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1

Imaging the vertebral artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based

Keng Yeow Tay; Jean Marie U-King-Im; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Justin J. Cross; John R. Davies; Peter L. Weissberg; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

2005-01-01

2

Rotational vertebral artery syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

2008-01-01

3

Fenestrated vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Fenestrations of the vertebral arteries (VAs) are usually identified angiographically. A left fenestrated vertebral artery (fVA) is reported here, identified in an adult specimen by microdissection. The distal segment of this VA was fenestrated and it consisted of two arms, the caudal one being larger than the cranial one. The caudal end of the rostral arm and the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were inserted at the same point. The anterior spinal artery was leaving the caudal arm of the fVA. On that side the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was rudimentary, its cerebellar hemispheric territory being supplied by the PICA. The rostral arm of the fVA and the AICA were united by an anastomosis coursing on the ventral side of the olive. The AICA-to-fVA anastomosis, as well as the PICA, were supplying perforator arteries of the retro-olivary sulcus. Anatomical details of various arterial morphologies are important during specific surgical and interventional procedures. PMID:23842727

Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Pop, Elena

2013-09-01

4

Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:10217474

Schittek, A

1999-01-01

5

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-10

6

Vertebral artery reconstruction: Results in 106 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1982 and December 1989, we performed 109 revascularizations of the vertebral artery in 106 patients. Eighty-six patients (81%) had isolated vertebrobasilar insufficiency, 18 (17%) had associated carotid and vertebrobasilar pathology while two (2%) had isolated carotid symptoms. The procedures performed included 98 revascularizations of the proximal vertebral artery and 11 reconstructions of the distal vertebral artery. One distal

Bernard Habozit

1991-01-01

7

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-10-01

8

Noninvasive Detection ofVertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background andPurpose: We sought toidentify theuse ofduplexandtranscranial Dopplersonography inthenoninvasive diagnosis ofvertebral dissection. Methods: Tenpatients with adiagnosis ofsymptomatic vertebral artery dissection confirmed bycerebral angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Computed tomographic scanning andmagnetic resonance imaging together delineated lateral medullary or cerebellar infarcts in7patients. Angiography documented a total of21vertebral artery lesions (16stenoses and5occlusions), with7of10patients havingmultiple sites ofvertebral artery dissection. Vertebral Doppler was abnormal

Michael Hoffmann; Ralph L. Sacco; Stephen Chan; P. Mohr

9

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17–66). In four cases dissection was “spontaneous”; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine.

E. Josien

1992-01-01

10

Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

11

Anomalous atlantoaxial portions of vertebral and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a review of the vertebral angiograms of 300 patients free from disease at the craniovertebral junction, we found atlantoaxial arterial anomalies in 2,3%. These were: 2 cases in which the vertebral artery ran in the spinal canal below C1, 3 cases of duplication of the vertebral artery above and below C1, and 2 cases of origin of the posterior

K. Tokuda; K. Miyasaka; H. Abe; S. Abe; H. Takei; S. Sugimoto; M. Tsuru

1985-01-01

12

Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.  

PubMed

Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

2014-04-01

13

Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD), VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms. PMID:22909191

2012-01-01

14

"Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." PMID:21440457

Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

2012-11-01

15

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the vertebral artery. A therapeutic alternative to operative reconstruction of proximal vertebral artery stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the proximal vertebral artery was performed in 13 patients with stenosis of the proximal vertebral arteries. All of these patients had symptoms indicating vertebrobasilar insufficiency. PTA was performed only if an extreme reduction of the total diameter of both vertebral arteries was present. Only 13 patients have fulfilled the strict selection criteria in the last

H. Briickmann; E. B. Ringelstein; H. Buchner; H. Zeumer

1986-01-01

16

Vertebral artery decompression in a patient with rotational occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We report a patient who suffered drop attacks during head reclination. Computer tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated\\u000a a stenotic right vertebral artery at C4\\/5. However, Doppler ultrasonography of the vertebral artery showed no abnormality.\\u000a Angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the left vertebral and a stenosis of the right vertebral artery. Dynamic angiography\\u000a indicated occlusion of the stenotic region on

A. K. Petridis; H. Barth; R. Buhl; H. M. Mehdorn

2008-01-01

17

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature. PMID:24278656

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung

2013-01-01

18

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature. PMID:24278656

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung; Park, Hyun

2013-09-01

19

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA  

E-print Network

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA Release 0.01 Olivier (common, internal, external carotid and vertebral arteries) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography for the vessels in the neck region, since the internal carotid goes through the base of the skull, the vertebral

Boyer, Edmond

20

OCCLUSION OF THE VERTEBRAL ARTERY IN CERVICAL SPINE DISLOCATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 12 consecutive patients with facet joint dislocation in the cervical spine to assess the incidence, site and clinical sequelae of occlusion of the extracranial vertebral artery. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography was performed after the orthopaedic management of the dislocations. This demonstrated vertebral artery occlusion (one bilateral) in five of the seven patients with bilateral dislocations and in four

J. A. LOUW; N. A. MAFOYANE; B. SMALL; C. P. NESER

21

Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery (20 cases)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery is an infrequent cause of vertebro basilar ischemic strokes. Previously reported cases concern essentially occlusion of the basilar artery. Only 14 cases of spontaneous dissecting aneurysm concern the extracranial vertebral artery among these eight were angiographically documented. In this study based upon 15 patients (20 dissecting aneurysms), the authors discuss etiological factors, such

J. Chiras; S. Marciano; J. Vega Molina; J. Touboul; B. Poirier; J. Bories

1985-01-01

22

MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients)\\u000a MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic\\u000a vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery\\u000a dissection were included.

M. Mascalchi; M. C. Bianchi; S. Mangiafico; G. Ferrito; M. Puglioli; E. Marin; S. Mugnai; R. Canapicchi; N. Quilici; D. Inzitari

1997-01-01

23

A proposed dissection procedure for vertebral arteries in forensic pathology.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery removing constitutes a significant forensic pathology challenge. Dissection techniques during head-neck autopsy are based on anterior approach, a difficult method, which is unable to assess the transverse part of the artery. This work presents an original and simple method for dissecting vertebral arteries by a posterior approach, opening the vertebroarterial canal through the spinal canal without any special equipment. Once the spinal cord is removed, the transversarium foramens are opened by an internal cut at the pedicle and an external cut at the transverse process. This enables us to visualize vertebral arteries in its entirety. The method improves both the examination of the upper extracranial segment of the vertebral artery and the neuropathological study when arterial injury is suspected. Applying this method routinely is both feasible and useful in suspected cases of vertebral artery trauma and could contribute to assess more precisely the actual incidence of this injury. PMID:21827482

Galtés, Ignasi; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Subirana, Mercè; Barbería, Eneko; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-01

24

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before. PMID:22031481

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

25

Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

2012-01-01

26

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes  

PubMed Central

Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD. PMID:15937204

Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

2005-01-01

27

MRI in spontaneous dissection of vertebral and carotid arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients were observed between 1987 and 1990: there were six with angiographically confirmed vertebral artery dissection, and 9 with carotid artery dissection. Results showed concordance of MRI and angiographic findings, in all cases but one. The dissected portion consistently showed a semilunar hyperintensity narrowing the residual eccentric signal void of the lumen when the artery was not completely occluded.

F. Gelbert; E. Assouline; J. E. Hodes; D. Reizine; F. Woimant; B. George; M. Hagueneau; J. J. Merland

1991-01-01

28

Direct transposition of the distal cervical vertebral artery into the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

From January 1979 to December 1991, 92 revascularizations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery were performed in 91 patients through a direct transposition of this artery into the internal carotid artery (ICA). These cases represented 15.1% of 610 vertebral revascularizations and 38.8% of 280 distal vertebral revascularizations performed during this period at our institution. The sex ratio of

Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer; Gérald Rancurel; Amine Bahnini; Carlo Ruotolo; Giulio Illuminati

1995-01-01

29

Rotational obstruction of the vertebral artery at the atlantoaxial joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with vertebrobasilar ischemia are described in whom angiography demonstrated obstruction of one vertebral artery at the C1–2 level on rotation of the head. The possible anatomical explanation and physiological significance of this finding are discussed.

J. W. Barton; M. T. Margolis

1975-01-01

30

Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

P. Kloen; J. D. Patterson; B. I. Wintman; R. M. Ozuna; G. W. Brick

1999-01-01

31

Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease,

P. Vilela; A. Goulão

2005-01-01

32

Iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm due to central venous catheterization  

PubMed Central

Central venous lines have become an integral part of patient care, but they are not without complications. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm formation is one of the rarer complications of central line placement. Presented is a rare case of two pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral and subclavian artery after an attempted internal jugular vein catheterization. These were successfully treated with open surgical repair and bypass. Open surgical repair remains the gold standard of treatment. Endovascular repair of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms has been described with promising outcomes, but long-term results are lacking. Ultimately, the best treatment of these iatrogenic injuries should start with prevention. Well-documented techniques to minimize mechanical complications, including inadvertent arterial puncture, should be practiced and taught in training programs to avoid the potentially devastating consequences. PMID:21566753

Vasquez, Jay

2011-01-01

33

[Non invasive imaging of bilateral vertebral arteries agenesis].  

PubMed

Imaging descriptions are lacking for vertebral artery variants reported in the anatomy literature. We report thus a variant of vertebral arteries discovered incidentally in a patient admitted for aortocoronary bypass. Doppler of the supra-aortic arches revealed the absence of cervical segments of both vertebral arteries. Transcranial doppler revealed the presence of intracranial segments of these arteries that continued in a normal basilar trunk. MR-angiography performed on a 3T machine confirmed the bilateral absence of cervical segments and the presence of normal intracranial segments arising from the occipital arteries, branches of the external carotid arteries. Embryologic analysis explains this variant by an involution of cervical segments and persistence of anastomoses between the external carotid system and the vertebrobasilar system that normally regresses during fetal life. This anastomosis enables irrigation of the intracranial vertebrobasilar system by the external carotid artery. The introduction of 3T MR-angiography has enabled better and more precise detection of vascular variants without invasive angiography. PMID:18313873

Hachem, K; Abi Khalil, S; Slaba, S; Jebara, V; Ghossain, M

2008-02-01

34

Endovascular interventional therapy and classification of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The current study aimed to summarise the clinical features and classifications of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to optimise strategies for endovascular interventional therapy. The clinical features and results of 31 inpatients with VADA were retrospectively analysed. The aneurysms were classified according to their location and association between the aneurysm and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and into subtypes according to the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral artery. Different endovascular interventional therapy strategies were selected for each classification. Three types of aneurysm with two subtypes each were identified. An aneurysm located distally to the PICA was termed type I (10/31 patients). Aneurysms with a contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype a (type Ia, 6/31 patients) and aneurysms with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype b (type Ib, 4/31 patients). An aneurysm located at the origin of the PICA was termed type II (13/31 patients), with seven cases classified as IIa and six cases as IIb. An aneurysm located proximally to the PICA was termed type III (8/31 patients), with five cases classified as IIIa and three cases as IIIb. Among the 31 patients, 18 received stent-assisted coiling, two received coiling, 10 received coiling with parent artery occlusion and one patient received conservative treatment. Among the 31 patients with VADA, 21 were occluded completely, nine were partially occluded and one was not occluded. One patient developed a coma following coiling; however, the other 30 patients recovered well. Thus, the classification of an aneurysm based on its location and the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral arteries appears to be an effective and safe approach for the selection of appropriate endovascular interventional therapy strategies. PMID:25289031

WANG, YIHUA; ZHAO, CUIPING; HAO, XIAOGUANG; WANG, CHENGWEI; WANG, ZHIGANG

2014-01-01

35

Transcutaneous angioplasty of vertebral artery atheromatous ostial stricture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report experience of intravascular angioplasty of atheromatous ostial strictures of the vertebral artery in 24 patients. After reviewing the technique, they outline the indications provided through Doppler velocimetric data. The results seem to be encouraging as symptoms disappeared completely in 21 patients.

P. Courtheoux; A. Tournade; J. Theron; J. P. Henriet; D. Maiza; J. M. Derlon; G. Pelouze; C. Evrard

1985-01-01

36

Angioplasty and stenting in the carotid and vertebral arteries.  

PubMed Central

Carotid and vertebral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting are new, experimental techniques. Their potential uses are discussed and the results and complications reported to date are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9538479

Crawley, F.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A. G.

1998-01-01

37

Power Doppler imaging in the evaluation of extracranial vertebral artery compression in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The recent introduction of Power Doppler Imaging (PDI) made a promise for better visualization of blood vessels lying in regions anatomically difficult for ultrasound imaging, i.e. vertebral arteries. The purpose of our study was to assess usefulness of PDI technique in visualization of vertebral artery course and to assess its utility in the detecting spondylotic vertebral artery compression in

T. Jargiello; R. Pietura; P. Rakowski; M. Szczerbo-Trojanowska; M. Szajner; M. Janczarek

1998-01-01

38

Spontaneous Thrombolysis of Multiple Thrombi at Distal Region of Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery After Stent-assisted Angioplasty on Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis: Angiographic Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) can be easily overlooked if the contralateral side vertebral artery is intact, because of compensation by the contralateral artery or cerebral collateral network. The clinical relevance and hemodynamic impact of VAH is still controversial. However, VAH has recently been considered a risk factor for posterior circulation ischemia. Ischemic stroke is seldom caused by free floating thrombi (FFT) in the artery. Pathophysiology of FFT has not yet been clarified. The state of reduced blood flow such as a vertebral artery origin stenosis may cause FFT. Their instability may make them sources of recurrent artery to artery embolism. Patients with FFT will require appropriate medical and endovascular treatment. The current case illustrates a short-term angiographic change of spontaneous thrombolysis of VAH and multiple thrombi at the distal region of the stenosed lesion after stent-assisted angioplasty for a vertebral artery origin stenosis.

Huh, Choon-Woong; Kim, Dal-Soo; Mok, Jin-Ho; Kim, In-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwan

2014-01-01

39

Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma  

PubMed Central

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized.

Dabke, Harshad V.

2014-01-01

40

Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

2013-10-01

41

Distal vertebral artery reconstruction: Long-term outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to report our long-term results of distal vertebral artery (DVA) reconstruction. Method: From 1978 to 2001 we performed 352 DVA reconstructions on 323 patients (177 men, 148 women; mean age, 60.0 ± 12.1 years). Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 332 cases (94.3%). Bypass grafting using mostly saphenous vein graft was performed

Edouard Kieffer; Barbara Praquin; Laurent Chiche; Fabien Koskas; Amine Bahnini

2002-01-01

42

Numerical simulation of vertebral artery stenosis treated with different stents.  

PubMed

We sought to investigate the effects of endovascular stents with different links for treating stenotic vertebral artery and to determine the relationship between the shape of the link and in-stent restenosis (ISR). We also attempted to provide scientific guidelines for stent design and selection for clinical procedures. Models of three types of stent with different links (L-stent, V-stent, and S-stent) and an idealized stenotic vertebral artery were established. The deployment procedure for the stent in the stenotic vertebral artery was simulated for solid mechanics analysis. Next, the deformed models were extracted to construct the blood flow domain, and numerical simulations of the hemodynamics in these models were performed using the finite element method. The numerical results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with the L-stent and V-stent, the S-stent has a better flexibility and induces less stress in the stent strut. Furthermore, less stress is generated in the arterial wall. (2) Vascular straightening is scarcely influenced by the shape of the link, but it is closely related to the flexibility of the stent. (3) The S-stent has the smallest foreshortening among the three types of stents. (4) Compared with the V-stent and S-stent, the L-stent causes a smaller area with low wall shear stress, less blood stagnation area, and better blood flow close to the artery wall. From the viewpoint of the combination of solid mechanics and hemodynamics, the S-stent has better therapeutic effects because of its lower potential for inducing ISR and its better prospects in clinical applications compared with the L-stent and V-stent. PMID:24337228

Qiao, Aike; Zhang, Zhanzhu

2014-04-01

43

Multidetector computed tomography angiography: Application in vertebral artery dissection  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is a minimally invasive radiological technique providing high-resolution images of the arterial wall and angiographic images of the lumen. We studied the radiological features of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a consecutive series of patients investigated for acute stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to confirm and define the diagnostic features of VAD on MDCTA. Patients and Methods: Review of patients identified prospectively over a 4-year period with VAD assessed by MDCTA was conducted. Radiological features of VAD on MDCTA were reanalyzed utilising previously reported criteria for VAD. Results: Thirty-five patients (25 males, mean age 49.6 years) with a total of 45 dissected vertebral arteries were reviewed. MDCTA features of VAD included increased wall thickness in 44/45 (97.7%) arteries and increased total vessel diameter in 42/45 arteries (93.3%). All dissected arteries had either lumen stenosis (21/45) or associated segmental occlusion (24/45). An intimal flap was detected in 6/45 (13.3 %) vessels. Twenty-five patients had follow-up imaging, 14/32 vessels returned to normal, 4 showed improvement in stenosis but did not return to normal and 14 demonstrated no change. The majority of non-occluded vessels became normal or displayed improved patency. Only 4/17 occluded arteries demonstrated re-establishment of flow. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusions: MDCTA is a safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of VAD. Increased wall thickness (97.7%) and increased vessel wall diameter (93.3%) were the most frequently observed features. PMID:21633613

Teasdale, Evelyn; Zampakis, Peter; Santosh, Celestine; Razvi, Saif

2011-01-01

44

Hypoplasia of Left Vertebral Artery with Intimal Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Korean Woman  

PubMed Central

We found a case of hypoplasia of vertebral artery with fibromuscular dysplasia in an 82-yr-old Korean female cadaver during a routine dissection course. In the present case, intracranial hypoplasia in left vertebral artery and bilateral origin of posterior inferior cerebellar artery at the vertebrobasilar junction were recognized. Histopathologically, left vertebral artery showed intimal type of fibromuscular dysplasia both in its extracranial and intracranial courses. These results indicate that the association of fibromuscular dysplasia and hypoplasia does exist in the vertebral artery, although the etiologies are not verified yet. PMID:22787380

Hyun, Chang Lim; Park, Hyun Sik; Shin, Hyun Jo

2012-01-01

45

Use of Intravascular Stents in the Treatment of Internal Carotid and Extracranial Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The management of extracranial carotid or vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms is controversial. Although some of these lesions resolve spontaneously, many clinicians opt to treat them with trapping procedures that result in vessel sacrifice. We describe two cases in which an intravascular stent was used to obliterate an aneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery and the internal carotid artery, respectively, while

Michael Bruce Horowitz; George Miller; Yves Meyer; George Carstens; Phillip D. Purdy

46

Stent fracture in revascularization for symptomatic ostial vertebral artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We assessed the long-term follow-up examinations and complications of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS)\\u000a for symptomatic ostial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective study was done to evaluate 12 patients with symptomatic ostial VA stenosis who underwent PTAS. Six patients\\u000a were treated with the Palmaz stent and six with a balloon-expandable coronary stent. Initial angiographic follow-up examination\\u000a was conducted

Masanori Tsutsumi; Kiyoshi Kazekawa; Masanari Onizuka; Tomonobu Kodama; Shuko Matsubara; Hiroshi Aikawa; Minoru Iko; Kouhei Nii; Housei Etou; Akira Tanaka

2007-01-01

47

Imaging Characteristics of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is an important cause of stroke in the young. VAD can present with a range of imaging findings. We sought to summarize the diagnostic value of various imaging findings in patients with symptomatic VAD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) for English-language manuscripts with >5 subjects with clinical or radiological features of VAD. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion; a third adjudicated differences. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and imaging data were abstracted. Pooled proportions were calculated. Results Of 3996 citations, we screened 511 manuscripts and selected 75 studies describing 1,972 VAD patients. Most studies utilized conventional angiography or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to diagnose VAD; CT angiography (CTA) and Doppler ultrasonography were described less frequently. Imaging findings reported were vertebral artery stenosis (51%), string and pearls (48%), arterial dilation (37%), arterial occlusion (36%), and pseudoaneurysm, double lumen, and intimal flap (22% each). In cases where conventional angiography was the reference standard, CTA was more sensitive (100%) than either MRA (77%) or Doppler ultrasonography (71%) (p=0.001). Conclusions Imaging findings vary widely in patients with VAD, with no single radiographic sign present in the majority of VAD patients. Non-specific radiographic signs predominate. CTA probably has greater sensitivity for dissection than MRA or ultrasound relative to conventional angiography. Higher quality studies on imaging techniques and radiographic criteria in subjects with VAD are needed. Future studies should compare imaging techniques in well-defined, undifferentiated populations of clinical VAD suspects. PMID:22931729

Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Sharma, Priti; Robinson, Karen A.; Arnan, Martinson; Tsui, Megan; Saber-Tehrani, Ali; Newman-Toker, David E.

2013-01-01

48

Endovascular Occlusion of the Carotid or Vertebral Artery with Temporary Proximal Flow Arrest and Microcoils: Clinical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the clinical effectiveness of parent artery occlusion of the carotid or vertebral artery by means of temporary proximal flow arrest and microcoils. METHODS: Nineteen parent artery occlusions (15 carotid, four vertebral) were performed in 19 patients who successfully passed a balloon test occlusion. In these patients, endovascular occlusion of the carotid or vertebral artery was accomplished with

Virgil B. Graves; John Perl; Charles M. Strother; Robert C. Wallace; Prabhakar P. Kesava; Thomas J. Masaryk

49

Positional occlusion of the vertebral artery: A rare cause of embolic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A young, previously healthy patient developed embolic occlusions of the posterior cerebral, superior cerebellar, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. This patient also demonstrated positional occlusion of the left vertebral artery which may have been the etiology for his embolic stroke.

R. I. Grossmann; K. R. Davis

1982-01-01

50

Subclavian steal syndrome like appearance resulting from a vertebral artery origin stenosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Partial steal has been regarded as a classic ultrasound appearance of subclavian steal syndrome. We report a case with the vertebral artery origin stenosis and intact subclavian artery, which showed the similar partial steal ultrasound features. The following computerized tomography angiography confirmed the stenosis. Therefore, when an alternating flow in the vertebral artery is detected, the investigation of its origin must be performed besides the ipsilateral subclavian artery. PMID:21815965

He, Yu; Li, Tong; Yang, Chun-rong; Zhao, Yi-xuan; Hu, Yan-bing

2013-01-01

51

Incidence of Vertebral Artery Thrombosis in Cervical Spine Trauma: Correlation with Severity of Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of blunt traumatic vertebral artery dissec- tion\\/thrombosis varies widely in published trauma series and is associated with spinal trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of traumatic vertebral artery thrombosis (VAT) in cervically injured patients by using routine MR angiography (MRA) and MR imaging and identify associations with the severity of

Philip J. Torina; Adam E. Flanders; John A. Carrino; Anthony S. Burns; David P. Friedman; James S. Harrop; Alexander R. Vacarro

2005-01-01

52

Treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A short report.  

PubMed

We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

2014-01-01

53

Rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to vertebral artery occlusion from fibrous band of the longus coli muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rotation-induced vertebrobasilar artery hypoperfusion causes transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), affecting the cerebellum,\\u000a brainstem and spinal cord. When these symptoms occur transiently due to head movement, compression of the vertebral artery\\u000a by an extraluminal lesion should be suspected. Cervical spondylotic spurs and anterior scalene muscle or deep cervical fascia\\u000a are among the factors which can compress the vertebral artery. When symptoms

M. R. Dadsetan; H. E. I. Skerhut

1990-01-01

54

Endovascular Recanalization for Chronic Symptomatic Intracranial Vertebral Artery Total Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The outcome of recanalization in patients with chronic symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery (ICVA) total occlusion is poor. This paper reports the technical feasibility and long-term outcome of ICVA stenting in patients with chronic symptomatic total occlusion. Methods. Retrospective review of our prospectively maintained intracranial intervention database to identify patients with symptomatic total occlusion of ICVA with revascularization attempted >1 month after index ischemic event. Results. Eight patients (mean age 58 years) were identified. One had stroke and 7 had recurrent transient ischemic attacks. Four had bilateral ICVA total occlusion and 4 had unilateral ICVA total occlusion with severe stenosis contralaterally. Seven of 8 patients underwent endovascular recanalization, which was achieved in 6. Periprocedural complications included cerebellum hemorrhage, arterial dissection, perforation, and subacute in-stent thrombosis which occurred in 3 patients. One patient died of cerebellum hemorrhage. The other patients improved clinically after endovascular therapy. Conclusions. Stent-supported recanalization of ICVA total occlusion is technically feasible, and may become a viable treatment option in selected patients.

Xu, Ziqi; Ma, Ning; Mo, Dapeng; Wong, Edward Ho chung; Gao, Feng; Jiao, Liqun; Miao, Zhongrong

2014-01-01

55

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (dilatation) of carotid, vertebral, and innominate artery stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 5 years, 51 stenoses of brachiocephalic arteries were successfully dilated, and one subclavian occlusion\\u000a recanalized in 42 patients. Among 24 patients there were 21 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, two stenoses of the common\\u000a carotid artery, two stenoses of the innominate artery, five stenoses at the origin of the vertebral artery, and four stenoses\\u000a of

Reiner Kachel; Gerd Endert; Steffen Basche; Klaus Grossmann; Felix H. Glaser

1987-01-01

56

Compressive myelopathy associated with ectasia of the vertebral and spinal arteries in a dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old dog was presented for acute, progressive tetraparesis and cervical hyperesthesia. Symmetrical tubular structures coursing along the lateroventral aspects of the spinal cord at the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae were identified in magnetic resonance images. At necropsy, vertebral arteries and their spinal branches were severely ectatic bilaterally, and the cervical spinal cord was compressed. Histologically, the ectatic branches of the vertebral and ventral spinal arteries were surrounded by fibrosis with scant mononuclear cell infiltrates and hemorrhage. Spinal branches of the vertebral arteries had focally severe reduction in the tunica media. A thrombus was in an arterial branch. Smaller vessels in adjacent tissue had fibrinoid degeneration. Axonal degeneration was detected in the affected spinal cord and nerve roots. The segmental degenerative radiculomyelopathy in this dog was attributed to anomalous ectasia of the vertebral and ventral spinal arteries. PMID:21856870

Bozynski, C C; Vasquez, L; O'Brien, D P; Johnson, G C

2012-09-01

57

Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

2014-03-01

58

Variations in Entrance of Vertebral Artery in Korean Cervical Spine: MDCT-based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the vertebral artery has clinical importance not only for the performance of interventional or surgical procedures itself but also to ensure their safety. We conducted a study of the anatomical variation by reviewing multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of the cervical spine from 460 Korean patients. Methods 16-row MDCT data from 460 patients were used in this study. We observed 920 vertebral arteries. Examination points included level of entrance of the artery into the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebra, origin site of the vertebral artery, course of a vertebral artery with aberrant entrance. Result The vertebral artery in 2 (0.2%) cases in this study entered into the transverse foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra from the left. In 45 (4.9%) cases, the vertebral artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 5th cervical vertebra. Of these, the entrance was on the right in 15 (1.6%) and on the left in 30 (3.3%). We found 17 (1.8%) cases in which the artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 4th cervical vertebra, 10 (1.1%) on the right and 7 (0.7%) on the left side. As is commonly acknowledged, the 6th cervical vertebra was the most common site of entry; the vertebral artery entered the transverse foramen of the 6th cervical vertebra in the remaining 855 (93.0%) cases, on the right in 434 (47.2%) and on the left in 421 (45.8%). Conclusions In conclusion, the possibility of an atypical course of the vertebral artery in segments V1 and V2 should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT images before carrying out procedures involving the anterior cervical vertebrae. PMID:25031813

Shin, Hye Young; Park, Ji Kang; Park, Sun Kyung; Jung, Gyu Seo

2014-01-01

59

[Surgical correction of circulatory disturbance of the vertebral artery in trauma and degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

The article presents the results of examination and surgery of 185 patients with degenerative diseases as well as with a cervical spine trauma. The circulatory disturbance of the vertebral artery took place in all patients. A different degree of changes was observed in color duplex scanning. There were minor circulatory disturbances, course deformations (angular, C, S, V-shaped twists) and dissection of the vertebral artery. Color duplex scanning allowed estimating of local and system hemodynamic significance of extravasal influences. The strategy of treatment and volume of surgical interference were defined by the degree of circulatory disturbance in the vertebral artery. PMID:25055511

Shchedrenok, V V; Zakhmatova, T V; Zuev, I V; Moguchaia, O V; Topol'skova, N V; Sebelev, K I; Malova, A M

2014-01-01

60

Management of ruptured and unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADA) are challenging disorders for neurosurgeons. Between December 2005 and May 2010, we treated 12 patients for DA of the intracranial VA. Three were treated by open surgery, seven underwent endovascular manipulation, and two were conservatively managed. Nine patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured aneurysm, and of these, two experienced abrupt re-hemorrhage and three presented with symptoms of brainstem ischemia. One of the two patients with a re-hemorrhage underwent conservative management and died in hospital of re-bleeding at 30 days after initial presentation. No postoperative neurological deficits occurred in patients treated by open surgery or via an endovascular approach. No re-hemorrhage or ischemic symptoms were observed in the 11 remaining patients during the mean 29-month (range: 14-54-month) follow-up. The chosen management strategy should be developed according to the patient's clinical condition and imaging results. Endovascular treatment, which includes several techniques, is the first choice for most patients. PMID:22018807

Su, Wandong; Gou, Shouzhong; Ni, Shilei; Li, Gang; Liu, Yuguang; Zhu, Shugan; Li, Xingang

2011-12-01

61

Reference Values for Vertebral Artery Flow Volume by Duplex Sonography in Young and Elderly Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume, the product of mean flow velocity and the cross-sectional area of the vessel. It can be determined by duplex sonography. There are no reference values for vertebral artery flow volume in an age group representative of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Methods—We examined 50 nonvascular

E. Seidel; B. M. Eicke; B. Tettenborn; F. Krummenauer

2010-01-01

62

Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

Hauth, Elke A.M. [University Hospital Essen, Essen, Department of Radiology andInterventional Radiology (Germany); Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D. [Klinikum Dortmund, Dortmund, Department ofRadiology (Germany)

2004-01-15

63

Vertebral artery angioplasty in patients younger than 55 years: Long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1964 we have performed 136 vertebral artery reconstructions representing 4% of all operations on extracranial cerebral arteries by our staff. Fifteen of our patients were under age 55 years and had symptoms of dizziness, bilateral visual disturbances, ataxia, presyncopal episodes, and occasionally localized extremity weakness. Dizziness, often severe and incapacitating, has been the most common and consistent symptom. The

Gary Giangola; Anthony M. Imparato; Thomas S. Riles; Patrick J. Lamparello

1991-01-01

64

Use of histomorphometry in the assessment of fatal vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To assess morphometrically the structural changes, which occur with ageing, along the length of the vertebral artery. METHODS--A series of 36 vessels were removed at necropsy from subjects aged between 9 months and 86 years. Image analysis was used to measure the medial width, the circumference, the intimal: medial area ratio and the adventitial: medial area ratio along each artery.

C P Johnson; W Lawler; J Burns

1993-01-01

65

Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion with retrograde basilary flow in three cases of giant cell arteritis  

PubMed Central

Vertebrobasilar ischaemia is a rare life-threatening complication in giant cell arteritis (GCA). We report three patients with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion. Neurovascular imaging, including CT-angiography, MR-angiography and colour-coded duplex sonography revealed flow reversal in the basilar artery as well as inflammation of the vertebral vessel wall. The first patient died from massive brainstem infarction, the other two patients survived the initial inflammatory phase of GCA. No stroke recurrence at 12 months’ follow-up on warfarin and steroid treatment was observed. Bilateral distal vertebral artery occlusion and retrograde basilar artery flow persisted. Outcome in these patients is dependant on potent immunosuppression, concurrent atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease and presence and/or rapid development of sufficient collateral pathways into the vertebrobasilar circulation. The identification of patients with high risk of ischaemia due to compromised vertebrobasilar flow may be important to select adjunct treatment to immunosuppression, such as anticoagulation in GCA. PMID:21691390

Boettinger, Markus Robert; Sebastian, Schreglmann Robert; Gamulescu, Maria-Andreea Robert; Grauer, Oliver; Ritzka, Markus; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Steinbrecher, Andreas; Schlachetzki, Felix

2009-01-01

66

Endovascular Management of Pediatric High-Flow Vertebro-Vertebral Fistula with Reversed Basilar Artery Flow  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

Honarmand, A.R.; Ansari, S.A.; Alden, T.D.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Hurley, M.C.; Rahman, O.; Shaibani, A.

2013-01-01

67

Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%), atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%), possible dissections (2.6%), kinked arteries (2.6%) and coiling (32.0%). Eighteen patients (2.8%) with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5%) and 15 cases (2.3%) were possible dissections. Conclusion We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. In general, posterior vascular pathology is not uncommon, and CTA is a useful modality in the detection of changes based on characteristics and locations of findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries. Ultrasound examination can be a useful supplementary tool in deciding the consequence of vascular findings on CTA. PMID:24575111

Bentsen, L.; Nygard, A.; Ovesen, C.; Christensen, A.; Rosenbaum, S.; Havsteen, I.; Christensen, H.

2014-01-01

68

[Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].  

PubMed

A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing. PMID:24583591

Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

2014-01-01

69

Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

2014-04-01

70

Embolic brain infarction related to posttraumatic occlusion of vertebral artery resulting from cervical spine injury: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The frequency of vertebrobasilar ischemia in patients with cervical spine trauma had been regarded as low in many published papers. However, some case reports have described cervical spine injury associated with blunt vertebral artery injury. Many aspects of the management of vertebral artery injuries still remain controversial, including the screening criteria, the diagnostic modality, and the optimal treatment for various lesions. The case of a patient who had a brain infarction due to recanalization of his occluded vertebral artery following open reduction of cervical spinal dislocation is presented here. Case presentation A 41-year-old Asian man presented with C4 to C5 distractive flexion injury manifesting with quadriplegia and anesthesia below his C3 cord level (including phrenic nerve paralysis), and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography showed left extracranial vertebral artery occlusion and patent contralateral vertebral artery. He was observed without antiplatelet and/or anticoagulation therapy, and underwent surgery (open reduction and internal fusion of C4 to C5, and tracheostomy) 8 hours after the injury. After surgery, supraspinal symptoms such as left horizontal nystagmus and left homonymous hemianopsia led to cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which showed left-side cerebellar infarction in his posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory and right-side posterior cerebral artery infarction. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography demonstrated patent bilateral vertebral artery (but hypoplastic right vertebral artery) and occluded right posterior cerebral artery. His injured vertebral artery was treated conservatively, which did not cause any other ischemic complications. Conclusions The management of asymptomatic vertebral artery injury is controversial with several treatment options available, including observation alone, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation therapy, or invasive intervention. Although there are some reports in which management with observation alone is described as safe, we should pay serious attention to the vertebral artery injury caused by cervical spine trauma. PMID:25316102

2014-01-01

71

Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury.  

PubMed

Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral artery thrombosis, superimposed on an old dissecting intramural haematoma of the right vertebral artery in the atlantoaxial region. Vertebrobasilar occlusion after minor head trauma, hyperextending or rotating neck injury, or neck manipulation is commonest in young people. Occult ligamentous injury to the cervical spine after trauma may be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of vertebral artery damage after injury to the neck. PMID:8164004

Auer, R N; Krcek, J; Butt, J C

1994-04-01

72

Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Loop: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery loop formation is a rare anatomical variant capable of causing bony erosion, encroachment on cervical neural foramen, neurovascular compression, or vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Health professionals should keep the diagnosis of vertebral artery loop formation in mind, especially when the plain radiograph of the cervical spine shows enlargement of the intervertebral foramen. If overlooked, serious complications like vertebral artery injury may occur during surgery or vertebrobasilar angiography, as well as cerebrovascular stroke during transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections. This case report aims at increasing the awareness of both clinicians and radiologists of this entity as a known rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. In suspected cases, Magnetic resonance imaging & Magnetic resonance angiography should always be the first choice in this regard.

Doweidar, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Saeed; Al-Kandery, Salwa

2014-01-01

73

Vertebral-artery dissection following a judo session: a case report.  

PubMed

A few days after a judo session, an 11-year-old boy presented with an ischemic stroke with dizziness, aphasia and ataxia. CCT scan revealed a left thalamic infarct. Angiography showed a fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the left vertebral artery probably complicated by dissection. Subsequent evolution was favorable. This observation points out the fact that the association of a cervical pain with neurological signs of vertebrobasilar stroke, especially occurring after a cervical trauma or rotatory motion, should alert to the possibility of vertebral-artery dissection. The diagnosis is mainly based on angiographic criteria. Accurate diagnosis has implications for prognosis and probably for acute medical treatment. PMID:8072674

Lannuzel, A; Moulin, T; Amsallem, D; Galmiche, J; Rumbach, L

1994-04-01

74

A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments. PMID:24321776

Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-02-01

75

Difficulties in examination of the origin of the vertebral artery by duplex and colour-coded Doppler sonography: anatomical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite progress in ultrasonographic techniques visualisation of the origin of the vertebral arteries, particularly the left, by duplex and colour Doppler imaging, still poses a problem in a significant number of patients. In anatomical and radiological studies we demonstrated an anomalous origin in 6%, the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aorta in most cases. The origin from the

S. Trattnig; C. Matula; F. Karnel; K. Daha; M. Tschabitscher; B. Schwaighofer

1993-01-01

76

Acute vertebral artery origin occlusion leading to basilar artery thrombosis successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting and thrombectomy.  

PubMed

Few reports have described the successful treatment of stroke caused by acute vertebral artery (VA) origin occlusion by endovascular surgery. We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who experienced stroke due to left acute VA origin occlusion. Cerebral angiography showed that the left VA was occluded at its origin, the right VA had hypoplastic and origin stenosis, and the basilar artery was occluded by a thrombus. The VA origin occlusion was initially passed through with a 0.035-inch guide wire. An angioplasty was performed, and a coronary stent was appropriately placed. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. A balloon-assisted guiding catheter was navigated through the stent and a thrombectomy was performed using the Penumbra system. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Balloon-assisted catheter guidance through a vertebral artery stent permitted a successful thrombectomy using the Penumbra system and may be useful for treating stroke due to VA origin occlusion. PMID:24976095

Abe, Arata; Okubo, Seiji; Onozawa, Shiro; Nakajima, Masataka; Suzuki, Kentaro; Harada-Abe, Mina; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

2014-01-01

77

Dissecting aneurysm of intracranial vertebral artery: case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the intracranial portion of the dominant right vertebral artery presented as massive subarachnoid hemorrhage, excruciating headache, and respiratory arrest in a 57-year-old white man with a history of systemic hypertension. He died on the 3rd day. Postmortem examination revealed a dissecting hemorrhage extending for 2.1 cm along the artery; rupture of the intima, media, and

H. J. Manz; A. J. Luessenhop

1983-01-01

78

Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.  

PubMed

We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

Kim, Myeong-Soo

2013-06-01

79

Transluminal angioplasty for arteriosclerotic disease of the distal vertebral and basilar arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the distal vertebral and basilar artery is now being performed in selected patients with haemodynamically significant lesions of the posterior cerebral circulation. Its effect and overall results were examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A balloon dilatation catheter specifically developed for these procedures, with a 2.0-3.5 mm balloon diameter, at 6 atmospheres of pressure, was used.

T Terada; R T Higashida; V V Halbach; C F Dowd; E Nakai; H Yokote; T Itakura; G B Hieshima

1996-01-01

80

Dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery: report of four cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of cervical vertebral artery (VA) dissection are reported. In three patients VA dissection was associated with neck trauma. All patients were young or middle-aged (range 27 to 49 years). In two there was a history of migraine. Pain preceded neurological symptoms from hours to six weeks. Three patients had neurological deficits including elements of the lateral medullary syndrome,

P Hinse; A Thie; L Lachenmayer

1991-01-01

81

Surgical Anatomy of the Anterior Cervical Spine: The Disc Space, Vertebral Artery, and Associated Bony Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationships between the neurovascular structures and surrounding bone, which are hidden from the surgeon by soft tissue, and to aid in avoiding nerve root and vertebral artery injury in anterior cervical spine surgery. METHODS: Using six cadaveric spines, we measured important landmarks on the anterior surface of the spine, the bony housing protecting the neurovascular structures

T. Glenn Pait; James A. Killefer; Kenan I. Arnautovic

1996-01-01

82

Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug User  

SciTech Connect

A 26-year-old drug abuser who presented with sepsis was found to have a pseudoaneurysm in the left vertebral artery. This aneurysm was presumed to be post-traumatic, since the patient reported multiple attempts to inject drugs in the left jugular vein 15 days prior to admission. The pseudoaneurysm was treated effectively with stent-graft placement.

Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Doriforou, Ortansia; Skiadas, Vasilios, E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, Vasilios [Areteion Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Radiology (Greece); Katsenis, Konstantinos [Areteion Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece); Vlahos, Lampros [Areteion Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Radiology (Greece)

2006-08-15

83

Magnetic resonance angiographic and clinical features of extracranial vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESClinical data and neuroradiological findings of 19 patients with 20 vertebral artery dissections were analysed to describe the features of time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis and follow up of this vascular disorder.METHODSAll patients underwent a combined MRI and MRA protocol with 1.5 T scanners, using a three dimensional flow compensated gradient echo sequence for MRA.

A Auer; S Felber; C Schmidauer; P Waldenberger; F Aichner

1998-01-01

84

Clinical perceptions of the risk of vertebral artery dissection after cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: The growing recognition of cervical manipulation as a treatment of neck pain and cervicogenic headaches has lead to increased interest in potential complications that may result from this treatment approach. Recent surveys have reported that many neurologists will encounter cases of vertebral artery dissection that occur at various times after cervical manipulation, whereas most practitioners of spinal manipulation

Scott Haldeman; Paul Carey; Murray Townsend; Costa Papadopoulos

2002-01-01

85

Dynamic elongation of the vertebral artery during an in vitro whiplash simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical signs of whiplash are presently not well understood. Vertebral artery (VA) stretch during trauma is a possible pathomechanism that could explain some aspects of the whiplash symptom complex. This study quantified the VA elongation during whiplash simulation using an in vitro model. Seven fresh human cadaveric specimens (occiput to C7 or TI) were carefully dissected, preserving the osteoligamentous structures.

K. Nibu; J. Cholewicki; M. M. Panjabi; L. B. Babat; J. N. Grauer; R. Kothe; J. Dvorak

1997-01-01

86

Traumatic lesion of the extracranial vertebral artery a note-worthy potentially lethal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autopsy findings from routine neuropathological investigations of the cervical spine after any history of trauma emphasized the vulnerability of the extracranial vertebral arteries. In 21 cases with trauma to the head and neck, normal autopsy procedures did not succeed in revealing an obvious cause of death. Traumatic lesions of the spinal cord such as contusion or neurorrhexis were seen

L. Pötsch; J. Bohl

1994-01-01

87

Vertebral artery origin angioplasty and primary stenting: safety and restenosis rates in a prospective series  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To report a single centre ongoing experience of endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic vertebral artery origin stenosis in a series of symptomatic patients, with follow up imaging to determine the incidence of restenosis. Methods: 14 patients with vertebral artery origin stenosis on catheter angiography were treated. Angioplasty without stenting was undertaken in the first four patients, all of whom had follow up catheter angiography at one year. Subsequently, patients were treated by primary stenting and followed up with colour Doppler ultrasound examination. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all treated arteries, with no immediate complications. The degree of stenosis was reduced from (mean (SD)) 73 (18)% before treatment to 21 (26)% immediately after treatment in the angioplasty alone group (p = 0.059). In the primary stenting patients, the severity of stenosis was reduced from 82 (8)% to 13 (13)% immediately after treatment (p < 0.001). Restenosis to 70% or greater occurred at one year in all four patients initially treated by angioplasty without stenting. One patient subsequently developed further symptoms and was retreated by stenting. One of the 10 patients treated by primary stenting developed restenosis. None of the remaining patients had further posterior circulation ischaemic symptoms during a mean follow up period of 33.6 months (range 1 to 72 months). Conclusions: Restenosis occurs often after vertebral artery origin balloon angioplasty without stenting but is uncommon after stenting. Primary stenting is therefore recommended to maintain patency at this site, and had a low complication rate in this series. PMID:12700299

Cloud, G; Crawley, F; Clifton, A; McCabe, D; Brown, M; Markus, H

2003-01-01

88

Truncus bicaroticus with aberrant right subclavian artery and origin of right vertebral from right common carotid artery.  

PubMed

We describe a rare constellation of variant anatomy of the aortic arch branches, seen on a magnetic resonance angiographic examination during the course of investigation for recent onset memory loss in a 52-year-old patient. There was a common origin of both the common carotid arteries (CCA), the common trunk being the first major branch of the aortic arch, the right vertebral artery arising from the right CCA and the right subclavian artery arising as the last branch of the arch. In isolation, the three components of this constellation have been reported with different frequencies, but as per the authors' knowledge, this entire constellation has been rarely reported. We review the literature and propose an embryological mechanism for this variant anatomy. PMID:24214020

Kumar, Subhash; Kumar, Prem

2014-10-01

89

Stenting of the vertebral artery origin with ostium dilation: technical note.  

PubMed

Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery (VA) origin stenosis typically requires placement of the proximal end of the stent within the lumen of the subclavian artery or aorta to provide complete coverage of the ostial lesion. This configuration may complicate subsequent endovascular access into the stented VA. We describe a technique modification of VA origin stenting and angioplasty with a monorail angioplasty balloon system designed specifically for dilation of the ostial origin which may be helpful in conforming the proximal portion of the stent to the VA origin. Simplified endovascular access to the VA origin after angioplasty is demonstrated. PMID:22935348

Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2013-09-01

90

Drug Eluting Stents for Symptomatic Intracranial and Vertebral Artery Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Summary The use of bare metal stents (BMS) to prevent recurrent stroke due to stenosis of the cerebral vasculature is associated with high rates of restenosis. Drug-eluting stents (DES) may decrease this risk. We evaluated the performance of DES in a cohort of patients treated at our institution. Consecutive patients treated with DES were identified by a case log and billing records; data regarding procedural details, clinical outcome and angiographic follow-up was obtained by retrospective chart review. Twenty-six patients (27 vessels; 14 vertebral origin (VO); 13 intracranial) were treated. Stenosis was reduced from mean 81% to 8% at the VO and 80% to 2% intracranially. No strokes occurred in the first 24 hours after stenting or at any time point in the VO group during a mean follow-up period of nine months. Among patients with intracranial stents, stroke with permanent disability occurred within 30 days in 1/12 (8%) and after 30 days in 1/11 (9%) with clinical follow-up (mean follow-up, 14 months). Follow-up catheter angiography was obtained in 14/14 (100%) in the VO group at mean eight months and in 8/11 surviving patients (73%) at a mean of ten months after stenting in the intracranial group. The restenosis rate was 21% at the VO (3/14) and 38% (3/8) for intracranial stents. Restenosis at the VO was less frequent than might have been expected from reports utilizing BMS, however, overall restenosis rates appeared higher than previously reported for patients with intracranial DES and comparable with restenosis rates for intracranial BMS. PMID:21696666

Fields, J.D.; Petersen, B.D.; Lutsep, H.L.; Nesbit, G.M.; Liu, K.C.; Dogan, A.; Lee, D.S.; Clark, W.M.; Barnwell, S.L.

2011-01-01

91

Atypical hemifacial spasm due to vertebral artery dolichoectasia: rare cause of a rarer clinical entity.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man presented with atypical left hemifacial spasm (HFS) with MRI showing compression of left facial nerve at the root exit zone. HFS rarely presents atypically with onset in orbicularis oris and later spreading upward to involve the orbicularis oculi as was seen in our case. Atypical presentation of hemifacial spasm is rare and vertebral artery dolichoectasia as the underlying aetiology, like in our case is even rarer and has not been described in literature so far. PMID:23845680

Mathur, Tarun; Srivastava, Trilochan; Sardana, Vijay; Jain, Rahul

2013-01-01

92

The role of vertebral and internal carotid artery disease in the pathogenesis of vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks.  

PubMed

Color-coded duplex sonography has improved the evaluation of the hemodynamics of the vertebral arteries (VA). A reliable differentiation between a normal vessel, hypoplasia, stenosis and occlusion of VA can now be made. We studied two groups of patients in a prospective study with isolated carotid artery disease (n = 48), and with a combination of carotid and vertebral artery disease (n = 14), to determine the role of VA in the pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in the vertebrobasilar system. Apart from the existing arteriosclerotic changes of the internal carotid arteries, the condition of the VA was of importance for the occurrence of TIAs in the vertebrobasilar territory. We found that 8% of the patients with isolated hemodynamically relevant stenosis or occlusion of one or both internal carotid arteries had a TIA in the vertebrobasilar territory. Patients with combined carotid and vertebral artery disease had an increase of TIAs in the same region in 71%. The high rate of TIAs in this group might be attributed to the combined effect of carotid and vertebral artery disease, as a third group (n = 30) with isolated vertebral artery disease showed TIAs in only 13%. PMID:8461343

Delcker, A; Diener, H C; Timmann, D; Faustmann, P

1993-01-01

93

Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21040422

Grimes, Adrian C.; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Hami, Danyal; Santoro, Massimo M.; Torres, Miguel

2014-01-01

94

Unilateral and Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection Following Motor Vehicle Injury—Two Cases and a Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection in two patients with traumatic brain and cervical spine injury was treated in the intensive care\\u000a unit. In both cases vertebral artery dissection was suspected solely by the presence of ischemic lesions on the cervical spine\\u000a and by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, performed because of a failure to recover consciousness. In the intensive\\u000a care unit

Christina G. Mandila; Georgios V. Koukoulitsios; Georgios T. Stathopoulos; Ioannis Karampelas; Georgios Karydas; Andreas Karabinis

2005-01-01

95

Dissecting Aneurysm of Vertebral Artery Manifestating as Contralateral Abducens Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Isolated abducens nerve paresis related to ruptured vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is rare. It usually occurs bilaterally or ipsilaterally to the pathologic lesions. We report the case of a contralateral sixth nerve palsy following ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. A 38-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a 6-day history of headache. Abnormalities were not seen on initial computed tomography (CT). On admission, the patient was alert and no signs reflecting neurologic deficits were noted. Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography revealed a fusiform dilatation of the right VA involving origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient suddenly suffered from severe headache with diplopia the day before the scheduled cerebral angiography. Neurologic examination disclosed nuchal rigidity and isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Emergent CT scan showed high density in the basal and prepontine cistern compatible with ruptured aneurismal hemorrhage. Right vertebral angiography illustrated a right VA dissecting aneurysm with prominent displaced vertebrobasilar artery to inferiorly on left side. Double-stent placement was conducted for the treatment of ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. No diffusion restriction signals were observed in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem. Eleven weeks later, full recovery of left sixth nerve palsy was documented photographically. In conclusion, isolated contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with ruptured VA aneurysm may develop due to direct nerve compression by displaced verterobasilar artery triggered by primary thick clot in the prepontine cistern. PMID:23634273

Jeon, Jin Sue; Son, Young-Je; Chung, Young Seob

2013-01-01

96

Stenting of symptomatic vertebral artery ostium stenosis with self-expanding stents.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral arterial stenosis carries a stroke risk of 30% at 5 years. The efficacy of stenting with balloon-expandable stents remains questionable due to a high long-term restenosis rate. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of using self-expanding stents to treat symptomatic vertebral artery ostium (VAO) stenosis in selected patients. Clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively reviewed in patients with symptomatic VAO stenosis who underwent stenting with self-expanding stents between June 2008 and December 2011. In total, 32 patients were included. Self-expanding stents (25 tapered and seven non-tapered) were deployed with a modified technique of deploying the stents from the V1 segment to the proximal subclavian artery. The mean degree of stenosis before and after stenting declined from 76.4% to 11.4%. No peri-procedural complications occurred. During the mean clinical follow-up of 18.3 months, no vertebrobasilar stroke, transient ischemic attack or death occurred. During the mean angiographic follow-up of 12.5 months, asymptomatic restenosis occurred in one (3.1%) patient 6 months after the procedure. No stent fracture occurred. The involved subclavian artery was patent and no clinically apparent events occurred in the dependent upper extremity. Stenting with self-expanding stents for symptomatic VAO stenosis is technically feasible and safe, with reduced restenosis and stent fracture rates in selected patients. Long-term investigations are warranted to validate its performance. PMID:24128770

Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yongwei; Hong, Bo; Deng, Benqiang; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

2014-02-01

97

Acute Vertebral Artery Origin Occlusion Leading to Basilar Artery Thrombosis Successfully Treated by Angioplasty with Stenting and Intracranial Fibrinolysis  

PubMed Central

There are few reports describing stroke due to the acute occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA) origin successfully treated by endovascularily. The authors report a case of 78-year-old man suffering from stroke owing to acute VA origin occlusion associated with contralateral hypoplastic VA leading to basilar artery (BA) thrombosis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated that the right VA was occluded at its origin, the left VA was hypoplastic, and BA was filled with thrombus. The occlusion of VA origin was initially passed through with a microcatheter and microwire. Hereafter, angioplasty was performed followed by stenting with a coronary stent. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. Next, a microcatheter was navigated intracranially through the stent and fibrinolysis was performed for BA thrombus. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Stroke due to acute VA origin occlusion leading to BA thrombosis was successfully treated by angioplasty and stenting followed by intracranial fibrinolysis. PMID:23515590

Miyachi, Shigeru; Kojima, Takao; Nakai, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

98

Clinical outcomes of patients with vertebral artery dissection treated endovascularly: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to present a meta-analysis on the safety and efficacy of different endovascular modalities when treating vertebral artery dissections, since ideal treatment remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of 39 retrospective studies involving different treatment modalities for vertebral artery dissections in adults and obtained weighted pooled proportional outcome and mortality ratios with a random effects model. Overall, 75.11 % (confidence interval (CI) 68.89-80.84, I (2) 66.89 %) had excellent outcomes, 10.10 % (CI 6.83-15.56, I (2) 65.64 %) had good outcomes, and 13.70 % (CI 9.64-18.35, I (2) 60.33 %) had poor outcomes. Postoperative complications occurred in 10.52 % (CI 6.87-14.84, I (2) 62.48 %), with 2.73 % (CI 1.64-4.10, I (2) 0.0 %) exhibiting vasospasm, 3.03 % (CI 1.88-4.46, I (2) 0.0 %) experiencing postoperative rebleeding, and 6.31 % (CI 3.57-9.76, I (2) 60.92 %) showing ischemia. Overall mortality was 8.69 % (CI 6.13-11.64, I (2) 33.76 %). When compared to these overall ratios, different treatment modality subgroups did not differ significantly, except for the proximal occlusion group, with poor outcome ratio?=?26.96 % (difference 13.26, CI 0.02-30.04, p?=?0.0403) and mortality ratio?=?21.36 % (difference 12.67, CI 0.94-28.86, p?=?0.0189). Different endovascular treatment modalities are comparatively safe and effective in the management of vertebral artery dissection. Their reduced operative time, minimal invasiveness, and overall safety render them a suitable option for intervention-amenable dissections. PMID:24715276

Hernández-Durán, Silvia; Ogilvy, Christopher S

2014-10-01

99

Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Generalized Convulsive Seizures: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered. PMID:23904852

Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andree; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

2013-01-01

100

During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a second flow route with veins paralleling the arteries (cis-trans configuration) emerges when the tissue extends. Between the cis-cis and cis-trans configurations, all configurations are in principle possible, and self-organization of the vessels contributes to determining their exact pattern. However, the global aspect depends on the size at which the growth stops and on the growth rate.

Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

2008-05-01

101

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion secondary to adjacent-level degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion (RVAO), or bow hunter's syndrome, most often occurs at the C1-2 level on physiological head rotation. It presents with symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Several previously published studies have reported on subaxial sites of vertebral artery (VA) compression by head rotation. The authors report a case of subaxial spine RVAO due to adjacent-segment degeneration. A 52-year-old man presented with dizziness when rotating his head to the left. Twenty years earlier, he had undergone a C4-5 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for a herniated disc. Imaging studies including a dynamic CT angiography and dynamic catheter angiography revealed occlusion of the left VA at the C3-4 level when the patient turned his head to the left, in the setting of an aberrant vertebrobasilar system. Successful treatment was achieved by surgical decompression of the left VA and C3-4 ACDF. Expedited diagnosis and treatment are dependent on the recognition of this unusual manifestation of RVAO, especially when patients present with nonspecific symptoms of VBI. PMID:24745352

Buchanan, Colin C; McLaughlin, Nancy; Lu, Daniel C; Martin, Neil A

2014-06-01

102

Acute subdural hematoma following halo pin tightening in a patient with bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

We report the first case of acute subdural hematoma (SDH) developing after tightening the halo of an osteoporotic 61-year-old woman on warfarin therapy for bilateral traumatic vertebral artery dissection. We discuss literature relevant to this case with an emphasis on identifying warning signs, including recurrent pin loosening, especially in patients with compromised bone structure and high risk of bleeding. Our 61-year-old patient presented to neurosurgery clinic for a 2-month follow-up of a type-III odontoid fracture sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient had repeatedly loosened halo pins, and shortly after the pins were tightened, the patient had a syncopal event and struck her head. An emergent computed tomography scan revealed acute SDH requiring emergent craniotomy and evacuation. SDH following pin penetration in a patient with bilateral vertebral artery dissection, osteoporosis, and anticoagulation has not been reported as a complication of the use of the halo vest for stabilization of the cervical spine. The risk of this serious complication can be minimized by giving special consideration to patients with comorbidities and by repositioning problematic pins. This case demonstrates the importance of special attention to bone strength, bleeding risk, and recurrent minor complaints with use of the halo vest. PMID:22989701

Medhkour, A; Massie, L; Horn, M

2012-12-01

103

Coronary subclavian steal from a left internal thoracic artery coronary bypass graft due to ipsilateral subclavian artery stenosis and an arteriovenous graft in a hemodialysis patient with left vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is an unusual cause of myocardial ischemia, secondary to a reversed blood flow in patients with patent internal thoracic artery coronary bypass grafts. The causes of coronary subclavian steal are either ipsilateral subclavian artery stenosis or upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula formation or both. This report involves a 68-year-old woman with left vertebral artery occlusion who developed severe coronary steal in the absence of vertebral subclavian steal due to left subclavian artery stenosis and an arteriovenous hemodialysis graft. PMID:23728554

Tanaka, Akihito; Sakakibara, Masaki; Okada, Koji; Jinno, Yasushi; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

2013-01-01

104

Endovascular Coil Trapping of a Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery Using Detachable Coils and Micro-Tornado(R) Coils  

PubMed Central

We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

2013-01-01

105

Sonography of Vertebral Arteries in De Kleyn's Position in Subjects and in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Transient Ischemic Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of subjects, matched for age, were studied. The first group consisted of 190 healthy subjects, the second, of 60 patients with vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 22 of whom underwent angiography. After it was ascertained that the findings from continuous-wave (cw) Doppler of carotid and vertebral arteries, performed in the standard position, were normal, the examination was then

Graziano Arnetoli; Andrea Amadori; Paolo Stefani; Giuseppe Nuzzaci

1989-01-01

106

Microvascular decompression of a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery producing trigeminal hypesthesia.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of trigeminal hypesthesia caused by compression of the spinal cord by a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery (VA) that was successfully treated with microvascular decompression. Aberrant intradural VA loops have been reported as causes of cervical myelopathy, some of which improved with microvascular decompression. A 52-year-old man presented with progressive complaints of headache, dizziness, left facial numbness, and left upper-extremity paresthesia that worsened when turning his head to the right. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed the left VA passing intradurally between the axis and atlas, foregoing the C-1 foramen transversarium, and impinging on the spinal cord. The patient underwent left C-1 and C-2 hemilaminectomies followed by microvascular decompression of an aberrant VA loop compressing the spinal cord. The patient subsequently reported complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:24972125

Sellin, Jonathan N; Al-Hafez, Baraa; Duckworth, Edward A M

2014-10-01

107

Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng, E-mail: xfliu2@yahoo.com.cn [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (China)

2011-06-15

108

[The deformation-strength properties of the vertebral and common carotid arteries in fetuses and newborn infants].  

PubMed

General carotid and vertebral arteries of 51 corpses of foetuses and newborns with 28-40 weeks gestation were studied. The entire material was divided into 3 groups: 28-32 weeks, 33-36 weeks and 37-40 weeks. The thickness of the wall and its certain layers and connective tissue fibres architectonics were studied. General tensile strength, its limit, maximum relative deformation and the arterial wall Junge module were studied at longitudinal tension on ZM-40 tension machine. General carotid artery wall of foetuses and newborns is more tensile and has greater strength and less rigidity than that of the vertebral artery. The wall of the arteries studied has tensility reserve, safe for its structure in account of its fibroarchitectonics peculiarities. All the tensile strength parameters of the vessels investigated, with the exception of general carotid artery relative deformation, significantly change with the gestation increase. Tensile strength properties change depending on gestation term and body weight of foetuses and newborns may be approximated with linear function Y = A + B x X + C x Z (X--gestation term, Z--body weight). PMID:7550910

Kalmin, O V

1995-01-01

109

Preoperative visualization of the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery: A 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Background: Extracranial–intracranial arterial bypass surgery is rarely performed for recurrent or progressing stroke due to vertebrobasilar artery steno-occlusive disease. Non-enhanced 7.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging reveals cerebral arteries more clearly than 3.0-T or less MR imaging. Case Description: A 45-year-old man developed recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to hemodynamic ischemia caused by occlusion of bilateral vertebral arteries despite antiplatelet therapy. MR angiography with a 7.0-T imager demonstrated that each marginal tentorial artery ran along the tentorial edge and anastomosed with each posterior cerebral artery (PCA) as collateral circulation. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–superior cerebellar artery (SCA) or PCA bypass surgery was planned through a subtemporal approach. During surgery, the SCA was not visible when the tentorial edge was elevated. The tentorium was not cut, and the STA was anastomosed with the P2 segment of the PCA. Ischemic symptoms completely resolved after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative 7.0-T MR imaging visualized the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery.

Sato, Yuiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto

2014-01-01

110

Locked in and out: a case of emerging basilar artery obstruction secondary to vertebral artery dissection thrombolysed with intravenous rt-PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a case in which intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) potentially saved a young man from locked-in syndrome or life threatening consequences. The patient presented with acute stroke secondary to vertebral artery dissection and was treated with intravenous rt-PA. There were no post thrombolysis complications and the patient left hospital with mild neurological symptoms. Our

Y H Al-Raweshidy; D M Sinha; L J Coward; P C Guyler; A O’Brien

2011-01-01

111

Recanalization of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm after occlusion of the dilated segment only  

PubMed Central

Background: Internal trapping in which the dissecting aneurysm is occluded represents reliable treatment to prevent rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. Various methods of internal trapping are available, but which is most appropriate for preventing both recanalization of the VA and procedural complications is unclear. Case Description: A 61-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a left VA dissecting aneurysm. Only the dilated segment of the aneurysm was occluded by coil embolization. Sixteen days after embolization, angiography showed recanalization of the treated left VA with blood supplying the dilated segment of the aneurysm, which showed morphological change between just proximal to the coil mesh and just distal to a coil, and antegrade blood flow through this part. Pathological examination showed that the rupture site that had appeared to be the most dilated area on angiography was located just above the orifice of the entrance. However, we think that this case of ruptured aneurysm had an entrance into a pseudolumen that existed proximal to the dilated segment, with antegrade recanalization occurring through the pseudolumen with morphological change because of insufficient coil obliteration of the entrance in the first therapy. Conclusions: This case suggests that occlusion of both the proximal and dilated segments of a VA dissecting aneurysm will prevent recanalization, by ensuring that any entrance to a pseudolumen of the aneurysm is completely closed. Careful follow-up after internal trapping is important, since antegrade recanalization via a pseudolumen may occur in the acute stage.

Tanabe, Jun; Moroi, Junta; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

112

Bow hunter's syndrome unmasked after contralateral vertebral artery sacrifice for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS), or positional vertebrobasilar insufficiency, is a rare disorder characterized by positional stenosis or occlusion of the dominant vertebral artery (VA) with concordant signs and symptoms of brainstem ischemia. Many etiologies have been described, with the most common level of obstruction occurring at the craniocervical junction. The authors report acquired BHS after the patient's contralateral VA was sacrificed for ruptured aneurysm. A 44-year-old man was referred to our institution for years of continued positional tinnitus, vertigo, and nausea. This symptomatology began 5 years prior, immediately after the patient's right VA was endovascularly sacrificed to treat a ruptured VA aneurysm. From the time of treatment, right head turning caused instantaneous symptoms consistent with brainstem ischemia. Evaluations performed during the 5 year interim before referral included computed tomography angiography, MRI, and diagnostic cerebral angiography (DCA). All failed to identify a causal etiology. A diagnosis of BHS was made with dynamic DCA. With the patient's head turned to the right, angiography of the left VA demonstrated a positional block. The patient underwent left VA decompression. Intraoperative dynamic DCA was utilized to demonstrate adequacy of decompression. The patient tolerated the procedure without complication. Symptomatology immediately completely subsided and remained absent at his 3 month follow-up. An acquired BHS should be recognized as a possible complication if VA sacrifice is considered for an unclippable or uncoilable aneurysm. PMID:24308952

Ikeda, Daniel S; Villelli, Nicolas; Shaw, Andrew; Powers, Ciarán

2014-06-01

113

Spontaneous atraumatic vertebral artery occlusion due to physiological cervical extension: case report.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery (VA) occlusion is a serious and potentially life-threatening occurrence. Bow hunter's syndrome, a mechanical occlusion of the VA due to physiological head rotation, has been well described in the medical literature. However, mechanical VA compression due to routine flexion or extension of the neck has not been previously reported. The authors present the unique case of a woman without any history of trauma who had multiple posterior fossa strokes and was found to have dynamic occlusion of her right VA visualized via cerebral angiogram upon extension of her neck. This occlusion was attributed to instability at the occipitocervical junction in a patient with a previously unknown congenital fusion of both the occiput to C-1 and C-2 to C-3. An occiput to C-3 fusion was performed to stabilize her cervical spine and minimize the dynamic vascular compression. A postoperative angiogram showed no evidence of restricted flow with flexion or extension of the neck. This case emphasizes the importance of considering symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency as a result of physiological head movement. The authors also review the literature on VA compression resulting from physiological head movement as well as strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24438424

Safain, Mina G; Talan, Jordan; Malek, Adel M; Hwang, Steven W

2014-03-01

114

Delayed Brain Infarction due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Occlusion Which Occurred 5 Days after Cervical Trauma.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery (VA) injuries usually accompany cervical trauma. Although these injuries are commonly asymptomatic, some result in vertebrobasilar infarction. The symptoms of VA occlusion have been reported to usually manifest within 24 hours after trauma. The symptoms of bilateral VA occlusions seem to be more severe and seem to occur with shorter latencies than those of unilateral occlusions. A 48-year-old man had a C3-4 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord compression that resulted from a traffic accident. After surgery, his initial quadriparesis gradually improved. However, he complained of sudden headache and dizziness on the 5th postoperative day. His motor weakness was abruptly aggravated. Radiologic evaluation revealed an infarction in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. Cerebral angiography revealed complete bilateral VA occlusion. We administered anticoagulation therapy. After 6 months, his weakness had only partially improved. This case demonstrates that delayed infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion can occur at latencies as long as 5 days. Thus, we recommend that patients with cervical traumas that may be accompanied by bilateral VA occlusion should be closely observed for longer than 5 days. PMID:25328652

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Jiha

2014-08-01

115

Delayed Brain Infarction due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Occlusion Which Occurred 5 Days after Cervical Trauma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery (VA) injuries usually accompany cervical trauma. Although these injuries are commonly asymptomatic, some result in vertebrobasilar infarction. The symptoms of VA occlusion have been reported to usually manifest within 24 hours after trauma. The symptoms of bilateral VA occlusions seem to be more severe and seem to occur with shorter latencies than those of unilateral occlusions. A 48-year-old man had a C3-4 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord compression that resulted from a traffic accident. After surgery, his initial quadriparesis gradually improved. However, he complained of sudden headache and dizziness on the 5th postoperative day. His motor weakness was abruptly aggravated. Radiologic evaluation revealed an infarction in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. Cerebral angiography revealed complete bilateral VA occlusion. We administered anticoagulation therapy. After 6 months, his weakness had only partially improved. This case demonstrates that delayed infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion can occur at latencies as long as 5 days. Thus, we recommend that patients with cervical traumas that may be accompanied by bilateral VA occlusion should be closely observed for longer than 5 days. PMID:25328652

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin

2014-01-01

116

Completely reversed flow in the vertebral artery does not always indicate subclavian steal phenomenon.  

PubMed

We evaluated the causes, differential diagnosis and clinical significance of completely reversed flow (CRF) in the vertebral artery (VA). Twenty-three patients diagnosed with CRF in the VA by Doppler ultrasound were studied retrospectively. CRF was divided into intermittent CRF and continuous CRF. The peak reversed velocity (PRV) and ratio of time in intermittent CRF to one cardiac cycle (tICRF/CC) were calculated. Causes of CRF were determined on the basis of previous angiography results. The results indicated that subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP) caused all cases of continuous CRF (n = 8). Intermittent CRF was caused by SSP (n = 6) or proximal VA occlusion (n = 9). PRV and tICRF/CC were increased in SSP as compared with VA occlusion (p < 0.05). Using a cutoff of tICRF/CC = 0.30, we achieved excellent accuracy in predicting the cause of intermittent CRF (100%) and posterior circulatory infarction (91%). Thus, analysis of CRF patterns and measurements of VA parameters can be used in differential diagnosis of the causes of CRF and in prediction of posterior circulatory infarction. PMID:24486238

Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Fan, Liang-Hao; Guan, Li-Jie

2014-06-01

117

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

118

Prevalence of vertebral artery origin stenosis and occlusion in outpatient extracranial ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Most data on the prevalence of vertebral artery origin (VAo) disease is derived from hospital-based studies of patients with posterior circulation strokes and TIA. The prevalence of VAo disease in patients without posterior circulation symptoms or asymptomatic patients is poorly characterized. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of VAo stenosis and occlusion in consecutive patients, presenting for extracranial ultrasonography to an outpatient laboratory. Methods We retrospectively identified 2490 consecutive extracranial duplex studies performed in an ambulatory neurovascular ultrasound laboratory. All studies were reviewed for the presence of >50% VAo stenosis, defined as a PSV > 114 cm/s, and VA occlusion. We also reviewed the prevalence of >50% carotid stenosis, defined as a PSV > 120 cm/s, in the same population, to draw comparisons with VAo stenosis prevalence. Results We identified right VAo stenosis in 52/1955 (2.7%) and occlusion in 74/1955 (3.9%) and left-sided VAo stenosis in 45/1973 (2.5%) and occlusion in 64/1973 (3.6%). The prevalence of having any (either right or left) VAo stenosis or occlusion was 8.2% and 1.4% had bilateral VAo stenosis or occlusion. Right carotid stenosis and occlusion was found in 236/2399 (9.8%) and 53/2399 (2.2%) and left carotid stenosis and occlusion in 236/2397 (9.8%) and 45/2397 (1.9%), respectively. Any carotid disease, either right or left, was present in 18.9% and 4.7% had bilateral carotid disease. Conclusion Although less prevalent than cervical carotid disease, we found that approximately 8% of patients who presented to an ambulatory ultrasound laboratory had >50% VAo disease.

Koch, Sebastian; Bustillo, Antonio J; Campo, Bertha; Campo, Nelly; Campo-Bustillo, Iszet; McClendon, Mark S; Katsnelson, Michael; Romano, Jose G

2014-01-01

119

Treatment of Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis with a Pharos Stent Device: a Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Summary Atherosclerotic stenosis of vertebral artery (VA) origin exceeding 70% severity accounts for one third of all vertebrobasilar strokes. For a period of one year the results of endovascular treatment of VA stenosis with the new Pharos stent device were assessed. Twenty-two patients with symptomatic VA stenosis were treated with the Pharos stent. Clinical status and stenosis grade were documented before treatment and 24 hours, one, three and twelve months after treatment via ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography. All procedures proved to be technically successful without the occurrence of intra-procedural complications. During the observation period of more than one year, 55% of patients were documented with a mean stenosis degree of 60%: two (10%) of these patients showed a residual stenosis after angioplasty and nine patients (45%) an in-stent restenosis, whereas only two patients were documented with a hemodynamically relevant in-stent restenosis of 80%. These two patients were retreated with balloon dilatation. None of the patients showed neurological deterioration or new abnormalities at magnetic resonance tomography examination. Neither VA occlusion nor restenosis of the contralateral VA negatively affected the clinical outcome. An in-stent restenosis was developed by more female than male patients. VA origin stenting with the Pharos stent device is an effective treatment of stenosis. The good clinical results compared to the high restenosis rates have to be examined in further studies. Pin particular, it has to be determined whether the Pharos stent allows the vessel time for collateralization, whether double antiplatelet treatment prevents recurrent cerebrovascular events or whether merely the low restenosis degree is causative for the clinical outcome. PMID:22005693

Broussalis, E.; Kunz, A.B.; Luthringshausen, G.; Klein, S.; Mccoy, M.R.; Trinka, E.; Killer-Oberpfalzer, M.

2011-01-01

120

Unusual Cervical Spinal Cord Toxicity Associated with Intra-arterial Carboplatin, Intra-arterial or Intravenous Etoposide Phosphate, and Intravenous Cyclophosphamide in Conjunction with Osmotic Blood Brain-Barrier Disruption in the Vertebral Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: When the clinical and radiologic characteristics of an un- usual cervical spinal cord complication of intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy with blood brain- barrier (BBB) disruption in the vertebral circulation are documented. Seven cases are reported and analyzed in search of a pathophysiologic explanation. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 94 patients who received a total of 380 standard- ized regimens

David Fortin; Leslie D. McAllister; Gary Nesbit; Nancy D. Doolittle; Michael Miner; E. Jerome Hanson; Edward A. Neuwelt

121

The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography angiography for traumatic or atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid and vertebral arteries: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Helical computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become an established technique for evaluating atherosclerosis of the cerebrovascular arteries. However, the role of CTA in penetrating and blunt trauma to the carotid and vertebral arteries is not well defined. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CTA for atherosclerotic, penetrating and blunt lesions in the carotid

William Hollingworth; Avery B Nathens; Jeffrey P Kanne; Marie L Crandall; Timothy A Crummy; Danial K Hallam; Marjorie C Wang; Jeffrey G Jarvik

2003-01-01

122

Endovascular management of pediatric high-flow vertebro-vertebral fistula with reversed basilar artery flow. A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

Honarmand, A R; Ansari, S A; Alden, T D; Soltanolkotabi, M; Schoeneman, S E; Hurley, M C; Rahman, O; Shaibani, A

2013-06-01

123

[Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery for the ischemic cardiomyopathy patient with moderate mitral regurgitation and stenosis of bilateral vertebral arteries].  

PubMed

We report a 71-year-old man who had severe coronary and cerebral vascular disease with moderate mitral regurgitation (MR). Left ventricular reconstruction and mitral valve surgery were considered for poor left ventricular function and dilatation with MR. However, low blood pressure during cardiac arrest was risk for stroke due to severe stenosis of bilateral vertebral arteries. The myocardial viability of the anterior wall and inferior wall was confirmed by thallium-201 rest-redistribution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Therefore, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) was selected for the patient. Only three Lima sutures were used for keeping the optimal heart position. Coronary anastomoses were done in sequence right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA)-#4 posterior descending (PD), left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-#9-#14 (sequential), RITA-#8 left anterior descending (LAD). No neurological complication occurred postoperatively. Left ventricular function and MR gradually improved. Final ejection fraction (EF) is 51% and MR is trivial. This case demonstrated improvement of MR by only revascularization according to preoperative viability assessment. PMID:19764492

Yanase, Yohsuke; Nakamura, M; Uehara, M; Tabuchi, M; Baba, T; Kanki, K; Hashimoto, A; Higami, T

2009-09-01

124

Effect of rheological property on blood flow in vertebral artery branch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blocking of an artery is one of mechanisms for cerebral stroke development. If an important cerebral artery is occluded by any reason and if there is no sufficient collaterals, tissue ischemia occurs at brain tissues distal to the occluded artery, which is a well known clinical situation. However, in practice, ischemia or hypoperfusion has also been observed through the branches proximal to the occluded artery. The unexpected ``proximal ischemia'' is not yet known, from which patients could suffer serious complications. In the present study, two patient cases are presented to elucidate this phenomenon from the view point of fluid dynamics, especially with emphasis on the role of rheology in hemodynamics.

Min, Taegee; Kim, Myungjoon; Kim, Taesung; Kwon, O.-Ki

2011-11-01

125

Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral

R N Auer; J Krcek; J C Butt

1994-01-01

126

Flow velocity and flow volume measurements in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries in healthy adults: reference data and the effects of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish reference data and to investigate the development of haemodynamics in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries, we performed a prospective study in 78 age- and gender-matched healthy adults from 20 to 85 y old. Angle-corrected flow velocities and luminal diameters were measured and waveform parameters and flow volumes calculated in all the arteries. Side-to-side differences and the influence

Peter Scheel; Christian Ruge; Martin Schöning

2000-01-01

127

A possible correlation between vertebral artery insufficiency and degenerative changes in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 130 patients, aged 20 to 81 years, with symptoms of tinnitus, vertigo or dizziness. Radiological examinations\\u000a revealed degenerative changes in the cervical spines of all patients such as discopathy or osteophytes. Head and neck and\\u000a neurological examinations ruled out other symptoms apart from vertebrobasilar artery flow insufficiency. The vertebrobasilar\\u000a arteries were examined by means of a color Doppler

P. Str?k; E. Rero?; P. Maga; M. Modrzejewski; N. Szybist

1998-01-01

128

Is cervical spine rotation, as used in the standard vertebrobasilar insufficiency test, associated with a measureable change in intracranial vertebral artery blood flow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine rotation is used by manual therapists as a premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) test to identify patients at risk of developing VBI post-manipulation. Investigations of the effect of rotation on vertebral artery blood flow have yielded conflicting results, the validity of the test being debated. It was the aim of this study, therefore, to investigate the effects of cervical

Jeanette Mitchell; David Keene; Craig Dyson; Lyndsay Harvey; Christopher Pruvey; Rita Phillips

2004-01-01

129

Bare Metal vs. Drug-Eluting Stents for Extracranial Vertebral Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Nonrandomized Comparative Studies.  

PubMed

Purpose : To compare through meta-analysis the use of drug-eluting stents (DES) vs. bare metal stents (BMS) in the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (EVA) disease. Methods : A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify English-language articles in which both BMS and DES stenting were performed for EVA stenosis by the same investigator(s). Further, eligible studies had to provide data on in-stent restenosis during follow-up. The search identified 9 nonrandomized studies that met the inclusion criteria. The random effects model was employed to pool data. Meta-regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between risk of restenosis and the age of patients, the length of follow-up, or the percentage of male patients. Results : Reported technical success was high (range 99.2%-100%) and comparable for BMS [100% (276/276)] and DES [99.4% (166/167)]. The use of DES was associated with significantly lower (p<0.0001) overall restenosis rates [8.2% (14/170) over follow-up periods averaging 16 to 43 months] compared to BMS [23.7% (68/287) over mean follow-up periods of 19 to 46 months]. Moreover, DES showed significantly lower symptomatic restenosis rates as compared to BMS [4.7% (8/169) for DES vs. 11.6% (32/275) for BMS; p=0.005]. There was no change in the risk of restenosis for any factor explored in the meta-regression analysis. Conclusion : This meta-analysis demonstrates that the use of DES for extracranial vertebral artery stenting significantly reduces both the rate of restenosis and recurrence of symptoms as compared to BMS. In future, randomized trials are needed to support these findings. PMID:25290797

Langwieser, Nicolas; Buyer, Dominique; Schuster, Tibor; Haller, Bernhard; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Ibrahim, Tareq

2014-10-01

130

Bilateral inverted vertebral arteries (V3 segment) in a case of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: Distinct entity or a lateral variant of persistent first intersegmental artery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs), commonly involving the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). Here we describe an unusual variant consisting of bilateral VAs with normal loops but passing below the C1 (inverted VA) arch, distinctly different from the FIA. Case Description: A 9-year-old boy presented with a spastic quadriparesis. Preoperative radiographic studies showed an irreducible AAD with an occipitalized CO-C1 and C2-3 fusion. Although both VAs exhibited proximal and distal loops like normal VA, the distal loops did not pass through the C1 transverse foramina and coursed inferior to the C1 arch instead. With this critical preoperative information, both VAs could be better safeguarded during dissection of the C1-2 facets. Conclusion: In the case presented, although the course of the inverted VAs is similar, the norm, they coursed inferior to both C1 arches. Careful evaluation of the preoperative radiological studies allowed for careful dissection of the inverted VA (horizontal loop) while opening the C1-2 joint for subsequent alignment (e.g. reduction) and bony fusion. This information also facilitates safer insertion of lateral mass screws (e.g. choosing the appropriate C1 screw length to gain adequate bony purchase without compromising anomalous VA). PMID:25024882

Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K.; Ghuman, Mandeep S.

2014-01-01

131

Retreatment and Outcomes of Recurrent Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms after Stent Assisted Coiling: A Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The retreatment of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) after stent assisted coiling (SAC) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategies and outcomes for retreatment of recurrent VADAs after SAC. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2013, six consecutive patients presenting with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were enrolled in this study. They were all male with age ranging from 29 to 54 years (mean age, 46.2 years). The procedures of treatments and angiographic and clinical follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Retreatment modalities were selected individually according to the characteristics of recurrence. The outcomes of retreatment were evaluated by angiographic and clinical follow-up. Results Six patients with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were retreated, with second SAC in three patients, coil embolization, double overlapping stents placement and endovascular occlusion with aneurysm trapping in one patient, respectively. Immediate angiographic outcomes of retreatment were: complete occlusion in three patients, nearly complete occlusion in two patients, and contrast medium retention in dissecting aneurysm in one patient. All cases were technically successful. No complications related to endovascular procedures occurred. Angiographic follow-up was available in all five patients treated with second SAC or double overlapping stents, which was complete occlusion in four patients, obliteration of parent artery in one patient, showing no recurrence at 4–11 months (mean: 8.6 months). Clinical follow-up was performed in all six patients at 11–51 months after initial endovascular treatment and at 9–43 months after retreatment. The mRS of last clinical follow-up was excellent in five patients and mild disability in only one patient. Conclusions Endovascular retreatment is feasible and effective for recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC. Individualized strategies of retreatment should be enacted according to the characteristics and reasons for the recurrence. PMID:25393341

Song, Ying; Wang, Yang; Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yanmin; Mu, Shiqing; Yang, Xinjian

2014-01-01

132

Bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction resulting from vertebral artery injury following cervical trauma without radiographic damage of the spinal column: a case report.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery injury can be a complication of cervical spine injury. Although most cases are asymptomatic, the rare case progresses to severe neurological impairment and fatal outcomes. We experienced a case of bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction with fatal outcome resulting from vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine trauma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of tetraplegia after falling down the stairs and hitting his head on the floor. Marked bony damage of the cervical spine was not apparent on radiographs and CT scans, so the injury was initially considered to be a cervical cord injury without bony damage. However, an intensity change in the intervertebral disc at C5/C6, and a ventral epidural hematoma were observed on MRI. A CT angiogram of the neck showed the right vertebral artery was completely occluded at the C4 level of the spine. Forty-eight hours after injury, the patient lapsed into drowsy consciousness. The cranial CT scan showed a massive low-density area in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and brain stem. Anticoagulation was initiated after a diagnosis of the right vertebral artery injury, but the patient developed bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction. The patient's brain herniation progressed and the patient died 52 h after injury. We considered that not only anticoagulation but also treatment for thrombosis would have been needed to prevent cranial embolism. We fully realize that early and appropriate treatment are essential to improve the treatment results, and constructing a medical system with a team of orthopedists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons is also very important. PMID:24061492

Mimata, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Hideki; Sato, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

133

Power Doppler imaging and color Doppler flow imaging for the evaluation of normal and pathological vertebral arteries.  

PubMed

Recently, an ultrasound method for vascular applications using the amplitude of the reflected echosignal for the generation of intravascular color signals has been introduced. We compared the utility of this power Doppler imaging (PDI) with conventional color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) for examination of vertebral arteries (VA). Forty-nine patients with signs and symptoms suggesting ischemia within the posterior circulation were evaluated. Quality of blood flow visualization by PDI and CDFI at the different VA segments was classified according to a four point scale. Furthermore, combined sonographic findings were correlated with the results of digital substraction and/or magnetic resonance angiography (DSA, MRA). Power Doppler imaging provided a significantly superior visualization of the intertransversal VA, whereas display of the intracranial V4 segment was superior significantly on CDFI. Both methods were complementary for the evaluation of the VA at the origin. With respect to the angiographic findings, combined CDFI and PDI achieved a sensitivity of 90.63% and a specificity of 97.22% for the differentiation of healthy and pathologic VAs. Power Doppler imaging is complementary to CDFI for the sonographic assessment of VA disease. Combined use of PDI and CDFI achieves a high sensitivity and specificity, thus increasing diagnostic confidence. PMID:9557142

Ries, S; Steinke, W; Devuyst, G; Artemis, N; Valikovics, A; Hennerici, M

1998-04-01

134

Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Clinical and angiographic follow-up of 206 cases from Northwest Iran.  

PubMed

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has recently become a noteworthy treatment option for significant stenosis involving the vertebral artery (VA) in selected patients. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and mid-term follow up results of 206 cases received PTA with or without stent implant to treat their symptomatic atherosclerotic VA stenosis in all segments (V1-V4). In a prospective mono-arm trial from October 2008 to July 2012 in a single center, 239 lesions affecting the intra or extracranial VA (171 in V1, 17 in V2, 14 in V3, 21 in V4 and 16 in combined segments) were treated by PTA with or without stent implant. Non-disabling stroke patients who had failed conservative medical treatment and had angiographic evidence of >50% stenosis in the dominant VA with clinical signs and symptoms of VB stenosis were included in this study. They were mean followed for 13.15±5.24 months after treatment. Overall, 206 patients underwent the procedure. A stent was implemented in 199 patients (96.6%). The periprocedural complication rate was 7.2%. The procedural (technical) success rate was 97.6%. Of the total 239 lesions, 223 were treated with stent implant. Clinical success was achieved in all 206 symptomatic patients after the procedure. Restenosis occurred in 15.9% after a mean 10.8 (6-24) months. Of those, 63.1% and 34.2% had mild and moderate stenosis that was treated medically, whereas one case (2.6%) with severe restenosis underwent balloon angioplasty. No deaths occurred during the follow-up period. The follow-up complication rate was 6.3%. TIA occurred in 4.4%, a minor stroke in 1.4% and a major stroke in one patient. The overall patient event-free survival was 92.4%. These results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of PTA with or without stent implant, with a high technical success rate, a low complication rate, a low restenosis rate and durable clinical success in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. This approach seems to improve patients' immediate and mid-term clinical results. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to further validate this treatment option. PMID:24007733

Mohammadian, R; Sharifipour, E; Mansourizadeh, R; Sohrabi, B; Nayebi, A R; Haririan, S; Farhoudi, M; Charsouei, S; Najmi, S

2013-08-01

135

Vertebral Artery Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is a somewhat uncommon manifestation of cerebral vascular disease. Symptomatic patients present\\u000a with the hallmark signs of posterior fossa hypoperfusion: these symptoms are cranial nerve, pontine or cerebellar ischemia.\\u000a Typically patients present with diplopia, dysarthria, ataxia, perioral numbness or drop attacks. Oftentimes patients will\\u000a lose the ability to stand or ambulate but remain fully conscious during these drop

Mark A. Adelman; David C. Corry

136

The baroreflex, or pressure reflex, is the primary mechanism in adult vertebrates for rapid regulation of arterial pressure  

E-print Network

or fetal development is less clarified. The two primary species used to study vertebrate cardiovascular development, sheep and chickens, both possess a functional baroreflex during fetal or embryonic life (Blanco is an important component of cardiovascular regulation during development or that it simply becomes functional

Altimiras, Jordi

137

Bow-hunter’s syndrome caused by dynamic vertebral artery stenosis at the cranio-cervical junction—a management algorithm based on a systematic review and a clinical series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is defined as symptomatic, vertebro-basilar insufficiency caused by mechanical occlusion of the\\u000a vertebral artery (VA) at the atlanto-axial level during head rotation. In the literature, about 40 cases have been reported.\\u000a However, due to the rarity of this pathology, there are no guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Conservative, surgical,\\u000a and endovascular concepts have been proposed. In

Jan Frederick Cornelius; Bernard George; Dominique N’dri Oka; Toma Spiriev; Hans Jakob Steiger; Daniel Hänggi

138

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

139

Vertebrate skeletogenesis  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Veronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2011-01-01

140

Supply of the Unilateral Circulation of the Brain by an Occipital Artery AnastomosisA Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a case of occlusion of the right internal carotid artery in which the vertebral artery, the basilar artery and the entire right-sided anterior and posterior circulations were supplied by the right external carotid artery by way of an occipital-vertebral artery anastomosis. In this case, the usually small muscular branches of the occipital artery developed into collaterals capable

Andrei I. Holodny

2005-01-01

141

Measuring baseline whole-brain perfusion on GE 3.0T using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with MPPCASL Sequence  

E-print Network

the tagging plane, which is selected through the vertebral arteries below the confluence to the basilar artery be verified by inspecting the shape of the carotid and vertebral arteries (more circular, the better). #12, and center of the two vertebral arteries.

California at San Diego, University of

142

Clinical Features of Proven Basilar Artery Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study describes the early symptoms and signs of 85 patients with either basilar artery occlusion or bilateral distal vertebral artery occlusion documented by selective angiography. The most common prodromal symptoms were vertigo, nausea, and headache, which occurred during the 2 weeks before the stroke. Angiographic findings of 49 patients were classified into proximal, middle, and distal basilar artery occlusions.

Andreas Ferbert; Hartmut Bruckmann; Renate Drummen

2010-01-01

143

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

144

Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

145

[Persistent primitive first cervical intersegmental artery (proatlantal artery II) with occlusion of the basilar artery--a case report].  

PubMed

A rare case of persistent primitive first cervical intersegmental artery (proatlantal artery II) is reported. A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with dysarthria and left hemiparesis. On admission he was stuporous with bilateral gaze palsy and left hemiparesis. CT scan on admission showed low density areas in the right cerebellar hemisphere and ventricular part of the pons. Right retrograde brachiography revealed occlusion of the basilar artery, aplasia of the right vertebral artery and an abnormal vessel connecting the right external carotid artery and the right vertebral artery. This anastomotic vessel was thought to be a persistent primitive first cervical intersegmental artery (Proatlantal artery II). Left carotid angiography revealed the left posterior cerebral artery was visualized through the posterior communicating artery, leading from the internal carotid artery. Left retrograde brachial angiography showed that the left vertebral artery terminated just distal from the branching of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. After admission the left hemiparesis deteriorated gradually and tracheotomy was done due to respiratory difficulties. The patient was then transferred to the rehabilitation center on his 34th day in hospital with neurological deficits. PMID:3293637

Sato, H; Ogawa, A; Kitahara, M; Kayama, T; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, J

1988-03-01

146

Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report the unusual case of pulsatile tinnitus caused by muscular branches of the occipital artery, which developed to supply the distal vertebral artery after sub- clavian artery occlusion. Anatomical findings and options of endovascular treatment are discussed. To our knowl- edge, subclavian artery occlusion causing an objective tin- nitus has not been reported. Pulsatile tinnitus is a rare

Marcio Francisco Lehmann; Charbel Mounayer; Goetz Benndorf; Michel Piotin; Jacques Moret

147

Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm Treated with Wingspan Stent Deployment and Detachable Coils  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe the first documented endovascular treatment of vertebral dissecting aneurysm using a Wingspan stent and detachable coils. A 54-year-old man presented with a nonruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Because of the dissecting nature of the vertebral aneurysms, a 3x15-mm Wingspan stent was placed in the left vertebral artery. One month later, several detachable coils were introduced into the aneurysm. Six-month follow-up angiogram confirmed the obliteration. Vertebral dissecting aneurysm can be treated with Wingspan stent placement and detachable coils. PMID:20465940

Lv, M.; Lv, X.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Wu, Z.

2009-01-01

148

Revascularization of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion at the chronic stage.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who underwent intracranial angioplasty and Solitaire stent placement for recanalization of a vertebrobasilar artery occlusion 2 months after symptom onset. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed that both vertebral arteries and the proximal basilar artery were occluded. Balloon angioplasty was performed on a segment of the occluded left vertebral artery and basilar artery, followed by successful detachment of one Solitaire stent. Repeat angiography showed near normal patency of the left vertebrobasilar artery. The patient`s symptoms improved significantly, and postoperative transcranial Doppler sonography 3 months later showed no evidence of in-stent restenosis. PMID:23887219

Liu, Xun-Can; Chen, Chen; Shi, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shou-Chun

2013-07-01

149

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

150

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

151

Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

152

Subclavian and pulmonary artery steal phenomenon in a patient with isolated left subclavian artery and right aortic arch.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with right aortic arch, patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect. As the isolated left subclavian artery is supplied by the left vertebral artery in which blood flows in the retrograde direction, this anomaly is usually responsible for a congenital subclavian steal phenomenon. Atrophy of the left cerebral hemisphere and inverted left vertebral arterial flow were clearly depicted by echoencephalography in this patient, whose subclavian artery was connected to the main pulmonary artery by a patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:22238123

Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Inoue, Miki; Sakata, Miho; Ohnishi, Tatsuya; Kagami, Shoji

2013-05-01

153

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

154

INTRODUCTION In air-breathing vertebrates, changes in bloodO2 affinity provide  

E-print Network

2565 INTRODUCTION In air-breathing vertebrates, changes in blood­O2 affinity provide an important produce an increased blood­O2 affinity that helps safeguard arterial O2 saturation under hypoxia vertebrates that are native to high altitude environments, and in subterranean mammals that cope

Storz, Jay F.

155

Treatment of a patient with vertebral and subclavian aneurysms in the setting of a TGFBR2 mutation.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient diagnosed with hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with aneurysms of the subclavian and vertebral arteries. Molecular testing demonstrated transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 2 mutation. She was not a candidate for an open repair; therefore, a hybrid approach involving right vertebral ligation and bypass from the right common carotid to the vertebral C1-2 interface, endovascular exclusion of the left vertebral artery, and stent grafting of the left subclavian/axillary artery was used. The left vertebral embolization proved ineffective, requiring a right-to-left vertebral catheterization with glue occlusion. Based on her proper molecular diagnosis, she underwent prophylactic root and ascending aortic repair. PMID:23312833

Sylvan, Joshua; Greenberg, Roy K; Mastracci, Tara M; Eagleton, Matthew J; Moran, Rocio

2013-04-01

156

Dolichoectasia of the Intracranial Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Dolichoectasia is a dilatation and elongation of the arteries, usually affecting intracranial basilar and vertebral arteries.\\u000a It may cause posterior circulation stroke or transient ischemic attacks independent of atherosclerotic disease. Compression\\u000a of cranial nerves or brainstem leads to hemifacial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia, or brainstem dysfunction (temporary or permanent).\\u000a Intracranial bleeding is another possible manifestation. In general, the mortality and

Hyung-Min Kwon; Yong-Seok Lee

2011-01-01

157

The anatomy of the skeletal musculature in teleost fish differs significantly from that of the tetrapod vertebrates.  

E-print Network

that of the tetrapod vertebrates. Teleosts possess distinct blocks of highly vascularised oxidative slow-twitch fibres., 2001; Suttner et al., 2002). Although arterial and venous blood PRMO values are known for teleost conditions, PRMO was significantly lower than arterial PO (119±5·mmHg), and remained lower when the arterial

Farrell, Anthony P.

158

An unusual course of the thoracic duct in relation to the vertebral vessels.  

PubMed

A variation in the course of the thoracic duct was found in the cervical portion of a male cadaver during routine dissection of the head and neck region for undergraduate students. The thoracic duct, while arching laterally above the clavicle, was coursing posterior to the vertebral vein but anterior to the vertebral artery; it normally passes anterior to both the vertebral vein and artery. To the best of our knowledge, this variation in relation to the vertebral vein has not yet been reported. In addition, after coursing posterior to the vertebral vein, the thoracic duct divided into two branches that drained separately, one at the angle between the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, and the other into the subclavian vein. Knowledge of these variations is essential in order to prevent injury to the thoracic duct while performing surgeries at the root of the neck. PMID:22252190

Kaur, D; Jain, M; Dhall, U; Singh, K

2012-01-01

159

vertebrate sensory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

3JT UK Nociception is the detection of a noxious, tissue damaging stimulus and is sometimes accompanied by a reflex response such as withdrawal. Pain perception, as distinct from nociception, has been demonstrated in birds and mammals but has not been systematically studied in lower vertebrates. We assessed whether a fish possessed cutaneous nociceptors capable of detecting noxious stimuli and if

Lynne U. Sneddon; Victoria A. Braithwaite; Michael J. Gentle

160

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

161

Correlations of Arterial Hemodynamics with the Severity of Clinical Manifestations of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of clinical manifestations of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in virtually the same anatomical disorders of the vertebral\\u000a arteries indicates the multilevel regulation of the cerebral bloodflow aimed at its stabilization and maintenance. The main\\u000a arteries of the head and peripheral arteries were studied by Doppler ultrasonography in patients with anatomical disorders\\u000a of vertebral arteries (atherosclerotic, extravasal compressions, congenital abnormalities, etc.).

T. A. Vokina; S. B. Tkachenko; N. F. Beresten’; V. V. Tvalavadze

2008-01-01

162

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools. PMID:23858304

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

163

Non-vertebrate melatonin.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

2003-05-01

164

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

165

Bio 4464 Vertebrate Morphology Lab schedule Fall 2007 Mon, Wed 9.30-12.15 Rm Supple 424  

E-print Network

Bio 4464 Vertebrate Morphology Lab schedule Fall 2007 Mon, Wed 9.30-12.15 Rm Supple 424 Lab Manuals: The Dissection of Vertebrates by Gerardo De Luliis and Dino Pulera 2007. Whenever necessary, a lab hand, arteries and veins 9/3,5 Labor Day week 9/10,12 Amphioxus, Ammocetes larva. Lamprey eel, shark dissection

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

166

In vertebrates, short-term imbalances in blood pressure are regulated by reflex changes in cardiac output and peripheral  

E-print Network

In vertebrates, short-term imbalances in blood pressure are regulated by reflex changes in cardiac identified in many vertebrate species (see review by Bagshaw, 1985). In reptiles, the anatomy, and probably birds, the existence of myelinated baroreceptors (with thresholds well below normal arterial

Altimiras, Jordi

167

Catheter interventions for "double steal" from isolation of the subclavian artery associated with patent arterial duct.  

PubMed

Isolation of the subclavian artery is associated with "steal" of blood from the carotid circulation to the arm, through the circle of Willis and the vertebral artery. When associated with a patent arterial duct, there is an additional "steal" of blood from the arm to the lungs, through the arterial duct because of the lower pulmonary vascular resistance. When this combination manifests clinically with arm ischaemia on the side of the isolated subclavian artery, closure of the arterial duct will prevent the "steal" of blood from the subclavian artery to the pulmonary artery and may improve the blood flow to the arm. We report three patients with this unusual combination of the "steal" phenomenon that improved after interventional closure of the arterial duct. This report discusses the embryological basis of the defect, clinical and echocardiographic clues to diagnose this unusual anomaly, angiographic findings, and transcatheter management options. PMID:23462023

Koneti, Nageswara R; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Sivakumar, Kothandam

2014-02-01

168

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

169

Retinal artery occlusions in children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case. PMID:23440575

Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

2014-01-01

170

Functional similarities in the mechanical design of the aorta in lower vertebrates and mammals.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of the aorta from the toad Bufo marinus, the lizard Gekko gecko and the garter snake Thamnophis radix were compared to those of the rat, by inflation of vessel segments in vitro. The arteries of the lower vertebrates, like those of mammals, were compliant, highly resilient, and non-linearly elastic. The elastic modulus of the artery wall was similar in the lower vertebrates and mammals, at their respective mean physiological pressures. We conclude that the aorta in each of these animals is suitably designed to function effectively as an elastic pulse smoothing component in the circulation; differences in the pressure wave transmission characteristics of lower vertebrates and mammals do not result from dissimilarities in arterial elastic properties, but from substantial differences in heart rate of these two groups. PMID:2513219

Gibbons, C A; Shadwick, R E

1989-12-01

171

Arterial Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

Patient Information Series AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ? Low blood pressure (hypotension or shock)— Low ...

172

Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2013-12-15

173

Prevalence of arterial branches arising from the extracranial internal carotid artery on CT angiography.  

PubMed

Although it is well known that arterial branches may rarely arise from the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA), their incidence has not been adequately evaluated on computed tomography angiography (CTA). We investigate the prevalence of congenital and non-congenital anomalous branches arising from the cervical ICA by a 5 year retrospective review of neck CTAs performed on 2,602 patients. We found a higher frequency of arteries arising from the ICA than suggested by the existing literature, including a 0.49 % prevalence of the occipital artery origin and a 6.25 % prevalence of the superior pharyngeal branch of (the pharyngeal trunk of) the ascending pharyngeal artery. In addition, six cases of recanalized intersegmental arteries providing collateral flow to the cervical ICA from the cervical vertebral artery were identified. This is the first large, retrospective CTA study evaluating the incidence of these anomalous vessel origins. PMID:24368597

Small, Juan E; Harrington, Justin; Watkins, Evan

2014-10-01

174

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates approximately 450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A; Larhammar, Dan

2008-10-01

175

Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2013-08-01

176

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundstrom, Gorel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

2008-01-01

177

Vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency in rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical myelopathy has become commonly recognized as a complication of rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation. A small group of patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may have intermittent symptoms associated with change of head position and which are due to vertebral artery compression. Two such cases are reported, one with necropsy findings of infarction in the area supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. The pathogenesis

M W Jones; J C Kaufmann

1976-01-01

178

Subclavian artery stenosis treated by transluminal angioplasty: Six cases  

SciTech Connect

Transluminal angioplasty (TLA) has been used in six patients with subclavian artery stenosis admitted to a large community hospital. Five patients had lesions proximal to the origin of the left vertebral artery, three of whom had angiographic evidence of subclavian steal syndrome. In all six, arteries were successfully dilated with only one complication of a hematoma at an arteriotomy site. In a 10 to 24-month follow-up, all six patients have remained totally asymptomatic without any further complications.

Galichia, J.P.; Bajaj, A.K.; Vine, D.L.; Roberts, R.W.

1983-06-01

179

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

180

Bio 4464 Vertebrate morphology Fall 2007 MW 12.30 1.45pm  

E-print Network

- heart and its evolution through time 315-325 Wed 10/10 Arterial Channels and their modifications 325-336 Mon 10/15 Venous Channels and their modifications 337-343 Wed 10/17 Nervous System- Brain development, structure, Cranial nerves of vertebrates 388-418 Mon 10/22 Sense organs- neuromast organs, eyes and ears 430

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

181

In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates, crustaceans and cephalopod  

E-print Network

In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates is an exquisite mechanical one that seems to be common to all circulatory systems examined so far: distensible is a profoundly important determinant of blood flow dynamics in any circulatory system. Arteries must have non

Meyers, Ron

182

Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or `ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron

Zhikun Gai; Philip C. J. Donoghue; Min Zhu; Philippe Janvier; Marco Stampanoni

2011-01-01

183

Arterial Ageing  

PubMed Central

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed. PMID:23508642

Lee, Seung-Jun

2013-01-01

184

Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

2013-01-01

185

Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

2008-01-01

186

Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

Mayer, Thomas E., E-mail: t.e.mayer@med.uni-jena.d [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU), Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Hamann, Gerhard F. [Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Wiesbaden, Department of Neurology (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2008-11-15

187

Selective arteriography as a means of studying major arteries in the cat  

E-print Network

respectively. Many of the arteriographic studies performed in dogs have dealt. with cerebral circulation. A review of the literature on cerebral angiography in the dog since 1956 has been made by Spooner. DeLaTorre et a1. 30 11 (1962) and Rising and Lewis... (1972) nave demonstrated 23 by vertebral arteriography the physiological indepen- dence of the vertebral-basilar and the carotid arterial systems in the dog, The vertebral approach to cerebral angiography was found to produce better definition...

Smallwood, James Edgar Lee

2012-06-07

188

Vertebral metastases from intracranial meningioma.  

PubMed

Meningioma rarely gives rise to metastases outside the brain and meninges. We report here a case of a patient who was treated for anaplastic brain meningioma with surgery and fractionated radiation therapy without any recurrence until 5 years after the operation, when she developed vertebral metastases. PMID:25298865

Zaghouani, H; Yahyaoui, S; Chabchoub, I; Mallat, N; Majdoub, S; Amara, H; Bakir, D; Badreddine, S; Kraiem, C

2014-05-01

189

Vertebral metastases from intracranial meningioma  

PubMed Central

Meningioma rarely gives rise to metastases outside the brain and meninges. We report here a case of a patient who was treated for anaplastic brain meningioma with surgery and fractionated radiation therapy without any recurrence until 5 years after the operation, when she developed vertebral metastases.

Yahyaoui, S; Chabchoub, I; Mallat, N; Majdoub, S; Amara, H; Bakir, D; Badreddine, S; Kraiem, C

2014-01-01

190

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 157 (2007) 411 Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors and the evolution of the carotid body  

E-print Network

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 157 (2007) 4­11 Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in higher vertebrates associated with the regulation of ventilation and ensuring oxygen supply to the gas.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Phylogenetic trends; Vertebrates; O2-sensitive chemoreceptors; Carotid

Milsom, William

191

Interventional Management of Vertebral Body Metastases  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the vertebral column are often due to hypervascular primary tumors, the most common of which is renal cell carcinoma. Clinical symptoms attributed to vertebral body metastases include localized pain, mechanical instability of the vertebral column, and neurologic deficits resulting from mass effect. Treatment options include targeted radiotherapy, percutaneous vertebral augmentation with or without thermal ablation, and surgical resection with subsequent fusion. Overall, surgical resection of the tumor and stabilization of the vertebral column provide the best prognosis for the patient in terms of symptomatic improvement and long-term survival; however, resection of hypervascular vertebral body metastases can result in significant intraoperative blood loss that can add to the morbidity of the procedure. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular metastases of the vertebral column has been shown to significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss at the time of surgery. The goal of this manuscript is to describe the role of embolization therapy in the management of patients with vertebral body metastases. PMID:24436549

Prince, Ethan A.; Ahn, Sun Ho

2013-01-01

192

Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

Shigematsu, Yoshinori, E-mail: shigemachy@aol.com; Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou [Internal Medicine, and Neurosurgery, Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2006-10-15

193

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

2014-05-01

194

Reactivity of Rat Basilar Artery to Serotonin after Short-Term Ischemia of Hindbrain and during Chronic Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contractile responses of the basilar artery to serotonin were examined in vitro on two models of circulation disturbances in the vertebrobasilar region of the brain. Two days after 30-min reversible occlusion of vertebral arteries, the sensitivity of the basilar artery to serotonin decreased, while chronic vertebrobasilar insufficiency had no effect on serotonin-induced contraction.

V. V. Sabadash; O. E. Fadyukova; V. B. Koshelev

2005-01-01

195

Endovascular Arterial Occlusion Accomplished Using Microcoils Deployed with and without Proximal Flow Arrest: Results in 19 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prior to their relatively recent FDA approval, detachable balloons for endovascular arterial occlusion had been available on only a limited basis. We evaluated the feasibility of permanent endovascular carotid and vertebral artery occlusion using microcoils deployed with and without proximal flow arrest in 19 patients. METHODS: Permanent endovascular occlusion was performed in 19 arteries of 19 patients.

John D. Barr; Thomas J. Lemley

196

Evaluation of coronary subclavian steal syndrome using sestamibi imaging and duplex scanning with observed vertebral subclavian steal.  

PubMed

Coronary subclavian steal is defined as retrograde blood flow from the myocardium through the internal mammary artery graft, secondary to a proximal subclavian artery stenosis. The incidence of this syndrome in patients undergoing internal mammary artery grafts for coronary artery bypass is estimated to be 0.44%. Angiography remains the definitive diagnostic test for confirming this condition. We describe a noninvasive method for evaluating coronary subclavian steal syndrome in a 57-year-old man, with a 50-55% subclavian stenosis confirmed by angiography. Noninvasive evaluation using duplex scanning demonstrated normal vertebral artery blood flow. Technetium 99m-sestamibi (99mTc) imaging confirmed a fixed anterolateral defect. When left-arm isometric exercise was employed, retrograde vertebral artery blood flow was observed by Doppler imaging. A repeat 99mTc-sestamibi study documented an increase in tracer distribution in the anterolateral defect confirming reperfusion of the myocardium through the left internal mammary artery graft. The use of duplex scanning and 99mTc-sestamibi may serve as an adjunct in evaluating coronary subclavian steal syndrome as well as documenting transient vertebral subclavian steal in this patient population. PMID:10761817

Rossum, A C; Steel, S R; Hartshorne, M F

2000-03-01

197

Rupture and Migration of an Endovascular Stent in the Brachiocephalic Trunk Causing a Vertebral Steal Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Delayed stent fracture has been observed in many different arteries and may represent a risk factor for restenosis. We describe the case of a delayed rupture of an endovascular brachiocephalic trunk stent. The complete fracture allowed a fragment to migrate distally and tilt, resulting in a hemodynamic pattern similar to that of a prevertebral stenosis with complete inversion of the homolateral vertebral blood flow. The induced vertebral steal syndrome as well as the risk of cerebral embolism was corrected by an aortobrachiocephalic bypass and resection of the ruptured stent.

Periard, D., E-mail: Daniel.Periard@chuv.ch; Haesler, E.; Hayoz, D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Service of Angiology (Switzerland); Von Segesser, L. K. [University Hospital (CHUV), Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Center (Switzerland); Qanadli, S. D. [University Hospital (CHUV), Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

2008-07-15

198

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail. PMID:22623120

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

199

[Subclavian steal-carotid recovery phenomenon due to innominate artery occlusion: Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography findings and endovascular treatment].  

PubMed

Innominate artery occlusion is a rare condition that can cause symptoms in the anterior cerebral circulation, vertebrobasilar system and upper extremity, while it can also be asymptomatic. We report the Doppler ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings of the right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery flow by retrograde flow from the ipsilateral vertebral artery due to innominate artery occlusion. We aimed to discuss the results of primary stenting together with the technical and clinical success. PMID:24899484

Birgi, Erdem; Ergun, Onur; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Özç?nar, Evren; Conkbay?r, I??k

2014-06-01

200

Arterial embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... side of the heart and passes through a hole into the left side. The clot can then ... the affected artery Shedding (sloughing) of skin Skin erosion ( ulcer ) Tissue death (necrosis; skin is dark and ...

201

Spontaneous vertebral dissection: Clinical, conventional angiographic, CT, and MR findings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if typical clinical and neuroradiologic patterns exist in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The medical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 14 patients with spontaneous VA dissection were reviewed. The medical records were examined to exclude patients with a history of trauma and to record evidence of a nontratimatic precipitating event ({open_quotes}trivial trauma{close_quotes}) and presence of possible risk factors such as hypertension. All patients under-went conventional angiography, 13 either CT or MRI (II both CT and MRI), and 3 MRA. Conventional arteriograrris were evaluated for dissection site, evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia, luminal stenosis or occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation, CT examinations for the presence of infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage, MR examinations for the presence of infarction or arterial signal abnormality, and MR angiograms for abnormality of the arterial signal column. Seven patients had precipitating events within 24 h of onset of symptoms that may have been causative of dissection and five had hypertension. At catheter angiography, two patients had dissections in two arteries (both VAs in one patient, VA and internal carotid artery in one patient), giving a total of 15 VAs with dissection. Dissection sites included V1 in four patients, V2 in one patient, V3 in three patients, V4 in six patients, and both V3 and V4 in one patient. Luminal stenosis was present in 13 VAs, occlusion in 2, pseudoaneurysm in 1, and evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in 1. Posterior circulation infarcts were found on CT or MR in five patients. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found on CT in two patients and by lumbar puncture alone in two patients. Abnormal periarterial signal on MRI was seen in three patients. MRA demonstrated absent VA signal in one patient, pseudoaneurysm in one, and a false-negative examination in one.

Provenzale, J.M.; Morgenlander, J.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Gress, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

202

Use of subclavian steal in treating chronic total subclavian artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Endovascular treatment is a well-established option for subclavian artery stenosis. However, total occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery remains a challenge, posing difficulties of nonvisualization of distal vessels, access site issues, and deployment of vertebral embolism protection devices. A 65-year-old man with chronic total occlusion of the ostial left subclavian artery, underwent successful endovascular stenting in which the subclavian steal phenomenon was utilized as a roadmap to cross the occlusion. PMID:24570565

Goel, Pravin K; Moorthy, Nagaraja

2013-10-01

203

Homology of lungs and gas bladders: insights from arterial vasculature.  

PubMed

Gas bladders of ray-finned fishes serve a variety of vital functions and are thus an important novelty of most living vertebrates. The gas bladder has long been regarded as an evolutionary modification of lungs. Critical evidence for this hypothesized homology is whether pulmonary arteries supply the gas bladder as well as the lungs. Pulmonary arteries, paired branches of the fourth efferent branchial arteries, deliver blood to the lungs in osteichthyans with functional lungs (lungfishes, tetrapods, and the ray-finned polypterid fishes). The fact that pulmonary arteries also supply the respiratory gas bladder of Amia calva (bowfin) has been used to support the homology of lungs and gas bladders, collectively termed air-filled organs (AO). However, the homology of pulmonary arteries in bowfin and lunged osteichthyans has been uncertain, given the apparent lack of pulmonary arteries in critical taxa. To re-evaluate the homology of pulmonary arteries in bowfin and lunged osteichthyans, we studied, using micro-CT technology, the arterial vasculature of Protopterus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Polyodon, Amia, and Lepisosteus, and analyzed these data using a phylogenetic approach. Our data reveal that Acipenser and Polyodon have paired posterior branches of the fourth efferent branchial arteries, which are thus similar in origin to pulmonary arteries. We hypothesize that these arteries are vestigial pulmonary arteries that have been coopted for new functions due to the dorsal shift of the AO and/or the loss of respiration in these taxa. Ancestral state reconstructions support pulmonary arteries as a synapomorphy of the Osteichthyes, provide the first concrete evidence for the retention of pulmonary arteries in Amia, and support thehomology of lungs and gas bladders due to a shared vascular supply. Finally, we use ancestral state reconstructions to show that arterial AO supplies from the celiacomesenteric artery or dorsal aorta appear to be convergent between teleosts and nonteleost actinopterygians. PMID:23378277

Longo, Sarah; Riccio, Mark; McCune, Amy R

2013-06-01

204

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdogan

2014-01-01

205

The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. PMID:24106047

Zdun, Maciej; Fr?ckowiak, Hieronim; Kie?tyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita

2013-11-01

206

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

207

Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

2002-01-01

208

Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function  

E-print Network

", "Terrestrial Locomotion", "Swimming and Flying" and "Study Guide" (which includes the midterms and final examsBiology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function In contrast to products of human design of the class will look at vertebrate morphology in a very different way - as adaptations to particular ways

Adl, Sina

209

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

210

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise as an ectodermal invagination. Consistent with this, oral teeth are proposed to arise exclusively from ectoderm, contributing to tooth enamel epithelium, and from neural crest derived mesenchyme, contributing to dentin and pulp. Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity, but extend posteriorly as

Vladimír Soukup; Hans-Henning Epperlein; Ivan Horácek; Robert Cerny

2008-01-01

211

First Ordovician vertebrates from the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil remains of primitive vertebrates, preserved in sandstone as natural moulds of the dermal armour, are described from the shallow-water marine Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory, Australia. This is the first record of Ordovician vertebrates in the southern hemisphere. Two new genera and species, Arandaspis prionotolepis gen. et sp. nov. and Porophoraspis crenulata gen. et sp. nov.,

Alexander Ritchie; Joyce Gilbert-Tomlinson

1977-01-01

212

Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to identify vertebral fractures from radiographs taken at a single point in time, but considerable controversy surrounds the methods to be used. We extended a data set to comprise baseline radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine on an age-stratified random sample of 762 Rochester, Minnesota, women and used revised methods to define vertebral deformities morphometrically.

L. J. Melton; C. Cooper; R. Eastell; W. M. O'Fallon; B. L. Riggs

1993-01-01

213

Signalling dynamics in vertebrate segmentation.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm is a major event of vertebrate development that establishes the metameric patterning of the body axis. This process involves the periodic formation of sequential units, termed somites, from the presomitic mesoderm. Somite formation relies on a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock, which controls the rhythmic activation of several signalling pathways and leads to the oscillatory expression of a subset of genes in the presomitic mesoderm. The response to the periodic signal of the clock, leading to the establishment of the segmental pre-pattern, is gated by a system of travelling signalling gradients, often referred to as the wavefront. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of oscillations and how they interact and are coordinated to activate the segmental gene expression programme. PMID:25335437

Hubaud, Alexis; Pourquié, Olivier

2014-10-22

214

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

215

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

2007-09-21

216

Assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the vertebrate hindbrain  

PubMed Central

The cranial vasculature is essential for the survival and development of the central nervous system and is important in stroke and other brain pathologies. Cranial vessels form in a reproducible and evolutionarily conserved manner, but the process by which these vessels assemble and acquire their stereotypic patterning remains unclear. Here, we examine the stepwise assembly and patterning of the vascular network of the zebrafish hindbrain. The major artery supplying the hindbrain, the basilar artery, runs along the ventral keel of the hindbrain in all vertebrates. We show that this artery forms by a novel process of medial sprouting and migration of endothelial cells from a bilateral pair of primitive veins, the primordial hindbrain channels. Subsequently, a second wave of dorsal sprouting from the primordial hindbrain channels gives rise to angiogenic central arteries that penetrate into and innervate the hindbrain. The chemokine receptor cxcr4a is expressed in migrating endothelial cells of the primordial hindbrain channels, whereas its ligand cxcl12b is expressed in the hindbrain neural keel immediately adjacent to the assembling basilar artery. Knockdown of either cxcl12b or cxcr4a results in defects in basilar artery formation, showing that the assembly and patterning of this crucial artery depends on chemokine signaling. PMID:21429985

Fujita, Misato; Cha, Young R.; Pham, Van N.; Sakurai, Atsuko; Roman, Beth L.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Weinstein, Brant M.

2011-01-01

217

Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development  

PubMed Central

The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

218

Are Spinal or Paraspinal Anatomic Markers Helpful for Vertebral Numbering and Diagnosing Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Materials and Methods Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. Results The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. Conclusion The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels. PMID:24644411

Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Kilic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide

2014-01-01

219

Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

2012-07-15

220

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6367920

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

221

Coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.

P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

2000-01-01

222

External carotid artery aneurysm developing after embolization of a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm in a patient with cervicocephalic fibromuscular dysplasia--case report.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old man presented with an aneurysm of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebellar infarction. Angiography demonstrated string-of-beads sign typical of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries. The aneurysm and the parent artery were successfully embolized with Guglielmi detachable coils. Severe vasospasm developed 1 week after admission, and was treated several times by selective injection of vasodilator. A new aneurysm of the left external carotid artery became evident 1 month later, whereas only slight dilation had previously been apparent. This angiographic sequence demonstrated a new arterial dissection. Despite the possibility of damage to the artery during multiple catheterizations, arterial wall changes caused by FMD appear to have been primarily responsible. This case emphasizes the need for particular care in performing vascular interventional procedures in the presence of FMD. PMID:16794349

Fuse, Takahisa; Umezu, Masanari; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu; Demura, Koichiro; Nishikawa, Yusuke; Niwa, Yuji

2006-06-01

223

Immunosenescence in vertebrates and invertebrates  

PubMed Central

There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as “immunosenescence”. Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and the evolutionary emergence of adaptive and innate immunity? The immune system is assumed to have evolved to protect the organism against pathogens, but the way in which this is accomplished is different in the innate-vs-adaptive arms, and it is unclear why the latter is necessary. Are there special characteristics of adaptive immunity which might make the system more susceptible to age-associated dysfunction? Given recent accumulating findings that actually there are age-associated changes to innate immunity and that these are broadly similar in vertebrates and invertebrates, we suggest here that it is the special property of memory in the adaptive immune system which results in the accumulation of cells with a restricted receptor repertoire, dependent on the immunological history of the individual’s exposures to pathogens over the lifetime, and which is commonly taken as a hallmark of “immunosenescence”. However, we further hypothesize that this immunological remodelling per se does not necessarily convey a disadvantage to the individual (ie. is not necessarily “senescence” if it is not deleterious). Indeed, under certain circumstances, or potentially even as a rule, this adaptation to the individual host environment may confer an actual survival advantage. PMID:23547999

2013-01-01

224

Other non-vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Non-vertebral non-hip (NVNH) fractures account for 90% of all fractures in patients up to 80 years of age and for 59% thereafter. There is a significant relationship between reductions in peripheral bone mineral density and the risk of fractures at various NVNH sites except for the face. Fractures of the clavicle, upper arm, forearm, spine, ribs, hip, pelvis, upper leg and lower leg elevate the risk of future fractures. Among NVNH fractures in women aged 80 years or over, forearm fractures have the highest incidence, and proximal humerus fractures have the second highest incidence. There is a large variation in incidence across geographical regions, with incidence higher in Northern Europe and lower in Asia and Africa. NVNH fractures are associated with higher mortality and significantly higher health-care costs than controls with osteoporosis. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with major NVNH fractures are of a similar magnitude as reductions for women with incident hip fractures; however, forearm fractures do not significantly affect HRQOL. Therapeutic options for NVNH fractures differ by fracture location. The recent development of implants for internal fixation made it a more popular choice for treating distal radius and proximal humerus fractures; however, treatment decisions should take into account patient age, activity levels, co-morbidities and injury characteristics. The recent increase in the number of patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures is drastic, although they can generally be treated non-surgically with pain management and mobilisation. PMID:24836332

Hagino, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

225

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

226

Recent literature on the behavior of vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 20 publications (1909-1911) on the behavior of vertebrates. The studies deal with the behavior of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. They focus on their sensory reactions, learning behaviors, and other similar behaviors.

Margaret Floy Washburn

1911-01-01

227

Modular Evolution of PGC1? in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a central regulator of mitochondrial\\u000a gene expression, acting in concert with nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the PPARs. Its role as a “master regulator”\\u000a of oxidative capacity is clear in mammals, but its role in other vertebrates is ambiguous. In lower vertebrates, although\\u000a PGC-1? seems to play a role

Christophe M. R. LeMoineStephen; Stephen C. Lougheed; Christopher D. Moyes

2010-01-01

228

[Osteoporosis: diagnosis and treatment of vertebral fractures].  

PubMed

This review article calls attention of clinicians to under-diagnosed and untreated complication of osteoporosis-osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Usually without clinically significant symptoms, vertebral fractures are very important as an unfavorable prognostic factor of development of osteoporosis. Significant rise of risk of new fractures is observed already in a first year after the fracture. The newest results of the clinical trials of medications for osteoporosis treatment are presented. PMID:12474761

Baranauskaite, Asta

2002-01-01

229

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

230

Severity of prevalent vertebral fractures and the risk of subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures: results from the MORE trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent vertebral fractures and baseline bone mineral density (BMD) predict subsequent fracture risk. The objective of this analysis is to examine whether baseline vertebral fracture severity can predict new vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. In the randomized, double-blind 3-year Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (low BMD or prevalent vertebral fractures) were randomly assigned

P. D Delmas; H. K Genant; G. G Crans; J. L Stock; M Wong; E Siris; J. D Adachi

2003-01-01

231

Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30 mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

Rubenstein, E.

2002-05-01

232

Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are common in the elderly population and often involve the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Clinical symptoms of OVCFs include severe pain, loss of vertebral height, progressive kyphosis and increased mortality. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a recently developed OVCFs treatment modality, with few systematic studies present in the literature. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treating thoracolumbar OVCFs. Sixteen elderly patients (55-85 years) with solitary thoracolumbar OVCFs were treated with this procedure and followed-up (10-27 months). The amount of injected bone cement and operative time, preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scores, anterior and middle vertebral body heights, local kyphosis angle, and complications was analysed. The results showed that the method provided long-term pain relief and restoration of the vertebral body height and spinal alignment. No serious complications occurred, but two patients experienced recompression of the vertebral body, and one patient experienced cement leakage into a disc. In conclusion, Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of OVCFs. PMID:23412256

Li, Dapeng; Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Qi; Sun, Taicun; Wu, Yan; Li, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

233

Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: an unreported association.  

PubMed

Rete mirabile is a fine meshwork of anastomosing vessels that replace the parent artery. A 30-year-old woman complained of slurring of speech, right eye proptosis, recurrent vomiting, and loss of bladder and bowel control, followed by drowsiness lasting 30-40?min, for the past 6?months. On cross sectional imaging and angiography, the patient was found to have a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered both endovascular and open surgical options but she refused any form of surgical treatment and opted for conservative management. At the 6 month follow-up, she continued to have occasional episodes of headache and vomiting but was otherwise normal. We describe the clinical, cross sectional, and angiographic features of this patient. A comparison with other patients with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile is also reported. PMID:25414211

Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

2014-01-01

234

Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Lillywhite, Harvey B.

1994-01-01

235

[Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Using a Stent for an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery Stenosis with a Right-sided Aortic Arch: A Case Report].  

PubMed

An aberrant left subclavian artery is a rare variant that has been reported to coexist with the right-sided aortic arch in many cases. We encountered a case in which percutaneous transluminal angioplasty using a stent was performed for an aberrant left subclavian artery and left carotid artery. The patient was a 63-year-old man in whom left carotid artery stenosis and abnormal flow pattern of the left vertebral artery was accidently found during an ultrasound screening of his carotid artery. The right-sided aortic arch with the aberrant left subclavian artery was revealed by a cerebral angiogram via the right femoral artery. Despite difficulty in inserting a catheter at the origin of the aberrant left artery, the treatment was completed successfully. To our knowledge, endovascular treatment for an aberrant left subclavian artery has not been reported until date. PMID:25266585

Inui, Toshitaka; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kenta; Shimogawara, Tateo; Nishiguchi, Mitsuhisa; Yokoyama, Syohei; Omoto, Koji; Matsuoka, Ryuta; Yaegaki, Takahide

2014-10-01

236

Navigation in Evolving Robots: Insight from Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots navigation is a broad topic, covering many different technologies and applications. It is possible to draw inspiration for robot navigation from vertebrates. Reviewing literature on vertebrates, it seems clear that they navigate by elaborating substantially two kinds of spatial information: geometric (environmental shape, distance from landmarks) and non geometric (colors, smells). In this paper we try to understand how these cues can be used by small populations of mobile robots in environments reproducing the main features of experimental settings used with vertebrates. The robots are controlled by neural networks, whose evolution determines robot navigation behaviour. We analyze how the artificial systems use these information, separately or jointly, and how is it possible to obtain mobile robots that exploit effectively geometric and non-geometric information to navigate in specific environments.

Ponticorvo, Michela; Miglino, Orazio

237

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

238

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

239

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-09-01

240

A two-dimensional model of pulsating flow in the basilar artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow in the basilar artery is modelled by a pulsating flow of a viscous fluid in a plane straight semi-infinite channel with rigid walls. To model the merging flow from the two vertebral arteries, the prescribed initial velocity profile exhibits two separate maximum values. Numerical results are presented for the downstream velocity, the wall shear and the time-dependent inlet length. Finally, the biomechanical implications of the results are discussed.

Krijger, J. K. B.; Hillen, B.; Hoogstraten, H. W.

1991-09-01

241

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

242

Freshwater or marine origin of the vertebrates?  

PubMed

1. Paleontological data indicate that the earliest recognizable vertebrate remains, bone fragments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician heterostracan fishes, were deposited in a marine situation. 2. Since these earliest fossils are sporadic in occurrence, from atypical marine deposits and since they only represent the full grown adult stage, the possibility of a freshwater developmental stage or estuarine habitat cannot be excluded. 3. The hagfishes, supposedly the most primitive of living vertebrates, are exclusively marine and possess an osmoregulatory strategy (monovalent ion levels nearly identical with sea-water with little capability of regulation) that is consonant with a strictly marine evolutionary history. Possibly, but less parsimoniously, this strategy and habitat could be secondarily derived. 4. The hagfish has a glomerular kidney, renal sodium reabsorption and branchial pumps for the uptake of sodium and chloride which are indicative, but not unequivocally diagnostic, of a freshwater ancestry. 5. A scenario in which the earliest vertebrate was anadromous, breeding in fresh water and migrating to the sea, is consistent with the paleontological data and with the physiology and life history of living 'primitive' fishes. It also leads to more coherent explanations for the origin of bone and for the evolution of vertebrate special senses than do alternative marine scenarios. PMID:2887336

Griffith, R W

1987-01-01

243

Vertebrate head development: Segmentation, novelties, and homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate head development is a classical topic lately invigorated by methodological as well as conceptual advances. In contrast to the classical segmentalist views going back to idealistic morphology, the head is now seen not as simply an extension of the trunk, but as a structure patterned by different mechanisms and tissues. Whereas the trunk paraxial mesoderm imposes its segmental pattern

Lennart Olsson; Rolf Ericsson; Robert Cerny

2005-01-01

244

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

245

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

E-print Network

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 considered fundamental, and it pervades all discussions of animal biology. With the recognition of incomplete taxonomic sampling. Evolutionary jumps, fossils and extinction A fundamental problem

Brierley, Andrew

246

Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

Botha, Rudolf P.

2002-01-01

247

Genome organization and species formation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some years ago Wilson and co-workers proposed that the higher rates of karyotypic change and species formation of mammals compared to cold-blooded vertebrates are due to the formation of small demes, as favored by the social structuring and brain development of the former. Here, evidence is reviewed which indicates that mammals are more prone to karyotypic change and species formation

Giorgio Bernardi

1993-01-01

248

Fall 2011 Espinoza, 1 Vertebrate Biology  

E-print Network

overview of the biology of vertebrate animals including aspects of their evolutionary history, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, ecology, behavior, and natural history. The emphasis is on adaptive breakthroughs. Fieldtrips Throughout the semester we will go into the field during regularly scheduled class hours

Espinoza, Robert E.

249

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics  

E-print Network

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology presents a series of papers that apply the method of finite element analysis (FEA) to questions ontogenetic or phylogenetic transformations. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: finite-element analysis

250

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

251

Holocene turnover of the French vertebrate fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing available paleontological, archaeological, historical, and former distributional data with current natural history and distributions demonstrated a turnover in the French vertebrate fauna during the Holocene (subdivided into seven sub-periods). To this end, a network of 53 specialists gleaned information from more than 1300 documents, the majority never cited before in the academic literature. The designation of 699 species as

Michel Pascal; Olivier Lorvelec

252

Molecular evolution of color vision in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify amino acid changes that have modified the absorption spectra of

Shozo Yokoyama

2002-01-01

253

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

254

The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

255

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*  

E-print Network

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

Danchin, Etienne

256

Stenosis and occlusion of the subclavian artery: ultrasonographic and clinical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous-wave (CW) Doppler sonography has proved to be a reliable tool both to detect subclavian stenosis or occulusion and to detect reversal of blood flow in the vertebral artery. This method is entirely atraumatic and in contrast to angiography allows investigation of asymptomatic patients and provides more representative data for epidemiological studies. The incidence of subclavian stenosis or occlusion was

H. Ackermann; H. C. Diener; J. Dichgans

1987-01-01

257

Central arterial hemodynamics in larval bullfrogs (Rma catesbeima): developmental and seasonal influences  

E-print Network

of all capillaries. In bird embryos, which have historically served as the major model for studying with development (5,6). Very little, however, is known about the cardiovascular dy- namics of lower vertebrate. 4). In adult amphibians, central arterial hemodynamics, especially the concerted action of ventricle

Burggren, Warren

258

Mechanism of Medullary Infarction Based on Arterial Territory Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The blood supply to the medulla oblongata is distinct from that of other areas of the brainstem, and thus the mechanism underlying medullary infarctions may be distinct. However, few studies have investigated this. Methods Of 3833 stroke patients who were on the stroke registry between February 1999 and April 2008, those with medullary infarctions demonstrated on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We analyzed the topography, the involved arterial territories, and the etiologic mechanisms of the lesions. Results In total, 142 patients were enrolled in the study. Bilateral medullary infarctions were rare (2.2%). Lesions involving the anteromedial or lateral territories were common in the upper medulla oblongata, whereas lateral territorial involvements were common in the middle and lower regions of the medulla oblongata. Significant stenosis (>50%) or occlusion of the vertebral artery was common (52.2%). Among stroke subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis was most common (34.5%), while lacunae and cardioembolism were rare (3.5% and 4.2%, respectively). Vertebral artery dissection was frequent. The stroke mechanisms differed with the involved vascular territories. Large-artery atherosclerosis produced lesions in the lateral, anteromedial, and posterior territories. None of the cardioembolisms or other etiologies involved anteromedial or anterolateral territories, but all involved the lateral and/or posterior territories. Lacunar infarction was found only in the anteromedial and anterolateral territories. Conclusions The topography and mechanisms of infarctions involving the medulla oblongata are different with the involved arterial territories. These findings may be associated with the distinct pattern of arterial supply to the medulla oblongata. PMID:22787495

Kim, Kyoungsub; Lee, Hye Sun; Jung, Yo Han; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Seung Min

2012-01-01

259

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683�704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

Clark, James M.

260

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

Olsen, Paul E.

261

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

2006-01-01

262

Conservative Management in a Young Woman Affected by Isolated Left Subclavian Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

Subclavian Artery Dissection (SAD) is a rare condition, generally due to arterial catheterization, blunt trauma or connective tissue disease. Spontaneous or minimally traumatic cases have also been reported. Clinical manifestations are usually chest and/or back pain, pulse loss and paresthesia, whereas nausea, dizziness and vomiting are present in case of involvement of the vertebral artery. We report an unusual case of a young woman presenting isolated left SAD after traffic accident, minimally symptomatic, and treated with medical therapy alone. A conservative management and a closed follow-up appear to be a safe approach in patients affected by uncomplicated SAD without other comorbidities.

Alberto Pegorer, Matteo; Bissacco, Daniele; Di Gregorio, Sara; Dallatana, Raffaello; Settembrini, Piergiorgio

2014-01-01

263

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... a carotid artery narrowed by plaque. By plaque breaking off from the carotid arteries and blocking a ... disease: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood. High blood ...

264

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

265

Holocene turnover of the French vertebrate fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing available paleontological, archaeological, historical, and former distributional data with current natural history\\u000a and distributions demonstrated a turnover in the French vertebrate fauna during the Holocene (subdivided into seven sub-periods).\\u000a To this end, a network of 53 specialists gleaned information from more than 1300 documents, the majority never cited before\\u000a in the academic literature. The designation of 699 species as

Michel Pascal; Olivier Lorvelec

2005-01-01

266

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

PubMed Central

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

2014-01-01

267

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology); Mr. Keith T. Sillar (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

268

Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.  

PubMed

Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti). PMID:17501751

Buchholtz, Emily A

2007-01-01

269

The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.  

PubMed

The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors. Anat Rec, 297:2216-2226, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25312375

Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

2014-11-01

270

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

271

Vertebrate kinetochore protein architecture: protein copy number  

PubMed Central

To define the molecular architecture of the kinetochore in vertebrate cells, we measured the copy number of eight kinetochore proteins that link kinetochore microtubules (MTs [kMTs]) to centromeric DNA. We used a fluorescence ratio method and chicken DT40 cell lines in which endogenous loci encoding the analyzed proteins were deleted and complemented using integrated green fluorescent protein fusion transgenes. For a mean of 4.3 kMTs at metaphase, the protein copy number per kMT is between seven and nine for members of the MT-binding KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex network. It was between six and nine for four members of the constitutive centromere-associated network: centromere protein C (CENP-C), CENP-H, CENP-I, and CENP-T. The similarity in copy number per kMT for all of these proteins suggests that each MT end is linked to DNA by six to nine fibrous unit attachment modules in vertebrate cells, a conclusion that indicates architectural conservation between multiple MT-binding vertebrate and single MT-binding budding yeast kinetochores. PMID:20548100

Johnston, Katherine; Joglekar, Ajit; Hori, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Aussie; Fukagawa, Tatsuo

2010-01-01

272

[Characteristics of anesthesiological support in vertebral surgery].  

PubMed

Vertebral operations are highly traumatic, prolonged and can cause significant blood loss, which requires effective anesthesiological defense. Inclusion of clofelin, a stress protector, into the anesthesiological provision scheme is an effective way of potentiating the protection of a patient from surgical stress. The development of neurological disorders is a severest complication during surgical interventions in vertebral surgery. The task that is important for a surgeon and an anesthesiologist in performing such operations is the maximum early recovery of patients from anesthesia and their muscular activity in the postoperative period in order to make a timely evaluation of their neurological status. The hypnotics propofol and dormicum and the myorelaxant nimbex were included into an anesthesiological provision program in 210 patients during surgical treatment of vertebral orthopedic pathology. The study indicated that the use of propofol and dormicum permitted a postanesthetic rapid recovery of patients from anesthesia without undesirable side effects. The myorelaxant nimbex is highly controlled, shows a clear dose-effect relationship, and produces a rapid recovery of neuromuscular conduction, which makes it possible to establish a timely diagnosis of neurological disorders. PMID:16076036

Lebedeva, M N; Ageenko, A M; Bykova, E V; Kirilina, S I; Luk'ianov, D S

2005-01-01

273

Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity >?4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ??21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age

Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2013-01-01

274

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance ... the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and ... or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke. If ...

275

Trophic changes in the arteries at the base of the rat brain in response to bilateral common carotid ligation.  

PubMed

A rat model was developed to examine changes in the posterior circle of Willis and the basilar and intracranial vertebral arteries after bilateral common carotid ligation. This procedure produced a major redistribution of blood to the head, with increased flow through the vertebral and basilar arteries. Changes in the vertebral, basilar, posterior communicating and proximal segments of the posterior cerebral arteries and neck vessels were assessed by postmortem barium sulfate arteriography and by histology of the middle portion of the basilar arteries serially at four days, and one, two, four and 15 weeks post-ligation. The changes noted were basilar and vertebral artery tortuosity, enlargement, and duplication of the vertebro-basilar junction. By 15 weeks, these intracranial vascular changes had largely regressed toward normal, commensurate with the appearance of multiple collateral vessels which were scattered throughout the soft tissues of the neck and shunted the original ligation sites. A mechanism that could explain these trophic vessel changes in response to increased blood flow is discussed. Some possible correlates of these findings with several brain vascular diseases are presented. PMID:2769307

Oldendorf, W H

1989-09-01

276

Renal artery aneurysms.  

PubMed

A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes. PMID:24363127

González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

2014-01-01

277

Jet pump assisted artery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

1975-01-01

278

[A rare case of a diabetic patient with small cell lung cancer, initially diagnosed as pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis].  

PubMed

A rare case of a patient with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with small cell lung cancer, initially diagnosed as pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, was reported. A 40-year-old male patient was diagnosed with NIDDM about 3 years earlier, but he did not receive any treatment. Then, a two-month history of high fever, persistent cough and back pain developed. Chest X-ray film showed a lung infiltrate with a small cavity in the upper portion of the left lung. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a tumor mass shadow with osteoclasia along the bodies of the 6th and 7th thoracic vertebral bone. Staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed by arterial blood culture. Administration of antibiotics resulted in the disappearance of the left lung infiltrate and a slight reduction of the tumor mass in the thoracic vertebral bone, suggesting pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as an unusual complication of NIDDM. However, as the tumor mass still remained, needle biopsy for the mass lesion was performed, resulting in the diagnosis of metastasis of small cell carcinoma from the left lung. Gene aberration in this lung disease has been reported recently, and its correlation with NIDDM which may also be induced by genetic abnormality is an interesting question that remains to be resolved. PMID:7750628

Miyamoto, T; Oda, N; Mokuno, T; Sawai, Y; Nishida, Y; Mano, T; Kotake, M; Masunaga, R; Ito, Y; Asano, K

1995-03-20

279

Distinct Notch signaling outputs pattern the developing arterial system.  

PubMed

Differentiation of arteries and veins is essential for the development of a functional circulatory system. In vertebrate embryos, genetic manipulation of Notch signaling has demonstrated the importance of this pathway in driving artery endothelial cell differentiation. However, when and where Notch activation occurs to affect endothelial cell fate is less clear. Using transgenic zebrafish bearing a Notch-responsive reporter, we demonstrate that Notch is activated in endothelial progenitors during vasculogenesis prior to blood vessel morphogenesis and is maintained in arterial endothelial cells throughout larval stages. Furthermore, we find that endothelial progenitors in which Notch is activated are committed to a dorsal aorta fate. Interestingly, some arterial endothelial cells subsequently downregulate Notch signaling and then contribute to veins during vascular remodeling. Lineage analysis, together with perturbation of both Notch receptor and ligand function, further suggests several distinct developmental windows in which Notch signaling acts to promote artery commitment and maintenance. Together, these findings demonstrate that Notch acts in distinct contexts to initiate and maintain artery identity during embryogenesis. PMID:24598161

Quillien, Aurelie; Moore, John C; Shin, Masahiro; Siekmann, Arndt F; Smith, Tom; Pan, Luyuan; Moens, Cecilia B; Parsons, Michael J; Lawson, Nathan D

2014-04-01

280

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

281

Evolutionary history of the vertebrate period genes.  

PubMed

Circadian clock genes are remarkably conserved between eucoelomates. Although Drosophila has one copy of each major component, vertebrates have two or (in the case of the Period genes) three paralogs (Per1-3). We investigated the possibility that the vertebrate Per genes arose through two genome duplications during the emergence of vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees have placed zebrafish and mammalian Per1 and 2 together in a separate branch from Per3. The positions of four coding region splice sites were conserved between Drosophila per and the human paralogs, the fifth one being unique to Drosophila. The human PER genes shared the positions of all coding region splice sites, except the first two in PER1 and PER2 (which PER3 lacks). The phases of all splice sites were conserved between all four genes with two exceptions. Analysis of all genes within 10 Mb of the human PER1-3 genes, which are located 7.8-8.8 Mb from the telomeres on chromosomes 17, 2, and 1, identified several orthologous neighbors shared by at least two PER genes. Two gene families, HES (hairy and Enhancer of Split) and KIF1 (kinesin-like protein 1), were represented in all three of these paralogons. Although no functional fourth human PER paralog exists, five representatives from the same gene families were found close to the telomer of chromosome 3. We conclude that the ancestral chordate Per gene underwent two duplication events, giving rise to Per1-3 and a lost fourth paralog. PMID:16752210

von Schantz, Malcolm; Jenkins, Aaron; Archer, Simon N

2006-06-01

282

Endovascular treatment of symptomatic high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula as a complication after c1 screw insertion.  

PubMed

High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

Jang, Hyun Jun; Oh, Se-Yang; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

2014-10-01

283

Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion  

PubMed Central

High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

Jang, Hyun Jun; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

2014-01-01

284

Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

2014-01-01

285

Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

Ross, M. D.

1985-01-01

286

A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos  

PubMed Central

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

287

Explosive Expansion of ??-Crystallin Genes in the Ancestral Vertebrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In jawed vertebrates, ??-crystallins are restricted to the eye lens and thus excellent markers of lens evolution. These ??-crystallins\\u000a are four Greek key motifs\\/two domain proteins, whereas the urochordate ??-crystallin has a single domain. To trace the origin\\u000a of the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes, we searched for homologues in the genomes of a jawless vertebrate (lamprey) and of\\u000a a cephalochordate (lancelet).

Guido Kappe ´; Andrew G. Purkiss; Siebe T. van Genesen; Christine Slingsby; Nicolette H. Lubsen

2010-01-01

288

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

289

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

290

The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease  

PubMed Central

Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

291

Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.  

PubMed

From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago). PMID:1598573

Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

1992-05-29

292

Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

2002-01-01

293

Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems  

E-print Network

The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

Choma, Michael A.

294

Global associations between terrestrial producer and vertebrate consumer diversity  

E-print Network

and endothermic vertebrates. We find strong positive richness associations, but only limited congruence patterns and strengths of these associations for plants and endotherm consumers (birds, mammals) worldwide

Kreft, Holger

295

Vertebrate endothelial lipase: comparative studies of an ancient gene and protein in vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

Endothelial lipase (gene: LIPG; enzyme: EL) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from other human 'neutral lipase' genes, hepatic lipase (gene: LIPC; enzyme: HL) and lipoprotein lipase (gene: LPL; enzyme: LPL) examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a 'stop' codon' within exon 9. Vertebrate EL protein subunits shared 58-97% sequence identity as compared with 38-45% sequence identities with human HL and LPL. Four previously reported human EL N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate EL sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key EL amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (PL) (Bourne et al. 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the LIPG gene promoter and a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3'-untranslated region. Promoter regions containing functional polymorphisms that regulate HDL cholesterol in baboons were conserved among primates but not retained between primates and rodents. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families, LIPC and LPL. It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution >500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

Holmes, Roger S; Vandeberg, John L; Cox, Laura A

2011-03-01

296

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

297

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

2014-01-01

298

TRPM7 regulates gastrulation during vertebrate embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation, cells in the dorsal marginal zone polarize, elongate, align and intercalate to establish the physical body axis of the developing embryo. Here we demonstrate that the bifunctional channel-kinase TRPM7 is specifically required for vertebrate gastrulation. TRPM7 is temporally expressed maternally and throughout development, and is spatially enriched in tissues undergoing convergent extension during gastrulation. Functional studies reveal that TRPM7’s ion channel, but not its kinase, specifically affects cell polarity and convergent extension movements during gastrulation, independent of mesodermal specification. During gastrulation, the non-canonical Wnt pathway via Dishevelled (Dvl) orchestrates the activities of the GTPases Rho and Rac to control convergent extension movements. We find that TRPM7 functions synergistically with non-canonical Wnt signaling to regulate Rac activity. The phenotype caused by depletion of the Ca2+- and Mg2+-permeant TRPM7 is suppressed by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac, as well as by Mg2+ supplementation or by expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. Together, these studies demonstrate an essential role for the ion channel TRPM7 and Mg2+ in Rac-dependent polarized cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation. PMID:21145885

Liu, Wei; Su, Li-Ting; Khadka, Deepak K.; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Komiya, Yuko; Sato, Akira; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W.

2010-01-01

299

Vertebral rim lesions in the dorsolumbar spine.  

PubMed Central

The frequency, distribution, and histological characteristics of vertebral rim lesions have been studied at D11 and L4 in 117 post-mortem spines in subjects aged 13-96 years. Only one lesion was found in patients less than 30 years, but thereafter the frequency increased with age. At least one rim was affected in the majority of patients greater than or equal to 50 years. They were found more frequently in the upper than the lower rim and they were also more common anteriorly than posteriorly. Lesions were associated with focal avulsion of the annulus in an otherwise healthy disc or with annular tears running into the rim. Rim lesions can be recognised radiographically by the presence of the vacuum phenomenon, vertebral rim sclerosis with or without a cup-shaped defect in the rim and osteophytes confined to one side of the disc. The histological appearances suggest a traumatic aetiology, and since bone is known to be supplied with pain sensitive nerve endings the lesions may be important in the general context of low back pain. Images PMID:6712302

Hilton, R C; Ball, J

1984-01-01

300

Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.  

PubMed

In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

Svoboda, Ond?ej; Stachura, David L; Macho?ová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Ji?í; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bart?n?k, Petr

2014-07-10

301

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

302

Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

Olson, E. C.

1988-01-01

303

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

McCoy, Michael W.

2014-01-01

304

Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.  

PubMed

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar's endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history. PMID:23626770

Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

2013-01-01

305

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

PubMed Central

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar’s endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history. PMID:23626770

Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

2013-01-01

306

Anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly that most frequently involves the left coronary artery and very rarely the right coronary artery. These lesions can be missed on echocardiography unless carefully looked for. We describe a case of isolated anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery diagnosed on echocardiography and confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography. PMID:22529614

Gupta, Rajat; Marwah, Ashutosh; Shrivastva, Savitri

2012-01-01

307

Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

2009-01-01

308

Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

2001-01-01

309

Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant with idiopathic arterial calcification is presented. The disease was diagnosed during the life of the patient as an aortogram demonstrated a stenosis of the left coronary artery and complete occlusion of the right coronary artery.

J. M. Retbi; A. Casasoprana; J. C. Gabilan; M. Dehan; J. Rosenstein-Retbi

1978-01-01

310

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimir Soukup1  

E-print Network

LETTERS Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimi´r Soukup1 , Hans-Henning Epperlein2 as an ectodermal invagination1,2 . Consistent with this, oral teeth are pro- posed to arise exclusively from to dentin and pulp3­5 . Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity6

Horacek, Ivan

311

Iroquois genes: genomic organization and function in vertebrate neural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent work that shows that the iroquois (Iro\\/Irx) homeobox genes have conserved genomic organization in Drosophila and vertebrates. In addition, these genes play pivotal functions in the initial specification of the vertebrate neuroectoderm, and, in collaboration with other transcription factors, later subdivision of the anterior–posterior and dorso-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm.

José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta; Juan Modolell

2002-01-01

312

Effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of vertebral bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: To compare the effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of unfractured vertebral bodies.Methods used: Four cadaveric thoracic spines were used for this experiment, for a total of 40 vertebral bodies. Before testing, each thoracic spine was submitted to bone density testing and a radiographic evaluation to rule out any obvious fractures. Under image intensification, 6 ml

Siros Pheumaticos; Nguyen Lyndon; John Hipp; Jason Stein; Michael Heggeness

2002-01-01

313

Ecological Management of Vertebrate Pests in Agricultural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing vertebrate pests has been a neglected topic of research in sustainable agriculture. Conventional approaches, often reactionary rather than preventative, have failed to provide sustainable solutions. Indeed, conventional control through density reduction often involves battling natural ecological processes. Agricultural practices may improve habitat quality for vertebrates that then become pests. Density reduction, but without a concomitant reduction in carrying capacity,

D. Van Vuren; K. S. Smallwood

1996-01-01

314

Chordate origins of the vertebrate central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine structural, computerized three-dimensional (3D) mapping of cell connectivity in the amphioxus nervous system and comparative molecular genetic studies of amphioxus and tunicates have provided recent insights into the phylogenetic origin of the vertebrate nervous system. The results suggest that several of the genetic mechanisms for establishing and patterning the vertebrate nervous system already operated in the ancestral chordate and

Linda Z Holland; Nicholas D Holland

1999-01-01

315

DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN  

E-print Network

APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger Candidates for Focal Species Status Only species presumed to have established populations in the basin

Standiford, Richard B.

316

Chapter 9 Hox Genes and Vertebrate Axial Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial skeleton in all vertebrates is comprised of similar structures that extend from anterior to posterior along the body axis: the occipital skull bones, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. Despite significant changes in the number and size of these elements during vertebrate evolution, the basic character of these anatomical elements, as well as the order in which

Deneen M. Wellik

2009-01-01

317

Biology 259 Fall 2008 Bio 259: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy  

E-print Network

Biology 259 Fall 2008 1 Bio 259: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Dr. Kate Jackson Office: Science, frogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, crocodiles, and us. This course examines the anatomy of vertebrates, and some of their extinct ancestors. · a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of a few "representative

Jackson, Kate

318

4:31 The dynamic mobility of vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Vertebral height restoration is hoped to mitigate some morbidities and adverse biomechanical consequences of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) but this is unproven. Height restoration has been reported as the result of kyphoplasty [1] but is not generally thought to occur in vertebroplasty. The objective of this study is to describe the surprising frequency and substantial mobility

Tom Faciszewski; Fergus Mckiernan; Ron Jensen; Kathy Kraus

2002-01-01

319

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

2011-01-01

320

Neurobiological Bases of Rhythmic Motor Acts in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles governing the nervous control of innate motor acts in vertebrates are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the control of locomotion in both mammals and lower vertebrates. One in vitro model of the lamprey central nervous system has been developed. It can be maintained in vitro for several days and the motor pattern underlying locomotion can be

Sten Grillner

1985-01-01

321

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

322

TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE MONO LAKE ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE MONO LAKE ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA Michael L. Morrison, William M. Block ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA Michael L. orris on', William M. lock^,Joseph R. Jehl,~ r . ~ ,and Linnea S. all',^ I Assr~cr.-We compared vertebrate populations between the two major islands (Paoha and Negit) in Mono

323

Macroscopic anatomy of the vertebral endplate: quid significat?  

PubMed

Alterations of vertebral endplates have long been a subject of interest, but are of unclear clinical significance. The vertebral columns of a cohort-based sample of 850 individuals were therefore evaluated for vertebral endplate defects, noting adjacent vertebral size and shape variation, bone density and associated pathologies. Defects were found in the vertebral endplates of 458 individuals (Schmorl's nodes in 52.0% and linear defects in 10.6%). Vertebral centra osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis were more common; vertebral compression, less common in vertebrae with defects. Linear defects were more disseminated throughout the vertebral column, with individual defects more commonly affected either the interior half or the posterior quarter of the endplate or extended across all quarters form anterior to posterior. Individual Schmorl's nodes were predominantly limited to a single quarter. An inverse relationship was identified with tuberculosis. Spondyloarthropathy was more common in individuals with Schmorl's nodes, but not linear defects. Schmorl's nodes and linear endplate defects should be independently assessed, although they do share implications. Paradoxically, they are associated with phenomena which seem to mark increased ossification potential (osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), but not with osteoporosis. Similarly, presence of Schmorl's nodes correlation with spondyloarthropathy, another disorder characterized by increased ossification potential. While correlation is not causality, inverse relationship to tuberculosis is intriguing, given the known relationship of spondyloarthropathy to tuberculosis and its antigens. Previously undescribed surface elevations were commonly associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes and also correlated with disease, especially inflammatory arthritis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:25065116

Rothschild, Bruce M; Ho, Jonhan; Masharawi, Yossef

2014-01-01

324

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

325

Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.59±0.08) cm, (1.68±0.08) cm, and (1.66±0.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.00±0.09) cm, (1.87±0.04) cm, and (1.99±0.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.10±0.07) cm, (1.98±0.09) cm, and (2.00±0.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); and group A and group B had no significant difference (P=0.157). Conclusions The nitinol memory alloy stents can effectively support and reduce the compression of vertebral endplates and can be used to treat vertebral compression fractures without neurological symptoms. PMID:24869792

Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

2014-01-01

326

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

Weldon, Paul J.

2010-05-01

327

A bisexually reproducing all-triploid vertebrate.  

PubMed

Green toads are common in the Palaearctic region, where they have differentiated into several taxa. The toads exist with variable amounts of ploidy, similar to other anuran species or reptiles. In vertebrate biology, the very rare occurrence of triploidy is coupled with infertility or unisexuality, or requires the coexistence of individuals of different ploidy in a reproductive community. The reproduction of naturally occurring triploids has been reported to occur only through parthenogenesis, gynogenesis or hybridogenesis. The bisexual reproduction of pure triploids has been considered to be impossible because of the problem of equally distributing three chromosome sets in meiosis. Here we report geographically isolated populations of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) that are all-triploid and reproduce bisexually. PMID:11836500

Stöck, Matthias; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Steinlein, Claus; Epplen, Jörg T; Grosse, Wolf-Rüdiger; Hock, Robert; Klapperstück, Thomas; Lampert, Kathrin P; Scheer, Ulrich; Schmid, Michael; Schartl, Manfred

2002-03-01

328

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

329

Refractory vertebral sarcoidosis responding to infliximab.  

PubMed

Treatment of refractory sarcoidosis may be challenging for clinicians. Despite treatment with conventional therapy, sarcoidosis may be progressive and debilitating. Previous studies have implicated a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in granuloma formation as seen in sarcoidosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are currently approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. There have been recent case-reports supporting treatment of refractory and multisystem sarcoidosis with such agents. We report a case of sarcoidosis, involving the lung and vertebrae, which was refractory to conventional therapy. Our patient's clinical symptoms and radiologic lesions of vertebral sarcoid dramatically improved after treatment with infliximab. PMID:18766126

Garg, Sanjay; Garg, Kusum; Altaf, Mujeeb; Magaldi, John A

2008-08-01

330

Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

Schweitzer, Mary Higby

2011-05-01

331

New regulators of vertebrate appendage regeneration  

PubMed Central

Appendage regeneration is a complex and fascinating biological process exhibited in vertebrates by urodele amphibians and teleost fish. A current focus in the field is to identify new molecules that control formation and function of the regeneration blastema, a mass of proliferative mesenchyme that emerges after limb or fin amputation and serves as progenitor tissue for lost structures. Two studies published recently have illuminated new molecular regulators of blastemal proliferation. After amputation of a newt limb, the nerve sheath releases nAG, a blastemal mitogen that facilitates regeneration. In amputated zebrafish fins, regeneration is optimized through depletion of the microRNA miR-133, a mechanism that requires Fgf signaling. These discoveries establish research avenues that may impact the regenerative capacity of mammalian tissues. PMID:18644447

Yin, Viravuth P.; Poss, Kenneth D.

2008-01-01

332

Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

2013-01-01

333

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

334

Arterial Pressure Analog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

1980-01-01

335

Biology of Arterial Atheroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial dysfunction and changes in arterial wall morphology including thickening of the tunica intima, excess synthesis of collagenous matrix (fibroblastic intimal thickening) and permanent or dynamic deposition of lipids (fatty streaks) already occur in childhood or adolescence. Definite atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries usually do not manifest themselves before menopause in women or age 40 in men. Obviously, cumulative

Johann Willeit; Stefan Kiechl

2000-01-01

336

Long-Segment Arterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cases of occlusion of the superficial femoral artery exceeding a length of 10 cm, accompanied by involvement of the popliteal artery and poor runoff, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is unfavorable. However, when such advanced occlusive disease is present in patients for whom vascular surgery is not feasible, this technique can be of value by averting or at least postponing amputation.

Chien-Tai Lu; Christopher K. Zarins; Chien-Fang Yang; Vikrom Sottiurai

337

Anterior spinal artery syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients with symptoms due to the anterior spinal artery syndrome were treated by direct perfusion of dexamethasone sodium phosphate and urokinase into the artery of Adamkiewicz. Their symptoms were paraparesis with dissociated sensory loss and sphincter dysfunction, and there was no evidence of the possible cause. In the early phase of the disease, three consecutive injections were carried out

H. Baba; K. Tomita; T. Kawagishi; S. Imura

1993-01-01

338

Uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of the studies for the use of uterine artery embolization in various conditions in both obstetrics and gynecology. Design: Literature review. Results: Uterine artery embolization was successful in controlling postpartum hemorrhage in 94.9% of the cases. It was effective in controlling the bleeding in 96% of cases with uterine arteriovenous malformations and in 100% of the cases with

Shawky Z. A Badawy; Amr Etman; Manvinder Singh; Kenneth Murphy; Thomas Mayelli; Melissa Philadelphia

2001-01-01

339

Coronary artery disease (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

340

Ruptured ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulnar artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are rare lesions that usually occur distal to the wrist and cause symptoms as a result of embolization and not rupture. An elderly woman presented with acute rupture of an ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm proximal to the wrist, which caused severe neurologic compromise as a result of bleeding into Guyon's canal and the carpal tunnel. The

Luke S. Erdoes; William C. Brown

1995-01-01

341

Coronary artery stent (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

342

Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well described upper extremity disorder comprising neurovascular complications caused by thoracic outlet compression. By far neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifesta- tion of this disorder. Arterial complications of thoracic outlet compression are much rarer, accounting for less than 5% of all operations performed for TOS. Major arterial degenerative and thromboembolic complications

Gerald M. Patton

343

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

MedlinePLUS

... plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can cause ... coronary artery. This creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. Surgeons can bypass multiple ...

344

The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.  

PubMed Central

The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

O'Rahilly, R; Muller, F; Meyer, D B

1983-01-01

345

Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.  

PubMed

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

2012-01-01

346

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

Strauss, Richard E.

347

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

Benton, Michael

348

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172�185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

California at Berkeley, University of

349

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM

Olsen, Paul E.

350

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER Center, Museum of Natural History and Science, Geier Collections and Research Center, 1720 Gilbert Avenue

Benton, Michael

351

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(2):324332, June 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

324 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(2):324­332, June 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW COELUROSAURIAN DINOSAUR FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS OF SOUTH AFRICA WILLIAM J. DE KLERK1 of Natural History, University of Utah, 1390 East Presidents Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; 4 Zoology

352

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Paleontology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; 6Department of Geology695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA

Shapiro, Mike

353

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History's support for the Mongolian Academy of Scienc- es-American Museum of Natural History Paleontological Ex7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate

Clark, James M.

354

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOBDepartment of Zoology, Division of Fishes, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive

Blob, Richard W.

355

Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.  

PubMed

This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

Smith, M M; Hall, B K

1990-08-01

356

A histologic study of fractured human vertebral bodies.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven fractured human vertebral bodies and 24 unfractured human vertebrae from adjacent levels were studied postmortem using histologic and high-resolution radiographic techniques. The findings were compared with those in the vertebral bodies of individuals without spinal fracture. Forty-six human thoracolumbar spines were obtained from individuals at autopsy. Standard radiographs were made of all specimens. Twelve of the 46 individuals had a total of 27 fractured vertebral bodies by plain radiographic criteria. Attention was focused on these fractured vertebrae as well as on 24 unfractured vertebral bodies that were harvested from a level immediately adjacent to the fractured vertebral bodies. Twelve vertebral bodies from four individuals with no evidence of fracture or inflammatory spondyloarthropathy were also studied for comparison. The vertebral bodies were graded by their mineral density as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and sectioned into 3-mm sagittal cuts. High-resolution contact radiographs were prepared for each section prior to decalcification and tissue sectioning on a large format microtome. Mid-and parasagittal tissue sections of each vertebra were prepared for standard hematoxylin and eosin stains. A total of 126 sections were studied. The histologic characteristics of the fractured vertebrae (n = 27) were compared with those of adjacent unfractured levels (n = 24) and with vertebrae from individuals without fracture (n = 12). Vertebral bodies with fractures secondary to osteoporosis were consistently characterized histologically by focal areas of endochondral new bone formation adjacent to avascular necrotic bone and unreactive marrow. Such ongoing new bone and new vessel formation adjacent to nonhealing areas were also documented in radiographically unfractured vertebral bodies from individuals with osteoporotic fractures at adjacent levels. No areas of endochondral new bone formation or areas of focal necrosis were found in vertebral bodies from individuals without radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. A vascular necrosis of the vertebral body is a common histologic finding in individuals with osteoporosis. Indeed, our histologic observations suggest subclinical fractures and microfractures of the vertebral body may be the underlying pathologic process leading to avascular necrosis in individuals with osteoporosis. Microtrabecular fractures and endplate fractures were commonly seen in osteoporotic vertebral bodies, often in vertebrae that appeared to be uninvolved on specimen radiographs. PMID:11927820

Antonacci, M Darryl; Mody, Dina R; Rutz, Kevin; Weilbaecher, Donald; Heggeness, Michael H

2002-04-01

357

Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

Van Veen, John Edward

2012-01-01

358

Delayed reversal of vertebral artery blood flow following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for subclavian steal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve patients suffering from subclavian steal syndrome of various severity due to either proximal subclavian stenoses (10 cases) or subclavian occlusion (2 cases) were treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Olbert's dilatation catheters were used. The occlusions could neither be recanalized by the transfemoral nor transaxillary approach. In one right-sided subclavian stenosis an additional distal subclavian occlusion prevented proper placement

E. B. Ringelstein; H. Zeumer

1984-01-01

359

Proximal Extracranial Vertebral Artery Disease in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and Patients: Patients with either occlusion or high-grade stenosis involving the V1 segment were cho- sen for study from the New England Medical Center Pos- terior Circulation Registry. The registry is a consecutive series of patients with signs and symptoms of posterior circulation ischemia seen at the New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass, during a 10-year period. Clinical features,

Robert J. Wityk; Hui M. Chang; Axel Rosengart; Wen-Chaing Han; L. Dana DeWitt; Michael S. Pessin; Louis R. Caplan

1998-01-01

360

“Stretched loop sign” of the vertebral artery: a predictor of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in atlantoaxial dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVertebrobasilar territory infarction is one of the rarer presentations of CVJ anomalies. A new radiologic sign due to stretching of the short third segment of VA detected on MRA\\/DSA may identify patients of AAD at risk of developing VBI.

Vijay Sawlani; Sanjay Behari; Pravin Salunke; Vijendra K. Jain; Rajendra V. Phadke

2006-01-01

361

Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury following Severe Head or Cervical Spine Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the frequency of neck vessel injuries, Doppler investigations were performed in 60 patients following either severe head injury (n = 29), cervical spine injury (n = 26), or combined head and cervical spine injury (n = 5). The majority of patients were referred to our hospital for early rehabilitation; before admission Doppler investigations had been performed

Oliver Rommel; Andreas Niedeggen; Martin Tegenthoff; Paul Kiwitt; Uwe Bötel; Jean-Pierre Malin

1999-01-01

362

Endothelial function is impaired in conduit arteries of pannexin1 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Pannexin1 is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate tissues, but the role it plays in vascular tone regulation remains unclear. We found that Pannexin1 expression level is much higher in the endothelium relative to smooth muscle of saphenous artery. The ability of endothelium-intact arteries for dilation was significantly impaired whereas contractile responses were considerably increased in mice with genetic ablation of Pannexin1. No such increased contractile responses were detected in the endothelium-denuded arteries. Combined, our findings suggest a new function of Pannexin1 as an important player in normal endothelium-dependent regulation of arterial tone, where it facilitates vessel dilation and attenuates constriction. Reviewed by Dr. Armen Mulkidjanian and Dr. Alexander Lobkovsky. PMID:24885326

2014-01-01

363

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.  

PubMed

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. PMID:24103665

Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

2014-02-01

364

Intracranial segmental arterial mediolysis: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Extensive nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of unexpected death in young adults. Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) represents an uncommon pathologic finding in the intracranial blood vessels associated with this type of hemorrhage. Segmental arterial mediolysis is a pathologic entity with putative vasospastic etiology, which recently has been reported to be associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 4. We describe 2 additional cases of ruptured intracranial vertebral artery with features of SAM that resulted in fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We also review the literature on vessels with features of SAM that are either intracranial or affecting the internal carotid artery with major direct effects (ie, stroke or transient ischemic attack) on the central nervous system. PMID:23629390

Alturkustani, Murad; Ang, Lee-Cyn

2013-06-01

365

Evolution of vertebrate rod and cone phototransduction genes  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate cones and rods in several cases use separate but related components for their signal transduction (opsins, G-proteins, ion channels, etc.). Some of these proteins are also used differentially in other cell types in the retina. Because cones, rods and other retinal cell types originated in early vertebrate evolution, it is of interest to see if their specific genes arose in the extensive gene duplications that took place in the ancestor of the jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) by two tetraploidizations (genome doublings). The ancestor of teleost fishes subsequently underwent a third tetraploidization. Our previously reported analyses showed that several gene families in the vertebrate visual phototransduction cascade received new members in the basal tetraploidizations. We here expand these data with studies of additional gene families and vertebrate species. We conclude that no less than 10 of the 13 studied phototransduction gene families received additional members in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. Also the remaining three families seem to have undergone duplications during the same time period but it is unclear if this happened as a result of the tetraploidizations. The implications of the many early vertebrate gene duplications for functional specialization of specific retinal cell types, particularly cones and rods, are discussed. PMID:19720650

Larhammar, Dan; Nordstrom, Karin; Larsson, Tomas A.

2009-01-01

366

Quantification of Vertebral Involvement in Metastatic Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: For patients with a solitary and well-delimitated spinal metastasis that resides inside the vertebral body, without vertebral canal invasion, and who are in good general health with a long life expectancy, en bloc spondylectomy/total vertebrectomy combined with the use of primary stabilizing instrumentation has been advocated. However, clinical experience suggests that these qualifying conditions occur very rarely. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the distribution of vertebral involvement in spinal metastases and determine the frequency with which patients can be considered candidates for radical surgery (en bloc spondylectomy). Methods: Consecutive patients were classified accordingly to Enneking’s and Tomita’s schemes for grading vertebral involvement of metastases. Results: Fifty-one (51) consecutive patients were evaluated. Eighty-three percent of patients presented with the involvement of multiple vertebral levels and/or spinal canal invasion. Conclusion: Because of diffuse vertebral involvement of metastases, no patients in this sample were considered to be candidates for radical spondylectomy of vertebral metastasis. PMID:24015159

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Jose Marcus

2013-01-01

367

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

368

Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. PMID:21691534

Schoen, Jessica C.; Boysen, Megan M.; Warren, Chase R.; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

2011-01-01

369

Preoperative Sclerotherapy Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate (Fibro-Vein(TM)) Can Assist in the Management of Vertebral Hemangiomas  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown–Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively. PMID:24353964

Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

2012-01-01

370

Preoperative sclerotherapy using sodium tetradecyl sulphate (fibro-vein™) can assist in the management of vertebral hemangiomas.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown-Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively. PMID:24353964

Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

2012-09-01

371

Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

Lychakov, Dmitri

372

An aberrant subclavian artery exhibiting the partial steal phenomenon in a patient with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

We herein report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian man with known vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac defects, renal and limb anomalies (VACTERL) association who presented with a headache and vertigo following the sudden and temporary loss of consciousness while attending a concert four days before admission to the hospital. On a physical examination, the following findings were found: a low body height, low-set ears, thoracic scoliosis and a mild holosystolic heart murmur. A neurosonological examination revealed a partial subclavian steal phenomenon. CT angiography of the neck vessels and aortic arch confirmed an anomalous right subclavian artery -known as the lusorian artery. Further studies are warranted in patients with VACTERL in order to identify possible links between the prevalence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (lusorian artery) and possible congenital subclavian steal syndrome or dysphagia lusoria. In addition, duplex ultrasound of the carotid and vertebral arteries may be performed as part of screening examinations in patients with congenital syndromes. PMID:25130125

Budincevic, Hrvoje; Starcevic, Katarina; Bielen, Ivan; Demarin, Vida

2014-01-01

373

Pseudoaneurysm of the Uterine Artery Requiring Bilateral Uterine Artery Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm which initially failed unilateral uterine artery embolization that subsequently responded to bilateral embolization.DESIGN: A case report.SETTING: University hospital.PATIENT(S): 32-year-old G2 P1 female.INTERVENTION(S): Left uterine artery embolization followed by right uterine artery embolization 1 day later.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Vaginal bleeding, hemoglobin.RESULTS: Unilateral uterine artery embolization failed to control vaginal bleeding. Repeat embolization

Brian C Cooper; Michelle Hocking-Brown; Joel I Sorosky; Wendy F Hansen

2004-01-01

374

[Percutaneous vertebroplasty: option of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral fracture].  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat focal pain from compressive vertebral fracture. The PV is indicated for the treatment of debilitating vertebral pain from osteoporotic vertebral fractures, metastatic disease (osteolytic), myeloma and hemagioma. We analyzed the results of PV at 18 vertebrae of 11 patients. In 90.9% there war significant pain relief. The return to their usual activities at the first month occurred at 77.8% of the patients. According to the literature review and our study, PV is a promising therapy for selected cases. PMID:14513170

Figueiredo, Nicandro; Amaral Filho, José Carlos; Serra, Alexandre da Rocha; Nogueira, Anibal M; Garcia, Victor C Sano; Weissheimer, Fábio L

2003-09-01

375

Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health  

PubMed Central

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

2014-01-01

376

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. PMID:22573944

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

377

Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

Mclean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

378

Non-Retroviral Fossils in Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Although no physical fossils of viruses have been found, retroviruses are known to leave their molecular fossils in the genomes of their hosts, the so-called endogenous retroviral elements. These have provided us with important information about retroviruses in the past and their co-evolution with their hosts. On the other hand, because non-retroviral viruses were considered not to leave such fossils, even the existence of prehistoric non-retroviral viruses has been enigmatic. Recently, we discovered that elements derived from ancient bornaviruses, non-segmented, negative strand RNA viruses, are found in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans. In addition, at approximately the same time, several endogenous elements of RNA viruses, DNA viruses and reverse-transcribing DNA viruses have been independently reported, which revealed that non-retroviral viruses have played significant roles in the evolution of their hosts and provided novel insights into virology and cell biology. Here we review non-retroviral virus-like elements in vertebrate genomes, non-retroviral integration and the knowledge obtained from these endogenous non-retroviral virus-like elements. PMID:22069518

Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

2011-01-01

379

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

380

Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

1996-01-01

381

New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

2014-01-01

382

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma  

E-print Network

Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous fi ndings. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging infectious disease in the United States, Europe, and Asia (1,2). In the United States, most reported cases are concentrated in north-central and northeastern states. Patients with HGA typically have nonspecific febrile symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, and myalgia (1). Most patients with HGA respond well to antimicrobial drug treatment, but complications are not uncommon and some cases are fatal (2). Because of difficulties in diagnosis and lack of awareness of HGA by physicians and the public, many cases are misdiagnosed, and national statistics likely dramatically underreport this disease (1). HGA is caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1), groups of which form dense aggregations in granulocytes (3). The bacterium is passed from host to host through the bite of an infected ixodid tick: Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and central United States and Ix. pacifi cus in the western United States (4–6). Serosurveys and molecular diagnostics within disease-endemic

Felicia Keesing; Michelle H. Hersh; Michael Tibbetts; Diana J. Mchenry; Shannon Duerr; Jesse Brunner; Mary Killilea; Kathleen Logiudice; Kenneth A. Schmidt; Richard S. Ostfeld

383

Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

2001-01-01

384

Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

2012-01-01

385

Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination. PMID:19152784

Barske, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

386

Acute arterial occlusion - kidney  

MedlinePLUS

... way to reduce your risk is to stop smoking. People at risk for developing blood clots may need to take anti-clotting medicines. Taking steps to control diseases related to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) may reduce your risk.

387

Coronary artery spasm  

MedlinePLUS

... as amphetamines and cocaine Cocaine use and cigarette smoking can cause severe spasms of the arteries, and can cause ... without any other heart risk factors (such as smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol).

388

Uterine artery embolization - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Uterine fibroid embolization - discharge; UFE - discharge; UAE - discharge ... You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat fibroids using radiology instead of surgery. During the procedure, the blood supply of the fibroids ...

389

Peripheral artery disease - legs  

MedlinePLUS

... and hardening of the arteries . This causes decreased blood flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. ... stiffer and cannot widen (dilate) to allow greater blood flow when needed. As a result, the muscles of ...

390

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of restricted blood flow through an artery. Catheter angiography (www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=angiocath) : ... section for more information about x-rays . CT angiography (CTA) (www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg= ...

391

Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare. The estimated incidence is 1 in 14,000 in autopsies. Bilateral main pulmonary artery aneurysms have not been previously reported in the literature.A 36-year-old woman who has been diagnosed as having an ostium secundum defect with severe pulmonary hypertension was found dead. Autopsy revealed an emaciated body. The heart was enlarged. Right atrium and ventricle were

Sarathchandra Kodikara; Murugapillei Sivasubramanium

2009-01-01

392

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

393

[Angio-fibrolipoma in epidural space of the vertebral canal].  

PubMed

55-yera old patient with angio-fibro-lipoma of thoracic part of the vertebral canal was described. This rare, benign tumour was totally removed. Subsequently the neurological state of the patient improved. PMID:8084371

Majchrzak, H; Sikora, A; Majchrzak, R; Bierzy?ska-Macyszyn, G

1994-01-01

394

Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity  

PubMed Central

The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 My ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in all four Dlg paralogs show simple associative learning required Dlg4, while Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to play opposing roles in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed Dlg2’s role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 My. Dlg family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders suggesting genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

Nithianantharajah, J.; Komiyama, N.H.; McKechanie, A.; Johnstone, M.; Blackwood, D. H.; St Clair, D.; Emes, R.D.; van de Lagemaat, L. N.; Saksida, L.M.; Bussey, T.J.; Grant, S.G.N.

2014-01-01

395

Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates  

E-print Network

attempting to explain fetal development (Keynes and Stern, 1988), patterns on the coats of mammals (Murray of others). Applying such a self-organization viewpoint to vertebrate groupings is a more recent development

Richner, Heinz

396

50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus ). (1) The Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel population identified in paragraph...for reintroduction of Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel is totally isolated from...

2010-10-01

397

international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife  

E-print Network

The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

398

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

399

VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

400

Extraordinary Diversity of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Repertoires Among Vertebrates  

E-print Network

that chemoreception plays multiple important roles in a vertebrate's daily life, including food detection and pheromones. For the gustatory system, the tongue can perceive five basic tastes: sour, salty, bit- ter, sweet

Zhang, Jianzhi

401

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

402

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

403

Wandering Neuronal Migration in the Postnatal Vertebrate Forebrain  

E-print Network

Most non-mammalian vertebrate species add new neurons to existing brain circuits throughout life, a process thought to be essential for tissue maintenance, repair, and learning. How these new neurons migrate through the ...

Scott, Benjamin B.

404

Current status of arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting  

PubMed Central

For over a decade there has been accumulating evidence that the use of more than a single arterial graft during coronary artery bypass grafting can improve clinical outcomes. However the vast majority of patients in most developed countries still only receive a single arterial conduit even in the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the use of a second internal mammary artery and/or radial artery graft. While in comparison to vein grafts the superior patency of internal mammary artery grafts is well established, there now exists strong and consistent evidence of the superior patency of radial arteries over the longer term. Likewise, there is a rapidly growing body of evidence that the superior patency of both these arteries in comparison to vein grafts translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:23977618

2013-01-01

405

Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted in 179 consecutive patients (48 males, 131 females; mean age: 72.0 ± 8.59 years; range:\\u000a 51–93) with single symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting between September 2004 and September\\u000a 2005 to the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome, Italy. Vertebral fractures usually become manifest due to pain which can be debilitating.\\u000a Treatment depends on the presence or absence

Salvatore Masala; Anna Micaela Ciarrapico; Daniel Konda; Vincenzo Vinicola; Matteo Mammucari; Giovanni Simonetti

2008-01-01

406

Vertebrate fossils from late Cenozoic deposits of central Kansas  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA ARTICLE 2 Pages 1-14, Figures 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD UNIVERS= OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MARCH 20, 1952 PRINTED BY FERD... VOILAND, JR.. STATE PRINTER TOPEKA. KANSAS 1952 24-975 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA, ARTICLE 2, PAGES 1-14, FIGLTRES 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD CONTENTS PAGE...

Hibbard, C. W.

1952-03-20

407

Vertebrate frugivory and seed dispersal of a Chihuahuan Desert cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate frugivory of fleshy-fruited plants may be very important for the recruitment of sexually derived seedlings if it represents the main mechanism of primary seed-dispersal.Opuntia rastrera produces fleshy fruits rich in water and sugars that are attractive to vertebrate frugivores. However, there is a very low rate of seedling recruitment in natural conditions. One of the causes that can influence

Salvador Montiel; Carlos Montaña

2000-01-01

408

Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

1998-01-01

409

Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   In women, many studies indicate that the risk of vertebral fragility fractures increases as bone mineral density (BMD) declines.\\u000a In contrast, few studies are available for BMD and vertebral fractures in men. It is uncertain that the strength of the relationship\\u000a between BMD and fractures is similar in magnitude in middle-aged men and in postmenopausal women. In the present

E. Legrand; D. Chappard; C. Pascaretti; M. Duquenne; C. Rondeau; Y. Simon; V. Rohmer; M.-F. Basle; M. Audran

1999-01-01

410

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

411

Comparative structure analysis of vertebrate ribonuclease P RNA.  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P cleaves 5'-precursor sequences from pre-tRNAs. All cellular RNase P holoenzymes contain homologous RNA elements; the eucaryal RNase P RNA, in contrast to the bacterial RNA, is catalytically inactive in the absence of the protein component(s). To understand the function of eucaryal RNase P RNA, knowledge of its structure is needed. Considerable effort has been devoted to comparative studies of the structure of this RNA from diverse organisms, including eucaryotes, primarily fungi, but also a limited set of vertebrates. The substantial differences in the sequences and structures of the vertebrate RNAs from those of other organisms have made it difficult to align the vertebrate sequences, thus limiting comparative studies. To expand our understanding of the structure of diverse RNase P RNAs, we have isolated by PCR and sequenced 13 partial RNase P RNA genes from 11 additional vertebrate taxa representing most extant major vertebrate lineages. Based on a recently proposed structure of the core elements of RNase P RNA, we aligned the sequences and propose a minimum consensus secondary structure for the vertebrate RNase P RNA. PMID:9649615

Pitulle, C; Garcia-Paris, M; Zamudio, K R; Pace, N R

1998-01-01

412

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

413

Adaptive responses of vertebrate neurons to hypoxia.  

PubMed

The damage caused to mammalian neurons during ischaemic events in the brain (e.g. following a stroke), is an area of major interest to neuroscientists. The neurons of hypoxia-tolerant vertebrates offer unique models for identifying new strategies to enhance the survival of hypoxia-vulnerable neurons. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of how hypoxia-tolerant neurons detect decreases in oxygen and create signals that have immediate and long-term effects on cell function and survival. Sensing and adapting to low oxygen tension involves numerous modalities with different times of activation and effect. Sensors include membrane proteins such as ionotropic ion channels, membrane or cytosolic heme proteins, mitochondrial proteins and/or oxygen sensitive transcription factors such as HIF-1alpha and NFkappaB. Signaling molecules involved in O(2) sensing include mitogen-activated protein kinases, ions such as Ca(2+) and metabolites such as adenosine. These signals act rapidly to reduce the conductance of ion channels (ion flux arrest) and production of energy (metabolic arrest), and slowly to activate specific genes. The ability to construct an energy budget, illustrating which physiological processes are depressed during both long-term and acute metabolic suppression in hypoxia-tolerant neurons, would be of significant value in devising new strategies for neuroprotection. Additionally it is not known how metabolism is regulated at 'pilot-light' levels at which energy-producing and energy-consuming processes are balanced. The regulation of organelle and cell fate during long-term hypoxia is almost completely unexplored, and whether programmed cell death and regeneration of lost neurons occur following protracted dormancy is also of considerable interest. PMID:12409484

Bickler, Philip E; Donohoe, Paul H

2002-12-01

414

An Ordovician vertebrate from western New South Wales, with comments on Cambro-Ordovician vertebrate distribution patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young, G.C., March, 2009. An Ordovician vertebrate from western New South Wales, with comments on Cambro-Ordovician vertebrate distribution patterns. Alcheringa 33, 79–89. ISSN 0311-5518.A fish plate impression from the Ordovician Rowena Formation in Mutawintji National Park is referred to an indeterminate species of the genus Arandaspis Ritchie & Gilbert-Tomlinson, 1977, genotype of the family Arandaspididae, previously known only from the

Gavin C. Young

2009-01-01

415

Functional comparison between the human inferior epigastric artery and internal mammary artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the inferior epigastric artery has been used as an alternative arterial graft for coronary artery bypass grafting, little is known about the contractile and relaxation characteristics of this artery. This study was designed to compare the pharmacologic reactivity of the two arterial conduits—the inferior epigastric artery and the internal mammary artery. Forty-one inferior epigastric artery ring segments from eight

Guo-Wei He; Tea E. Acuff; William H. Ryan; Cheng-Qin Yang; Michael J. Mack

1995-01-01

416

Visceral artery aneurysms.  

PubMed

Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) frequently present as life-threatening emergencies. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with VAA treatment. Between 1988 and April 2002, 31 VAA were treated in 28 patients (14 males, 14 females) with average age of 55 +/- 15 years. The most common locations were the splenic artery (16) and the hepatic artery (7). Three patients underwent emergency surgery, 22 patients had elective open surgery, and 7 patients underwent endovascular treatment. In the surgical group the perioperative mortality rate was 3.6%. The perioperative morbidity rate was 7.1% (one case of respiratory distress manifested in the immediate postoperative period and one urgent case of bilious fistula). In the endovascular group none of the patients died; the perioperative morbidity rate was of 14.3% (one case of hepatic artery thrombosis after failure of gastroduodenal artery aneurysm embolization). Failure of the procedure was 42.9% (3 cases of aneurysm recanalization). In conclusion, we believe that an aggressive surgical approach is justified, even in the case of asymptomatic VAA, because of the low morbidity and mortality rates. Endovascular treatment should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:15714366

Chiesa, R; Astore, D; Guzzo, G; Frigerio, S; Tshomba, Y; Castellano, R; de Moura, M R Liberato; Melissano, G

2005-01-01

417

Coronary arterial fistulas  

PubMed Central

Abstract A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between one or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation. Its exact incidence is unknown. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in origin although they may occasionally be detected after cardiac surgery. They do not usually cause symptoms or complications in the first two decades, especially when small. After this age, the frequency of both symptoms and complications increases. Complications include 'steal' from the adjacent myocardium, thrombosis and embolism, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, rupture, endocarditis/endarteritis and arrhythmias. Thrombosis within the fistula is rare but may cause acute myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysmal fistula causing haemopericardium has also been reported. The main differential diagnosis is patent arterial duct, although other congenital arteriovenous shunts need to be excluded. Whilst two-dimensional echocardiography helps to differentiate between the different shunts, coronary angiography is the main diagnostic tool for the delineation of the anatomy. Surgery was the traditional method of treatment but nowadays catheter closure is recommended using a variety of closure devices, such as coils, or other devices. With the catheter technique, the results are excellent with infrequent complications. Disease name and synonyms Coronary arterial fistulas Coronary arterial fistulas or malformations PMID:17184545

Qureshi, Shakeel A

2006-01-01

418

Cerebral arterial fenestrations.  

PubMed

Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms "fenestration" or "fenestrated" with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

2014-01-01

419

Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases.

Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karakasl?, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karc?, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Senol

2014-01-01

420

Genetic Analysis of Vertebral Regionalization and Number in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Vertebral number is the most variable trait among vertebrates. In addition to the vertebral number, the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae is a variable trait. The vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae contribute to vertebrate diversity. It is very interesting to know how to determine the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae. In this study, we identify differences in the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number between two inbred lines of medaka, namely, Hd-rRII1 and Kaga. To identify the genetic factor of those differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number using 200 F2 fish. Our results show a suggestive QTL of the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number on chromosome 15, and five QTL of vertebral number on chromosomes 1, 10, 11, 17, and 23. The QTL on chromosome 15 contains hoxDb cluster genes. The QTL of vertebral number include some genes related to the segmentation clock and axial elongation. In addition, we show that the difference in vertebral number between two inbred lines is derived from differences in the anteroposterior length of somites. Our results emphasize that the developmental process should be considered in genetic analyses for vertebral number. PMID:23173083

Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shinya, Minori; Naruse, Kiyosi

2012-01-01

421

Descending septal artery: an important artery for collateral coronary circulation.  

PubMed

We present a case report of a 40-year-old male who underwent elective cardiac catheterization secondary to complaints of intermittent chest pain and inducible ischemia in the anterior wall. Diagnostic catheterization revealed severe coronary artery disease including an occluded mid left anterior descending (LAD) artery. There was a rarely described descending septal artery (Bonapace's branch) originating from a separate ostium in the right aortic sinus. This artery was a very important source of collateralization to the LAD. This artery has been reported once in vivo, while it has been described more frequently in postmortem studies. The descending septal artery is postulated to have an important role in the perfusion of the conduction system and in collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease. A literature review confirms the functional importance of this artery. PMID:23388235

Sanghvi, Kintur; de Leon Mansson, Sarah; Patel, Tejas

2013-02-01

422

Explosive Expansion of ??-Crystallin Genes in the Ancestral Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

In jawed vertebrates, ??-crystallins are restricted to the eye lens and thus excellent markers of lens evolution. These ??-crystallins are four Greek key motifs/two domain proteins, whereas the urochordate ??-crystallin has a single domain. To trace the origin of the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes, we searched for homologues in the genomes of a jawless vertebrate (lamprey) and of a cephalochordate (lancelet). The lamprey genome contains orthologs of the gnathostome ?B1-, ?A2- and ?N-crystallin genes and a single domain ?N-crystallin-like gene. It contains at least two ?-crystallin genes, but lacks the gnathostome ?S-crystallin gene. The genome also encodes a non-lenticular protein containing ??-crystallin motifs, AIM1, also found in gnathostomes but not detectable in the uro- or cephalochordate genome. The four cephalochordate ??-crystallin genes found encode two-domain proteins. Unlike the vertebrate ??-crystallins but like the urochordate ??-crystallin, three of the predicted proteins contain calcium-binding sites. In the cephalochordate ??-crystallin genes, the introns are located within motif-encoding region, while in the urochordate and in the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes the introns are between motif- and/or domain encoding regions. Coincident with the evolution of the vertebrate lens an ancestral urochordate type ??-crystallin gene rapidly expanded and diverged in the ancestral vertebrate before the cyclostomes/gnathostomes split. The ?- and ?N-crystallin genes were maintained in subsequent evolution, and, given the selection pressure imposed by accurate vision, must be essential for lens function. The ?-crystallin genes show lineage specific expansion and contraction, presumably in adaptation to the demands on vision resulting from (changes in) lifestyle. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9379-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20725717

Kappe, Guido; Purkiss, Andrew G.; van Genesen, Siebe T.; Slingsby, Christine

2010-01-01

423

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

424

[Misplacement of a guidewire into the right vertebral vein through the right internal jugular vein under real-time ultrasound guidance in Trousseau syndrome patient--a case report].  

PubMed

Trousseau syndrome is a venous thromboembolic complication found in abdominal cancer patients. A 46-year-old woman diagnosed with and treated for pulmonary embolism due to Trousseau syndrome with a huge ovalian tumor was planned to undergo oophorectomy. She presented with pulmonary hypertension and her inferior vena cava was compressed by the tumor. After induction of general anesthesia, ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization (CVC) to her right internal jugular vein was tried. The guidewire was misplaced in the vertebral vein through the right internal jugular vein. Her vertebral vein was abnormally dilated. The dilated vertebral vein was supposed to have worked as a venous perfusion route from the lower extremities. When the CVC was performed in patients with restricted venous return due to Trousseau syndrome, deep-seated veins as well as arteries should be checked with ultrasonography. PMID:25255669

Koyasu, Akiko; Ikeura, Makiko; Ishii, Hisanari; Shichino, Tsutomu

2014-09-01

425

Fenestrations of the basilar artery demonstrated on magnetic resonance angiograms: an analysis of 212 cases.  

PubMed

Fenestration of the basilar artery (BA) is a rare variant of the intracranial artery, well demonstrated in autopsy and angiographic studies. Some angiographic series show a high incidence of associated aneurysms at the basilar fenestration site. The purpose of this study is to report the incidence of BA fenestration, its configurations, associated aneurysms, and arterial anomalies in a large series of intracranial MR angiograms (MRAs). A total of 16,416 MRAs were retrospectively reviewed to identify the location, size and associated intracranial arterial anomalies of BA fenestrations. All images were obtained with the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Of the 16,416 MRAs, 215 fenestrations were found in 212 cases (1.29%). Most fenestrations were located in the proximal BA. The average length of the fenestration was 4.6 mm; the largest was 15.6 mm. No aneurysm was found at the site of the fenestration. Thirteen aneurysms were found in nine cases at locations other than the BA: seven in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), one in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), one in the anterior communicating artery (Acom), one in the vertebral artery (VA), one at the carotid siphon, and two at the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC). Arterial anomalies in other locations were found in 26 cases. BA fenestrations were found in 1.29% of the 16,416 cases studied. There were no aneurysms at the BA fenestration site. Aneurysms at the BA fenestration site may be an exceedingly rare phenomenon. PMID:24355150

Sogawa, Keiji; Kikuchi, Yoichi; O'uchi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Michihiro; Inoue, Tomio

2013-12-01

426

Embolic microspheres within ovarian arterial vasculature after uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Adverse events after uterine artery embolization, including hysterectomy and premature ovarian failure, are concerning for women who desire future fertility.CASE:A 39-year-old woman underwent emergency hysterectomy after uterine artery embolization embolic microspheres found within the ovarian arterial vasculature.CONCLUSION:Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine fibroids has been associated with loss of ovarian function in up to 14% of patients. This

John F Payne; Stanley J Robboy; A. F Haney

2002-01-01

427

Association of prevalent vertebral fractures, bone density, and alendronate treatment with incident vertebral fractures: effect of number and spinal location of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture and are associated with significant pain and disability. Prior vertebral fracture and low bone mineral density (BMD) are strong predictors of new vertebral fracture. Using data from 6082 women, ages 55–80 years, in the Fracture Intervention Trial (a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the antiresorptive agent, alendronate), we explored the association of the

M. C Nevitt; P. D Ross; L Palermo; T Musliner; H. K Genant; D. E Thompson

1999-01-01

428

Extrarenal arterial connections of the normal renal artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An angiographic study in cadavers has demonstrated connections between the renal artery and remote vessels including the intercostal,\\u000a testicular, and inferior mesenteric arteries in subjects with no known history of renal disease. Such communications are a\\u000a potential route by which embolic material introduced into the renal artery may inadvertently reach other organs.

Robert A. Wilkins; Brenda Sandin; Ashley Price; Brendan Twomey

1986-01-01

429

Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome.  

PubMed

Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare cause of shoulder pain due to compression of the subclavian or axillary artery within the thoracic outlet. It is the least common form of thoracic outlet syndrome but is potentially dangerous as it can result in significant morbidity. An athlete initially may present with exertional pain, early fatigability, a dull ache, or discomfort in the affected arm. History and physical examination are paramount in diagnosis, and imaging confirms the anatomy. Surgical repair or resection alleviates the compression of the affected structure and allows for a safe return to participation. Familiarity with this condition aids in the prompt diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. PMID:24614419

Daniels, Brian; Michaud, Leslie; Sease, Franklin; Cassas, Kyle J; Gray, Bruce H

2014-01-01

430

Harvesting the radial artery  

PubMed Central

The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

2013-01-01

431

Living with Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Peripheral Arterial Disease If you have peripheral ... and lower your risk for these other conditions. Living With Peripheral Arterial Disease Symptoms If you have ...

432

Vertebral evolution and the diversification of squamate reptiles.  

PubMed

Taxonomic, morphological, and functional diversity are often discordant and independent components of diversity. A fundamental and largely unanswered question in evolutionary biology is why some clades diversify primarily in some of these components and not others. Dramatic variation in trunk vertebral numbers (14 to >300) among squamate reptiles coincides with different body shapes, and snake-like body shapes have evolved numerous times. However, whether increased evolutionary rates or numbers of vertebrae underlie body shape and taxonomic diversification is unknown. Using a supertree of squamates including 1375 species, and corresponding vertebral and body shape data, we show that increased rates of evolution in vertebral numbers have coincided with increased rates and disparity in body shape evolution, but not changes in rates of taxonomic diversification. We also show that the evolution of many vertebrae has not spurred or inhibited body shape or taxonomic diversification, suggesting that increased vertebral number is not a key innovation. Our findings demonstrate that lineage attributes such as the relaxation of constraints on vertebral number can facilitate the evolution of novel body shapes, but that different factors are responsible for body shape and taxonomic diversification. PMID:22486688

Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

2012-04-01

433

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (;)

2005-02-01

434

Carotid Artery and the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Help The Carotid Artery and the Eye Share with a friend The Carotid Artery and the Eye A link to this article will be included ... Give Us Feedback The Carotid Artery and the Eye Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your ...

435

Acute retinal arterial occlusive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental

Sohan Singh Hayreh

2011-01-01

436

Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneursym.  

PubMed

Idopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare lesion. Clinical experience with this condition is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. We report a patient who came to us with complaints of chest pain, breathlessness on exertion and pedal oedema and was diagnosed to have PAA. PMID:24930208

Singh, Urvinderpal; Singh, Kulbir; Aditi; Singh, Parminderpal; Aneja, Pooja

2014-01-01

437

Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling  

PubMed Central

The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

2013-01-01

438

Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.  

PubMed

Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

2014-04-01

439

Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.  

PubMed

The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

2014-09-01

440

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

441

Percutaneous Technique for Sclerotherapy of Vertebral Hemangioma Compressing Spinal Cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study we report a percutaneous technique to achieve sclerosis of vertebral hemangioma and decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Methods: Under CT guidance the affected vertebral body is punctured by a biopsy needle and sclerosant is injected directly into the tumor. In the case of large paravertebral extension, additional injection is given in the paravertebral soft tissue component to induce shrinkage of the whole tumor mass and release of the compressed spinal cord. Results: Using this technique we treated five patients in whom vertebral hemangioma gave rise to neurologic symptoms.In three patients, sclerotherapy was the only treatment given. In the other two patients, sclerotherapy was preceded by transcatheter embolization. Neither decompressive surgery, radiation therapy nor stabilization was required with this technique. Conclusion: Our experience with CT-guided intraosseous sclerotherapy has proved highly satisfactory.

Gabal, Abdelwahab M. [Al-Azhar University Medical Center, Sayed GalalHospital, Port Saeed Str. 540, Cairo 11563 (Egypt)

2002-12-15

442

The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors.  

PubMed

Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

Baker, Clare V H; Modrell, Melinda S; Gillis, J Andrew

2013-07-01

443

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

444

Retinal Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate systematically the vari