    1995-01-01

    From January 1979 to December 1991, 92 revascularizations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery were performed in 91 patients through a direct transposition of this artery into the internal carotid artery (ICA). These cases represented 15.1% of 610 vertebral revascularizations and 38.8% of 280 distal vertebral revascularizations performed during this period at our institution. The sex ratio of

  1. Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion for giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sluzewski; E. H. Brilstra; W. J. van Rooij; D. Wijnalda; C. A. F. Tulleken; G. J. E. Rinkel

    2001-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation, radiological and clinical results in six consecutive patients with a giant vertebrobasilar\\u000a aneurysm treated by bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion. Five patients presented with headache and signs of brain-stem\\u000a compression and one with subarachnoid haemorrhage. In all patients vertebral artery balloon occlusion was performed. In four,\\u000a this followed successful test occlusion. In one patient, who

  2. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kloen; J. D. Patterson; B. I. Wintman; R. M. Ozuna; G. W. Brick

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  3. Advances and innovations in revascularization of extracranial vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Spetzler, Robert F; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2014-02-01

    Revascularization of the extracranial vertebral artery has evolved significantly since the adoption of endovascular techniques. The current neurosurgical armamentarium includes microsurgical and endovascular approaches. The indications for each treatment modality, however, still need to be further delineated. In contrast to carotid artery endarterectomy and carotid artery angioplasty/stenting, there is limited comparative evidence on the efficacy of medical, open, and endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial vertebral artery. More recently, drug-eluting stents have gained momentum after high rates of in-stent restenosis have been reported with bare metal stents placed in the vertebral artery. In this article, we discuss the indications, clinical assessment, and surgical nuances of microsurgical and endovascular revascularization for atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial vertebral artery. Despite a general tendency to consider endovascular treatment in the majority of patients, ultimately, open and endovascular revascularization of extracranial vertebral artery should be regarded as complementary therapies and both treatment options need to be discussed in selected patients. PMID:24402479

  4. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vilela; A. Goulão

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease,

  5. [Stagewise bilateral stenting of vertebral arteries in a patient with occlusion of both internal carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Ter-Akopian, A V; Kalinin, A A; Pankov, A S; Tagaev, N B; Maliutina, E D

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe herein a case report concerning stagewise endovascular treatment of a 69-year-old male patient presenting with occlusion of the right and left internal carotid arteries admitted to Clinical Hospital ? 1 of the RF President's Affairs Administration with the following diagnosis: atherosclerotic occlusion of carotid arteries, arterial hypertension, chronic bronchitis, chronic prostatitis, and a history of multiple episodes of unconsciousness. Duplex scanning and angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries revealed occlusion of the both internal carotid arteries, as well as pronounced narrowing of the ostium of the right and left vertebral arteries supplying blood to all portions of the brain. Computed tomography revealed no signs of endured stroke. The first stage consisted in stenting of critical stenosis of the left vertebral artery ostium, followed by stenting of the right vertebral artery ostium performed 2 weeks after (with implanting drug-covered stents «Promus» in both cases). The patient was discharged home in a satisfactory condition. PMID:22929685

  6. Posterior circulation hyperperfusion syndrome after bilateral vertebral artery intracranial stenting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renliang; Zhou, Guangyi; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Hyperperfusion syndrome is a well-documented clinical complication after endarterectomy and carotid stenting. However, little is known about this complication immediately after vertebral artery stenting. A 51-year-old woman who had repeated episodes of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting was diagnosed with vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. The patient underwent bilateral vertebral stenting due to severe stenosis in both intracranial segments of the vertebral arteries. Three hours after the procedure, she had severe headache with vomiting and gradually went into a coma. An urgent brain computed tomographic scan showed hemorrhage in the right cerebellum and subarachnoid region. Also, transcranial Doppler revealed approximate doubling of blood flow velocity in vertebral artery area compared with her baseline value. Cerebral blood flow and blood pressure monitoring, together with intensive antihypertensive therapy, are necessary to reduce the risk of hyperperfusion syndrome after vertebral stenting. Moreover, the safety and efficacy of intracranial vertebral stenting should be further reevaluated by large-scale randomized trials. PMID:18973983

  7. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with monocular blindness and external carotid-vertebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Suo; Zhang, Hong T.; Zhang, Dao P.; Zhang, Shu L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present 2 rare cases of persistent embryonic anastomoses. In one case, the patient presented with persistent trigeminal artery along with multiple foci of cerebral infarction as well as central retinal artery thrombosis. In the other case, the patient had direct anastomosis of the vertebral artery with ipsilateral external carotid artery as well as pontine infarction, aneurysm, and unilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral artery. The findings in these cases may shed light on the clinical presentation of such persistent anastomoses and aid their detection in clinical settings. PMID:25935186

  8. Vertebral artery stenting in an aneurysm after dissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Griewing; F. Brassel; V. Schminke

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Traumatic and spontaneous dissections of brain-supplying arteries are the cause of approximately 5% of cerebral infarctions in young adults. They are localized more often in the carotid, and less frequently in vertebral arteries. Aneurysms following dissections, which can develop as a possible embolic source, are generally treated with endovascular surgery.Methods: We describe the case of a 42-year-old man who

  9. Surgical reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery: Management and outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Berguer; Lisa M. Flynn; Ronald A. Kline; Louis Caplan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk and outcome of reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA). Method: The study was conducted as a retrospective review of 369 consecutive ECVA reconstructions. Results: The clinical presentations consisted of hemispheric symptoms alone in 4% of the cases, hemispheric and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 30%, and vertebrobasilar symptoms alone in

  10. Emergent endovascular treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sugiu; K. Tokunaga; K. Watanabe; W. Sasahara; S. Ono; T. Tamiya; I. Date

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of endovascular and surgical treatments for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to determine which treatment is preferable. We evaluated the cases of 25 consecutive patients with ruptured VADAs treated in our institution. From 1992 to 1997, five patients were treated surgically. Since 1998, 20 patients with VADAs have been

  11. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  12. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders

    PubMed Central

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  13. Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2013-01-01

    We report a two-and-half–year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

  14. Persistent carotid-vertebral anastomosis associated with contralateral accessory middle cerebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Briganti; Fabio Tortora; Andrea Elefante; Antonio Volpe; Francesco Maiuri

    2005-01-01

    An exceptional case is reported of a complex anomaly of the brain arteries including low left carotid bifurcation, persistent\\u000a carotid-vertebral anastomosis on the left and accessory middle cerebral artery on the right; the whole posterior circulation\\u000a was only filled through the anomalous anastomotic vessel which joined with the vertebral artery because of a contralateral\\u000a hypoplasic vertebral artery and the absence

  15. Contrast-Enhanced MRA of Carotid and Vertebral Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Martin Klein; Ricarda Buchal; Ulrike Achenbach; Stefan Domalski

    2008-01-01

    Purpose:  To assess the image quality of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the carotid artery with open 0.35-T\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), compared to a 1.5-T high-field system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  100 patients were retrospectively evaluated with CE-MRA for suspected carotid or vertebral artery disease. 50 patients were\\u000a investigated using an open-design 0.35-T MRI system, 50 were examined on a 1.5-T

  16. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction: Long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edouard Kieffer; Barbara Praquin; Laurent Chiche; Fabien Koskas; Amine Bahnini

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to report our long-term results of distal vertebral artery (DVA) reconstruction. Method: From 1978 to 2001 we performed 352 DVA reconstructions on 323 patients (177 men, 148 women; mean age, 60.0 ± 12.1 years). Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 332 cases (94.3%). Bypass grafting using mostly saphenous vein graft was performed

  17. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Inaraja Pérez, Gabriel Cristian; Rodríguez Morata, Alejandro; Reyes Ortega, Juan Pedro; Gómez Medialdea, Rafael; Cabezudo García, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    A 35-year-old patient was brought to the emergency department referring dysarthria, left ear tinnitus for 5 min, and short-lasting blindness, with headache in the 45 min before the clinical presentation. In the magnetic resonance imaging, an acute-subacute lesion in the cerebellum right-anterior lobe (in the territory of the cerebellum anterior artery) and a dilatation near the ostium of the right vertebral artery were seen. For a better assessment, an Angio-CT was done, showing a 9-mm saccular pseudoaneurysm of the right vertebral artery close to the origin of the vessel, without being able to determine if it had been caused because of a dissection. The rest of the study (cerebral vessels and supra-aortic vessels) showed no disorders. He was operated under local anesthesia and sedation a week after the onset of the symptoms. Through a 0.014 wire, a Biotronik PK Papyrus balloon-expandable covered cobalt-chromium stent was deployed covering the hole in the artery. Antiplatelet drugs were prescribed, and the patient was discharged 24 hr after surgery. He has remained symptom free since then. PMID:25770383

  18. Flow-area relationship in internal carotid and vertebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, J R; Castro, M A; Putman, C M; Alperin, N

    2009-01-01

    Subject-specific computational and experimental models of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms require the specification of physiologic flow conditions. Because patient-specific flow data is not always available, researchers have used “typical” or population average flow rates and waveforms. However, in order to be able to compare the magnitude of hemodynamic variables between different aneurysms or groups of aneurysms (e.g. ruptured vs. unruptured) it is necessary to scale the flow rates to the area of the inflow artery. In this work, a relationship between flow rates and vessel areas is derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance measurements in the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries of normal subjects. PMID:18460763

  19. Accuracy of Color-Doppler in the Quantification of Proximal Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. de Bray; A. Pasco; F. Tranquart; X. Papon; C. Alecu; B. Giraudeau; F. Dubas; J. Emile

    2001-01-01

    Background: Vertebrobasilar (VB) strokes appear to have the same causes as carotid strokes. Obstructive lesions of proximal vertebral arteries probably occur in about 30% of stroke patients. Purpose: Our aim was to assess the validity of color Doppler sonography compared to selective intra-arterial angiography in the quantification of proximal vertebral artery stenoses. Materials and Methods: A prospective blind study of

  20. Traumatic Cervical Vertebral Artery Transection Associated with a Dural Tear Leading to Subarachnoid Extravasation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark O. Baerlocher; Tanya L. Zakrison; Homer Tien; Richard I. Aviv; Sean P. Symons

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Vertebral artery injuries can be seen following trauma. Most traumatic vertebral artery injuries are limited to an intimal\\u000a dissection. Rarely, transection of the vertebral artery can be seen with extravasation of hemorrhage into the surrounding\\u000a soft tissues of the neck. Dural tears are rare in the setting of trauma. They are usually the result of penetrating trauma\\u000a or severe

  1. Protection of anastomotic pathways to the vertebral artery during stenting of external carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Mitsuhashi, Yutaka; Nishio, Akimasa; Kawakami, Taichiro; Yoshimura, Masaki; Urano, Yumiko; Yamagata, Keiji; Ohata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with a severe external carotid artery (ECA) stenosis with concomitant ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion manifesting as amaurosis fugax. The left ophthalmic artery was supplied from the left ECA. The left intracranial ICA was supplied by the collateral flow from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateral ECA through the ophthalmic artery. The left vertebral artery also participated in the latter collateral pathway through the left occipital artery and ascending pharyngeal artery. Percutaneous revascularization of the ECA was performed using a nitinol self-expanding stent. To prevent embolic complications through the ophthalmic or vertebral arteries, distal protection was performed using a balloon. During a 22-month follow-up period, the patient was completely free from any ocular or neurological symptoms. The present case of severe ECA stenosis with ipsilateral ICA occlusion showed that percutaneous balloon angioplasty with stenting is feasible and effective. This intervention requires cautious evaluation of the anastomotic pathways connecting the ECA to the cerebral circulation to avoid embolic complications. PMID:21123986

  2. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  3. Occipital artery anastomosis to vertebral artery causing pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew David; English, Joey; Hetts, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation. PMID:23493341

  4. Hemifacial Spasm Caused by Fusiform Aneurysm at Vertebral Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Junction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok-Keun; Park, Bong-Jin; Lim, Young-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm induced by intracranial aneurysm is a rare clinical condition. A 45-year-old male patient presented with a 3-year history of progressive involuntary twitching movement on right face. On radiological study, a dilated vascular lesion compressing the brain stem was found at the junction of vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery. On operative field, we found the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the fusiform aneurysm compressing root exit zone of facial nerve. Microvascular decompression was performed and the facial symptom was relieved without complications. PMID:19137088

  5. Computer simulation of vertebral artery occlusion in endovascular procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Ho; Kumar Mithraratne; Holger Schmid; Gregory Sands; Peter Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Objective  The aim of this work is to establish a computational pipeline for the simulation of blood flow in vasculatures and apply this\\u000a pipeline to endovascular interventional scenarios, e.g. angioplasty in vertebral arteries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A patient-specific supra-aortal vasculature is digitized from a 3D CT angiography image. By coupling a reduced formulation\\u000a of the governing Navier–Stokes equations with a wall constitutive equation we

  6. VAST: Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial. Protocol for a randomised safety and feasibility trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Compter; HB van der Worp; WJ Schonewille; JA Vos; A Algra; TH Lo; WPThM Mali; FL Moll; LJ Kappelle

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twenty to 30 percent of all transient ischaemic attacks and ischaemic strokes involve tissue supplied by the vertebrobasilar circulation. Atherosclerotic stenosis ? 50% in the vertebral artery accounts for vertebrobasilar stroke in at least one third of the patients. The risk of recurrent vascular events in patients with vertebral stenosis is uncertain and revascularisation of vertebral stenosis is rarely

  7. Embolization with temporary balloon occlusion of the internal carotid or vertebral arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Théron; R. Cosgrove; D. Melanson; R. Ethier

    1986-01-01

    Functional vascular anastomoses at the base of the brain allow for temporary occlusion of the carotid or vertebral arteries. Six embolizations with temporary balloon occlusion of the internal carotid or vertebral artery are reported. Polyvinyl alcohol was the embolic material in all cases and all procedures were performed using digital angiography. The size of the embolic particles and the positioning

  8. Incidence of Vertebral Artery Thrombosis in Cervical Spine Trauma: Correlation with Severity of Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Torina; Adam E. Flanders; John A. Carrino; Anthony S. Burns; David P. Friedman; James S. Harrop; Alexander R. Vacarro

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of blunt traumatic vertebral artery dissec- tion\\/thrombosis varies widely in published trauma series and is associated with spinal trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of traumatic vertebral artery thrombosis (VAT) in cervically injured patients by using routine MR angiography (MRA) and MR imaging and identify associations with the severity of

  9. Anatomical variations of the carotid-vertebral arteries: "double-vessel" sign on Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatih; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Gulsen, Fatih; Besirli, Kazim; Mihmanli, Ismail

    2011-10-01

    We describe the "double-vessel" sign and its relevance for the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial anatomical variations in a series of four patients with stroke. In these four patients, two arteries could be seen at the expected location of the common carotid artery (CCA), leading to the diagnosis of anatomical variations including separate origin of internal and external carotid artery from the aortic arch on the left side and from the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian artery on the right side, early bifurcation of the CCA on both sides, and an aberrant course of the vertebral artery on the left side. The presence of two arteries at the expected location of the CCA should raise the suspicion of carotid or vertebral arterial variations. PMID:21469149

  10. Pathomorphological differentiation between traumatic rupture and nontraumatic arterial dissection of the intracranial vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to establish an objective indicator for differential diagnosis between traumatic rupture of the intracranial vertebral artery (TRIVA) and nontraumatic rupture from intracranial vertebral artery dissection (NIVAD). We investigated 19 intracranial vertebral artery (IVA) samples, including three from TRIVA, seven from NIVAD and nine non-IVA rupture cases using 0.2-mm serial histological sections through the IVA. The internal elastic lamina (IEL)-adventitia ratio for each slide was calculated as the ratio of the traced length of the adventitia to the length of the IEL as measured by digital photomicrography. NIVAD cases showed a significant peak in the IEL-adventitia ratio around the area of rupture, whereas TRIVA and non-rupture cases showed no specific increase or decrease in IEL-adventitia ratios throughout the IVAs. All NIVAD cases had a significantly higher average IEL-adventitia ratio across 10 slides at the site of the rupture lesion than at the site furthest from the rupture. In contrast, two out of three TRIVA cases showed no significant difference between the two points. The other TRIVA case showed a significantly lower IEL-adventitia ratio at the point nearest the rupture compared with that at the point farthest from the rupture. Other histological characteristics considered specific to either TRIVA or NIVAD were observed. Our results indicate that measuring and comparing IEL-adventitia ratios at ruptured and non-ruptured sites of the IVA could be a useful practical indicator for differential diagnosis between TRIVAs and NIVADs. PMID:24524943

  11. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  12. Spontaneous healing of cervical pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection under anticoagulant therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sommer; W. Neff; A. Schwartz

    1998-01-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman with embolic stroke of the mid-pons attributed to embolism from vertebral artery dissection.\\u000a Angiography revealed an occluded artery on one side and an incidental pseudoaneurysm of the midcervical portion of the vertebral\\u000a artery on the other. After 3 months of warfarin therapy control angiography showed complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.\\u000a We discuss therapeutic choices and

  13. Possible compression of the atlantal segment of the vertebral artery in occipitalisation.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, J; Walocha, J; Goncerz, G

    2011-11-01

    The current study evaluates the passage of the atlantal segment of the vertebral artery through the atlas to the cranial cavity in the case of occipitalisation, and searches for potential bony obstacles that constrict the lumen of the vertebral artery. Morphometric analysis was performed of the ossified atlanto-occipital articulation of the dry adult male skull, particularly in the region of the posterior arch of the atlas. The distance between the floor of the right groove for the vertebral artery and the occipital bone was measured using a digital sliding caliper. On the left side, measurements of the diameters of the inlet and outlet of the canal for the vertebral artery were performed using the same technique. Fusion of the left portion of the posterior arch of the atlas with the occipital bone caused significant narrowing of the space around the normally existing groove for the vertebral artery, and converted it into the canal. The size of the intracranial opening of the canal for the vertebral artery was measured as 3.8 mm x 4.7 mm, whereas the inlet to the canal was 5.4 mm x 7.0 mm. The diameter of the canal decreases, particularly at the entrance into the cranial cavity; therefore, compression of the vertebral artery within the canal seems to be possible. PMID:22117247

  14. Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

    2014-03-01

    We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

  15. Ruptured extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Matsui, Shusuke; Yamashita, Shuhei; Kamiya, Mika; Yamashita, Tae; Akai, Kyo; Watanabe, Kenichi; Namba, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a ruptured right extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, manifesting as acute onset of right neck and shoulder pain, and right supraclavicular mass. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography showed a large aneurysm involving the right extracranial vertebral artery associated with a pseudoaneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully treated by transarterial endovascular trapping with detachable coils. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm is rare, but the mortality of ruptured cases is extremely high, so early diagnosis and early treatment are important. The present case shows that endovascular treatment was very effective. PMID:22729080

  16. The arterial anatomy of the developing human dorsal and lumbar vertebral body. A microarteriographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, J F

    1981-01-01

    The arterial anatomy of 60 lumbar and lower dorsal vertebral bodies from eight subjects aged between 29 weeks gestation and 15 years was studied. The arteries had been injected with a suspension of barium sulphate and the vertebrae decalcified, sectioned and radiographed. In the specimen of 29 weeks gestation, the equatorial arteries were present. Precursors of the metaphyseal arteries lay obliquely over and completely outside the ossification centre. These precursors originated from an irregular network of perichondral arteries near the equator. By six months of age, the perichondral arteries had migrated discally and had become well organized metaphyseal anastomoses while the metaphyseal arteries had become horizontal. Also by six months, the extra-osseous longitudinal anastomoses had developed into the adult pattern. In the 36 weeks fetus, the ends of the unbranching metaphyseal arteries were incorporated into the ossification centre. This central relationship was maintained into adult life, but, as the ossification centre expanded, the branches of the intra-osseous arteries followed the zone of ossification in a centrifugal manner. In infancy, the metaphyseal arteries were approximately equal in length and the equatorial arteries divided in the middle of the vertebral body; by the age of 15 years, the metaphyseal arteries arising from the anterolateral surfaces were longer than those which arose from the posterior surface, and the equatorial arteries divided behind the mid-point. From these arterial observations, a number of deductions concerning the mode of growth of the vertebral body have been drawn. Preterminal coils and typical peripheral arteries, frequent features in the adult vertebral body, were not seen in any of these specimens. There was no evidence of any epiphyseal growth plate, nor of epiphyseal arteries in these specimens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7333964

  17. Use of a wire extender during neuroprotected vertebral artery angioplasty and stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter S Lesley; Ravi Kumar; Rajesh Rangaswamy

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe off-label use of an extender wire during vertebral artery stenting and angioplasty with or with neuroprotection has not been previously reported.Material and MethodsRetrospective, single-patient, technical report.ResultsAfter monorail balloon angioplasty was performed on a proximal left vertebral artery stenosis, the 190 cm long Accunet neuroprotection filter device was not long enough for delivery of an over-the-wire stent. After mating a

  18. Techniques for preserving vertebral artery perfusion during thoracic aortic stent grafting requiring aortic arch landing.

    PubMed

    Woo, Edward Y; Bavaria, Joseph E; Pochettino, Alberto; Gleason, Thomas G; Woo, Y Joseph; Velazquez, Omaida C; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Cheung, Albert T; Fairman, Ronald M

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic endografting offers many advantages over open repair. However, delivery of the device can be difficult and may necessitate adjunctive procedures. We describe our techniques for preserving perfusion to the left subclavian artery despite endograft coverage to obtain a proximal seal zone. We reviewed our experience with the Talent thoracic stent graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA). From 1999 to 2003, 49 patients received this device (29 men, 20 women). Seventeen patients required adjunctive procedures to facilitate proximal graft placement. We performed left subclavian-to-left common carotid artery transposition (6), left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass with ligation proximal to the vertebral artery (7), and left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass with proximal coil embolization (4). Patients who had anatomy unfavorable to transposition or bypass with proximal ligation (large aneurysms or proximal vertebral artery origin) were treated with coil embolization of the proximal left subclavian artery in order to prevent subsequent type II endoleaks. Technical success rate of the carotid subclavian bypass was 100%. Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 48 months with a mean of 12 months. Six patients had follow-up <6 months owing to recent graft placement. Primary patency was 100%. No neurologic events occurred during the procedure or upon follow-up. One patient had a transient chyle leak that spontaneously resolved in 24 hours. Another patient had a phrenic nerve paresis that resolved after 3 weeks. We believe that it is important to maintain patency of the vertebral artery specifically when a patent right vertebral system and an intact basilar artery is not demonstrated. Furthermore, we describe a novel technique of coil embolization of the proximal left subclavian artery in conjunction with left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass. This circumvents the need for potentially hazardous mediastinal dissection and ligation of the proximal left subclavian artery in cases of large proximal aneurysms or unfavorable vertebral artery anatomy. PMID:17038570

  19. Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2014-10-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

  20. Extracranial internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections: angiographic spectrum, course and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pelkonen; T. Tikkakoski; S. Leinonen; J. Pyhtinen; M. Lepojärvi; K. Sotaniemi

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical and radiological findings of 93 consecutive patients with 111 extracranial internal carotid (ICAD) and vertebral artery (VAD) dissections and one concomitant intracranial VAD; 83% of the patients had unilateral and 17% multiple vessel dissections. The diagnosis was made by intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in 92 patients and MR angiography in one. Follow-up angiography was performed in

  1. Vertebral artery angioplasty in patients younger than 55 years: Long-term follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Giangola; Anthony M. Imparato; Thomas S. Riles; Patrick J. Lamparello

    1991-01-01

    Since 1964 we have performed 136 vertebral artery reconstructions representing 4% of all operations on extracranial cerebral arteries by our staff. Fifteen of our patients were under age 55 years and had symptoms of dizziness, bilateral visual disturbances, ataxia, presyncopal episodes, and occasionally localized extremity weakness. Dizziness, often severe and incapacitating, has been the most common and consistent symptom. The

  2. Long-Term Clinical and Duplex Follow-up After Proximal Vertebral Artery Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Y. Van Schil; Robert G. A. Ackerstaff; Freddy E. E. Vermeulen; Bert C. Eikelboom; Marc A. A. Schepens

    1992-01-01

    From 1977 to 1989, 28 patients, 18 men and 10 women, underwent 29 proxi mal vertebral artery reconstructions. Indications were vertebrobasilar insuffi ciency in 17 patients and TIA or stroke in 6. Five were asymptomatic. Procedures performed were endarterectomy in 20, reimplantation in 5, venous bypass in 3, and decompression in 1 case. Concomitant procedures were coro nary artery bypass

  3. Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A.M. [University Hospital Essen, Essen, Department of Radiology andInterventional Radiology (Germany); Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D. [Klinikum Dortmund, Dortmund, Department ofRadiology (Germany)

    2004-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

  4. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

  5. [A case of medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries presenting with spastic quadriplegia].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Takashi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Yamashita, Tamayo; Nagata, Shinji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 58-year-old man showing spastic paraparesis due to medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries. He noticed weakness of both legs and gait disturbance at the age of 58 years and his symptoms progressively worsened during the following several months. General physical findings were normal. Blood pressure was normal and there were no signs of arteriosclerosis. Neurological examination on admission revealed lower-limb-dominant spasticity in all four extremities, lower-limb weakness, hyperreflexia in all extremities with positive Wartenberg's, Babinski's and Chaddock's signs, mild hypesthesia and hypopallesthesia in both lower limbs, and spastic gait. Cranial nerves were all normal. Serum was negative for antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 antibody. Nerve conduction and needle electromyographic studies of all four limbs revealed normal findings. Cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were all normal. Brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries compressing the medulla oblongata. Neurovascular decompression of the right vertebral artery was performed because compression of the right side was more severe than that of the left side. Post-operative MRI revealed outward translocation of the right vertebral artery and relieved compression of the medulla oblongata on the right side. The patient's symptoms and neurological findings improved gradually after the operation. Bilateral pyramidal tract signs without cranial nerve dysfunction due to compression of the medulla oblongata by tortuous vertebral arteries are extremely rare and clinically indistinguishable from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Although we did not perform a genetic test for HSP, we consider that the spastic paraparesis and mild lower-limb hypesthesia were caused by compression of the medulla oblongata by bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries based on the post-operative improvement in symptoms. Given the favorable effects of surgery, tortuous vertebral arteries should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with progressive spastic paraparesis. PMID:23719983

  6. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion with retrograde basilary flow in three cases of giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Boettinger, Markus Robert; Sebastian, Schreglmann Robert; Gamulescu, Maria-Andreea Robert; Grauer, Oliver; Ritzka, Markus; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Steinbrecher, Andreas; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar ischaemia is a rare life-threatening complication in giant cell arteritis (GCA). We report three patients with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion. Neurovascular imaging, including CT-angiography, MR-angiography and colour-coded duplex sonography revealed flow reversal in the basilar artery as well as inflammation of the vertebral vessel wall. The first patient died from massive brainstem infarction, the other two patients survived the initial inflammatory phase of GCA. No stroke recurrence at 12 months’ follow-up on warfarin and steroid treatment was observed. Bilateral distal vertebral artery occlusion and retrograde basilar artery flow persisted. Outcome in these patients is dependant on potent immunosuppression, concurrent atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease and presence and/or rapid development of sufficient collateral pathways into the vertebrobasilar circulation. The identification of patients with high risk of ischaemia due to compromised vertebrobasilar flow may be important to select adjunct treatment to immunosuppression, such as anticoagulation in GCA. PMID:21691390

  7. Simultaneous revascularization of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in their distal cervical segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Branchereau; Michel Ferdani; Louis Scotti

    1986-01-01

    Fibrodysplasic lesions or tortuosity, involving both ipsilateral carotid and distal vertebral arteries may be treated by a\\u000a one stage combined procedure of external and internal carotid artery transposition and possibly dilatation of the internal\\u000a carotid artery. Indications for this technique are uncommon. Only 4 of 969 cerebrovascular reconstructions performed between\\u000a January 1980 and June 1986 utilized this method. Good results

  8. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, L.; Nygård, A.; Ovesen, C.; Christensen, A.; Rosenbaum, S.; Havsteen, I.; Christensen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%), atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%), possible dissections (2.6%), kinked arteries (2.6%) and coiling (32.0%). Eighteen patients (2.8%) with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5%) and 15 cases (2.3%) were possible dissections. Conclusion We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. In general, posterior vascular pathology is not uncommon, and CTA is a useful modality in the detection of changes based on characteristics and locations of findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries. Ultrasound examination can be a useful supplementary tool in deciding the consequence of vascular findings on CTA. PMID:24575111

  9. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Bani?, Tihomir; Bani?, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bili?, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavi?, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Koki?, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  10. Stenting of a symptomatic long-segment extracranial vertebral artery occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rishi Gupta; Thinesh Sivapatham; Shaye I Moskowitz; Sunita Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    We present a 56-year-old man who presented with bilateral vertebral artery occlusions and recurrent transient ischemic attacks and strokes despite maximal medical therapy. A long-segment extracranial right vertebral occlusion was noted and successfully reconstructed with four drug-eluting stents. The patient has been symptom free for 3 months and does not exhibit restenosis on follow-up angiography. Stenting and angioplasty of a

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Deparment of Neurosurgery (Spain)

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  12. Difficulties in examination of the origin of the vertebral artery by duplex and colour-coded Doppler sonography: anatomical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Trattnig; C. Matula; F. Karnel; K. Daha; M. Tschabitscher; B. Schwaighofer

    1993-01-01

    Despite progress in ultrasonographic techniques visualisation of the origin of the vertebral arteries, particularly the left, by duplex and colour Doppler imaging, still poses a problem in a significant number of patients. In anatomical and radiological studies we demonstrated an anomalous origin in 6%, the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aorta in most cases. The origin from the

  13. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  14. Intractable vomiting caused by vertebral artery compressing the medulla: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Lauren; Ashour, Ahmed M.; Lebovitz, Jonathon; Cosola Di, Angela; Abdulrauf, Saleem I.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral artery compressing the medulla and causing intractable vomiting has only been reported once previously. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman with intractable nausea and vomiting causing a 50 pound weight loss and who failed medical management and whose symptoms were completely reversed following microvascular decompression (MVD). PMID:25972717

  15. A review of 100 consecutive reconstructions of the distal vertebral artery for embolic and hemodynamic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Berguer; Mark D. Morasch; Ronald A. Kline

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of distal vertebral artery (VA) reconstructions through a retrospective review conducted at a university-affiliated referral center. Methods: One hundred consecutive distal VA reconstructions had been performed during a period of 14 years (98 patients) and included reversed saphenous vein bypass from the ipsilateral common, internal, or external carotid to

  16. Complete recovery following atlantoaxial fracture-dislocation with bilateral carotid and vertebral artery injury.

    PubMed

    Leach, J C D; Malham, G M

    2009-02-01

    A patient sustained a flexion-distraction injury with atlantoaxial dislocation and traumatic dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries bilaterally. Difficulties in management including fracture reduction and stabilization, avoidance of further vascular injury and preservation of neural function are discussed. PMID:19234917

  17. Emergency endovascular treatment of a life-threatening hemorrhage from traumatic rupture of the left extracranial vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Simionato; C. Righi; P. Silvani; G. Torri; G. Scotti

    1999-01-01

    Hemorrhagic complications from transection of cervical arteries in blunt traumas are rare. We report a case of potentially\\u000a fatal hemorrhage from rupture of the left vertebral artery in a closed trauma, successfully treated by endovascular injection\\u000a of glue. Endovascular embolization may be considered as an alternative to surgical exploration in the treatment of traumatic\\u000a lesions of vertebral arteries.

  18. Rapidly evolving large extracranial vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm in Behçet's disease: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sishir; Rao, Sevith; Dhindsa-Castanedo, Luz; Benndorf, Goetz

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with a wide spectrum of symptoms and organ system involvement. Arterial manifestations, particularly of the extracranial vertebral arteries, are rare. We report an unusual case of an African American patient with Behçet's disease, who presented with bilateral spontaneous vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms. The patient underwent successful endovascular parent vessel occlusion with detachable coils and on follow-up had complete clinical and angiographic signs of recovery. PMID:24593167

  19. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of Lumbar Artery following a Vertebral Biopsy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Yutaka; Yagi, Masayoshi; Iwasaki, Yasunobu; Doita, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man developed a severe low back pain and a fever. In the initial examinations, a collapse of the L5 anterosuperior vertebral body and narrowing of the L4/5 disc space were identified on radiographs, and the laboratory data showed inflammatory results. A computed tomography (CT) and a magnetic resonance imaging showed collapse of L5. A needle biopsy was performed to make a diagnosis; however, an abdominal pain and a hypotension appeared after the biopsy. An abdominal CT showed a hematoma in the retroperitoneal space, and an angiography revealed a left fourth lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with transcatheter placement of microcoils. Although haemorrhagic complications following needle biopsy are very rare, patients with large amounts of vertebral destruction may have unusual anatomical positions of the lumber artery. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of lumbar artery injury during a needle biopsy and take care of prebiopsy plans. PMID:22606563

  1. Positional occlusion of the vertebral artery in a case of rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation presenting with multiple cerebral and cerebellar infarction.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Kaito, Takashi; Makino, Takahiro; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    We report an uncommon case of positional occlusion of the vertebral artery associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Plain radiography showed reducible atlantoaxial subluxation, and dynamic vertebral arteriography demonstrated positional occlusion of the left vertebral artery. The patient was treated with C1-2 posterior fusion and has since experienced no recurrent symptoms. Insufficiency of the vertebrobasilar artery is a relatively uncommon complication with cervical lesions in RA patients. However, when RA patients manifest recurrent cerebral and cerebellar symptoms, this condition should be kept in mind and actions taken to avoid further irreversible cerebral damage. Recommended imaging methods include vertebral dynamic lateral plain radiography of the cervical spine and vertebral arteriography at multiple cervical positions. PMID:22006121

  2. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome: 3D kinematics of nystagmus suggest bilateral labyrinthine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marti, Sarah; Hegemann, Stefan; von Büdingen, Hans-Christian; Baumgartner, Ralf W; Straumann, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses, in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including a prominent nystagmus. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the nystagmus pattern, recorded with search coils, revealed major downbeat nystagmus with minor horizontal and torsional components. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a hypoplastic right VA terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, a dominant left VA, and a hypoplastic P1-segment of the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) that was supplied by the left posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The right PCA and both anterior inferior cerebellar arteries were supplied by the basilar artery. The right PCoA originated from the right internal carotid artery. Color duplex sonography showed severe reduction of diastolic blood flow velocities in the left VA during RVAS attacks. The nystagmus pattern can be best explained by vectorial addition of 3D sensitivity vectors of stimulated right and left anterior and horizontal semicircular canals with slightly stronger stimulation on the left side. We hypothesize that in RVAS, compression of dominant VA leads to acute vertebrobasilar insufficiency with bilateral, but asymmetric ischemia of the superior labyrinth. With regard to RVAS etiology, our case illustrates a type of pure vascular RVAS. Severity of attacks markedly decreased after successful bilateral carotid endarterectomy. PMID:18274804

  3. Distal Embolization After Stenting of the Vertebral Artery: Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E.; Turkbey, Baris; Saatci, Isil; Cekirge, Saruhan; Balkanci, Ferhun [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. We retrospectively evaluated our experience with stenting of the vertebral artery in an effort to determine the risk of distal embolization associated with the procedure. Methods. Between June 2000 and May 2005, 35 patients with 38 stenting procedures for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral origin in our institution were identified. The average age of the patients was 60.3 years (range 32-76 years). Sixteen of these patients (with 18 stents) had MR imaging of the brain with diffusion-weighted imaging and an apparent diffusion coefficient map within 2 days before and after procedure. Results. On seven of the 16 postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images, a total of 57 new hyperintensities were visible. All these lesions were focal in nature. One patient demonstrated a new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormality in the anterior circulation without MR evidence of posterior circulation ischemia. Six of 16 patients had a total of 25 new lesions in the vertebrobasilar circulation in postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images. One patient in this group was excluded from the final analysis because the procedure was complicated by basilar rupture during tandem stent deployment in the basilar artery. Hence, new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities were noted in the vertebrobasilar territory in 5 of 15 patients after 17 stenting procedures, giving a 29% rate of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities per procedure. No patient with bilateral stenting had new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities. Conclusion. Stenting of stenoses of the vertebral artery origin may be associated with a significant risk of asymptomatic distal embolization. Angiography, placement of the guiding catheter, inflation of the stent balloon, and crossing the lesion with guidewires or balloon catheters may potentially cause distal embolization. Further studies to evaluate measures to increase the safety of vertebral artery stenting, such as the use of distal protection devices or short-term postprocedural anticoagulation, should be considered for patients with clear indications for this procedure.

  4. Atypical hemifacial spasm due to vertebral artery dolichoectasia: rare cause of a rarer clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Tarun; Srivastava, Trilochan; Sardana, Vijay; Jain, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old man presented with atypical left hemifacial spasm (HFS) with MRI showing compression of left facial nerve at the root exit zone. HFS rarely presents atypically with onset in orbicularis oris and later spreading upward to involve the orbicularis oculi as was seen in our case. Atypical presentation of hemifacial spasm is rare and vertebral artery dolichoectasia as the underlying aetiology, like in our case is even rarer and has not been described in literature so far. PMID:23845680

  5. Unilateral and Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection Following Motor Vehicle Injury—Two Cases and a Mini-Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina G. Mandila; Georgios V. Koukoulitsios; Georgios T. Stathopoulos; Ioannis Karampelas; Georgios Karydas; Andreas Karabinis

    2005-01-01

    Vertebral artery dissection in two patients with traumatic brain and cervical spine injury was treated in the intensive care\\u000a unit. In both cases vertebral artery dissection was suspected solely by the presence of ischemic lesions on the cervical spine\\u000a and by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, performed because of a failure to recover consciousness. In the intensive\\u000a care unit

  6. The Effect of Head Rotation on the Geometry and Hemodynamics of Healthy Vertebral Arteries.

    PubMed

    Aristokleous, Nicolas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Georgiou, Georgios C; Nicolaides, Andrew; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2015-06-01

    The geometric and hemodynamic characteristics of the left and right vertebral arteries (LVA, RVA) of six healthy volunteers were investigated for the supine (S) and the prone position (P) a common sleeping posture with head rotation. MRI images were used to reconstruct the subject specific three-dimensional solid models of the LVA and RVA from the level of the carotid bifurcation to the vertebrobasilar junction (VJ). Geometric parameters such as cross sectional area ratio, curvature, tortuosity and branch angle were estimated. MR-PCA was used to obtain the blood flow waveforms for the two positions and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to assess the flow field in terms of wall shear stress (WSS) relative residence times (RRT) and localized normalized helicity (LNH). Significant geometric changes but moderate flow changes were observed for both vertebral arteries with head rotation. The CFD results at the VJ show that head rotation causes changes in the WSS distribution, RRT and LNH. Further studies are warranted to assess the clinical significance of the results in terms of atherosclerosis development at the VJ and how the observed geometric changes may affect blood flow to the brain in healthy subjects and vertebral artery stenosis patients, and in terms of increased rapture susceptibility in vertebrobasilar aneurysm patients. PMID:26014360

  7. Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Adrian C.; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Hami, Danyal; Santoro, Massimo M.; Torres, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21040422

  8. Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Nadgir; L. A. Loevner; T. Ahmed; G. Moonis; J. Chalela; K. Slawek; S. Imbesi

    2003-01-01

    Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation.

  9. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Youssef, Ali A. [Suez Canal University Hospital, Cardiology Department (Egypt); Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China)], E-mail: tang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  10. Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Sureka, Binit; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Mittal, Aliza; Agarwal, Mukul Sinha Kanhaiya; Bhambri, Narendra Kumar; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA) measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT) cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL) and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M), lateral (L), anterior (A), and posterior (P) borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h) was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD) were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL) was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8) and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4). Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P) at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7. PMID:25969640

  11. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rabellino, Martin, E-mail: jmrabellino@hotmail.co [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Garcia Nielsen, L. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Interventional Cardiology (Spain); Baldi, S.; Zander, T. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Spain); Maynar, M. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  12. Progressive Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Isolated Trigeminal Neuralgia-Like Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nakamizo, Tomoki; Koide, Takashi; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (IVAD) is a potentially life-threatening disease, which usually presents with ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. IVAD presenting with isolated facial pain is rare, and no case with isolated trigeminal neuralgia- (TN-) like facial pain has been reported. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old male with IVAD who presented with acute isolated TN-like facial pain that extended from his left cheek to his left forehead and auricle. He felt a brief stabbing pain when his face was touched in the territory of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. There were no other neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain 7 days after onset revealed dissection of the left intracranial vertebral artery without brain infarction. The pain gradually disappeared in approximately 6 weeks, and the patient remained asymptomatic thereafter, except for a brief episode of vertigo. Follow-up MRI revealed progressive narrowing of the artery without brain infarction. This case indicates that IVAD can present with isolated facial pain that mimics TN. IVAD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute facial pain or TN. PMID:26146576

  13. Optimal ultrasound criteria for defining the severity of vertebral artery in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lingyun; Hua, Yang; Li, Jingzhi; Duan, Chun; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study described here was to establish ultrasound criteria for defining the severity of vertebral artery in-stent restenosis. A total of 197 patients with vertebral artery stents were enrolled in this study. Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed after stenting. Peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity within the stent (PSV(stent), EDV(stent)) and at the intervertebral segments were recorded. The ratio of the PSV at the origin to that at the intervertebral segment was calculated. With digital subtraction angiography as the reference standard, the optimal cutoff values of hemodynamic parameters identifying 50%-69% and 70%-99% restenosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The optimal cutoff values of hemodynamic parameters identifying 50%-69% restenosis were PSV(stent) ? 170 cm/s, EDV(stent) ?45 cm/s and PSV ratio ?2.7, and those for 70%-99% restenosis were PSV(stent) ?220 cm/s, EDV(stent) ?55 cm/s and PSV ratio ?4.2. In conclusion, color Doppler ultrasonography is a reliable method for monitoring patients with avertebral artery stents. PMID:25683222

  14. Application of vertebral artery ultrasonography in enlistment-age male student pilots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuping; Li, Li; Yao, Kechun; Li, Wenxiu; Wang, Na; Cui, Li; Zou, Zhikang; Ma, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vertebral artery (VA) morphology of enlistment-age male student pilots with ultrasound to provide a basis for early diagnosis of potentially asymptomatic cervical vertigo. Ultrasound results of the origin position, diameter and hemodynamics of the VA in 935 cases of student pilots with a mean age of 18.0 y were analyzed. The inner diameters of both sides of the VA differ: the left is larger than the right statistically (p < 0.001). Moreover, the peak systolic velocity of the left VA is significantly greater than that of the right (p < 0.001). Congenital VA anomalies in age-appropriate male student pilots included inner diameter variation, course variation and origin position variation. The incidence of course variation or origin position proportion was low (3.46%, 32/925), and origin position variation was often accompanied by inner diameter variation or course variation. This study confirms that there are a variety of congenital abnormalities in the vertebral arteries of enlistment-age male student pilots, and a VA diameter <2.5 mm may be a reasonable criterion for diagnosis of VA hypoplasia. PMID:25023108

  15. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment.

    PubMed

    Elmadag, Mehmet; Güzel, Yunus; Uzer, Gokcer; Tuncay, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12-L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy. PMID:25685576

  16. The forgotten disease: Bilateral lemierre’s disease with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Parikh, Kaushal; Puri, Sonam; Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Sharma, Divakar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Lemierre’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • fever • headache • tachycardia • tachypnoe Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Lemierre’s disease, also known as the forgotten disease, postanginal sepsis, or necrobacillosis, was first reported in 1890 by Courmont and Cade, but it was Dr. Andre Lemierre, a professor of microbiology, who described this disease in 1936. The typical causative agent is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other organisms may be involved. The pathogenesis of Lemierre’s disease is not well understood. It is characterized by a primary oropharyngeal infection associated with septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and metastatic septic emboli. Case Report: We report a case of Lemierre’s disease with bilateral internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis and metastatic septic emboli to the lungs and brain, associated with epidural abscess and mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery, which is quite rare in Lemierre’s disease. This is the first report of a case of Lemierre’s disease associated with mycotic aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Conclusions: Lemierre’s disease is a rare and perplexing medical entity. Clinical suspicion should be high in previously healthy young adults presenting with fever and neck pain following oropharyngeal infection. Dr. Lemierre stated that ‘symptoms and signs of Lemierre’s disease are so characteristic that it permits diagnosis before bacteriological examination’. The prognosis of patients with Lemierre’s disease is generally good, provided prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. PMID:24883173

  17. Aortic Arch Variation: A Unique Case with Anomalous Origin of Both Vertebral Arteries as Additional Branches of the Aortic Arch Distal to Left Subclavian Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaishali B. Goray; Anagha R. Joshi; Ashwin Garg; Suleman Merchant; Bhupinder Yadav; Pravin Maheshwari

    Summary: We present the case of bilateral anomalous origin of both vertebral arteries (VAs) in a 20-year-old male patient who presented for routine contrast-enhanced CT follow-up examination of the chest. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed abnormal origins of both the VAs from the aortic arch distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. Fol- lowing this, CT angiography was performed, which

  18. Stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis associated with bilateral carotid rete mirabile: the long-term clinical and angiographic outcome.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jang Hyun; Kim, Byung Moon

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) stenosis associated with bilateral carotid rete mirabile (CRM) has not been reported. We report the long-term clinical and angiographic outcome after stenting for symptomatic VA stenosis in the patient with bilateral CRM. This report is the first case that symptomatic VA stenosis associated with bilateral CRM was treated with stenting. PMID:25995701

  19. Stenting for Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Stenosis Associated with Bilateral Carotid Rete Mirabile: The Long-Term Clinical and Angiographic Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) stenosis associated with bilateral carotid rete mirabile (CRM) has not been reported. We report the long-term clinical and angiographic outcome after stenting for symptomatic VA stenosis in the patient with bilateral CRM. This report is the first case that symptomatic VA stenosis associated with bilateral CRM was treated with stenting. PMID:25995701

  20. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goulart Gladstone; Porta Maria Pereira Rina; Poggetti Sérgio Renato; Fontes Belchor; Junior Lourenco de Souza Almerindo; Gattas Gabriel; Birolini Dario

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI) occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI

  1. Fenestration and duplication of the vertebral artery: the anatomical and clinical points of view.

    PubMed

    Polguj, Micha?; Podgórski, Micha?; J?drzejewski, Kazimierz; Topol, Miros?aw; Majos, Agata

    2013-11-01

    The vertebral artery (VA) acts as a foundation for the posterior circulation of the head and neck. It presents a number of anomalies that can be easily visualized thanks to modern imaging techniques, such as MR and CT angiography or color Doppler ulrasonography. Determining the appropriate terminology for those anomalies can be sometimes more challenging than their recognition. One particular challenge concerns the differentiation between VA fenestration and duplication. Because of the different clinical prognoses associated with those anomalies, confusion should be avoided. Knowledge of the morphological anomalies associated with the VA is important for both radiologists and head and neck surgeons, because any injury to the VA can result in a threat to the vascular supply of the brain stem, the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres, the thalamus, cervical nerve roots and particularly the lateral medulla (Wallenberg's syndrome). This article analyses world literature concerning the issue of VA fenestration and duplication to facilitate a differential diagnosis. PMID:23553773

  2. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng, E-mail: xfliu2@yahoo.com.cn [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (China)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  3. Duplication of the left vertebral artery in a patient with dissection of the right internal carotid artery and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Polguj, Micha?; J?drzejewski, Kazimierz; Topol, Miros?aw; Wieczorek-Pastusiak, Julia; Majos, Agata

    2013-03-01

    Duplication of the left vertebral artery was observed in a 43-year-old Caucasian male with dissection of the right internal carotid artery during multidetector 64-row computer tomography and Doppler ultrasonography B-flow mode. Both duplicated segments arose from the left subclavian artery and united at levels C5-C6 to form a single vessel. The presented case describes precisely the origin and diameter of both vertebral arteries. Additionally, after all procedures associated with diagnosis and treatment of the patient, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV was diagnosed. The lumen of the duplicated vertebral artery was smaller than normal; it can be concluded that this variant has clinical implications and should be taken into consideration when vertebral arteries need catheterization. PMID:22956231

  4. Vertebral artery occlusion with Amplatzer vascular plug 4 to prevent subsequent endoleak in stent-graft treatment of subclavian artery gunshot injury.

    PubMed

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Yurttutan, Nursel; Gulek, Bozkurt; Cil, Barbaros; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    Endovascular treatment options have evolved in many ways and become an important alternative for open surgical repairs in various vascular territories. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man with complex injury to the left subclavian artery and vein caused by a gunshot 4 months ago. After the gunshot, a high-flow fistula between the left subclavian artery and the vein occurred with pseudoaneurysm formation. This fistula led to a significant left subclavian steal phenomenon. A stent-graft was deployed along the injured left subclavian artery after embolization of the left vertebral artery by Amplatzer vascular plug 4 (AVP-4) in order to prevent subsequent endoleak due to the subclavian steal syndrome. PMID:21724841

  5. Endovascular treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms using a novel pericardium covered stent.

    PubMed

    Vulev, I; Klepanec, A; Bazik, R; Balazs, T; Illes, R; Steno, J

    2012-06-01

    Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  6. Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent

    PubMed Central

    Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  7. Investigation of bleeding focus in the intracranial vertebral artery with the use of posterior neck dissection method in traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongho; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Bong Woo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Choi, Young-Shik; Seo, Joong Seok

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by minor blunt trauma to the head or neck can lead to rapid collapse and death. The vertebral arteries are the vessels most commonly involved in such cases, but it is very difficult to find the bleeding focus in the vertebral arteries in routine autopsy because of the location of these vessels. Using the posterior neck dissection method, which is relatively easy and avoids artificial damage to the intracranial portion of the vertebral arteries, authors have identified tear sites in the intracranial artery in four out of five consecutive traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In this report we show that this new method is useful for cases of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26165675

  8. Bilateral variations of the vertebral arteries: The left originating from the aortic arch and the left and right entering the C5 transverse foramina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko Ikegami; Yuko Ohtani; Osamu Ohtani

    2007-01-01

    During the dissection course for second year medical students at the University of Toyama in 2005, we encountered variations\\u000a of the bilateral vertebral arteries: the left directly came off from the aortic arch as the third branch between the left\\u000a common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery and entered the transverse foramen of C5, instead of C6, whereas the

  9. Does Improved Detection of Blunt Vertebral Artery Injuries Lead to Improved Outcomes? Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Spaniolas; George C. Velmahos; Hasan B. Alam; Marc de Moya; Malek Tabbara; Elizabeth Sailhamer

    2008-01-01

    Background  The rate of blunt vertebral artery (BVI) has increased in institutions using aggressive screening protocols. It is unclear\\u000a whether earlier diagnosis and therapy have improved outcomes. Our goal was to estimate the national incidence of BVI and BVI-related\\u000a stroke (BVI-S), and report on the functional outcome of patients with this diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The annual rates of BVI and BVI-S were estimated

  10. Effect of rheological property on blood flow in vertebral artery branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Taegee; Kim, Myungjoon; Kim, Taesung; Kwon, O.-Ki

    2011-11-01

    Blocking of an artery is one of mechanisms for cerebral stroke development. If an important cerebral artery is occluded by any reason and if there is no sufficient collaterals, tissue ischemia occurs at brain tissues distal to the occluded artery, which is a well known clinical situation. However, in practice, ischemia or hypoperfusion has also been observed through the branches proximal to the occluded artery. The unexpected ``proximal ischemia'' is not yet known, from which patients could suffer serious complications. In the present study, two patient cases are presented to elucidate this phenomenon from the view point of fluid dynamics, especially with emphasis on the role of rheology in hemodynamics.

  11. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:25657727

  12. Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: clinical aspects, imaging features and endovascular treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Flis; H. Rolf Jäger; Paul S. Sidhu

    2007-01-01

    Extracranial arterial dissections are a recognised cause of stroke, particularly in young adults. Clinical diagnosis may be\\u000a difficult, and the classical triad of symptoms is uncommon. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of extracranial\\u000a arterial dissections, and this review provides a detailed discussion of the relative merits and limitations of currently available\\u000a imaging modalities. Conventional arteriography has been

  13. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  14. First implantation of Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft in the right vertebral artery for cerebral debranching in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wipper, Sabine; Ahlbrecht, Oliver; Kölbel, Tito; Pflugradt, Axel; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Debus, E Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    A 53-year-old woman with Loeys-Dietz syndrome developed progressive subclavian artery aneurysm and common carotid artery dissection. She was treated successfully by plugging and coiling of the subclavian aneurysm and its side branches after combined cervical debranching using standard carotid-axillary bypass and Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft for vertebral revascularization. Follow-up control (4 weeks) documented patent debranching, and only minimal residual flow in the subclavian aneurysm. The described off-label use for sutureless cerebral revascularisation of the vertebral artery might be a fast, simple, and reliable solution for cervical debranching in selective challenging patients. Further studies are necessary to evaluate side effects and durability. PMID:24239520

  15. Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of a Wide-Neck Aneurysm at the Vertebral Artery Terminus Using a Contralateral Approach: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Ibeh, Chinwe; Shah, Qaisar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are especially uncommon but carry a significant risk of hemorrhage and historically have been difficult to treat. In recent years, however, advancements in stent-assisted embolization have allowed better access and stabilization of complicated posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods We describe a novel approach in the treatment of a wide-neck aneurysm at the terminus of the left vertebral artery by a contralateral approach in a patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion. Results A complex, wide-neck aneurysm at the verterbrobasilar junction hindered by ipsilateral subclavian occlusion can successfully be treated with stent-assisted coil embolization using a contralateral approach. Conclusion Contralateral U-shaped stenting offers a viable endovascular option for patients with complex aneurysms of the vertebral basilar junction but should be reserved for appropriate cases with favorable anatomy when the ipsilateral approach from the subclavian artery is unobtainable. PMID:26060520

  16. Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow. PMID:22639713

  17. Long-Term Outcome of Endovascular Treatment versus Medical Care for Carotid Artery Stenosis in Patients Not Suitable for Surgery and Randomised in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Ederle; Roland L. Featherstone; Martin M. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Background: Optimal treatment of carotid stenosis in patients not suitable for surgery is unclear. The Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty study contained a trial comparing medical and endovascular treatment in patients not suitable for surgery. Methods: Forty patients were randomised to medical or endovascular treatment in equal numbers, and patients were followed up for up to 10 years. The

  18. Clip reconstruction of giant vertebral artery aneurysm after failed flow reduction therapy.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshikazu; Kin, Taichi; Shojima, Masaaki; Morita, Akio

    2015-07-01

    Flow reduction therapy is sometimes utilized for difficult aneurysms, but it does not always work. A 42-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness, and slight gait disturbance due to left thrombosed giant vertebral aneurysm. Clip ligation of the VA after the PICA origin was performed for flow reduction based on the CFD analysis. Two months later, the aneurysm showed minor hemorrhage and hydrocephalus, and thrombectomy and clip reconstruction of the VA was performed. He returned to work with slight ipsilateral facial palsy (House & Brackmann grade 2). The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/-AUVk6nxefQ . PMID:26132622

  19. Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

  20. Evaluating the V2 Segment of the Vertebral Artery with Computed Tomography to Assess Risks During Cervical Spinal Surgery: An Anatomic Study on Cadaver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Güvençer; Süleyman Men; Sait Naderi

    Purpose: The second segment (V2) of the vertebral artery is located in the transverse foramen of the C6-2 cervical vertebrae. It is at risk of injury during anterior, anterolateral and posterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. The aim of this study is to measure and evaluate the relationship between the V2 segment and bony landmarks of the cervical vertebrae.

  1. Assessing the validity of a novel model of vertebral artery type of cervical syndrome induced by injecting sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhexing Shou; Lin Shen; Pengcheng Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Summary  The efficacy of injecting sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebra to induce vertebral artery type\\u000a of cervical syndrome (CSA) was observed. Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the model group and the control\\u000a group. The rabbits in the model group were injected with sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebray,\\u000a on the contrary,

  2. Predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography for ischemic stroke-related vertigo.

    PubMed

    Liou, Li-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, I-Fang; Chang, Yang-Pei; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2013-12-01

    Vertigo can be a major presentation of posterior circulation stroke and can be easily misdiagnosed because of its complicated presentation. We thus prospectively assessed the predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) for the prediction of ischemic stroke-related vertigo. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a sensation of whirling (vertigo); (2) intractable vertigo for more than 1 hour despite appropriate treatment; and (3) those who could complete cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vertebral artery (V2 segment) ECCS studies. Eventually, 76 consecutive participants with vertigo were enrolled from Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 2010 and August 2011. Demographic data, neurological symptoms, neurologic examinations, and V2 ECCS were assessed. We chose the parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), PSV/EDV, mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) to represent the hemodynamics. Values from both sides of V2 segments were averaged. We then calculated the average RI (aRI), average PI (aPI), average PSV (aPSV)/EDV, and average (aMV). Axial and coronal diffusion-weighted MRI findings determined the existence of acute ischemic stroke. We grouped and analyzed participants in two ways (way I and way II analyses) based on the diffusion-weighted MRI findings (to determine whether there was acute stroke) and neurological examinations. Using way I analysis, the "MRI (+)" group had significantly higher impedance (aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio) and lower velocity (aPSV, aEDV, and aMV(PSV + EDV/2)), compared to the "MRI (-)" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aPSV, aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) and MRI (-) groups were 41.15/61.5/66.0 (p = 0.0101), 14.55/69.2/72.0 (p = 0.0003), 29.10/92.1/38.0 (p = 0.0013), 1.07/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0066), 0.62/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0076), and 2.69/80.8/66.0 (p = 0.0068), respectively. Using way II analysis, lower aEDV and aMV, and higher aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio could determine the "MRI (+) without focal signs" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) without focal signs and MRI (-) groups were 9.10/71.4/96.0 (p = 0.0005), 15.65/57.1/96.0 (p = 0.0124), 1.10/100/70.0 (p = 0.0002), 0.64/100/70.0 (p = 0.0023), and 2.80/100/70.0 (p = 0.0017), respectively. In conclusion, using demographic data and clinical symptoms, it was difficult to determine the patients with ischemic stroke-related vertigo. Although neurological examinations still have diagnostic value, the high impedance and low velocity pattern of V2 ECCS can be an add-on method for the screening of acute ischemic stroke-related vertigo, even for those without focal neurological signs. PMID:24296055

  3. The baroreflex, or pressure reflex, is the primary mechanism in adult vertebrates for rapid regulation of arterial pressure

    E-print Network

    Altimiras, Jordi

    regulation of arterial pressure through changes in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Such a mechanism is important for buffering fluctuations in arterial pressure, to maintain tissue perfusion pressure and manipulation of arterial pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. The results demonstrated

  4. Vertebral Artery Dissect Injury with Brown-Séquard Syndrome by a Neural Foramen Penetrated Electric Screw Driver Bit : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Noh, Sung Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of complete obstruction of the vertebral artery (VA) due to an electric screw driver bit penetration through the neural foramen into the spinal canal with Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a penetrated neck injury by an electric screw driver bit after a struggle. The patient presented the clinical features of BSS. Computed tomography scan revealed that the electric screw driver bit penetrated through the right neural foramen at the level of C3-4, and it caused an injury to the right half of the spinal cord. Emergent angiography revealed VA dissection, which was managed by immediate coil embolization at both proximal and distal ends of the injury site. After occlusion of the VA, the electric screw driver bit was extracted under general anesthesia. Bleeding was minimal and controlled without difficulties. No postoperative complications, such as wound dehiscence, CSF leakage, or infection, were noted. Endovascular approaches for occlusion of vertebral artery lesions are safe and effective methods of treatment. PMID:24891861

  5. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara, E-mail: f_ferrara@virgilio.it; Francesco, Meli [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Angiology (Italy); Francesco, Raimondi [University Medical Hospital, University of Palermo, Associated Professor, Department of Angiology (Italy); Corrado, Amato [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Angiology (Italy); Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Assistant, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Giuseppina, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Researcher, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Salvatore, Novo [University Medical Hospital of Palermo, Full Professor of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  6. Are Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms a Specific Type of Dissection? A Comparative Study of Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms and Ruptured Mizutani Type 4 Vertebral Artery Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sook Young; Chung, Joonho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) resemble arterial dissections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between these two disease entities and highlight commonalities and distinct features. Methods Among 871 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 BBAs of internal carotid artery and seven vertebral artery dissections (VADs) with a short segmental eccentric dilatation (Mizutani type 4), which is morphologically similar to a BBA, were selected. The following clinical factors were studied in each group : age, gender, risk factors, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), Fisher grade (FG), vasospasms, hydrocephalus, perioperative rebleeding rate, and treatment outcome. Results The mean age was 47.9 years in the BBAs group and 46.4 years in the type 4 VADs group. All the BBA patients were female, whereas there was a slight male predominance in the type 4 VAD group (male : female ratio of 4 : 3). In the BBA and type 4 VAD groups that underwent less aggressive treatment to save the parent artery, 29% (n=2/7) and 66.6% (n=2/3), respectively, eventually required retreatment. Perioperative rebleeding occurred in 72.7% (n=8) and 28.6% (n=2) of patients in the BBA and type 4 VAD groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the other clinical factors in both groups, except for the male dominancy in the type 4 VAD group (p=0.011). Conclusion BBAs and ruptured type 4 VADs have a similar morphological appearance but there is a distinct clinical feature in gender and perioperative rebleeding rates. Complete isolation of an aneurysm from the parent artery might be the most important discipline for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:25535516

  7. Total dependence of the cerebral circulation on the right vertebral artery in Takayasu's disease—A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk S. Elewaut; Daniel A. Duprez; Marc L. De Buyzere; Marc F. Kunnen; Denis L. Clement

    1994-01-01

    A twenty-four-year-old woman with Takayasu's disease was admitted in June 1992 to the hospital because of amaurosis fugax. There were neither a history of stroke nor other neurologic signs. For a long time the patient had suffered from extreme fatigue and claudication of the upper limbs. In 1988 arteriography revealed total occlusion of both subclavian arteries and a severe filiform

  8. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 1 and 2 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Proper screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 1 and 2 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCIs) remains controversial. These low-grade BCIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries treated between August 2003 and April 2013 was performed and Grade 1 and 2 BCIs were identified. Grade 1 injuries are defined as a vessel lumen stenosis of less than 25%, and Grade 2 injuries are defined as a stenosis of the vessel lumen between 25% and 50%. Demographic information, radiographic imaging, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS One hundred seventeen Grade 1 and 2 BCIs in 100 patients were identified and available for follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 60 days. Final imaging of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs demonstrated that 64% of cases had resolved, 13% of cases were radiographically stable, and 9% were improved, whereas 14% radiographically worsened. Of the treatments received, 54% of cases were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 31% received no treatment, and 15% received various medications and treatments, including endovascular stenting. There was 1 cerebral infarction that was thought to be related to bilateral Grade 2 BCI, which developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS The majority of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs remained stable or improved at final follow-up. Despite a 14% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 1 and 2 BCIs cohort, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. The stroke rate was 1% in this low-grade BCIs cohort, which may be an overestimate. The use of ASA or other antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications in these low-grade BCIs did not appear to correlate with radiographic injury stability, nor with a decreased rate of cerebral infarction. Although these data suggest that these Grade 1 and 2 BCIs may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25794340

  9. Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid And Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Ederle; Leo H Bonati; Joanna Dobson; Roland L Featherstone; Peter A Gaines; Jonathan D Beard; Graham S Venables; Hugh S Markus; Andrew Clifton; Peter Sandercock; Martin M Brown

    2009-01-01

    Methods Between March, 1992, and July, 1997, patients who presented at a participating centre with a confi rmed stenosis of the internal carotid artery that was deemed equally suitable for either carotid endarterectomy or endovascular treatment were randomly assigned to either treatment in equal proportions by telephone or fax from the randomisation service at the Oxford Clinical Trials Unit, UK.

  10. Management of Arterial Encasement by Intracranial Meningiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laligam N. Sekhar; Sabareesh Kumar Natarajan

    Intracranial skull base meningiomas frequently encase the basal arteries, the internal carotid artery (ICA), vertebral artery\\u000a (VA), and basilar artery (BA) and their branches. Frequently, the tumor can be dissected away, especially when the encasement\\u000a involves the subarachnoid segment. When such dissection is not safely possible, or when the tumor involves an extradural segment,\\u000a particularly with narrowing of the artery,

  11. Persistent trigeminal artery and associated vascular variations.

    PubMed

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, T J; Varghese, S P J; Chavan, V N K

    2007-10-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent type of persistent primitive carotid-basilar artery anastomoses. Persistent trigeminal artery is usually associated with small or absent posterior communicating artery (Pcom). It may also be associated with hypoplastic vertebral and basilar arteries. Patients may present with symptoms related to hypo-perfusion of posterior circulation or microembolization from carotid artery to posterior circulation. We are presenting a 60-year-old who had recurrent episodes of vertigo and parasthesia, in whom MR angiography revealed a medial, Saltzman type 1 PTA on the left with absent ipsilateral Pcom, duplicated ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery, hypoplastic A1 segment of contralateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA), azygous ACA and hypoplastic ipsilateral vertebral artery. PMID:17875151

  12. Meningiomas with Vertebrobasilar Artery Encasement

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Laligam N.; Javed, Tariq

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen patients with petroelival and foramen magnum meningiomas encasing the vertebral or basilar arteries and their branches were surgically excised over a 3-year period. All six cases with vertebral artery encasement were totally excised. One vertebral artery was occluded, one was repaired, and one was replaced with a vein graft. None of the patients had a permanent major neurologic deficit. In one patient with vertebral and basilar artery encasement, a hypoplastic vertebral artery was occluded and the tumor was totally excised. She had a transient worsening of hemiparesis, presumably due to the dissection of tumor from the brainstem. Among the ten patients with encasement of the basilar artery and branches, injury to the basilar artery occurred in two patients, both were repaired. Injuries to one superior cerebellar artery, one anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and one perforating vessel could not be repaired. Three patients sustained major neurologic deficits, but only in two did this result in permanent functional deterioration. Three of the ten patients had a gross total resection, five had subtotal resection (90% or more of tumor volume), and two had resection of 70% of the tumor volume. Eight patients had improvement in their Karnofsky scores. None showed recurrence or regrowth on follow-up ranging from 2 to 6 years. Greater difficulty with dissection was experienced in previously operated patients, and in patients who did not have an arachnoid plane between the brainstem and the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging was the most useful preoperative test. It is concluded that meningiomas with vertebrobasilar artery encasement can be removed successfully with modern skull base surgery techniques. The surgeon needs to exercise caution and judgment in deciding how far the removal of these lesions should be pursued. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17170896

  13. Imaging of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Udismita

    2014-05-01

    Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

  14. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Udismita

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

  15. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  16. Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis Clarissa L. Waites,1 Ann Marie Craig,2 and Craig C. Garner1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF SYNAPTOGENESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Synapse Elimination

  17. Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

  18. Treatment of a patient with vertebral and subclavian aneurysms in the setting of a TGFBR2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Joshua; Greenberg, Roy K; Mastracci, Tara M; Eagleton, Matthew J; Moran, Rocio

    2013-04-01

    We present the case of a patient diagnosed with hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with aneurysms of the subclavian and vertebral arteries. Molecular testing demonstrated transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 2 mutation. She was not a candidate for an open repair; therefore, a hybrid approach involving right vertebral ligation and bypass from the right common carotid to the vertebral C1-2 interface, endovascular exclusion of the left vertebral artery, and stent grafting of the left subclavian/axillary artery was used. The left vertebral embolization proved ineffective, requiring a right-to-left vertebral catheterization with glue occlusion. Based on her proper molecular diagnosis, she underwent prophylactic root and ascending aortic repair. PMID:23312833

  19. Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

  20. Aging changes in vertebral morphometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Diacinti; M. Acca; E. D'Erasmo; E. Tomei; G. F. Mazzuoli

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39–74 years. Vertebral heights and

  1. Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

  2. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  3. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  4. Vertebral hydatidosis and paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Karray, S; Zlitni, M; Fowles, J V; Zouari, O; Slimane, N; Kassab, M T; Rosset, P

    1990-01-01

    We report the management of two children and 11 adults with paraplegia secondary to vertebral hydatidosis. Destruction of pedicles, posterior vertebral elements and discs as well as the vertebral bodies was common and all six patients with thoracic disease had involvement of adjacent ribs. The 13 patients had a total of 42 major surgical procedures; two patients died from postoperative complications and four from complications of the disease and paraplegia. All eight patients initially treated by laminectomy or anterior decompression alone relapsed within two years and seven required further surgery. Circumferential decompression and grafting gave the best results, six of nine patients being in remission an average of three years and six months later. The prognosis for such patients is poor; remission is the aim, rather than cure. Anthelminthic drugs may improve the prognosis, but radical surgery is likely to remain the keystone of treatment in the foreseeable future. PMID:2298801

  5. Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

    1983-01-01

    Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained. PMID:21283322

  6. Posterior vertebral rim fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I BEGGS; J ADDISON

    Fracture of the posterior vertebral endplate is a cause of low back pain in adolescents and young adults. Clinically it resembles an acute disc prolapse with low back pain and radiculopa- thy, but may present with neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis in older patients. The lesions may be incidental findings. Plain radiographs are diagnostic in about 40% of cases.

  7. Pheromonal communication in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Brennan; Frank Zufall

    2006-01-01

    Recent insights have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of chemical signals in influencing vertebrate behaviour. Previously unknown families of pheromonal signals have been identified that are expanding the traditional definition of a pheromone. Although previously regarded as functioning independently, the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems have been found to have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect

  8. Duration tuning across vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

  9. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case. PMID:23440575

  10. Aging changes in vertebral morphometry.

    PubMed

    Diacinti, D; Acca, M; D'Erasmo, E; Tomei, E; Mazzuoli, G F

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39-74 years. Vertebral heights and the anterior height/posterior height ratio are significantly lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Vertebral anterior height decreases about 1.5 mm/year, whereas middle and posterior height decreases about 1.3 and 1.2/mm year, respectively. A statistically significant reduction of vertebral heights by around 1 mm/vertebra was observed in postmenopausal (n = 16) compared with premenopausal women (n = 20) of the same age (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that vertebral heights are lower with advancing age and menopause and that the vertebral heights difference in elderly people is not only the consequence of a cohort effect. The results also contribute to better defining the reference population to be chosen for evaluating vertebral deformation. PMID:8581874

  11. Carotid artery stenting improves cerebral hemodynamics regardless of the flow direction of ophthalmic artery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chien-Hung; Chang, Ting-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Jr-Rung; Chen, Yu-Wei; Yip, Bak-Sau; Ryu, Shan-Jin; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2015-02-01

    We enrolled 221 patients with elective carotid artery stenting (CAS). Patients with contralateral carotid stenosis exceeding 50%, insufficient vertebral artery (VA) flows, or angioplasty at subclavian artery were excluded. All patients underwent serial cerebral ultrasound studies. Of the 116 included patients, the direction of ophthalmic artery (OA) flow was forward in 74 patients while reversed in 42. The reversed flow group had worse ipsilateral stenosis, higher hemoglobin, and cardiac output. After CAS, the reversed flow group had an immediate recovery of ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow volume (FV; P < .0001), time average velocity (TAV) of middle cerebral artery (P = .02), and normalization of OA flow. The forward flow group had gradual decrement in TAV of contralateral anterior cerebral artery (P = .01) and total FV of VA (P = .001). Our results suggest CAS improves cerebral hemodynamics through different ways regardless of the direction of OA flow. PMID:24569514

  12. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  13. Meningiomas with vertebrobasilar artery encasement: review of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, L N; Javed, T

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen patients with petroelival and foramen magnum meningiomas encasing the vertebral or basilar arteries and their branches were surgically excised over a 3-year period. All six cases with vertebral artery encasement were totally excised. One vertebral artery was occluded, one was repaired, and one was replaced with a vein graft. None of the patients had a permanent major neurologic deficit. In one patient with vertebral and basilar artery encasement, a hypoplastic vertebral artery was occluded and the tumor was totally excised. She had a transient worsening of hemiparesis, presumably due to the dissection of tumor from the brainstem. Among the ten patients with encasement of the basilar artery and branches, injury to the basilar artery occurred in two patients, both were repaired. Injuries to one superior cerebellar artery, one anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and one perforating vessel could not be repaired. Three patients sustained major neurologic deficits, but only in two did this result in permanent functional deterioration. Three of the ten patients had a gross total resection, five had subtotal resection (90% or more of tumor volume), and two had resection of 70% of the tumor volume. Eight patients had improvement in their Karnofsky scores. None showed recurrence or regrowth on follow-up ranging from 2 to 6 years. Greater difficulty with dissection was experienced in previously operated patients, and in patients who did not have an arachnoid plane between the brainstem and the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging was the most useful preoperative test. It is concluded that meningiomas with vertebrobasilar artery encasement can be removed successfully with modern skull base surgery techniques. The surgeon needs to exercise caution and judgment in deciding how far the removal of these lesions should be pursued. PMID:17170896

  14. Subclavian artery stenosis treated by transluminal angioplasty: Six cases

    SciTech Connect

    Galichia, J.P.; Bajaj, A.K.; Vine, D.L.; Roberts, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    Transluminal angioplasty (TLA) has been used in six patients with subclavian artery stenosis admitted to a large community hospital. Five patients had lesions proximal to the origin of the left vertebral artery, three of whom had angiographic evidence of subclavian steal syndrome. In all six, arteries were successfully dilated with only one complication of a hematoma at an arteriotomy site. In a 10 to 24-month follow-up, all six patients have remained totally asymptomatic without any further complications.

  15. Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function In contrast to products of human design natural selection for function acting on existing structures. Vertebrate morphology thus depends, etc. - shared by broad groups of vertebrates. Because these characteristics also form the basis

  16. Left arm underdevelopment secondary to an isolated left subclavian artery in tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Carnero Alcázar, Manuel; Marianeschi, Stefano; Ruiz Alonso, Enrique; García Torres, Enrique; Comas, Juan V

    2010-02-01

    The anomalous origin of the left subclavian artery is known to be associated with right aortic arch and tetralogy of Fallot. In our case, the left subclavian artery arose from the left pulmonary artery. Therefore, the left arm was perfused by poorly oxygenated blood from pulmonary arteries and some retrograde vertebral artery flow. Thus, the left arm was cyanotic and less developed than the right one. The patient underwent surgical repair with complete correction of tetralogy of Fallot and reimplantation of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. PMID:20103369

  17. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  18. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  19. In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates, crustaceans and cephalopod

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates is an exquisite mechanical one that seems to be common to all circulatory systems examined so far: distensible is a profoundly important determinant of blood flow dynamics in any circulatory system. Arteries must have non

  20. Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Thomas E., E-mail: t.e.mayer@med.uni-jena.d [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU), Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Hamann, Gerhard F. [Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Wiesbaden, Department of Neurology (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

  1. Embolization for vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smit, J W; Vielvoye, G J; Goslings, B M

    2000-03-01

    The technique of selective embolization has been applied for years in the treatment of vascular anomalies, severe hemorrhage and benign or malignant tumors, notably vertebral metastases of renal cell carcinoma. Because this technique is relatively easy to perform and offers immediate relief of symptoms, it is an attractive option for patients with vertebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma with signs of spinal cord compression. In these patients, other treatment modalities like radioactive iodine, external irradiation, or surgery are more cumbersome or less effective in the short term. We describe four patients with metastasized follicular thyroid carcinoma, presenting with neurological symptoms due to vertebral metastases. All patients had undergone total thyroidectomy, ranging from 1 month to 4 yr before embolization. Embolization was combined with iodine-131 therapy when appropriate. Selective catheterization of the arteries feeding the metastases was performed, followed by infusion of polyvinyl alcohol particles (Ivalon). The procedure was technically successful in all patients without adverse effects. In the patients described, embolization resulted in rapid resolution of neurological symptoms, sometimes within hours. The therapeutic effect lasted from months to years. We conclude that embolization of vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma is an attractive palliative therapeutic option that may offer rapid relief of symptoms. PMID:10720028

  2. The Vertebral Column Mead Retires

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    by means of jury- rigged mechanisms. Also, when he turned 16 and was qualified to work at a regular job, he NEWSLETTER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL., 22, NO. 3 #12

  3. Basilar Artery Occlusion Following C1 Lateral Mass Fracture Managed by Mechanical and Pharmacological Thrombolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick A. Sugrue; Ziad A. Hage; Daniel L. Surdell; Mina Foroohar; John Liu; Bernard R. Bendok

    2009-01-01

    Background  Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma can be associated with stroke. We present a case of a C1 fracture\\u000a resulting in vertebral artery dissection and neurological decline as a result of basilar artery occlusion treated with chemical\\u000a and mechanical thrombolysis resulting in basilar artery patency and clinical improvement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case description  The patient is a 43-year-old female who was involved in

  4. Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics

    E-print Network

    Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology in vertebrate biomechanics. These papers are salient examples of the use of FEA to test hypotheses regarding in the methodological arsenal of vertebrate biomechanics. One of the central aims of vertebrate biomechanics

  5. Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, Yoshinori, E-mail: shigemachy@aol.com; Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou [Internal Medicine, and Neurosurgery, Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  6. Arterial embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

  7. Pediatric traumatic carotid, vertebral and cerebral artery dissections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Martin M; Verma, Ketan; Tubbs, R Shane; Harrigan, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic cerebral dissections are rare but potentially dangerous conditions that through improved diagnostics have recently gained increased interest. However, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the natural history, as well as on the best treatment options. Most of the literature on this topic consists of case reports and retrospective studies with no prospective randomized controlled studies. In our review, we highlight the fact that there is no level 1 evidence for the natural history of cerebral dissections or for the best treatment. We present 26 case studies derived from 70 pediatric patients affected by dissections, occlusions, and pseudoaneurysms. PMID:21318614

  8. Pediatric traumatic carotid, vertebral and cerebral artery dissections: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin M. Mortazavi; Ketan Verma; R. Shane Tubbs; Mark Harrigan

    Traumatic cerebral dissections are rare but potentially dangerous conditions that through improved diagnostics have recently\\u000a gained increased interest. However, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the natural history, as well as on the\\u000a best treatment options. Most of the literature on this topic consists of case reports and retrospective studies with no prospective\\u000a randomized controlled studies. In

  9. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 #12;2 3 Experiments and Results 6 4 MICCAI Challenge Results 7 5 Conclusion 9 1 Introduction radiation dose and avoiding registration error artifacts. Bone masking is particularly challenging human inspection and therefore slows down the clinical workflow. These methods also typically require

  10. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhikun Gai; Philip C. J. Donoghue; Min Zhu; Philippe Janvier; Marco Stampanoni

    2011-01-01

    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or `ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron

  11. [Neural crest and vertebrate evolution].

    PubMed

    Le Douarin, Nicole M; Creuzet, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a remarkable structure of the Vertebrate embryo, which forms from the lateral borders of the neural plate (designated as neural folds) during neural tube closure. As soon as the NC is formed, its constitutive cells detach and migrate away from the neural primordium along definite pathways and at precise periods of time according to a rostro-caudal progression. The NC cells aggregate in definite places in the developing embryo, where they differentiate into a large variety of cell types including the neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, the pigment cells dispersed throughout the body and endocrine cells such as the adrenal medulla and the calcitonin producing cells. At the cephalic level only, in higher Vertebrates (but along the whole neural axis in Fishes and Amphibians), the NC is also at the origin of mesenchymal cells differentiating into connective tissue chondrogenic and osteogenic cells. Vertebrates belong to the larger group of Cordates which includes also the Protocordates (Cephalocordates and the Urocordates). All Cordates are characterized by the same body plan with a dorsal neural tube and a notochord which, in Vertebrates, exists only at embryonic stages. The main difference between Protocordates and Vertebrates is the very rudimentary development of cephalic structures in the former. As a result, the process of cephalization is one of the most obvious characteristics of Vertebrates. It was accompanied by the apparition of the NC which can therefore be considered as an innovation of Vertebrates during evolution. The application of a cell marking technique which consists in constructing chimeric embryos between two species of birds, the quail and the chicken, has led to show that the vertebrate head is mainly formed by cells originating from the NC, meaning that this structure was an important asset in Vertebrate evolution. Recent studies, described in this article, have strengthened this view by showing that the NC does not only provide the cells that build up the facial skeleton and most of the skull but plays a major role in early brain neurogenesis. It was shown that the cephalic NC cells produce signaling molecules able to regulate the activity of the two secondary organizing centers previously identified in the developing brain: the anterior neural ridge and the midbrain-hindbrain junction, which secrete Fgf8, a potent stimulator of early brain neurogenesis. PMID:21831339

  12. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

  13. Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. PMID:19720653

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTH Carotid Artery Disease What are the carotid arteries? The carotid arteries are the bloodd vessels that ... the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease is defined by the ...

  15. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  16. The evolution of vertebrate gastrulation.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, E M; Fainsod, A; Gont, L K; Steinbeisser, H

    1994-01-01

    The availability of molecular markers now permits the analysis of the common elements of vertebrate gastrulation. While gastrulation appears to be very diverse in the vertebrates, by analyzing a head-organizer marker, goosecoid, and a marker common to all forming mesoderm, Brachyury, we attempt to identify homologous structures and equivalent stages in Xenopus, zebrafish, chick and mouse gastrulation. Using a tail-organizer marker, Xnot-2, we also discuss how the late stages of gastrulation lead to the formation of the postanal tail, a structure characteristic of the chordates. PMID:7579512

  17. Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

  18. [Subclavian steal-carotid recovery phenomenon due to innominate artery occlusion: Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography findings and endovascular treatment].

    PubMed

    Birgi, Erdem; Ergun, Onur; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Özç?nar, Evren; Conkbay?r, I??k

    2014-06-01

    Innominate artery occlusion is a rare condition that can cause symptoms in the anterior cerebral circulation, vertebrobasilar system and upper extremity, while it can also be asymptomatic. We report the Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings of the right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery flow by retrograde flow from the ipsilateral vertebral artery due to innominate artery occlusion. We aimed to discuss the results of primary stenting together with the technical and clinical success. PMID:24899484

  19. Rupture and Migration of an Endovascular Stent in the Brachiocephalic Trunk Causing a Vertebral Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Periard, D., E-mail: Daniel.Periard@chuv.ch; Haesler, E.; Hayoz, D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Service of Angiology (Switzerland); Von Segesser, L. K. [University Hospital (CHUV), Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Center (Switzerland); Qanadli, S. D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2008-07-15

    Delayed stent fracture has been observed in many different arteries and may represent a risk factor for restenosis. We describe the case of a delayed rupture of an endovascular brachiocephalic trunk stent. The complete fracture allowed a fragment to migrate distally and tilt, resulting in a hemodynamic pattern similar to that of a prevertebral stenosis with complete inversion of the homolateral vertebral blood flow. The induced vertebral steal syndrome as well as the risk of cerebral embolism was corrected by an aortobrachiocephalic bypass and resection of the ruptured stent.

  20. Osmoregulation by Vertebrates in Aquatic

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    , freshwater vertebrates face a net osmotic influx of water and net loss of salt by diffusion; marine forms from that of their freshwater or marine environment, they face net movements of water and salt across years ago, and many of these early forms apparently entered fresh water soon after they evolved

  1. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

  2. Persistent stapedial arteries in human: from phylogeny to surgical consequences.

    PubMed

    Hitier, Martin; Zhang, M; Labrousse, M; Barbier, C; Patron, V; Moreau, S

    2013-12-01

    The stapedial artery is an embryonic artery which disappears during the tenth week in utero, in human species. During its short life, this artery shapes the stapes and transforms the middle meningeal artery from the internal carotid artery to a branch of the external carotid system. Nevertheless, a persistent stapedial artery is seen in 0.2-4.8 per thousand of human adults. This persistence is usually asymptomatic but can sometimes cause pulsatile tinnitus or conductive hearing loss. Despite the risk of facial palsy, hearing loss and even hemiplegia argued by several authors, some surgeons have succeeded in coagulation without side effects. Reviewing the literature, we seek to enlighten the actual knowledge about the persistent stapedial artery to evaluate the risk to coagulate it. Embryologic studies explain the four types of persistent stapedial arteries: the hyoido-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-hyo-stapedial artery and aberrant internal carotid with persistent stapedial artery. Phylogenetic studies show that the stapedial artery persists in adulthood in many vertebrates. Its disappearance is therefore either a random effect or an adaptative convergence. This adaptation could be partially linked to the negative allometry of the stapes. Practically, the risk to coagulate a stapedial artery seems limited thanks to anastomoses, for example with the stylomastoid artery. The risk of hemiplegia reported is in fact an extrapolation of variation in rats' embryos. A persistent stapedial artery can therefore reasonably be coagulated, with special attention to the facial nerve, because the facial canal is always dehiscent where the artery penetrates. PMID:23640742

  3. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    i QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES By SRIKANTH KANNAN August, 2008 reproduce the mastication motion. Reproduction of the mastication motion of a vertebrate with a robotic capture system was used for capture the 3D mastication motion of different vertebrates. 3D laser scanning

  4. Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 7RH Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively

  5. VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS R.D.M. PAGE, J.A. COTTON Division-mail: r.page@bio.gla.ac.uk Ancient gene duplication events have left many traces in vertebrate genomes of vertebrates largely in agreement with other data. We formulate the problem of locating episodes of gene

  6. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Harington

    2011-01-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least

  7. Coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

    1998-01-01

    .   Conventional coronary angiography (CA) is the standard of excellence for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. However,\\u000a non-invasive imaging modalities have developed that can play an important clinical role in the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) can offer a comprehensive evaluation of the heart and the coronary arteries by virtue of its high soft tissue\\u000a contrast capabilities, double-oblique tomographic

  8. Results of a Multicentre, Randomised Controlled Trial of Intra-Arterial Urokinase in the Treatment of Acute Posterior Circulation Ischaemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Macleod; S. M. Davis; P. J. Mitchell; R. P. Gerraty; G. Fitt; G. J. Hankey; E. G. Stewart-Wynne; D. Rosen; J. J. McNeil; C. F. Bladin; B. R. Chambers; G. K. Herkes; D. Young; G. A. Donnan

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with ischaemic stroke due to occlusion of the basilar or vertebral arteries may develop a rapid deterioration in neurological status leading to coma and often to death. While intra-arterial thrombolysis may be used in this context, no randomised controlled data exist to support its safety or efficacy. Methods: Randomised controlled trial of intra-arterial urokinase within 24 h of

  9. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, plaque buildup narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  10. May 2012 Arterial

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    May 2012 Arterial Transitway Corridors Study: Results and Conclusions about Arterial Bus Rapid Transit #12;Arterial Transitway Corridors Study of "Arterial BRT" concept from Met Council TPP ­ Concept/feasibility study led by Metro

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  12. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  13. Spontaneous vertebral dissection: Clinical, conventional angiographic, CT, and MR findings

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzale, J.M.; Morgenlander, J.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Gress, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if typical clinical and neuroradiologic patterns exist in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The medical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 14 patients with spontaneous VA dissection were reviewed. The medical records were examined to exclude patients with a history of trauma and to record evidence of a nontratimatic precipitating event ({open_quotes}trivial trauma{close_quotes}) and presence of possible risk factors such as hypertension. All patients under-went conventional angiography, 13 either CT or MRI (II both CT and MRI), and 3 MRA. Conventional arteriograrris were evaluated for dissection site, evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia, luminal stenosis or occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation, CT examinations for the presence of infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage, MR examinations for the presence of infarction or arterial signal abnormality, and MR angiograms for abnormality of the arterial signal column. Seven patients had precipitating events within 24 h of onset of symptoms that may have been causative of dissection and five had hypertension. At catheter angiography, two patients had dissections in two arteries (both VAs in one patient, VA and internal carotid artery in one patient), giving a total of 15 VAs with dissection. Dissection sites included V1 in four patients, V2 in one patient, V3 in three patients, V4 in six patients, and both V3 and V4 in one patient. Luminal stenosis was present in 13 VAs, occlusion in 2, pseudoaneurysm in 1, and evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in 1. Posterior circulation infarcts were found on CT or MR in five patients. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found on CT in two patients and by lumbar puncture alone in two patients. Abnormal periarterial signal on MRI was seen in three patients. MRA demonstrated absent VA signal in one patient, pseudoaneurysm in one, and a false-negative examination in one.

  14. Extracellular matrix and the mechanics of large artery development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jeffrey K; Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2012-11-01

    The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during the active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

  15. Spontaneous Mirror Dissections of Cervicocephalic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, W.Y.; Krings, T.; Alvarez, H.; Ozanne, A.; Holmin, S.; Lasjaunias, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Summary While so-called twin or mirror aneurysms constitute an established subgroup of multiple aneurysms, simultaneous spontaneous mirror dissections of cervicocephalic artery have not yet been reported as a particular entity. Among the patients treated at our institution since 1989, we identified 74 patients with spontaneous, nontraumatic dissections. Six of these cases presented with simultaneous bilateral dissections and four of the six patients had mirror dissections. Acute or chronic headache was present in all four cases. Additional clinical presentations consisted of impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, and tinnitus. Angiography revealed irregular stenosis, dilatation or aneurysms located in the cervical ICA (internal carotid artery), VA (vertebral artery), or MCA (middle cerebral artery) without evident location bias. Although mirror dissections seems to be an exceptional finding, they may shed light on the vulnerability of different arterial segments to specific diseases. Similar to arterial aneurysm formation, pathogenesis of mirror dissection may involve an underlying "shared defect" in the endothelial cells, since these cells demonstrate a bilateral distribution during embryological development. This particular distribution therefore also provides a chronicle trail of the first trigger striking during embryonic development and demonstrates the segmental vulnerability to highly specific triggers. PMID:20569557

  16. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Harington

    2011-01-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species

  17. Unmethylated domains in vertebrate DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D N; Taggart, M H; Bird, A P

    1983-01-01

    We have detected a fraction that is rich in unmethylated HpaII and HhaI sites by end-labelling HpaII fragments of chicken DNA. The fraction is not obvious when DNA fragments are stained with ethidium bromide as it amounts to less than 2% of the genome. The average frequency of sites for HpaII is over thirteen times greater in the unmethylated fraction than in total DNA. Partial digests indicate that the unmethylated sites are clustered in the genome. Similar unmethylated fractions were detected in six other vertebrates in both somatic and germ line DNA. Images PMID:6188105

  18. Dolichoectatic Cervical Arteries (Carotid and Vertebral Arteries) Heralded by Recurrent Cerebral Ischemia: Case Illustration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Mourgela; S. Anagnostopoulou; Antonios Sakellaropoulos; A. Spanos

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old man with recurrent episodes of cerebral transient ischemic attacks is reported. The patient had a history of cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Before these episodes, the patient had no clinical symptoms and signs of cerebral pathology. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed microvascular lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Digital subtraction

  19. Coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

    2000-01-01

    .   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.

  20. Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Melton; C. Cooper; R. Eastell; W. M. O'Fallon; B. L. Riggs

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to identify vertebral fractures from radiographs taken at a single point in time, but considerable controversy surrounds the methods to be used. We extended a data set to comprise baseline radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine on an age-stratified random sample of 762 Rochester, Minnesota, women and used revised methods to define vertebral deformities morphometrically.

  1. Agnathans and the origin of jawed vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Forey; Philippe Janvier

    1993-01-01

    The origins of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) lie somewhere within the ranks of long-extinct jawless fishes, represented today as the lampreys and hagfishes. Recent discoveries of hitherto unknown kinds of jawless fishes (agnathans), together with re-examination of known agnathans and advances in systematic methods, have revitalized debates about the relationships of ancient fishes and given fresh insights into early vertebrate history.

  2. Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Minor Keith

    A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

  3. Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

  4. Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

  5. Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

    A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

  6. Hybrid Repair of Proximal Subclavian Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kazuki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Iba, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conventional open repair for proximal subclavian artery aneurysms (SCAAs) requires cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients with proximal SCAA can be treated with hybrid repair. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed hybrid repair to treat six consecutive patients with proximal SCAA (three left SCAAs, one right aberrant SCAA, two right SCAAs). Their median age was 73.5 [70–87] years, and the size of their aneurysm was 33.5 [30–45] mm. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) only was used for one patient with left SCAA, TEVAR and supra-aortic bypass for two with left SCAA and one with right aberrant SCAA, and endovascular repair with reconstruction of the vertebral artery using the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for two with right SCAA. Results: The follow-up duration was 3.7 [0.2–6.8] years. There was no 30-day mortality and only one early complication consisting of a minor stroke after TEVAR for shaggy aorta. Two late deaths occurred, one caused by cerebral infarction due to occlusion of SVG to the dominant vertebral artery 2 months after the operation and the other by aortic dissection 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Hybrid repair can be a less-invasive alternative for proximal SCAA. Revascularization of neck vessels and TEVAR should be performed very carefully to prevent neurologic complications.

  7. Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenstein, E.

    2002-05-01

    This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  10. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider heart screening – and why? How are the procedures ... more information about heart screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find ...

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; iliac artery-angioplasty; fermoral artery-angioplasty; popliteal artery-angioplasty; tibial artery-angioplasty; peroneal artery- ...

  12. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  13. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  14. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  15. Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Summary Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the polarization of a field of cells within the plane of a cell sheet. This form of polarization is required for diverse cellular processes in vertebrates, including convergent extension (CE), the establishment of PCP in epithelial tissues and ciliogenesis. Perhaps the most distinct example of vertebrate PCP is the uniform orientation of stereociliary bundles at the apices of sensory hair cells in the mammalian auditory sensory organ. The establishment of PCP in the mammalian cochlea occurs concurrently with CE in this ciliated epithelium, therefore linking three cellular processes regulated by the vertebrate PCP pathway in the same tissue and emerging as a model system for dissecting PCP signaling. This review summarizes the morphogenesis of this model system to assist the interpretation of the emerging data and proposes molecular mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in vertebrates. PMID:17226800

  16. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature.

  17. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  18. Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sues, Hans-Dieter

    2000-08-01

    Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

  19. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database

    PubMed Central

    Ashurst, J. L.; Chen, C.-K.; Gilbert, J. G. R.; Jekosch, K.; Keenan, S.; Meidl, P.; Searle, S. M.; Stalker, J.; Storey, R.; Trevanion, S.; Wilming, L.; Hubbard, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) has been designed to be a community resource for browsing manual annotation of finished sequences from a variety of vertebrate genomes. Its core database is based on an Ensembl-style schema, extended to incorporate curation-specific metadata. In collaboration with the genome sequencing centres, Vega attempts to present consistent high-quality annotation of the published human chromosome sequences. In addition, it is also possible to view various finished regions from other vertebrates, including mouse and zebrafish. Vega displays only manually annotated gene structures built using transcriptional evidence, which can be examined in the browser. Attempts have been made to standardize the annotation procedure across each vertebrate genome, which should aid comparative analysis of orthologues across the different finished regions. PMID:15608237

  20. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, J L; Chen, C-K; Gilbert, J G R; Jekosch, K; Keenan, S; Meidl, P; Searle, S M; Stalker, J; Storey, R; Trevanion, S; Wilming, L; Hubbard, T

    2005-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) has been designed to be a community resource for browsing manual annotation of finished sequences from a variety of vertebrate genomes. Its core database is based on an Ensembl-style schema, extended to incorporate curation-specific metadata. In collaboration with the genome sequencing centres, Vega attempts to present consistent high-quality annotation of the published human chromosome sequences. In addition, it is also possible to view various finished regions from other vertebrates, including mouse and zebrafish. Vega displays only manually annotated gene structures built using transcriptional evidence, which can be examined in the browser. Attempts have been made to standardize the annotation procedure across each vertebrate genome, which should aid comparative analysis of orthologues across the different finished regions. PMID:15608237

  1. Update of vertebral cementoplasty in porotic patients.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Masala, Salvatore; Muto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Vertebroplasty (VP) is a percutaneous mini-invasive technique developed in the late 1980s as antalgic and stabilizing treatment in patients affected by symptomatic vertebral fracture due to porotic disease, traumatic injury and primary or secondary vertebral spine tumors. The technique consists of a simple metameric injection of an inert cement (poly-methyl-methacrylate, PMMA), through a needle by trans-peduncular, parapeduncular or trans-somatic approach obtaining a vertebral augmentation and stabilization effect associated with pain relief. The technique is simple and fast, and should be performed under fluoroscopy or CT guidance in order to obtain a good result with low complication rate. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the utility of VP, the indications-contraindications criteria, how to technically perform the technique using imaging guidance, and the results and complications of this treatment in patients affected by symptomatic vertebral compression fracture. PMID:26015527

  2. Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network Lauren A. O'Connell1 and Hans A. Hofmann1 genes across 12 brain regions important for decision-making in 88 species representing five vertebrate vertebrates. Our analysis suggests that the diversity of social behavior in vertebrates can be explained

  3. Single umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Shanthi; Hariprasath, Sangeetha; Anandan, Gunasekaran; Solomon, P John; Vijayakumar, V

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery. PMID:26015760

  4. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the carotid arteries become blocked and the brain does not get enough oxygen. Carotid artery disease increases the risk of stroke in 3 ways: By fatty deposits called plaque severely narrowing the carotid arteries. By a blood clot becoming wedged in a carotid artery narrowed by ...

  5. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your limbs, especially your legs. Just like clogged arteries in the heart, clogged

  6. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  7. Cave site contributions to vertebrate history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST L. LUNDELIUS JR

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate fossils from cave deposits and karst features are recorded as early as the Mississippian with later occurrences of Permian vertebrates from fissures in Oklahoma, Triassic\\/Jurassic faunas from Wales and southwest England and Eocene to Oligocene faunas from France. Plio-Pleistocene cave fossil sites are numerous and are well known worldwide.The sheltered depositional environment in caves has facilitated the preservation of

  8. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  9. Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Fowell

    The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

  10. Fatal fat embolism syndrome in a case of isolated L1 vertebral fracture-dislocation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Koun; Fushimi, Kazunari; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Fukuta, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    Although fat embolism syndrome is a well-known complication of fractures of the long bones or pelvis, fat embolism syndrome occurring subsequent to fracture of the lumbar spine is rare. We report a fatal case of fat embolism syndrome characterized by fat and bone marrow embolism that occurred 36 h after an isolated fracture-dislocation of the L1 vertebra. A postmortem examination was performed and pathological finding demonstrated fat and bone marrow tissue which were disseminated in the bilateral pulmonary arteries. We need to be aware of the possibility of fat embolism syndrome as a complication of spinal fractures, including isolated vertebral body fractures. PMID:23412313

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Cervical Paraspinal Arteriovenous Malformation Via Arterial and Venous Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Szajner; Alain Weill; Michel Piotin; Jacques Moret

    Summary: We describe a cervical congenital paraspinal ar- teriovenous malformation (AVM) drained by paraspinal and epidural ectatic veins, which caused massive erosion of the C6 and C7 vertebral bodies, threatening the cervical stability and necessitating treatment. During the first ses- sion, six arterial embolizations were performed to reduce the size and the flow of the AVM. Two months later, a

  12. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  13. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  14. [Secondary intrathoracic reconstruction after prosthetic repair of the brachiocephalic trunk for traumatic aneurysm of the right subclavian artery].

    PubMed

    Shubin, A A; Kranin, D L; Zamski?, K S; Varukin, V P; Stuchilov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a case report of successful secondary surgical treatment of a patient who endured prosthetic repair of the brachiocephalic trunk for a traumatic false aneurysm of the right subclavian artery complicated by thrombosis of the reconstruction zone. Long-term conservative treatment resulted in progression of cerebrovascular insufficiency, invalidization, increasing ischaemia of the right upper limb, which required performing secondary intrathoracic reconstruction with prosthetic repair of the common carotid artery, vertebral artery and axillary artery on the right. Presented herein are the results of check up contrast-enhanced and CT-angiography performed at 10 months after the operation. PMID:24429574

  15. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Task Force FINAL | 1 Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... for you. What is carotid artery stenosis? Carotid artery stenosis is the narrowing of the arteries that ...

  16. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  17. Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D

    2013-09-01

    Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

  18. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cholesterol and cells and other substances in the wall of the artery forming a plaque. If this ... heart muscle and cause angina. If the inner wall of a coronary artery becomes damaged, the inner ...

  19. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery disease may be a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). A TIA is a small ... Major complications of carotid artery disease are: Transient ischemic ... vessel to the brain. It causes the same symptoms as stroke. ...

  20. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can help detect areas of restricted blood flow through an artery. Catheter angiography (www.radiologyinfo.org/ ... contrast agent and x-rays to show blood flow in the arteries in the legs and to ...

  1. Transit & Arterial Performance

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

  2. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , ... procedures. Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel ...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedures performed each year in the United States. Arteries can become clogged over time by the buildup ... bypass" around a section of clogged or diseased artery. The surgery involves using a section of blood ...

  5. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis. PMID:23754917

  6. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wang, Hao-Kwan; Syu, Fei-Kai; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation. Methods We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure) and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses. Results The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36), advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08), diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88), cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76), dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33), blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95), hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47), and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22). Patients taking calcium/vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93), bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61), or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77) were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08), acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41) were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation. Conclusion We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations. PMID:25848240

  7. Visceral Artery Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chiesa; D. Astore; G. Guzzo; S. Frigerio; Y. Tshomba; R. Castellano; M. R. Liberato de Moura; G. Melissano

    2005-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) frequently present as life-threatening emergencies. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with VAA treatment. Between 1988 and April 2002, 31 VAA were treated in 28 patients (14 males, 14 females) with average age of 55?±?15 years. The most common locations were the splenic artery (16) and the hepatic artery (7). Three patients

  8. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) One in every 20 Americans over the age of 50 has P.A.D., a condition that raises the risk for heart attack and stroke. Peripheral arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your legs. Just

  9. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

  10. Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    RESEARCH PAPER Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient of three vertebrate orders (Chiroptera, Rodentia and Passeriformes) along an extensive elevational gradient. Using elevation as a proxy for variation in abiotic characteristics and the known elevational

  11. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VERTEBRATE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua R. Sanes; Jeff W. Lichtman

    1999-01-01

    We describe the formation, maturation, elimination, maintenance, and regen- eration of vertebrate neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the best studied of all synapses. The NMJ forms in a series of steps that involve the exchange of signals among its three cellular components—nerve terminal, muscle fiber, and Schwann cell. Although essentially any motor axon can form NMJs with any muscle fiber, an additional

  13. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  14. Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

    1998-01-01

    We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

  15. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  16. Late Development of Hagfish Vertebral Elements

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:129–139, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23401412

  17. Tail bud determination in the vertebrate embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail S. Tucker; Jonathan M. W. Slack

    1995-01-01

    Background: Although as humans we lose our tails in the second month of embryonic development, a persistent tail is a prominent structural feature of most adult vertebrates. Indeed, the post-anal tail is part of the definition of a chordate. The internal organization of the developing tail — with neural tube, notochord and paired somites — is the same as that

  18. Alternative adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brantley R; Cooper, Max D

    2010-08-01

    Jawless vertebrates use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are generated by RAG-independent combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat cassettes for Ag recognition, instead of the Ig-based Ag receptors used by jawed vertebrates. The VLR genes encode for crescent-shaped proteins that use variable beta-strands and a C-terminal loop to bind to Ags rather than the six CDR loops used by BCRs and TCRs. VLR mAbs have been isolated recently, which enabled the structure of VLR-Ag complexes to be defined. The jawless vertebrate adaptive immune system has many similarities to the Ig-based system of jawed vertebrates, including the compartmentalized development of B-like and T-like lymphocyte lineages that proliferate and differentiate into VLR-secreting plasmacytes and proinflammatory cytokine-producing cells in response to Ags. The definition of common features of the VLR-based and Ig-based systems offers fresh insight into the evolution of adaptive immunity. PMID:20660361

  19. Transposon-mediated Genome Manipulations in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ivics, Zoltán; Li, Meng Amy; Mátés, Lajos; Boeke, Jef D.; Bradley, Allan; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements are segments of DNA with the unique ability to move about in the genome. This inherent feature can be exploited to harness these elements as gene vectors for diverse genome manipulations. Transposon-based genetic strategies have been established in vertebrate species over the last decade, and current progress in this field indicates that transposable elements will serve as indispensable tools in the genetic toolkit of vertebrate models. In particular, transposons can be applied as vectors for somatic and germline transgenesis, and as insertional mutagens in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function forward mutagenesis screens. The major advantage of using transposons as genetic tools is that they facilitate analysis of gene function in an easy, controlled and scalable manner. Transposon-based technologies are beginning to be exploited to link sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. In this article, we provide an overview of transposon-based methods used in vertebrate model organisms, and highlight the most important considerations concerning genetic applications of the transposon systems. PMID:19478801

  20. New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Cisneros

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of an Early-Middle Pleistocene continental vertebrate fauna from El Salvador is here reported. These fossils provide information about a poorly studied geographic area that played an important role during the Great American Faunal Interchange. The fauna is dominated by numerous remains of the proboscidean Cuvieronius tropicus and probably represents the largest known concentration of this genus in America.

  1. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  2. Phylogenetical aspects of brain gangliosides in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinrich Rahmann; Reinhard Hilbig

    1983-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides in 78 vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Agnathes, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated.1.An increase in the concentration of gangliosides takes place with anagenetic progress of nervous organization during phylogeny which is accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the content of neuronal sialo-glycoproteins. This tendency can be observed

  3. Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

  4. HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

    Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

  5. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  6. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  7. Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species

    E-print Network

    Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species In Idaho and Montana #12;PREDICTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES IN IDAHO AND MONTANA Acres and Percent native terrestrial vertebrates that breed in Montana and Idaho, with emphasis placed on National Forest

  8. A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate Mark Mackiewicz1, , Andrey Tatarenkov2 instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove architectures known in any other vertebrate species. Advantages of a mixed-mating strategy in K. marmoratus

  9. Neofunctionalization in Vertebrates: The Example of Retinoic Acid Receptors

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Neofunctionalization in Vertebrates: The Example of Retinoic Acid Receptors Hector Escriva1¤a , Ste the role of gene duplications in establishing vertebrate innovations is one of the main challenges of Evo RAR genes--RARa, b, and c--which resulted from genome duplications at the origin of vertebrates

  10. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes and Liqing Zhang2

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liqing

    Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes Deng Pan1 and Liqing Zhang2 1 Department of Computer a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72-94%) have

  11. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    #12;3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes- off for most vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces, whereas an animal crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take

  12. Accepted Manuscript Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yong-Tao

    Accepted Manuscript Review Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development Yong-Tao Zhang.A. Newman, Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development, Mathematical Biosciences (2012), doi: http Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development Yong-Tao Zhang1, *, Mark S. Alber1,2, *, Stuart A. Newman3, * 1

  13. Positional Behavior and Vertebral Morphology in Atelines and Cebines

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Liza

    Positional Behavior and Vertebral Morphology in Atelines and Cebines STEIG E. JOHNSON AND LIZA J studies because they converge with hominoids in postcranial anatomy, including the vertebral column. Currently, our understanding of ateline vertebral morphology is limited to mainly qualitative descriptions

  14. DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger status. The criteria used for determining candidate species differed among vertebrate groups based

  15. The stages of vertebrate evolutionary J. Todd Streelman1

    E-print Network

    Danley, Patrick

    The stages of vertebrate evolutionary radiation J. Todd Streelman1 and Patrick D. Danley2 1 Hubbard and sexual selection in vertebrate groups that are considered to be exemplars of evolu- tionary radiation different vertebrate radiations follow similar evolutionary trajectories. Groups diverge along axes

  16. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces an acceleratory jump crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

  17. Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimir Soukup1

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    LETTERS Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimi´r Soukup1 , Hans-Henning Epperlein2 , Ivan Hora´cek1 & Robert Cerny1 The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise to dentin and pulp3­5 . Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity6

  18. Probing the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Probing the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle Takeshi Itabashi1,2, Jun and examine the mechanical features, such as deformability and stiffness, of the vertebrate meiotic spindle the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle with the application of nanoNewton forces

  19. Author's personal copy Mathematical modeling of vertebrate limb development

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    Author's personal copy Review Mathematical modeling of vertebrate limb development Yong-Tao Zhang a 3 December 2012 Keywords: Vertebrate limb development Mathematical model Computational model Multi of vertebrate limb develop- ment and their roles in accounting for different aspects of this process. The main

  20. Design Principles of Insect and Vertebrate Visual Systems

    E-print Network

    Zipursky, Lawrebce

    Neuron Review Design Principles of Insect and Vertebrate Visual Systems Joshua R. Sanes1,* and S in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common

  1. Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

  2. The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  3. The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  4. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Girondot, Marc

    458 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458­461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate, or similar devices. Bone Center Images of bone sections can be obtained using a video camera or a regular

  5. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):468470, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Pennilyn

    468 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):468­470, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate. Abbreviations and Terminology Abbreviations L and R denote left and right teeth, respectively. Mea- surement

  6. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Claessens, Leon

    89 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89­106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION LEON P. A. M. CLAESSENS Museum of Comparative

  7. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOB

  8. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER

  9. A novel route of revascularization in basilar artery occlusion and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alejandro; Parry, Phillip Vaughan; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Jovin, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia of the basilar artery is one of the most devastating types of arterial occlusive disease. Despite treatment of basilar artery occlusions (BAO) with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, antiplatelet agents, intra-arterial therapy or a combination, fatality rates remain high. Aggressive recanalization with mechanical thrombectomy is therefore often necessary to preserve life. When direct access to the basilar trunk is not possible, exploration of chronically occluded vessels through collaterals with angioplasty and stenting creates access for manual aspiration. We describe the first report of retrograde vertebral artery (VA) revascularization using thyrocervical collaterals for anterograde mechanical aspiration of a BAO followed by stenting of the chronically occluded VA origin. Our novel retrograde-anterograde approach resulted in resolution of the patient's clinical stroke syndrome. PMID:26055597

  10. Determination of vertebral pose in 3D by minimization of vertebral asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The vertebral pose in three dimensions (3D) may provide valuable information for quantitative clinical measurements or aid the initialization of image analysis techniques. We propose a method for automated determination of the vertebral pose in 3D that, in an iterative registration scheme, estimates the position and rotation of the vertebral coordinate system in 3D images. By searching for the hypothetical points, which are located where the boundaries of anatomical structures would have maximal symmetrical correspondences when mirrored over the vertebral planes, the asymmetry of vertebral anatomical structures is minimized. The method was evaluated on 14 normal and 14 scoliotic vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT). For each vertebra, 1000 randomly initialized experiments were performed. The results show that the vertebral pose can be successfully determined in 3D with mean accuracy of 0.5mm and 0.6° and mean precision of 0.17mm and 0.17. according to the 3D position and 3D rotation, respectively.

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

  12. [Evaluation of neurosonography for a case of brainstem transient ischemic attack (TIA) due to proximal subclavian artery stenosis, with favorable outcome after axillo-axillary bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nozomu; Matsuura, Yutaka; Soeta, Tomoko; Shibano, Ken; Endo, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Koki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Teiji

    2005-05-01

    We report an 82-year-old man with crescendo brainstem TIA and left upper-limb ischemia due to the left proximal subclavian artery stenosis. Angiography revealed that the left proximal subclavian artery was stenotic. The right vertebral artery was considered to be aplastic or occlusive. Neurosonography, especially the echo-Doppler study of the left vertebral artery, showed that the subclavian artery steal phenomenon did not occur. This study has enabled us to opt for axillo-axillary bypass. We preferred to avoid percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in order to avoid the risk of embolization. The patient received the axillo-axillary bypass operation. He has been free of TIAs and the left upper-limb ischemia since the surgery. We have evaluated his blood circulation fully, by comparing his state before and after the axillo-axillary bypass grafting. PMID:15960175

  13. Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies Kitchen, D. M. & Packer, C. 1999. Complexity in vertebrate societies. In: Levels of

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies 1 Kitchen, D. M. & Packer, C. 1999. Complexity in vertebrate societies. In: Levels of Selection in Evolution, (L. Keller, editor), Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, pp. 176-196. 9COMPLEXITY IN VERTEBRATE SOCIETIES DAWN M. KITCHEN AND CRAIG

  14. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Clark, James M.

    683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683­704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

  15. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

  16. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePLUS

    About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

  17. Miocene vertebrates and North Florida shorelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, S.J.

    1968-01-01

    Vertebrate fossils from ten localities, spread across northern Florida, give evidence of shorelines and deltas that have previously been established on geologic evidence or invertebrates alone. Terrestrial mammal remains, in association with shallow-water forms, indicate a deltaic assemblage and in several instances specific animals suggest restricted water depths at the time of sediment deposition. Fortunately diagnostic fragments of Miocene horses, Merychippus and Parahippus, are present in these beds, allowing for a rather close age evaluation of these sediments. Adequate fossil material has been collected from these localities to suggest the past environment and ecological conditions for the forms represented. By utilizing a suggested course of experiments with stream table apparatus it is possible to use the orientation of the fossil vertebrate remains as aids in determining past conditions of sediment accumulation. ?? 1968.

  18. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular basis of morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingqun; Steinbeisser, Herbert

    2009-07-01

    Gastrulation is a crucial step in early embryogenesis. During gastrulation, a set of morphogenetic processes takes place leading to the establishment of the basic body plan and formation of primary germ layers. A rich body of knowledge about these morphogenetic processes has been accumulated over decades. The understanding of the molecular mechanism that controls the complex cell movement and inductive processes during gastrulation remains a challenge. Substantial progress has been made recently to identify and characterize pathways and molecules implicated in the modulation of morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation. Here, we summarize recent findings in the analysis of signaling pathways implicated in gastrulation movements, with the aim to generalize the basic molecular principles of vertebrate morphogenesis. PMID:19347571

  20. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  1. "To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alzimami, Khalid S; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Almagli, Babikir; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of “to-and-fro” waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and “to-and-fro” flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional “to-and-fro” waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the “to-and-fro” waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative.

  2. Adiponectin and Arterial Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azra Mahmud; John Feely

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, is reduced in hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Arterial stiffness, as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in hypertension and diabetes, and as augmentation index (AIx) in CAD, is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. We explored the relationship between adiponectin and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.Methods: Seventy-six untreated patients, 34 women, aged 47 ±

  3. The GATA family (vertebrates and invertebrates)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger K Patient; James D McGhee

    2002-01-01

    Over the past year, vertebrate GATA factors have been found to participate directly in several signal-transduction pathways. Smad3, phosphorylated by TGF-? signalling, interacts with GATA3 to induce differentiation of T helper cells. Hypertrophic stimuli act through RhoA GTPase and ROCK kinase to activate GATA4 in cardiac myocytes. In the liver, GATA4 is elevated by BMP and FGF signalling, and is

  4. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Togawa; Isador H. Lieberman

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease currently afflicting approx 44 million Americans; this figure will increase as the population\\u000a ages. It results in progressive bone mineral loss and concurrent changes in bony architecture that leave bone vulnerable to\\u000a fracture, often after minimal or no trauma. The spine is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture, with vertebral compression\\u000a fracture (VCF) occurring

  5. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  6. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sean P; Hassan, Hassan K; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

  7. Arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

  8. Evolution of Vertebrate GnRH Receptors from the Perspective of a Basal Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sower, Stacia A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Joseph, Nerine T.; Freamat, Mihael

    2012-01-01

    This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R) in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian), type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that two whole rounds of genome duplication (2R) occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates. PMID:23181055

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun Jun; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

  10. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula as a complication after c1 screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Jun; Oh, Se-Yang; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2014-10-01

    High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

  11. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  12. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  13. New dysostosis showing multilevel absence of vertebral pedicles: unique developmental anomaly of vertebral arches?

    PubMed

    Verloes, A; Muller, C; Philippet, P

    2000-12-18

    We report on an apparently normal child who shows hypopaplasia of the vertebral pedicles and posterior arches of several cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae with normally fused spinous apophyses, hypoplastic sacrum, lumbar epidural lipomatosis, synostoses of some cervical vertebral disks, and sacral spina bifida. The most likely mechanism is an abnormal differentiation of the spinal processes, due most probably to an absence of differentiation in cartilage of the dense mesenchyme forming their most anterior part. Because the anomalies affect multiple levels, we highly suspect a genetic basis to this unusual dysostosis affecting the development of the posterior sclerotomes. PMID:11146469

  14. Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EBERHARD RITZ; SIMONA BRUNO; GIUSEPPE REMUZZI; PIERO RUGGENENTI

    2004-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a recog- nized, potentially curable cause of posttransplant arterial hy- pertension, allograft dysfunction, and graft loss. It usually occurs 3 mo to 2 yr after transplantation, but early or later presentations are not uncommon. The prevalence ranges widely from 1 to 23% in different series, reflecting the heter- ogeneous criteria used to establish the

  15. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  16. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  17. Trans-arterial Onyx Embolization of a Functional Thoracic Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Quesada, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Maud, Alberto; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Torabi, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Akle, Nassim; Cruz Flores, Salvador; Trier, Todd

    2015-02-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumors of the endocrine system. They are highly vascular and in some cases hormonally active, making their management challenging. Although there is strong evidence of the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization in the management of spinal tumors, only five cases have been reported in the setting of thoracic paragangliomas. We present the case of a 19-year-old man with a large, primary, functional, malignant paraganglioma of the thoracic spine causing a vertebral fracture and spinal cord compression. To our knowledge this is the first report of preoperative trans-arterial balloon augmented Onyx embolization of a thoracic paraganglioma. PMID:25763296

  18. The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

  19. Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-G. Shu; S. Conway Morris; J. Han; Z.-F. Zhang; K. Yasui; P. Janvier; L. Chen; X.-L. Zhang; J.-N. Liu; Y. Li; H.-Q. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger to subsequent vertebrate diversifications. However, although they are

  20. Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

  1. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Daly; E. Raymond S. Ross; Heather Norris; Charles N. McCollum

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery\\u000a are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with\\u000a anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications\\u000a associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral

  2. Superdominant Right Coronary Artery with Double Posterior Descending Artery

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Monika; Mittal, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are rare entities. All angiographers and cardiac surgeons need to be familiar with these anatomic variants for proper surgical revasularisation in the presence of coronary artery disease. We report here an interesting case of superdominant right coronary artery with double posterior descending artery. PMID:25838874

  3. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  4. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  5. Limbus lumbar and sacral vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Jorge S; Huete, Isidro L; Tagle, Patricio M

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated the fractures of the lumbar and sacral vertebral limbus by disc impingement at the peripheral ring apophysis in 23 adults associated with trauma in 16 of them. Lumbalgia, radicular pain and narrow canal symptoms are the presenting forms of this underdiagnosed pathology. CT is the best method of examination, while plain roentgenograms and MR are usually negative. Accurate diagnosis and surgical technique with larger exposure are needed to resect the fractured fragments and protruded disc material for decompressing the roots and the dural sac. Our results were very good on the majority of cases. PMID:11877896

  6. Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

  7. Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system emerges from

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    515 Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system emerges from somites ­ segmentally), a tendon-specific bHLH transcription factor, has Proper formation of the musculoskeletal system requires

  8. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  9. Retooling Spare Parts: Gene Duplication And Vertebrate Cognitive Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Belgard, T Grant; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Two new studies experimentally demonstrate how ancient genomic duplications of synaptic genes provided the substrate for diversification that ultimately expanded vertebrate cognitive complexity. PMID:23257927

  10. Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

  11. Reconstruction of the vertebrate ancestral genome reveals dynamic genome reorganization in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoichiro; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kohara, Yuji; Morishita, Shinichi

    2007-09-01

    Although several vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, little is known about the genome evolution of early vertebrates and how large-scale genomic changes such as the two rounds of whole-genome duplications (2R WGD) affected evolutionary complexity and novelty in vertebrates. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate genome is highly nontrivial because of the difficulty in identifying traces originating from the 2R WGD. To resolve this problem, we developed a novel method capable of pinning down remains of the 2R WGD in the human and medaka fish genomes using invertebrate tunicate and sea urchin genes to define ohnologs, i.e., paralogs produced by the 2R WGD. We validated the reconstruction using the chicken genome, which was not considered in the reconstruction step, and observed that many ancestral proto-chromosomes were retained in the chicken genome and had one-to-one correspondence to chicken microchromosomes, thereby confirming the reconstructed ancestral genomes. Our reconstruction revealed a contrast between the slow karyotype evolution after the second WGD and the rapid, lineage-specific genome reorganizations that occurred in the ancestral lineages of major taxonomic groups such as teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and marsupials. PMID:17652425

  12. Vertebrate Endothelial Lipase: Comparative Studies of an Ancient Gene and Protein in Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S; VandeBerg, John L; Cox, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endothelial lipase (LIPG; E.C.3.1.1.3) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from 15 other human lipase genes examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a ‘stop’ codon’ within exon 9. Vertebrate LIPG protein subunits shared 58–97% sequence identity as compared with 38–45% sequence identities with human LIPC (hepatic lipase) and LIPL (lipoprotein lipase). Four previously reported human LIPG N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate LIPG sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key LIPG amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (LIPP) (Bourne et al., 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the 5?-untranslated regions of the human, mouse and rat LIPG genes; a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3?-untranslated region and several transcription factor binding sites within the human LIPG gene. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families [LIPC and LIPL], other neutral lipase gene families [LIPP, LIPR1, LIPR2, LIPR3, LIPI, LIPH and LIPS], and the extended family of mammalian acid lipases (LIPA, LIPF, LIPJ, LIPK, LIPM, LIPN and LIPO). It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution > 500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

  13. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. G. Cheng; Y. Sun; S. Boonen; P. H. F. Nicholson; P. Brys; J. Dequeker; D. Felsenberg

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between\\u000a the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy\\u000a women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each

  14. Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD. PMID:23553860

  15. Devastating Ischemic Stroke Following Selective Arterial Embolization of a Large Chest Wall Aneurysmal Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Andrew L; Teagarden, Alicia M; Abu-Sultaneh, Samer; Lutfi, Riad

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign bone lesions found in children and young adults. Rarely, these lesions can arise from ribs, and there is disagreement on the best treatment because of proximity to vital structures. Frequently, surgeons remove ABC with en bloc resection. Selective arterial embolization has been used as an adjunct to surgery, or rarely as the primary treatment. We report a case of embolic stroke complicating embolization of a rib ABC, likely from the presence of collateral circulation between the mass and vertebral artery. Caution should be taken when performing embolization of lesions in this location because of potential complications. PMID:25222058

  16. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  17. Intraembryonic hematopoietic cell migration during vertebrate development.

    PubMed Central

    Detrich, H W; Kieran, M W; Chan, F Y; Barone, L M; Yee, K; Rundstadler, J A; Pratt, S; Ransom, D; Zon, L I

    1995-01-01

    Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other teleosts do not form yolk sac blood islands during early embryogenesis, but instead hematopoiesis occurs solely in a dorsal location known as the intermediate cell mass (IM) or Oellacher. In this report, we have isolated cDNAs encoding zebrafish homologs of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and GATA-2 and have used these markers to determine that the IM is formed from mesodermal cells in a posterior-lateral position on the yolk syncytial layer of the gastrula yolk sac. Surprisingly, cells of the IM then migrate anteriorly through most of the body length prior to the onset of active circulation and exit onto the yolk sac. These findings support a hypothesis in which the hematopoietic program of vertebrates is established by variations in homologous migration pathways of extra- and intraembryonic progenitors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479870

  18. A convenient fluorescent assay for vertebrate collagenases.

    PubMed

    Bond, M D; Auld, D S; Lobb, R R

    1986-06-01

    A versatile, convenient assay for vertebrate collagenases has been developed using the fluorescent peptide substrate dansyl-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-D-Arg. This sequence resembles that of collagen at the site of cleavage but includes modifications designed to eliminate nonspecific hydrolysis by contaminating peptidases. Both human skin fibroblast and bovine corneal cell collagenases cleave the substrate specifically at the Gly-Ile bond. Plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase B, and bacterial collagenase do not cleave the substrate. Elastase and angiotensin converting enzyme display 20- and 400-fold less activity than the vertebrate collagenases, respectively, and cleave the peptide at different positions. The assay is performed by incubating a 5- to 25-microliters aliquot of trypsin-activated sample with an equal volume of 2 mM substrate overnight at 33 degrees C and pH 7.5. Thin-layer chromatography then separates the fluorescent product from the substrate in less than 20 min and allows the detection of subnanogram levels of collagenase. The assay is applicable to the screening of large numbers of samples under different conditions of pH and ionic strength and is readily adaptable for use in a variety of collagenase-dependent systems, such as assays for collagenase activating and/or inducing factors. PMID:3014920

  19. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  20. The road to the vertebral formula.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

  1. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  2. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  3. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  4. Bi-plane video-based determination of strains in arterial bifurcations 

    E-print Network

    Everett, William Neil

    2002-01-01

    be dense with a majority of the vessels running through the myocardium. Consequently, the coronary liow is significantly affected by cyclic contraction and relaxation during systole and diastole, respectively. Brachiocephalic and Lef't Subclavian... and the right subclavian. Distal to the brachioccphalic, the left subclavian splits from the aortic arch, and ultimately the left and right subclavian arteries branch to form the vertebrals, Both the internal carotids, which arise from the common carotids...

  5. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  6. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  7. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis (ATH-er-o-skler-O-sis). Over time, ...

  8. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Libby P. Peripheral arterial diseases. IN: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds Braunwald's Heart ... of noncorononary obstructive vascular disease. IN: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart ...

  9. [Histochemical investigations on the localization of acetylcholinesterase in the kidney of selected vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Luppa, H; Alabdalla, M; Andrä, J; Weiss, J

    1992-01-01

    The light and electron microscopical localization of AChE activity in the kidney of selected vertebrates was studied using the method of Karnovsky and Roots (1964) for light microscopy and the modification of the Koelle and Friedenwald's technique according to Tsuji (1974, 1984) for electron microscopy. AChE activity could be demonstrated light microscopically mainly within the glomeruli of some mammals (golden hamster, mouse, rat) and non-mammalian vertebrates (carp, frog). No activity was found in the glomeruli of guinea pig, of chicken and tortoise. In the mammalians, the strongest AChE activity could be demonstrated in the guinea pig, the lowest in the rat. A strong AChE enzyme activity was also detected within the interlobular arteries and the cells of Bowman's capsule. With the electron microscopical method AChE activity was demonstrated in mesangial cells and endothelial cells of the glomeruli (golden hamster and carp) and in the cells of Bowman's capsule (carp). Reaction product was localized within the cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and the perinuclear space (nuclear envelope). A high amount of electron opaque material could be observed in the cells of Bowman's capsule and their lamina basalis. The functional significance of the localization of AChE activity in the glomeruli will be discussed. PMID:1642103

  10. Renal artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Textor; Michael A. McKusick

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  Renal artery stenosis (RAS) can accelerate or generate progressive hypertension and renal dysfunction. The goals for treating\\u000a patients with RAS are to reduce cardiovascu-lar morbidity and mortality attributable to elevated arterial pressure and to\\u000a preserve renal function beyond critical stenosis. Recent, randomized trials with current anti-hypertensive agents indicate\\u000a that many patients with RAS can be managed for years without

  11. Visceral artery aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade S. Hiramoto; Louis M. Messina

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Visceral artery aneurysms are an uncommon form of vascular disease, yet are important to the practicing vascular surgeon because\\u000a of the potential for rupture or erosion into an adjacent viscus, resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage. Many visceral artery\\u000a aneurysms still present with rupture, which often results in the death of the patient. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis\\u000a and management

  12. Coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Takazawa; Yasuyuki Hosoda; Taira Yamamoto; Shiori Kawasaki; Shiro Sasaguri

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting in Japanese patients who were\\u000a followed more than 10 years after surgery, and, without resorting to actuarial methods, to determine the factors that influence\\u000a long-term survival.Subjects and Methods: From January 1984 through December 1986, 376 patients received coronary artery bypass grafting at the

  13. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  14. Neurobiological Bases of Rhythmic Motor Acts in Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sten Grillner

    1985-01-01

    The general principles governing the nervous control of innate motor acts in vertebrates are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the control of locomotion in both mammals and lower vertebrates. One in vitro model of the lamprey central nervous system has been developed. It can be maintained in vitro for several days and the motor pattern underlying locomotion can be

  15. Genetics and evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shozo Yokoyama; Yongsheng Shi

    2000-01-01

    Various vertebrates use ultraviolet (UV) vision for such basic behaviors as mating, foraging, and predation. We have successfully interchanged the color-sensitivities of the mouse UV pigment and the human blue pigment by introducing forward and reverse mutations at five sites. This unveils for the first time the general mechanism of UV vision. Most contemporary UV pigments in vertebrates have maintained

  16. Timing and mechanism of ancient vertebrate genome duplications

    E-print Network

    Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik

    that most genes are present as single copies, whereas the genomes of jawless vertebrates, such as lamprey and hagfish, con- tained at least two orthologs and mammals contained three orthologs or more [2 of homologouschromosomesduringmeiosis/mitosis(diploidmodeofinheritance). Gnathostomes: all jawed vertebrates. Molecular

  17. JANUARY, 2010 VOL. 23, NO. 1 The Vertebral Column...

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    In November, 1976, two weeks into her new job, Vertebrate Zoology's Joy Gold was confronted with masses OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VZ Loses Jewel Joy Pearl Gold Retires By Don E. Wilson its letters and/or suggesting other sources for such answers. And that was Joy's initial job. So who

  18. The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kasahara; Kiyoshi Naruse; Shin Sasaki; Yoichiro Nakatani; Wei Qu; Budrul Ahsan; Tomoyuki Yamada; Yukinobu Nagayasu; Koichiro Doi; Yasuhiro Kasai; Tomoko Jindo; Daisuke Kobayashi; Atsuko Shimada; Atsushi Toyoda; Yoko Kuroki; Asao Fujiyama; Takashi Sasaki; Atsushi Shimizu; Shuichi Asakawa; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Shin-Ichi Hashimoto; Jun Yang; Yongjun Lee; Kouji Matsushima; Sumio Sugano; Mitsuru Sakaizumi; Takanori Narita; Kazuko Ohishi; Shinobu Haga; Fumiko Ohta; Hisayo Nomoto; Keiko Nogata; Tomomi Morishita; Tomoko Endo; Tadasu Shin-I; Hiroyuki Takeda; Shinichi Morishita; Yuji Kohara

    2007-01-01

    Teleosts comprise more than half of all vertebrate species and have adapted to a variety of marine and freshwater habitats. Their genome evolution and diversification are important subjects for the understanding of vertebrate evolution. Although draft genome sequences of two pufferfishes have been published, analysis of more fish genomes is desirable. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of

  19. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  20. Embolization for Vertebral Metastases of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN W. A. SMIT; G. JAN VIELVOYE; BERNARD M. GOSLINGS

    The technique of selective embolization has been applied for years in the treatment of vascular anomalies, severe hemorrhage and be- nign or malignant tumors, notably vertebral metastases of renal cell carcinoma. Because this technique is relatively easy to perform and offers immediate relief of symptoms, it is an attractive option for patients with vertebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma with signs

  1. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

  2. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    E-print Network

    Miller, Webb

    Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes Adam Siepel,1%­53%), Caenorhabditis elegans (18%­37%), and Saccharaomyces cerevisiae (47%­68%) genomes. From yeasts to vertebrates://genome.ucsc.edu). The phastCons program is part of a software package called PHAST (PHylogenetic Analysis with Space

  3. Why did the acquired immune system of vertebrates evolve?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Rolff

    2007-01-01

    Rapidly expanding genomic information offers important insights into the mechanisms of acquired immunity and has fostered progress in comparative immunology. However, the question of why the acquired immune system, a trait restricted to jawed vertebrates, evolved has rarely been addressed. Here, I will examine three unique features of early vertebrate evolution, during the 50 million years when the acquired immune

  4. Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny Roderic for nine vertebrate genes (aldolase, -feto- protein, lactate dehydrogenase, prolactin, rhodopsin with currently accepted vertebrate relationships. 2000 Academic Press INTRODUCTION ``Regarding the analysis

  5. Vertebrate Homologs of Drosophila Suppressor of Fused Interact with the Gli Family

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    Vertebrate Homologs of Drosophila Suppressor of Fused Interact with the Gli Family during metazoan development. Although originially characterized in Drosophila, vertebrate homologs have to the Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis proteins. Vertebrate Su(fu) is widely expressed

  6. Conservation of the photoperiodic neuroendocrine axis among vertebrates: Evidence from the teleost fish, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Conservation of the photoperiodic neuroendocrine axis among vertebrates: Evidence from the teleost other vertebrates is not well known. We use the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus are conserved across vertebrates. Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Proper timing

  7. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates Frédéric or urochordates (appendicularians, salps, and sea squirts), cephalochordates (lancelets) and vertebrates, cephalochordates are considered as the closest living relatives of vertebrates with tunicates representing

  8. Instructions for use Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms

    E-print Network

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Instructions for use #12;1 Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms), is expressed specifically in the central nervous system of vertebrates. To examine the role of the B2 insert of vertebrates (9, 10). Th

  9. Young thrombocytes initiate the formation of arterial thrombi in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Thattaliyath, Bijoy; Cykowski, Matthew; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2005-01-01

    The zebrafish system is an excellent vertebrate genetic model to study hemostasis and thrombosis because saturation mutagenesis screens can identify novel genes that play a role in this vital physiologic pathway. To study hemostatic mutations, it is important to understand the physiology of zebrafish hemostasis and thrombosis. Previously, we identified zebrafish thrombocytes and have shown that they participate in arterial thrombus formation. Here, we recognized 2 populations of thrombocytes distinguishable by DiI-C18 (DiI) staining. DiI+ thrombocytes have a high density of adhesive receptors and are functionally more active than DiI– thrombocytes. We classified DiI+ thrombocytes as young and DiI– thrombocytes as mature thrombocytes. We found young and mature thrombocytes each formed independent clusters and that young thrombocytes clustered first. We have also shown that young thrombocytes initiate arterial thrombus formation. We propose that due to the increased adhesive receptor density on young thrombocytes, they adhere first to the subendothelial matrix, get activated rapidly, release agonists, and recruit more young thrombocytes, which further release more agonists. This increase in agonists activates the less active mature thrombocytes, drawing them to the growing thrombus. Since arterial thrombus formation is a fundamental hemostatic event, this mechanism may be conserved in mammals and may open new avenues for prevention of arterial thrombosis. PMID:15769888

  10. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

  11. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  12. The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-05-15

    The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue. PMID:19401333

  13. The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J. Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Summary The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue. PMID:19401333

  14. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    E-print Network

    Morelli, Luis G; Herrgen, Leah; Schroeter, Christian; Julicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C; 10.2976/1.3027088

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock's collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock's collective period depends on delay...

  15. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ashurst; C.-K. Chen; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Jekosch; S. Keenan; Patrick Meidl; Stephen M. J. Searle; Jim Stalker; R. Storey; S. Trevanion; L. G. Wilming; Tim J. P. Hubbard

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Vertebrate,Genome,Annotation,(Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was,first made,public in 2004 and,has,been,designed,to view,manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences,produced,at the Wellcome,Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human,annotated,loci has,more,than,doubled,to close,to 33000 and,now,contains,comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole,mouse,chromosomes,and,around,40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we,offer manual,annotation,of a number,of haplo- type,regions,in mouse,and,human,and,regions,of

  16. The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database.

    PubMed

    Wilming, L G; Gilbert, J G R; Howe, K; Trevanion, S; Hubbard, T; Harrow, J L

    2008-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33 000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole mouse chromosomes and around 40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we offer manual annotation of a number of haplotype regions in mouse and human and regions of comparative interest in pig and dog that are unique to Vega. PMID:18003653

  17. The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, L. G.; Gilbert, J. G. R.; Howe, K.; Trevanion, S.; Hubbard, T.; Harrow, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33 000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole mouse chromosomes and around 40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we offer manual annotation of a number of haplotype regions in mouse and human and regions of comparative interest in pig and dog that are unique to Vega. PMID:18003653

  18. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Vertebrate Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a cell membrane phospholipid metabolite that can act as an extracellular signal. Its effects are mediated through at least five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-5, and likely others as well. Studies in multiple species including LPA receptor-deficient mice and humans have identified or implicated important roles for receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of vertebrate reproduction. These include ovarian function, spermatogenesis, fertilization, early embryo development, embryo implantation, embryo spacing, decidualization, pregnancy maintenance, and parturition. LPA signaling may also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Here we review recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to female and male reproduction. PMID:19836970

  19. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  20. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Martin Zebaze Djoumessi; Ghassan Maalouf; Joseph Wehbe; Alexandre Nehme; Naim Maalouf; Ego Seeman

    2004-01-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of ‘fracture’. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define ‘fracture’. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal

  1. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  2. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172­185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

  3. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

  4. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA Paleontology and Paleoanthropol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; 4Department

  5. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Clark, James M.

    7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION A NEW TROODONTID THEROPOD FROM UKHAA TOLGOD, MONGOLIA MARK A. NORELL1 , PETER J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  6. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

  7. Leptospirosis in poikilothermic vertebrates. A review.

    PubMed

    Minette, H P

    1983-12-01

    Autochthanous leptospirosis does occur in the poikilothermic vertebrates, as evidenced by positive serological reactions and by the isolation of pathogenic leptospiral serovars. These findings in aquatic members of this group are of special importance in view of the increased worldwide interest in aquaculture farming. Since 1975, 24 of the 101 (23.7%) reported human cases of leptospirosis in Hawaii have been associated with aquaculture industries (taro farms, prawn farms and watercress farms). Antibody synthesis and persistence in these animals is variable, and seems to depend to some extent on environmental temperatures. Some members of the group apparently lack the capacity for immunological memory, experience a considerable delay (lag-phase) in antibody formation, demonstrate the "paradoxical reaction" found in other animals, and can maintain living pathogenic leptospirae in their organs in the absence of detectable antibody utilizing our present serologic methods. For these reasons, serological studies as the sole source of evidence for leptospiral infection cannot be recommended. The immunologic mechanism of lower vertebrates is not known, some studies suggesting that there may be more than one antibody system active in these animals, especially the turtles, and further investigation at the cellular and subcellular levels is indicated. The growth temperatures and nutritional requirements of leptospirae isolated from other than warm-blooded animals is also poorly understood. Some knowledge has been contributed by various investigators in recent years, but much more work needs to be done in studying the nutritional and metabolic requirements of leptospirae isolated from all sources, including the various fauna resident in and around the fresh water streams and ponds. PMID:6373645

  8. Health Impact Associated with Vertebral Deformities: Results from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Matthis; U. Weber; T. W. O'Neill; H. Raspe

    1998-01-01

    :   To study the association between vertebral deformities and subjective health outcome indicators, including back pain and\\u000a disability, a cross-sectional survey with spinal radiographs and personal interviews was carried out in 36 study centres in\\u000a 19 European countries on a total of 15570 men and women aged 50–79 years (population-based stratified random samples). No\\u000a interventions were done. The main outcome

  9. Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  10. An Aneurysm of the CervicalVertebral Artery Causing Radiculopathy—An UnusualCase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Börm; Gregor Antoniadis; Alexander Müller; Hans-Peter Richter

    2003-01-01

    Case Report: We report on a 37-year-old woman with a 10-week history of neck pain and brachialgia along the right C6 dermatome. Neurological findings included weakness of the right biceps muscle and hypesthesia of the right thumb. The patient was diagnosed as having von Recklinghausen’s disease (neurofibromatosis 1) 10 years ago, and a CT scan demonstrated an extraspinal paravertebral mass

  11. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  12. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  13. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, SF-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  14. Arterial desaturation in healthy untrained subjects

    E-print Network

    Rhodes, Jann

    1988-01-01

    ) had examined arterial blood gas tensions during exercise by analyzing blood drawn directly from the radial and brachial arteries. He recorded a mean arterial saturation value of 95. 6% in 15 normal subjects at rest and an exercise arterial...

  15. Considerations on evolution and healing of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Raymond; Trevisan, Carlo; Nava, Veronica; Riccardi, Domenico; Recalcati, Wilmer

    2013-10-01

    Only little is known when talking about the evolution of a vertebral fracture. From the few studies available in the literature, we can deduce that the risk a vertebral compression fracture has to worsen its deformity is consistent. It is important to try to make a prognosis on how the fracture is going to heal based on the type of fracture encountered. A chapter of its own is the occurrence of a vertebral fracture non-union that is difficult to diagnose and treat, but comes along with a poor prognosis. PMID:24046049

  16. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Peripheral Arterial Disease American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arterial disease (PAD) is a problem with blood flow in the arteries, especially those in the legs. ... commonly your legs, don’t get enough blood flow. The most common complaint of people who have ...

  18. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

  19. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease Emile R. Mohler III , MD From the ... with rest? If yes, you may have peripheral artery disease (PAD). This disease of the blood circulation ...

  20. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of ‘soft’ cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

  1. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  2. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  3. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    PubMed

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly. PMID:15031109

  4. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  5. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  6. A Creative Teacher's Innovative-Mind-Expanding Vertebrate Project Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Faye H.

    1981-01-01

    The article provides a collection of teaching ideas about vertebrate animals. Ideas include making a poem book about a group of animals, rhyming words with animal names, and finding animal names in a puzzle. (DB)

  7. Three Periods of Regulatory Innovation During Vertebrate Evolution

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    The gain, loss, and modification of gene regulatory elements may underlie a substantial proportion of phenotypic changes on animal lineages. To investigate the gain of regulatory elements throughout vertebrate evolution, ...

  8. INTRODUCTION Aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates commonly use oscillating

    E-print Network

    Richards, Chris

    #12;3181 INTRODUCTION Aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates commonly use oscillating paired limbs of the joints, feet and body were obtained from high speed video of X. laevis frogs (N=4) during swimming over

  9. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  10. VERTEBRATE CHEMICAL DEFENSE: SECRETED AND TOPICALLY ACQUIRED DETERRENTS OF ARTHROPODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropods profoundly affect the fitness of terrestrial vertebrates. Some arachnids, centipedes, and insects opportunistically prey on small tetrapods. Some social hymenopterans launch massive foraging swarms and fiercely defend their colonies via stinging or biting attacks. Pelage- or plumage-degr...

  11. Speciation durations and Pleistocene effects on vertebrate phylogeography

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    Speciation durations and Pleistocene effects on vertebrate phylogeography John C. Avise* , De to evaluate Pleistocene phylogeographic e¡ects and to estimate temporal spans of the speciation process and birds, Pleistocene conditions played an important role in initiating phylogeographic di

  12. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. PMID:20399726

  13. international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife

    E-print Network

    The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

  14. A New Mechanistic Scenario for the Origin and Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cattell; Su Lai; Robert Cerny; Daniel Meulemans Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of cellular cartilage was a defining event in vertebrate evolution because it made possible the physical expansion of the vertebrate “new head”. Despite its central role in vertebrate evolution, the origin of cellular cartilage has been difficult to understand. This is largely due to a lack of informative evolutionary intermediates linking vertebrate cellular cartilage to the acellular cartilage

  15. INTRODUCTION As the most basal extant vertebrate, the lamprey is in a critical

    E-print Network

    McCauley, David W.

    INTRODUCTION As the most basal extant vertebrate, the lamprey is in a critical position to provide important insights into our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate traits. Two cell populations that distinguish vertebrates from cephalochordates, closely related non-vertebrate chordates, are neural crest

  16. The effect of osteoporotic vertebral fracture on predicted spinal loads in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Briggs; Tim V. Wrigley; Jaap H. van Dieën; Bev Phillips; Sing Kai Lo; Alison M. Greig; Kim L. Bennell

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is multi-factorial, and cannot be explained solely by low bone mass. After sustaining an initial vertebral fracture, the risk of subsequent fracture increases greatly. Examination of physiologic loads imposed on vertebral bodies may help to explain a mechanism underlying this fracture cascade. This study tested the hypothesis that model-derived segmental vertebral loading is greater

  17. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 18. Moss J, Cooper K, Khaund A, Murray L, Murray G, Wu O, et al. Randomised comparison of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) with ... doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02952.x. Epub 2011 Apr ...

  18. Cervicocerebral arterial dissection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Matt B; Chacon, Marcus R; Aleu, Aitziber

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of the cervicocerebral arteries is an infrequent occurrence but is a leading cause of stroke in young and otherwise healthy patients. A brief review of the history, pathogenesis, and management is presented. The proper management for stroke prevention in dissection is unclear as there have been no randomized, controlled trials performed; small trials are under way. PMID:18195650

  19. Hipertensão arterial na infância

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Maria Salgado; João Thomaz de Abreu Carvalhaes

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to critically review recent medical literature, focusing on practical features that are relevant for diagnosis and outpatient treatment of pediatric hypertension. Sources of data: classic articles and systematic review of recent literature through electronic search of Medline and Lilacs databases over the last 10 years, using the key words arterial hypertension, newborns, infants, preschool, children and adolescents. Those articles

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liubov Ben-Noun

    1999-01-01

    Long-term psychosocial outcomes were examined in 132 patients 7 to 22 years M = 9.4 years after coronary artery bypass grafting. The control group comprised 145 medically treated patients with coronary heart disease of 7 to 22 year duration M = 9.2. Significantly more medically than surgically treated patients were scored in the clinically significant range for anxiety, and for

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Legrand; D. Chappard; C. Pascaretti; M. Duquenne; C. Rondeau; Y. Simon; V. Rohmer; M.-F. Basle; M. Audran

    1999-01-01

    :   In women, many studies indicate that the risk of vertebral fragility fractures increases as bone mineral density (BMD) declines.\\u000a In contrast, few studies are available for BMD and vertebral fractures in men. It is uncertain that the strength of the relationship\\u000a between BMD and fractures is similar in magnitude in middle-aged men and in postmenopausal women. In the present

  2. Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-08-01

    Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

  3. Biomechanics of vertebral compression fractures and clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Adams; Patricia Dolan

    Local biomechanical factors in the etiology of vertebral compression fractures are reviewed. The vertebral body is particularly\\u000a vulnerable to compression fracture when its bone mineral density (BMD) falls with age. However, the risk of fracture, and\\u000a the type of fracture produced, does not depend simply on BMD. Equally important is the state of degeneration of the adjacent\\u000a intervertebral discs, which

  4. Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

    2000-01-01

    :   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

  5. Modeling vertebrate diversity in Oregon using satellite imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Elizabeth Cablk

    1997-01-01

    Vertebrate diversity was modeled for the state of Oregon using a parametric approach to regression tree analysis. This exploratory data analysis effectively modeled the non-linear relationships between vertebrate richness and phenology, terrain, and climate. Phenology was derived from time-series NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery for the year 1992 using two methods: principal component analysis and derivation of EROS data center greenness metrics.

  6. Sex-role reversal in vertebrates: behavioural and endocrinological accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Eens; Rianne Pinxten

    2000-01-01

    Sex-role reversal occurs when females compete more intensely than males for access to mates. In this paper, we survey the occurrence of sex-role reversal in vertebrates: we focus on behavioural aspects of sex-role reversal and we examine possible endocrinological correlates of this phenomenon. The best documented cases among vertebrates of sex-role reversal occur in fish and birds. In nearly all

  7. The vertebrate urinary bladder: osmoregulatory and other uses.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The bladder may serve more biological uses than simple storage. The importance of bladder functions can be inferred from its presence among vertebrates, its anatomy and histology. From an evolutionary perspective, bladders have evolved at least twice in the vertebrates. The variability of permeability of the urinary bladder to water and solutes among species is discussed. Finally, the urinary bladder may play an osmoregulatory role. PMID:538956

  8. Vertebrate frugivory and seed dispersal of a Chihuahuan Desert cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Montiel; Carlos Montaña

    2000-01-01

    Vertebrate frugivory of fleshy-fruited plants may be very important for the recruitment of sexually derived seedlings if it represents the main mechanism of primary seed-dispersal.Opuntia rastrera produces fleshy fruits rich in water and sugars that are attractive to vertebrate frugivores. However, there is a very low rate of seedling recruitment in natural conditions. One of the causes that can influence

  9. The genetic and evolutionary basis of colour variation in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hofreiter; Torsten Schöneberg

    2010-01-01

    Variation in pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in vertebrates. Although mammals show less variation\\u000a in body pigmentation than other vertebrate groups, the genetics of colour determination and variation is best understood for\\u000a them. More than 150 genes have been identified that influence pigmentation, and in many cases, the cause for variation in\\u000a pigmentation has been identified

  10. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  11. Audiological findings in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective?To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods?Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results?Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions?The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  12. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of ?-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate ?-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of ?-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact ?-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ?-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of ?-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact ?-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The ?-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of ?-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate ?-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how ?-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  13. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case report and embryological background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Folia Morphol; M. Konarik; J. Knize; V. Baca; D. Kachlik

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superfi- cialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of

  14. Structural conservation of interferon gamma among vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Savan, Ram; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R; Sakai, Masahiro; Young, Howard A

    2009-04-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), being the hallmark of the T-cell T(H)1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian and piscine species and we have identified the gene in the frog genome. Based on these identified DNA sequences, we have constructed an evolutionary history of IFN-gamma that shows this molecule can be traced back more than 450 million years ago. Our analysis shows that type II interferon (IFN-gamma) function evolved before the tetrapod-fish split, a finding that contrasts earlier studies showing its origins in tetrapods. The IFN-gamma gene has undergone a further duplication event in teleosts after the tetrapod-fish split suggesting a specific-evolutionary adaptation in fish. The analyses of IFN-gamma, IL-22 and IL-26 genomic region in mammals, chicken, frog and fish reveal an evolutionary conservation of the loci and several regulatory elements controlling IFN-gamma gene transcription. Furthermore, across the vertebrata, the first intron of IFN-gamma gene contains a polymorphic microsatellite that has been closely correlated with disease susceptibility. Comparative-modeling of IFN-gamma structure revealed differences among the representative species but with an overall conservation of the fold, dimer interface and some interactions with the receptor. The structural and functional conservation of IFN-gamma suggests the presence of an innate, natural killer (NK) like response or even an adaptive T(H)1 immune response in lower vertebrates. PMID:19268624

  15. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. Case Description: The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent right interfascial pterional craniotomy, with anterior temporal approach. The aneurysm was successfully clipped with the preservation of both the PCoA and the thalamoperforating artery. Conclusion: We speculated that blood flow into the PCoA gradually increased after occlusion of the left vertebral artery, which induced tortuosity of the PCoA. As a result, hemodynamic stress might increase near the curvature and cause aneurysm formation. PMID:26110082

  16. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Katie; Radwan, Rami; Shingler, Guy; Davies, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an elderly man who presented with an upper arm swelling that had developed following a humeral fracture 8?months previously. The swelling was painless but associated with significantly diminished motor function of his right hand and concurrent paraesthaesia. On examination, a large pulsatile mass was identified and CT angiography confirmed the presence of an 11×7?cm brachial artery pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent surgical repair in which a fragment of the humerus was found to have punctured the brachial artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative period and was discharged 2?days later having regained some motor function in his right hand. PMID:24859555

  17. Peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the elderly can be: 1) asymptomatic, 2) associated with intermittent claudication, or 3) cause critical limb ischemia. Persons with PAD are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism should be treated, and smoking should be stopped. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and increase exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in persons with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. Antiplatelet drugs (eg, aspirin, clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, statins) should be given to all persons with PAD. Beta blockers should be given if CAD is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol lengthen exercise time until leg pain develops. Chelation therapy has no scientific basis and should be avoided. Revascularization or amputation may be indicated in some cases. PMID:17223718

  18. Branch retinal artery occlusion after thyroid artery interventional embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Ruiduan Liao

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion after thyroid artery interventional embolization.METHODS: A 33-year-old man with hyperthyroidism complained of visual loss and scotoma in the left eye after thyroid artery interventional embolization. He underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, including fluorescein angiography.RESULTS: Visual acuity was 20\\/25, with inferior and superior scotomas present in the left eye. Fluorescein angiography

  19. Hemosomegenesis and hemoglobin biosynthesis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brunner Júnior, A; de Rizzo, E; Morena, D D; Cianciarullo, A M; Jared, C; Morena, P

    1992-08-01

    1. Ultrastructural observations on maturing rabbit embryo erythroid cells led to the finding of hemoglobinized organelles distinguishable from mitochondria due to their highly dense matrix, two or three longitudinally arranged double lamellae, and smaller diameters. Intraorganellar 50-60 A particles identical to those contained in the hemoglobinized cytoplasm were found. 2. Their hemoglobin (Hb) content was demonstrated by electrophoresis of the concentrated supernatant from the isolated, washed, and osmotically lysed organellar fraction. We have proposed that these organelles are the sites for heme integration into the globin (G) polypeptide chains and subunits assembly. The term hemosome has been suggested for such entities. 3. This hypothesis has been sustained by several analytical and experimental works based on the postulation that hemosomes should be found at higher frequencies where the Hb biosynthesis rate is more intensive, or where the induction of this biosynthesis is always dependent on the formation of hemosomes. 4. Maturing erythroid cells of the circulating embryo blood contain hemosomes in higher frequency than in liver erythroid cells, coinciding with the higher Hb biosynthesis rate in peripheral blood than in the liver. In bleeding anemia, the decay of Hb concentration parallels the reduction of the mean number of hemosomes per reticulocyte, in comparison with normal reticulocytes. 5. In HeLa cells and epithelial cultured cells induced to synthesize Hb, it was shown that this biosynthesis is ever concomitant with the formation of hemosomes and depends on the presence of erythropoietin, as occurs in erythroid cells. 6. Studies on hemosomegenesis and Hb biosynthesis experimentally effected in epithelial cultured cells, allowed the interpretation of the sequence of events leading to hemosome formation in maturing erythroid cells. Simultaneously with iron uptake, mitochondria differentiate to lamellated bodies and, successively, expansions rise for ferruginous compounds and G polypeptides gathering, followed by prehemosome vesicles formation, which condense and change to prohemosomes that afterwards evolve to hemosomes. 7. These dynamics, and organellar Hb have been detected in immature erythrocytes of mammalians, including humans, avians, reptilians, amphibians and representative fish specimens. It appears that these events occur in the erythrocytary maturation of all vertebrate classes. PMID:1355029

  20. Nme protein family evolutionary history, a vertebrate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nme family, previously known as Nm23 or NDPK, is involved in various molecular processes including tumor metastasis and some members of the family, but not all, exhibit a Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) activity. Ten genes are known in humans, in which some members have been extensively studied. In non-mammalian species, the Nme protein family has received, in contrast, far less attention. The picture of the vertebrate Nme family remains thus incomplete and orthology relationships with mammalian counterparts were only partially characterized. The present study therefore aimed at characterizing the Nme gene repertoire in vertebrates with special interest for teleosts, and providing a comprehensive overview of the Nme gene family evolutionary history in vertebrates. Results In the present study, we present the evolutionary history of the Nme family in vertebrates and characterize the gene family repertoire for the first time in several non-mammalian species. Our observations show that vertebrate Nme genes can be separated in two evolutionary distinct groups. Nme1, Nme2, Nme3, and Nme4 belong to Group I while vertebrate Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, Nme8, and Nme9 belong to Group II. The position of Nme10 is in contrast more debatable due to its very specific evolutionary history. The present study clearly indicates that Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, and Nme8 originate from duplication events that occurred before the chordate radiation. In contrast, Nme genes of the Group I have a very different evolutionary history as our results suggest that they all arise from a common gene present in the chordate ancestor. In addition, expression patterns of all zebrafish nme transcripts were studied in a broad range of tissues by quantitative PCR and discussed in the light of the function of their mammalian counterparts. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework that will pave the way for future studies on vertebrate Nme proteins and provides a unified vertebrate Nme nomenclature that is consistent with the nomenclature in use in mammals. Based on protein structure and expression data, we also provide new insight into molecular functions of Nme proteins among vertebrates and raise intriguing questions on the roles of Nme proteins in gonads. PMID:19852809

  1. Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (; )

    2005-02-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

  2. Vertebrate extinctions and survival across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffetaut, Eric

    1990-01-01

    A critical analysis of the fossil vertebrate record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary shows that the available evidence is far less accurate than that concerning invertebrates and microfossils. Far-reaching conclusions have been drawn from generalisations about vertebrate extinctions in the continental realm based on the local record from western North America, but little is known about patterns of terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions in other parts of the world, and even the western North American record is ambiguous. Despite this unsatisfactory record, it clearly appears that terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions were highly selective, with some groups (e.g. dinosaurs) becoming completely extinct, whereas others seem to be virtually unaffected. This argues against devastating catastrophes of the kind postulated by some recent impact scenarios. However, the survival of groups known to be sensitive to climatic deterioration (such as crocodilians and other non-dinosaurian reptiles) indicates that alternative hypotheses involving gradual but fairly important climatic changes on a world-wide scale are not convincing either. The pattern of extinction and survival among vertebrates across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary may be explained as a consequence of the disruption of some food chains following a crisis in the plant kingdom, which itself may have been the result of the atmospheric consequences of unusual extraterrestrial or internal events.

  3. Micromechanics of the Human Vertebral Body for Forward Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J.; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E = 8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E = 2,500 MPa. As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean ± SD for n = 22: 41.3% ± 7.4% compression; 44.1% ± 8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

  4. Amines from vertebrates guide triatomine bugs to resources.

    PubMed

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Guerin, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Most triatomine bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are nest-living insects that require vertebrate blood or invertebrate haemolymph to complete their life cycle. Vertebrates accumulate excretory products in or near their nesting sites and we hypothesize that triatomines use emanations from such host wastes when searching for resources. Here we recount how triatomine bugs increase upwind locomotion on a servosphere in response to volatile amine constituents of vertebrate excretions. Fresh chicken faeces is strongly attractive to Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. Ammonia induces attraction and an increase in both speed and total path length by R. prolixus on the servosphere. Whereas ethylamine and dimethylamine attract R. prolixus, Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus geniculatus, other amine constituents of vertebrate excretions such as isobutylamine and hexylamine induce R. prolixus nymphs to walk faster and for a longer period. These amines are derived from generally occurring metabolites of vertebrates and from gut flora metabolism. We conclude that amines and other products associated with nesting hosts serve as signals for foraging triatomines. PMID:25260571

  5. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  6. Left subclavian artery stenting: an option for the treatment of the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Bruno Lorenção; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; de Oliveira, Eduardo Silva Jordao; Linhares Filho, Frederico Augusto de Carvalho; Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Passalacqua, Aldo Zampieri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The subclavian steal syndrome is characterized by the vertebral artery flow inversion, due to a stenotic lesion in the origin of the subclavian artery. The Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome is a variation of the Subclavian Steal Syndrome and is characterized by inversion of flow in the Internal Thracic artery that has been used as conduct in a myocardial revascularization. Its diagnosis must be suspected in patients with difference in pulse and arterial pressure in the upper limbs, that present with angina pectoris and that have done a myocardial revascularization. Its treatment must be a surgical bypass or a transluminal angioplasty. Objective The objective is to show the left subclavian artery stenting as a safe and effective method to treat the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Methods Historical prospective, non-randomized trial, through revision of the hospital records of the patients treated with the stenting of the left subclavian artery, from January 2006 to September 2012. Results In the mentioned period, 4.291 miocardial revascularizations were performed with the use of the left mammary artery, and 16 patients were identified to have the Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. All of them were submitted to endovascular treatment. The success rate was 100%; two patients experienced minor complications; none of them presented with major complications. Eleven of the 16 patients had ultrassonographic documentation of patent stent for at least one year; two patients lost follow up and other two died. Conclusion The stenting of the left subclavian artery is a good option for the treatment of the Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome, with high level of technical and clinical success. PMID:25140474

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obi?an, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving. PMID:25037519

  8. [Coronary artery disease in women].

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Matti; Kervinen, Kari; Romppanen, Hannu; Vikman, Saila

    2009-01-01

    Although the rate of coronary artery disease mortality has decreased over the last decades, it is still the leading cause of death in Finland. Coronary artery disease appears in women with a delay of ten years as compared with men. For women, diabetes and smoking increase the risk of developing the disease more than for men. Women's coronary arteries are smaller in size, which previously impaired the results of invasive treatment. Treatment outcome with current techniques is equal independently of gender. In spite of this, women in an acute attack of coronary artery disease are less frequently directed to coronary angiography. PMID:19432079

  9. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  10. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C

    2015-07-21

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  11. Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.

    PubMed

    Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

  12. GONAD MORPHOGENESIS IN VERTEBRATES: DIVERGENT MEANS TO A CONVERGENT END

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    A critical element of successful sexual reproduction is the generation of sexually dimorphic adult reproductive organs, the testis and ovary, which produce functional gametes. The examination of different vertebrate species shows that the adult gonad is remarkably similar in its morphology across different phylogenetic classes. Surprisingly, however, the cellular and molecular programs employed to create similar organs are not evolutionarily conserved. We highlight the mechanisms used by different vertebrate model systems to generate the somatic architecture necessary to support gametogenesis. In addition, we examine the different vertebrate patterns of germ cell migration from their site of origin to colonize the gonad, and highlight their roles in sex-specific morphogenesis. We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology. PMID:19807280

  13. Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

    2014-04-01

    Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

  14. Percutaneous Technique for Sclerotherapy of Vertebral Hemangioma Compressing Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M. [Al-Azhar University Medical Center, Sayed GalalHospital, Port Saeed Str. 540, Cairo 11563 (Egypt)

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: In this study we report a percutaneous technique to achieve sclerosis of vertebral hemangioma and decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Methods: Under CT guidance the affected vertebral body is punctured by a biopsy needle and sclerosant is injected directly into the tumor. In the case of large paravertebral extension, additional injection is given in the paravertebral soft tissue component to induce shrinkage of the whole tumor mass and release of the compressed spinal cord. Results: Using this technique we treated five patients in whom vertebral hemangioma gave rise to neurologic symptoms.In three patients, sclerotherapy was the only treatment given. In the other two patients, sclerotherapy was preceded by transcatheter embolization. Neither decompressive surgery, radiation therapy nor stabilization was required with this technique. Conclusion: Our experience with CT-guided intraosseous sclerotherapy has proved highly satisfactory.

  15. Vertebral burst fractures: CT analysis of the retropulsed fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J. Jr.; Garfin, S.R.; Resnick, D.

    1984-12-01

    Ten cases of retropulsed thoracolumbar vertebral body fragments that had been documented by CT were reviewed to define and characterize the nature, appearance, and position of the retropulsed fragment. All of the retropulsed fragments arose from the superior aspect of the vertebral body. Five of ten patients had a vertical fracture within the retropulsed fragment. Six of ten patients had an associated vertical or Y-shaped fracture originating from the region of the basivertebral foramen and passing into the inferior one-half of the vertebral body. The presence of a retropulsed fragment is nearly pathognomonic of an axial compression injury. Characteristics of this lesion that may hinder surgical reduction are the intra-fragment fracture, rotation, and craniocaudad movement.

  16. Concordia discors: duality in the origin of the vertebrate tail

    PubMed Central

    Handrigan, Gregory R

    2003-01-01

    The vertebrate tail is an extension of the main body axis caudal to the anus. The developmental origin of this structure has been a source of debate amongst embryologists for the past century. Some view tail development as a continuation of the morphogenetic processes that shape the head and trunk (i.e. gastrulation). The alternative view, secondary development, holds that the tail forms in a manner similar to limb development, i.e. by secondary induction. Previous developmental studies have provided support for both views. Here I revisit these studies, describing caudal morphogenesis in select vertebrates, the associated genes and developmental defects, and, as a relevant aside, consider the developmental and evolutionary relationships of primary and secondary neurulation. I conclude that caudal development enlists both gastrulation and secondary induction, and that the application of recent high-resolution cell labelling technology may clarify how these discordant programmes interact in building the vertebrate tail. PMID:12713266

  17. [Secondary hyperparathyroidism and multiple vertebral brown tumors: cure after parathyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Turc Baron, C; Djamali, A; Delmas, S; Lopez, S; Deschodt, G; Mourad, G

    1997-01-01

    A 46 year old man was referred for severe left cruralgia and multiple vertebral cystic defects on CT-scan. He was treated by hemodialysis since 1987 for chronic renal failure secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, diagnosed in 1960 on renal biopsy. Dialysis schedule consisted of 3 x 4 h/week with a polysulfone dialyser and 1.75 mMol Ca containing bicarbonate dialysate. On early 1995, the patient complained of back pain and cruralgia, which gradually worsened. Vertebral column CT-scan and MRI showed multiple lytic lesions expanding into the medullary canal. Biological hyperparathyroidism was present. To differentiate between hyperparathyroidism with brown tumors, malignancy and amyloid deposition, an iliac biopsy and a biopsy of a corporeal vertebral cyst were done. They showed florid hyperparathyroidism and brown tumors. The patient was submitted to surgical parathyroidectomy. Six months after surgery, cruralgia resumed, CT-scan and MRI showed refilling of the cysts by calcic material. PMID:9380247

  18. University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

  19. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  20. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  1. Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

  2. iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology; )

    2008-01-01

    Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

  3. Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  4. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with congenital lumbar hernia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lucky; Mala, Tariq Ahmed; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  5. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  6. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  7. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  8. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  9. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

  10. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated? Treatments for carotid artery disease may ... plaque removed and normal blood flow restored. Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Doctors use a procedure called ...

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  12. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Illustrations: Jill Rhead, MA What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)? What Can Happen When Blockages ... Condition be Like After CABG? WHAT IS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING (CABG)? Coronary artery bypass grafting or " ...

  13. Coronary artery ectasia in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Waly, H M; Elayda, M A; Lee, V V; el-Said, G; Reul, G J; Hall, R J

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 45 Egyptian patients with coronary artery ectasia who underwent coronary bypass grafting at our institution between 1980 and 1995. We examined the anatomic distribution and type of coronary ectasia and its association with coronary risk factors in these patients, and evaluated the severity of their coronary artery disease. We compared these findings with those from a group of 230 Egyptian patients who did not have coronary ectasia. These patients also underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between 1980 and 1995 at our institution. Obesity was present in 60% of the patients who had coronary artery ectasia, compared with 42% of patients who did not have ectasia (P < 0.01). Coronary artery ectasia was not related to any coronary risk factors other than obesity. However, patients who had ectasia did have a higher rate of triple-vessel coronary artery disease than did patients without ectasia (82% vs 67%, P < 0.05). Of the coronary vessels affected by ectasia, 43% were left anterior descending arteries. Diffuse disease was noted in 84% of all ectatic segments. We conclude that in this patient population, 2 conditions had a positive correlation with coronary ectasia: obesity and the severity of coronary artery disease. Images PMID:9456489

  14. Uterine artery embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study Fibroids are commonest benign tumour of the uterus. It presents with bleeding per vagina in most of the cases. Surgical treatment consists of myomectomy or hysterectomy with or without salpingo oophrectomy, with its inherent morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and psychosocial problems. Surgery is not the best option especially in unmarried and nullipara. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients were subjected to uterine artery embolisation (UAE). Mean age was 35.51 ± 7.36 years. Two patients were suffering from advanced carcinoma of cervix, 32 had fibroid of uterus, one had endometriosis. Three patients were unmarried, three did not have any issue, three had associated haemodynamically significant cardiac disorders, one had polycystic renal disease, and one had hypernephroma. Four patients had multiple fibroids. The UAE was done through contralateral femoral artery puncture, bilaterally, with the help of Judkin's right coronary catheter. Ultrasound was repeated after 3 months. Results The UAE was successful in all patients. Mean procedural time was 75 minutes. Hospital stay was 1 day only. Bleeding stopped in all 35 patients. One patient had recurrence of bleeding after 2 months and underwent surgery. Fibroids disappeared in eight patients, decreased in size by > 75% in 11 patients, and by 50–75% in six patients. Five patients did not report back with ultrasound. Two patients had normal delivery after UAE. Conclusion Uterine artery embolisation is effective therapy to stop uterine bleeding. It is effective in controlling the symptoms in uterine fibroids and also decreases the size of fibroids. Hospital stay is only 1 day. PMID:22664816

  15. Distribution of arterial supply to the large intestine in the anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla).

    PubMed

    Mortoza, Amanda Rocha; Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Oliveira, Carina da Costa; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-08-01

    The blood supply in the large intestine of seven specimens of the lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, studied. The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water, injection of colored latex, fixation in formaldehyde, and preservation in ethanol. For our description and analyses, we performed dissections under mesoscopic light and made photo documentation of our observations. The large intestine of T. tetradactyla is irrigated by the caudal mesenteric artery (rectum, left colic fold, descending colon and transverse colon) and cranial mesenteric artery (right colic fold, cecal pouch). We observed that the large intestine in these animals is implied in the abdominal wall without becoming affixed to the wall, or developing adhesions on individual segments. The caudal mesenteric artery feeds the straight collateral branches (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and a few juxtacolic arched branches (first and second order). The straight branches emerge from the arched branches, bifurcate, and embrace the intestinal loop to irrigate it. The presence of anastomoses between the CaMA and the CrMA apparently ensures a relatively stable flow in the event of failure of either. This is very important, as the peritoneum in this species is completely dependent on blood from these two arteries. The model of vascularization and fixation of the large intestine into the abdominal wall of T. tetradactyla is different from that in other vertebrates. PMID:23915161

  16. Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Ozden, Ilgin; Do?an, Oner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

  17. Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

  18. Angiographic Embolisation in Arterial Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Naidoo; P. D. Corr; J. V. Robbs; J. Maharaj; R. Nair

    2000-01-01

    Objectives to evaluate the use of endovascular occlusion in the treatment of arterial trauma.Methods records of patients with penetrating arterial injuries treated by endovascular occlusive techniques were culled from the computerised database of the vascular service. Results the study period spanned 7 years. Forty-two patients were studied with injuries to the cervicofacial vessels (24), lower limb (16) and upper limb

  19. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction of anti-mammalian LH-RH in lower vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Immunohistochemical cross-reaction of anti-mammalian LH-RH in lower vertebrates H. J. Th. GOOS P. G make it doubtful that mammalian LH-RH is identical to the GRH of lower vertebrates ; this is supported

  20. Triassic Vertebrates of Gondwanan Aspect from the Richmond Basin of Virginia

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Triassic Vertebrates of Gondwanan Aspect from the Richmond Basin of Virginia A new localityof early,SYNAPSID- dominated assemblages of terres- trial vertebrates, persisting from the late Paleozoic, gave way

  1. To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have a thorough

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have brevirostris is examined by anatomical dissection, electromyography and high-speed video analysis. Three types phase characteristic of some aquatically feeding vertebrates. During the compressive phase

  2. 59 FR- Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-12-21

    ...Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments...Administration Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments...conservation status, or regulatory mechanisms exist that are significant in...

  3. OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate. Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit predators: supporting evidence to a dramatic increase in the population of invertebrate fruit predators. Evidence consistent

  4. Percutaneous Pediculoplasty for Vertebral Hemangioma Involving the Neural Arch: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Sokun, E-mail: sofuwa@luke.or.jp; Numaguchi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Saida, Yukihisa [St. Luke's International Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas occasionally involve the neural arch and they can be symptomatic. We report a case of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma mainly involving the unilateral neural arch which was successfully treated with percutaneous pediculoplasty using a single-needle technique.

  5. Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* David Posada, and D. James Harris*

    E-print Network

    Posada, David

    Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* à David Posada,à and D. James, Vigo, Spain After analyzing the base composition asymmetry of coding regions in vertebrate mitochondria

  6. Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern Newark Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, in Philadelphia. This paper is essentially an updated

  7. MAPping Out Arteries and Veins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryan E. Lamont (Canada; University of Calgary, Calgary AB REV)

    2006-10-03

    Growing evidence suggests that a genetic program specifies the identity of arteries and veins before the onset of circulation. A signaling cascade involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), homeobox proteins Foxc1 and Foxc2, the Notch receptor, and the downstream transcription factor gridlock is required for expression of arterial markers, whereas only a single transcription factor, COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter–transcription factor II), has previously been implicated in maintaining venous fate. Recent work has now implicated two competing pathways downstream of VEGFR2 in arterial versus venous specification: Activation of the phospholipase C–? (PLC-?)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway acts in arterial specification, whereas the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway acts to allow a venous fate by inhibition of the PLC-?–MAPK pathway. Here, we review this work and discuss how activation of the MAPK signaling cascade could stimulate an arterial fate.

  8. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  9. Literature for 1911 on the behavior of vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Watson

    1912-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies (1911) on the behavior of vertebrates. Studies on vision conducted on fish, reptiles and amphibians, birds and mammals have focused on stimulation in the light-adapted state, discrimination, and localization of visual centers. In audition studies, noise of boats on fish and learning of sounds in raccoons has been addressed. Studies on olfaction in fish and birds; instincts

  10. Genetic and functional analysis of topoisomerase II in vertebrates 

    E-print Network

    Petruti-Mot, Anca

    2000-01-01

    . The purpose of the present study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the topo ll? and ? mRNAs expressed in several vertebrate cell lines.The final aim of this project is to analyze the relative roles of topo ll? in chromatin condensation and chromosome...

  11. Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Koenig; Dirk Van Vuren; Philip N. Hooge

    1996-01-01

    Dispersal is of central importance to population biology, behavioral ecology and conservation. However, because field studies are based on finite study areas, nearly all dispersal distributions for vertebrates currently available are biased, often highly so. The inadequacy of dispersal data obtained directly by traditional methods using population studies of marked individuals is highlighted by comparing the resulting distributions with dispersal

  12. Genetic and Physiologic Dissection of the Vertebrate Cardiac Conduction System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil C Chi; Robin M Shaw; Benno Jungblut; Jan Huisken; Tania Ferrer; Rima Arnaout; Ian Scott; Dimitris Beis; Tong Xiao; Herwig Baier; Lily Y Jan; Martin Tristani-Firouzi; Didier Y. R Stainier

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate hearts depend on highly specialized cardiomyocytes that form the cardiac conduction system (CCS) to coordinate chamber contraction and drive blood efficiently and unidirectionally throughout the organism. Defects in this specialized wiring system can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a greater understanding of cardiac conduction development may help to prevent these devastating clinical outcomes. Utilizing a cardiac-specific

  13. The vertebrate cell kinetochore and its roles during mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conly L Rieder; E. D. Salmon

    1998-01-01

    A replicated chromosome possesses two discrete, complex, dynamic, macromolecular assemblies, known as kinetochores, that are positioned on opposite sides of the primary constriction of the chromosome. Here, the authors review how kinetochores control chromosome segregation during mitosis in vertebrates. They attach the chromosome to the opposing spindle poles by trapping the dynamic plus-ends of microtubules growing from the poles. They

  14. Tracking ecology over geological time: evolution within guilds of vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blaire Van Valkenburgh

    1995-01-01

    Community structure, stability and change can be observed in the fossil record over timescales that far exceed what is possible in the present. Recent quantitative studies on ecological structure withion ancient guilds of various vertebrate predators, inlcuding birds, mammals and reptiles, have revealed a common pattern of iterative replacement of feeding ecomorphs over time, despite large differences in phylogenetic composition.

  15. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  16. INTRODUCTION One central question in vertebrate development is how

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    in the nervous system (the central and peripheral nervous system, CNS and PNS), where many hundreds of different pressure and visceral distension from the periphery to the central nervous system. Visceral sensory neuronsINTRODUCTION One central question in vertebrate development is how multipotent progenitor cells

  17. Marine vertebrate zoonoses: an overview of the DAO special issue.

    PubMed

    Moore, M J; Gast, R J; Bogomolni, A L

    2008-08-19

    The role of marine birds, mammals, turtles and fish as vectors of infectious agents of potential risk to humans can be examined from a variety of perspectives. The studies in this DAO Special include a broad survey of multiple agents and species, a sequencing study of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes known to be pathogenic to humans, an assessment of risks to humans working with marine mammals, a source tracking study using E. coli ribotypes, studies of regional Salmonella and Brucella epizootiology, a serology survey and a case report of a herpes simplex infection in a dolphin. Additionally, a recently published study (Venn-Watson et al. 2008; Dis Aquat Org 79:87-93) classifying pure cultures of bacteria from a captive dolphin colony also pertains to this theme. These studies raise the following questions: whether the presence of zoonotic agents in marine vertebrates represents a risk to other marine vertebrates, humans, or both; what are the routes by which these marine vertebrate zoonotic infections are acquired and circulated in the marine ecosystem; to what degree are such agents subclinical versus causes of overt disease in marine vertebrates; what are the subsets of the human population most likely to be affected by such infections; and which human health preventive measures would seem reasonable? PMID:18828558

  18. Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica J. Reschly; Ni Ai; Sean Ekins; William J. Welsh; Lee R. Hagey; Alan F. Hofmann; Matthew D. Krasowski

    2008-01-01

    Bile salts, the major end metabolites of cho- lesterol, vary significantly in structure across vertebrate species, suggesting that nuclear receptors binding these molecules may show adaptive evolutionary changes. We com- pared across species the bile salt specificity of the major transcriptional regulator of bile salt synthesis, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). We found that FXRs have changed speci- ficity for

  19. Correlation between Genetic Variability and Body Size in Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Mezhzherin

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of allozymic variation carried out in the main groups of vertebrate animals revealed a tendency towards the increased level of genetic polymorphism in the species of small animals compared to the large ones. This tendency was clearly followed in caudate amphibians, fishes, and mammals. The data are discussed in terms of the integration of monogenic and polygenic systems

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred CG Peh; James F Griffith; Daniel KH Yip; John CY Leong

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4\\/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography