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1

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2011-07-27

2

Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONCarotid and vertebral artery dissections are potentially disabling and yet probably under-diagnosed, and mainly seem to affect young and middle-aged people (Bogousslavsky et al. 1987). Our review focuses on the mechanisms, possible underlying causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools, treatment and prognosis of both carotid and vertebral dissection.EPIDEMIOLOGYCervical artery dissection accounts for up to 20% of strokes in patients under 30

Marcel Arnold; Marie-Germaine Bousser

2005-01-01

3

Vertebral Artery Dissection Diagnosed with CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Vertebral artery dissection after neck manipulation has been well described. A case of bilateral vertebral artery dissection diagnosed with dynamic CT scanning of the neck is reported. The CT appearances and correlative angiographic and MR findings are presented.

J. R. Soper; G. D. Parker; J. M. Hallinan

4

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness,

Ignasi Galtés; Juan Carlos Borondo; Mònica Cos; Mercè Subirana; Carles Martín; Josep Castellà; Jordi Medallo

5

Vertebral artery dissection with amphetamine abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is an important cause of disabling stroke in young adults, recognition of its presenting features and risk factors is paramount for expeditious diagnosis and preventive treatment. Numerous risk factors for vertebral artery dissection have been reported; trauma is the most common. This case report describes a patient with amphetamine abuse, who had posterior circulation stroke from vertebral

Osama O. Zaidat; Jeffery Frank

2001-01-01

6

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-03-07

7

Vertebral artery dissection causing stroke in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of vertebral arterial dissection occurring in sport are presented. These cases emphasise the diagnostic and management difficulties in this setting. Stroke in sport, although uncommon, is predominantly due to arterial dissection in either the vertebral or carotid arteries. Physicians involved in athlete care need to be aware of this diagnosis.

Paul McCrory

2000-01-01

8

Dual Origin of the Vertebral Artery Mimicking Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Vertebral artery injury may occur at the time of cer- vical fracture or dislocation. Congenital vertebral artery varia- tions, especially a double vertebral artery origin, may be respon- sible for angiographic findings that mimic vertebral artery dissection. Two cases of cervical spine fracture with ipsilateral double vertebral artery are presented. Conventional cerebral an- giography is the easiest and best

Thomas E. Nogueira; A. Alan Chambers; Mary T. Brueggemeyer; Timothy J. Miller

9

Bilateral spontaneous dissection of extracranial vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously healthy 35-year-old man suddenly developed vertebrobasilar ischaemia while playing tennis. Cerebral arteriography revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the cervical portion of both vertebral arteries. The neurological deficit and the angiographic features resolved with anticoagulant treatment alone. Only 15 patients with non-traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection have been previously reported. It is necessary to recognize the condition very quickly,

D. Leys; F. Lesoin; J. P. Pruvo; G. Gozet; M. Jomin; H. Petit

1987-01-01

10

Uncommon ultrasound findings in traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) associated with contralateral vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The interest of this case is to discuss an unusual Doppler pattern manifesting by a spectrum of an alternating vertebral artery flow suggesting a hemodynamic contribution from the contralateral vertebral artery (VA) and a clear depiction of both antegrade (red) and retrograde (blue)

N Cals; G Devuyst; D. K Jung; N Afsar; G De Freitas; P-A Despland; J Bogousslavsky

2001-01-01

11

Subclavian and Vertebral Arterial Interventions  

PubMed Central

Endovascular treatment of supra-aortic atherosclerotic arterial stenoses and occlusions using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement is an accepted first-choice procedure. Technical success, primary success, and midterm patency after PTA and stent placement for the treatment of stenosed or obstructed brachiocephalic arteries are promising and complication rates are low. Permanent miniaturization and device improvement makes treatment of atherosclerotic obstructive disease by endovascular means in brachial and cephalic arteries a safe procedure showing promising midterm patency rates.

Muller-Hulsbeck, S.

2007-01-01

12

Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.  

PubMed

We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. PMID:23454143

Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

2013-02-27

13

Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

14

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17–66). In four cases dissection was “spontaneous”; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine.

E. Josien

1992-01-01

15

Cervical root injury caused by vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is a common cause of posterior circulation strokes in young and middle-aged adults. Peripheral motor deficits have been rarely described in association with vertebral artery dissection. Peripheral motor involvement may be due to compression of the spinal nerves by an enlarged vertebral artery. It may also result from ischaemia of the anterior horn or the spinal nerves

Arun Aggarwal; Keith Burton

1999-01-01

16

[Dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery: a case report].  

PubMed

Spontaneous dissection of the vertebral artery is not a frequent occurrence in the vertebrobasilar system. The authors show a case with spontaneous dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery, which produced recurrent artery-to-artery embolism. The angiography revealed characteristic intimal flap. The antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy was able to control ischemic attacks and the patient made a good clinical recovery. The angiogram performed two months later showed spontaneous resolution of the artery involved. This case shows the effectiveness of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of artery-to-artery embolism caused by the extracranial vertebral artery dissection. PMID:7816181

Ishikawa, A; Kanazawa, Y; Hikasa, T; Fujita, K; Tamaki, N

1994-11-01

17

Vertebral Artery Dissection and Migraine Headaches in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strokes of the posterior circulation are uncommon in childhood. In vertebrobasilar insults, vertebral artery dissection remains a rare diagnosis. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with a history of migraine headaches who presented with acute cerebellar signs and agitation following multiple infarctions of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. Vertebral angiography demonstrated dissection of the left vertebral artery with occlusion of

Timothy E. Lotze; Juliann Paolicchi

2000-01-01

18

Spontaneous carotid and vertebral artery dissection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection is a rarely reported cause of stroke in childhood and adolescence, especially if there is not a direct trauma to the neck. Four patients, under 15 years of age, presented with an internal carotid artery dissection, and one patient presented with a vertebral artery dissection. They were all making a physical effort when the event

Ana Camacho; Alberto Villarejo; Ana Mart??nez de Aragón; Rogelio Simón; Fernando Mateos

2001-01-01

19

MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients)\\u000a MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic\\u000a vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery\\u000a dissection were included.

M. Mascalchi; M. C. Bianchi; S. Mangiafico; G. Ferrito; M. Puglioli; E. Marin; S. Mugnai; R. Canapicchi; N. Quilici; D. Inzitari

1997-01-01

20

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases.  

PubMed

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17-66). In four cases dissection was "spontaneous"; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine. Eight had good recovery. Two patients experienced recurrence when stopping acetylsalicylic acid. The pathogenesis of dissections and the distinction between spontaneous dissections and those associated with minor trauma are discussed. PMID:1512608

Josien, E

1992-07-01

21

Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicated by Basilar Artery Occlusion.  

PubMed

Acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO) is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication that can cause strokes in both adults and children. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is one of the most common causes of ABAO in young patients. We present a case of an 11-year-old boy with VAD complicated by basilar artery occlusion 2 days after a fight with classmates that caused severe neurological deficits. He did not have any direct head trauma or concomitant risk factors. Clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, and rapid alteration of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed total occlusion of the basilar artery, and angiography confirmed VAD from the third to the fourth segments. A history of such subtle precipitating events should be noted when diagnosing young patients with brainstem strokes. A delay in the diagnosis of ABAO is frequently due to misleading symptoms and signs and the lack of awareness of this rare condition. PMID:23597537

Kuan, Chia-Yin; Hung, Kun-Long

2013-01-23

22

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes  

PubMed Central

Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD.

Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

2005-01-01

23

[Basilar artery occlusion due to embolism from the vertebral artery: three case reports].  

PubMed

Without early recanalization, it is well known that acute basilar artery occlusion almost always results in death or severe disability. We report three cases of basilar artery occlusion due to vertebral artery thrombo-embolism. In all cases, the cause of the strokes was artery to artery embolism from the vertebral artery origin. In case 1 and 3, despite complete occlusion of the vertebral artery origin, the thrombus was drained into the basilar artery through collateral flow from the external carotid artery. Atherosclerotic lesion of the vertebral artery origin is one of the main embolic sources of basilar artery, in which case, angioplasty or stent placement of the vertebral artery origin should be considered in addition to thrombolysis of the basilar artery. PMID:20628195

Kikuchi, Osamu; Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Takagawa, Yuuya; Yokoyama, Yuka; Ajiki, Minoru; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kazumata, Ken; Itamoto, Kouji

2010-07-01

24

Antegrade recanalization of parent artery in internal trapping of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe describe a case involving technical success with internal trapping using controllable detachable coils yet antegrade recanalization of the occluded vertebral artery, in the vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. Possible explanations for the antegrade recanalization of the occluded vertebral artery and lessons from the case are also discussed.

Seung Kug Baik; Yong Sun Kim; Hui Jung Lee; Duk Sik Kang

2007-01-01

25

Vertebral artery dissection: Issues in diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is an uncommon cause of stroke in children. Accuracy of diagnosis by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) instead of invasive transfemoral angiography (TFA) has been controversial. The need for anticoagulation and duration of such therapy is also arguable. We report 2 boys with vertebral artery dissection: one, aged 7 years, presented with hemiparesis and seizures and the other,

Divya S. Khurana; Carsten G. Bonnemann; Elizabeth C. Dooling; Eileen M. Ouellette; Ferdinando Buonanno

1996-01-01

26

Vertebral artery occlusion with vertebral artery-to-posterior inferior cerebellar artery stenting for preservation of the PICA in treating ruptured vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with a right vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm who was treated by placing an Enterprise stent\\u000a (Cordis Neurovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) from the proximal VA to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in order to\\u000a save the patency of the PICA. A 47-year-old man was admitted with a ruptured right VA dissecting aneurysm that involved the

Joonho Chung; Bum-soo Kim; Dongwoo Lee; Tae-Hyun Kim; Yong Sam Shin

2010-01-01

27

Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management.

Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

2012-01-01

28

[Eight cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection].  

PubMed

We present eight cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection. One of these had traumatic antecedents at the neck level while undergoing massage treatment. Of the rest, in four cases there was only a history of commonplace traumatism at neck level, consisting of twisting or stretching. Most presented pain at this level both before and during symptoms. Five had symptoms compatible with lateral bulbar infarct, two with cerebral infarct and one at the protuberance level. Angiography showed irregular stenosis of the spine on the affected side in five cases, occlusion in three cases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed on five, with findings compatible with dissection. Six received anticoagulant treatment and two received platelet antiagregants with good recovery except in one patient who died twelve months later without any indication of the existence of dissection. We also carried out a review of the literature with special emphasis on the etiology of spontaneous cases, on clinical and neuroimaging findings and on treatment. PMID:8714482

Pego, R; Marey, J; López-Facal, M S; Marín-Sánchez, M

1996-02-01

29

An 8-year-old boy with vertebral artery dissection with cerebellar ataxia featuring suspected vertebral artery hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an 8-year-old boy with left vertebral artery dissection featuring cerebellar ataxia in which congenital vertebral artery hypoplasia was suspected as a predisposing factor in the dissection. The patient suddenly suffered from vertigo and vomiting while swimming, and he was brought to our department. The initial brain Computed Tomography (CT) demonstrated no abnormalities, and his symptoms disappeared the next

Yasuhiko Kawakami; Shin-ya Koizumi; Kentaro Kuwabara; Juri Fujimura; Junji Shirai; Makoto Watanabe; Satoru Murata; Takehide Imai; Sachiyo Takeda; Ryuji Fukazawa; Masato Takase; Takehisa Fujita; Masatoshi Hida; Osamu Fujino

2009-01-01

30

Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-year-old woman presented a sudden left occipital headache and a posterior circulation stroke after cervical manipulation\\u000a for neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a left intracranial vertebral artery occlusive dissection associated\\u000a with an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection with vessel stenosis in its prepetrous tract. This is the first reported\\u000a case showing an associate vertebral and carotid artery dissection

Giuliano Parenti; Giovanni Orlandi; Mariacristina Bianchi; Maria Renna; Antonio Martini; Luigi Murri

1999-01-01

31

Subclavian Artery Injury, Vertebral Artery Dissection, and Arteriovenous Fistulae following Attempt at Central Line Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Vertebral artery dissection and arteriovenous fistulas are uncommon complications of vascular access and angiographic procedures.\\u000a There are several cases of iatrogenic vertebral artery dissection secondary to central line placement reported in the literature.\\u000a Only a few iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulae have been reported, but none also involving the dissection of the vertebral artery.\\u000a In each of these cases, the fistulae were

David J. Finlay; Luis A. Sanchez; Gregorio A. Sicard

2002-01-01

32

Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion for giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the clinical presentation, radiological and clinical results in six consecutive patients with a giant vertebrobasilar\\u000a aneurysm treated by bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion. Five patients presented with headache and signs of brain-stem\\u000a compression and one with subarachnoid haemorrhage. In all patients vertebral artery balloon occlusion was performed. In four,\\u000a this followed successful test occlusion. In one patient, who

M. Sluzewski; E. H. Brilstra; W. J. van Rooij; D. Wijnalda; C. A. F. Tulleken; G. J. E. Rinkel

2001-01-01

33

Bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with staged bilateral vertebral artery coil occlusion: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVertebral artery dissecting aneurysm is now increasingly recognized as a cause of posterior circulation stroke in young adults. Here, we report a case of bilateral VADA with SAH, treated by bilateral coil occlusion using GDCs.

Akihiro Inoue; Kanehisa Kohno; Akihiko Takechi; Keiji Kohno; Toshinori Matsushige; Tetsuji Takeda

2008-01-01

34

Rupture of a Large Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Following Proximal Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Summary Proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is regarded as a safe and effective method of treating aneurysms of the vertebral artery or the vertebrobasilar junction unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping. Complications known to develop after this procedure include ischemic lesions of the perforators and other areas. There are only a limited number of reports on early rupture of aneurysm following proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery for the treatment of unruptured aneurysm. We recently encountered a case of large aneurysm of the vertebral artery identified after detection of brainstem compression. This patient underwent proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery with a coil and developed a fatal rupture of the aneurysm ten days after proximal occlusion. The patient was a 72-year-old woman who had complained of dysphagia and unsteadiness for several years. An approximately 20 mm diameter aneurysm was detected in her left vertebral artery. She underwent endovascular treatment, that is, her left vertebral artery was occluded with coils at a point proximal to the aneurysm. Her initial post-procedure course was uneventful. However, she suddenly developed right-side hemiparesis nine days after procedure. At that time, CT scan suggested sudden thrombosis of the aneurysm. Right vertebral angiography revealed a small part of the aneurysm. She was treated conservatively. Ten days after the procedure, she suffered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. Both the present case and past reports suggest that proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is effective in treating relatively large aneurysms unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping or trapping. However, when the bifurcation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is distal to the occluded point in cases where the PICA bifurcates from the aneurysm or the neck region, blood supply to the aneurysm may persist because anterograde blood flow to the PICA may be preserved. Therefore, clinicians must consider the possibility of aneurysm rupture after proximal occlusion in the following cases: 1) when the aneurysm is large or giant, but non-thrombosed; 2) when thrombosis occurs soon after the procedure; 3) when postoperative angiography shows partial filling of the aneurysm with contrast agent through the contralateral vertebral artery of basilar artery or the cervical muscle branches.

Iwabuchi, S.; Yokouchi, T.; Kimura, H.; Ueda, M.; Samejima, H.

2005-01-01

35

Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease,

P. Vilela; A. Goulão

2005-01-01

36

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection following tonic clonic seizure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 34 year old woman developed cerebral infarction, following a tonic-clonic seizure. A vertebral artery dissection was demonstrated and may have been caused by arterial trauma during the seizure. This cause of morbidity following convulsive seizures may have been overlooked in the past and needs to be recognised in view of the potential benefits of anticoagulation.

C A Young; D W Chadwick; P R Humphrey

1991-01-01

37

[Spontaneous dissection and stenosis of the vertebral artery].  

PubMed

The case of a 21-year-old female patient with neck pain and brain stem symptomatology after appendectomy is reported. Duplex sonographic findings were compatible with right vertebral artery dissection and occlusion of the vessel. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient recovered within weeks and was free of symptoms 6 months after the acute episode. Dissection of the vertebral artery can occur with or without minor trauma. Associations with fibromuscular dysplasia, arterial hypertension and the use of oral contraceptives have been reported. As in our own patient, dissection can appear without any vessel pathology or risk situation. The most dangerous complication of the disease is rupture of the adventitia with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Without this complication, prognosis of vertebral artery dissection is favourable with complete recovery within weeks. Clinical findings, diagnostic procedure and therapy are discussed. PMID:1925454

Frauchiger, B; Bernays, D R

1991-08-31

38

Iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm due to central venous catheterization  

PubMed Central

Central venous lines have become an integral part of patient care, but they are not without complications. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm formation is one of the rarer complications of central line placement. Presented is a rare case of two pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral and subclavian artery after an attempted internal jugular vein catheterization. These were successfully treated with open surgical repair and bypass. Open surgical repair remains the gold standard of treatment. Endovascular repair of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms has been described with promising outcomes, but long-term results are lacking. Ultimately, the best treatment of these iatrogenic injuries should start with prevention. Well-documented techniques to minimize mechanical complications, including inadvertent arterial puncture, should be practiced and taught in training programs to avoid the potentially devastating consequences.

Vasquez, Jay

2011-01-01

39

Acute stenting and thromboaspiration in basilar artery occlusions due to embolism from the dominating vertebral artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) is the only treatment that has demonstrated benefit in patients with acute basilar artery occlusions (ABAO). IAT may be difficult to perform when access to the occluded basilar artery (BA) is prevented by pathology of the vertebral arteries (VA). We report on two patients with ABAO due to embolism from the dominating VA. Catheter navigation through the

K. Nedeltchev; L. Remonda; D.-D. Do; C. Brekenfeld; C. Ozdoba; M. Arnold; H. P. Mattle; G. Schroth

2004-01-01

40

A case of extracranial vertebral artery dissection with spontaneous recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 47-year-old women developed an acute vestibular syndrome with a peripheral facial palsy not associated with any trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an ischemic lesion in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Color Doppler ultrasonography detected an occlusion of the right vertebral artery and dissection of the artery was confirmed by a subsequent angiography. During follow-up Duplex-Doppler allowed

Annamaria Casali; Stefano Gaiani; Fabio Piscaglia; Laura Gramantieri; Livia Masi; Marco Valgimigli; Luigi Bolondi

1997-01-01

41

Postoperative bilateral vertebral artery dissection: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the improvement of medical imaging and surgical techniques, surgery on cervical vertebral is more frequent. Some cases of complications of this type of surgery have been described. We report a case of postoperative bilateral vertebral artery dissection. It concerns a 58 year-old woman who suffered from a left cervico-brachial C6 neuralgia with paresthesiae of the thumb. She underwent discectomy

C Manaouil; M Graser; J Delcour; D Le Gars; M. F Gontier; J Loriau; O Jardé

2003-01-01

42

Vertebral artery dissections afterchiropractic neck manipulationin Germany over three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection\\u000a (VAD) has been observed\\u000a in association with chirotherapy of\\u000a the neck. However, most publications\\u000a describe only single case reports\\u000a or a small number of cases.\\u000a We analyzed data from neurological\\u000a departments at university hospitals\\u000a in Germany over a three year\\u000a period of time of subjects with vertebral\\u000a artery dissections associated\\u000a with chiropractic neck manipulation.\\u000a We conducted a

U. Reuter; M. Hämling; I. Kavuk; K. M. Einhäupl; E. Schielke

2006-01-01

43

Coil embolisation for ruptured vertebral artery dissection distal to the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many surgical or endovascular treatments for ruptured vertebral artery dissection have been reported, the best treatment\\u000a is controversial. We treated five cases of ruptured vertebral artery dissection distal to the origin of the posterior inferior\\u000a cerebellar artery (PICA), using retrievable platinum coils packed in the dissection site and the immediately proximal vertebral\\u000a artery. All patients had a contralateral vertebral

H. Manabe; T. Hatayama; S. Hasegawa; S. M. D. Islam; S. Suzuki

2000-01-01

44

Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of vertebral artery dissection and consequent basilar artery thrombosis in a 6-year-old patient is reported. The patient was treated with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin at therapeutic doses (enoxaparin, 100 IU\\/kg twice daily) for 3 weeks, then reduced to 2,000 IU\\/day for 3 more weeks. After this time a magnetic resonance angiogram was obtained that showed complete recanalization of the

Marco Marietta; Marcello Bertesi; Nino Rozzi; Maria Carmen Cano; Stefano Vallone; Cinzia Cappi; Samantha Pozzi; Giuseppe Torelli

2002-01-01

45

The Approach to Intracranial and Extracranial Vertebral Artery Stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25% of ischemic strokes involve the posterior or vertebrobasilar circulation, which is associated with a mortality\\u000a of 20-30%. Posterior circulation strokes are predominantly due to embolism and large artery disease. This chapter focuses\\u000a on the percutaneous management of patients with significant atherosclerotic stenosis of the extracranial and intracranial\\u000a vertebral artery.

J. Emilio Exaire; Jacqueline Saw

46

Occult traumatic dissection of vertebral artery with an excellent outcome.  

PubMed

We present the case of a young male with severe head injury, cervico-thoracic fractures, and an initially unrecognized brainstem infarct due to unilateral dissection of vertebral artery, who made an unusually excellent recovery. This report stresses the importance of prompt clinico-imaging diagnosis and prophylactic anticoagulant treatment in such cases. PMID:15702842

Stranjalis, G; Papavlassopoulos, F; Kouyialis, A T; Korfias, S; Bontozoglou, N; Sakas, D E

2004-08-01

47

Repair of a vertebral artery dissection. Case report.  

PubMed

The case is presented of a 38-year-old woman who suffered multiple cerebellar infarctions as a result of emboli from a vertebral artery dissection. Surgical therapy led to a satisfactory recovery. This case emphasizes the importance of an aggressive approach to such lesions. PMID:3950750

Alexander, J J; Glagov, S; Zarins, C K

1986-04-01

48

Vertebral Artery Dissection in Children: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been infrequently recognized in children. The authors have reviewed 68 reported cases of VAD in children in the existing literature. An association between routine types of neck movement in sports and the evolution of VAD was recognized in half of the reported cases. Boys outnumbered girls by a ratio of 6.6 to 1, in contrast

Izhar Hasan; Simon Wapnick; Michael S. Tenner; William T. Couldwell

2002-01-01

49

Emergent endovascular treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of endovascular and surgical treatments for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to determine which treatment is preferable. We evaluated the cases of 25 consecutive patients with ruptured VADAs treated in our institution. From 1992 to 1997, five patients were treated surgically. Since 1998, 20 patients with VADAs have been

K. Sugiu; K. Tokunaga; K. Watanabe; W. Sasahara; S. Ono; T. Tamiya; I. Date

2005-01-01

50

Vertebral Artery Dissection and Posterior Stroke in a Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is a relatively rare disease. Its symptoms and signs can be misleading, making the diagnosis, even with imaging assistance, difficult. We describe an 8-year-old boy in whom a brain tumor was suspected because of neurological signs and findings on computerized tomography of the brain. The differential diagnosis was broadened with further imaging evaluation. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated

Ayelet Halevy; Osnat Konen; Rachel Straussberg; S. D. Michowitz; Avinoam Shuper

2008-01-01

51

Extradural vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm causing subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) after rupture of an extradural vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. The patient underwent a left lateral suboccipital craniotomy with removal of the medial part of the occipital condyle and the fusiform dilatation was coated. The angiograms 3 months after surgery showed aneurysm resolution and normal vessel

Javier Fandino; Yasuhiro Yonekawa; Werner W Wichmann; Peter Roth

1999-01-01

52

Case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection in young age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke in childhood is rare and has its own characteristic findings. Vertebrobasilar ischemia due to trauma in this age group has been described, but its specific features have not yet been clearly defined. Dissection of vertebral artery is one of the causes of vertebrobasilar ischemia that is very uncommonly detected in the intracranial portion of the posterior circulation in childhood.

Sibel Tekin; Canan Aykut-Bingöl; Sevinç Aktan

1997-01-01

53

Traumatic vertebral arterial dissection and vertebrobasilar arterial thrombosis successfully treated with endovascular thrombolysis and stenting.  

PubMed

A case of traumatic extracranial vertebral arterial dissection leading to vertebrobasilar thrombosis and respiratory compromise requiring mechanical ventilation was managed with intraarterial thrombolysis and stenting of the vertebral intimal dissection. In contrast to similar, previously reported cases, this critically ill patient made a full recovery, returning to his job as a secondary school teacher. PMID:9802490

Price, R F; Sellar, R; Leung, C; O'Sullivan, M J

1998-10-01

54

Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly.  

PubMed

We report a two-and-half-year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

2013-06-19

55

Common trunk of left internal thoracic artery and thyrocervical trunk arising from the ipsilateral vertebral artery.  

PubMed

The sites of origin of the branches of the subclavian artery depict numerous anatomical variations. However, a common trunk of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and thycocervical trunk (TCT) arising from the vertebral artery is a rare anatomical finding. Herein, we present the first case in which the common trunk of the left ITA and TCT arose from the ipsilateral proximal vertebral artery as discovered on pre-therapeutic evaluation by multidetector-row computed tomography and clearly confirmed by selective angiography. It is important to recognize such anatomic variations for surgical, diagnostic, and interventional radiologic procedures in the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen. PMID:23247733

Jiang, Sen; Sun, Xi-Wen; Jie, Bing; Yu, Dong

2012-12-18

56

Endovascular coil occlusion of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm is more prone to re-bleeding and thus needs immediate surgical management. We present a case of 47 years old male with ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm which was immediately treated by endovascular surgery. Coil occlusion of the vertebral artery at the aneurysm site was performed. As emergency open surgery is often not possible, this case

Shrestha Prabin; Sakamoto Shigeyuki; Shibukawa Masaaki; Kiura Yoshihiro; Okazaki Takahito; Sugiyama Kazuhiko

57

Upper Limb Peripheral Motor Deficits due to Extracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe 2 patients with extracranial vertebral artery dissection presenting with left cervical pain and peripheral motor deficits in the left upper limb. Potential mechanisms of peripheral nervous system involvement in dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery include compression of the spinal nerves by an enlarged vertebral artery or ischemia of the anterior horn of the spinal cord or the

T. Dubard; J. Pouchot; C. Lamy; D. Hier; L. R. Caplan; J. L. Mas

1994-01-01

58

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection causing cervical root lesion.  

PubMed

The authors report an unusual manifestation of extracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD), presenting with a predominantly motor radicular manifestation. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the intramural hematoma in the dissected vessel wall, compressing mainly the segmental motor root and, to a lesser degree, the sensory ganglion. In the digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a circumscribed narrowing of the incriminated vessel was demonstrated. Color-coded Duplex imaging (CDDI) revealed complete recanalization after a few days of anticoagulation treatment. Complete neurologic recovery was seen after 3 months. Considering the MRI data, the likely pathogenetic mechanism was compression of the nerve root by the intramural hematoma. The synopsis with similar cases in the literature points to the characteristic features, i.e., the association of neck pain with radicular motor deficit and the absence of degenerative disk disease. The respective syndrome should raise the suspicion of vertebral artery dissection, especially in young individuals. PMID:10800269

Fournier, J Y; Amsler, U; Weder, B; Heilbronner, R; Hildebrandt, G

2000-04-01

59

Zoster sine herpete, vertebral artery stenosis, and ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Although a previous or recent history of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to increase the risk of stroke in both children and adults, the influence of zoster sine herpetic remains unclear. We report an immunocompetent man with common cold symptoms and conjunctivitis, followed by an acute onset of bulbar weakness and hemihypesthesia without preceding skin rash. Acute medullary infarction and left vertebral artery stenosis were detected. VZV infection was finally identified. Zoster sine herpetic interferes with accurate diagnosis of infectious stroke, and vertebral artery involvement is unusual in ischemic stroke in this situation. An unexplained course of ischemic stroke event should be suspected in patients with VZV cerebrovasculopathy, especially in those without conventional stroke risk factors and those exhibiting concomitant infectious complications. PMID:22974704

Chen, Wei-Hsi; Chui, Chi; Yin, Hsin-Ling

2012-09-10

60

Antegrade Recanalization of Parent Artery after Internal Trapping of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

We report a patient with a ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm that was treated by internal trapping of the aneurysm and parent artery using detachable coils with subsequent antegrade recanalization of occluded vertebral artery during the follow-up period. A 38-year-old man was admitted with a ruptured right VA dissecting aneurysm just distal to origin of right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The dissected segment of the VA was occluded by coil embolization. The 14 months follow-up angiography showed that dissected aneurysm was completely occluded, but the parent artery was recanalized in an antegrade fashion. Based on this unique case, the authors suggest that careful angiographic follow-up of dissecting aneurysm is required, even in patients successfully treated with endovascular occlusion of the affected artery and aneurysm.

Sung, Jae Hoon; Byun, Je Hoon

2012-01-01

61

Vertebral artery dissection resulting in locked-in syndrome.  

PubMed

A 30 year-old man admitted to the hospital two weeks following a motor vehicle accident developed "locked-in" syndrome resulting from traumatic vertebral artery dissection. Aggressive nursing interventions during the acute and early recovery periods were implemented with the hope that both physical and emotional deficits might be alleviated. Although the prognosis for this type of injury is often poor, this patient has improved steadily over a 16-month period. PMID:1835991

Fox, C; Lavin, M

1991-10-01

62

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse.  

PubMed

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. PMID:17453187

Nguyen, Pamela H; Burrowes, Delilah M; Ali, Saad; Bowman, Robin M; Shaibani, Ali

2007-04-24

63

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection\\u000a with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and\\u000a imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse.\\u000a We hope to

Pamela H. Nguyen; Delilah M. Burrowes; Saad Ali; Robin M. Bowman; Ali Shaibani

2007-01-01

64

Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting Findings and Predictors of Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Few data exist about clinical, radiologic findings, clinical outcome, and its predictors in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (sVAD). Methods—Clinical characteristics, imaging findings, 3-month outcomes, and its predictors were investigated in consec- utive patients with sVAD. Results—One hundred sixty-nine patients with 195 sVAD were identified. Brain ischemia occurred in 131 patients (77%; ischemic stroke, n114, 67%; transient

Marcel Arnold; Marie Germaine Bousser; Gregor Fahrni; Urs Fischer; Dimitrios Georgiadis; Joubin Gandjour; David Benninger; Matthias Sturzenegger; Heinrich P. Mattle; Ralf W. Baumgartner

2010-01-01

65

Vertebral artery dissection in rheumatoid arthritis with cervical spine disease.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old woman with long-standing active rheumatoid arthritis presented with posterior circulation ischemic stroke after vertebral dissection. She had severe multilevel degenerative changes of her cervical spine. She did not have classic stroke risk factors nor evidence of atherosclerotic disease or other systemic diseases. The most likely mechanism appears to be injury of the artery wall by an osteophyte, causing dissection that resulted in thrombosis and subsequent embolic strokes. PMID:23352423

Mahajan, Ritika; Huisa, Branko N

2013-01-23

66

Distal ligation and revascularization from external carotid to vertebral artery with radial artery graft for treatment of extracranial vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present a case of dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery with prominent occipital pain and elements of the lateral medullary syndrome. Arteriography showed a string and pearl sign. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed visualization of an intramural thrombus associated with a narrow vascular lumen. The distal portion of the diseased artery was ligated and vascular reconstruction using an interposed

S. Mabuchi; H. Kamiyama; H. Abe

1993-01-01

67

[A case of vertebral artery dissection with recurrent brain embolism].  

PubMed

We report a 63-year-old case of the vertebral artery dissection with recurrent brain embolisms. She was admitted to the hospital because she suffered a visual symptom. She was examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnosed a left vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed the string sign on the left VA supporting the evidence of dissection. However, after DSA, multiple brain embolic stroke was occurred. She was treated with anti-platelet drug (sodium ozagrel), then, recanalization of the pseudo-lumen at the dissecting lesion was observed by MRI examination. Anti-platelet medicine (cilostazol) was taken for preventing reattack although the dissecting lesion was not closed. Following 4 weeks, brain embolisms were observed in the posterior circulation system. MRI revealed a dilated pseudo-lumen at the dissecting lesion with recurrent VA. This time, she was treated only with free radical scavenger (edarabone). After the occlusion of the dissected VA was observed, she started to take anti-platelet medicine again. It is generally accepted to use anti-platelet drug or anti-coagulant drug as a treatment of VA dissection causing brain ischemia. However, it should be assessed more carefully in cases showing recanalization of the pseudo-lumen as observed in this case. Surgical treatments should be taken into consideration at the early stage, especially for the cases presenting fragile dissecting lesions. Further study need to decide the effective treatment of the vertebral artery dissection. PMID:16629450

Nakase, Taizen; Suzuki, Akifumi; Okane, Kumiko; Nagata, Ken

2006-03-01

68

Cerebellar Infarction from a Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infarction due to vertebral dissection is a rarely reported event in children. We describe the clinical presentation, radiological findings and surgical treatment of a child with cerebellar infarction resulting from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection. Review of the literature on stroke due to a vertebral artery dissection in the pediatric population shows that trauma is a common preceding event. Although

Stanley H. Kim; Edward Kosnik; Christopher Madden; Jerome Rusin; Diana Wack; Henry Bartkowski

1997-01-01

69

Is vertebral artery hypoplasia a predisposing factor for posterior circulation cerebral ischemic events? A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery hypoplasia is not currently considered an independent risk factor for stroke. Emerging evidence suggest that vertebral artery hypoplasia may contribute to posterior circulation ischemic events, especially when other risk factors coexist. In the present literature review, we present published data to discuss the relationship between a hypoplastic vertebral artery and posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. Despite difficulties and controversies in the accurate definition and prevalence estimation of vertebral artery hypoplasia, ultrasound studies reveal that the reduced blood flow observed ipsilateral to the hypoplastic vertebral artery may result in local cerebral hypoperfusion and subsequent focal neurological symptomatology. That risk of cerebral ischemia is related to the severity of the hypoplasia, suggesting that the smaller of paired arteries are more vulnerable to occlusion. Existing cohort studies further support clinical observations that hypoplastic vertebral artery enhances synergistically the vascular risk for posterior circulation ischemic events and is closely associated with both atherosclerotic and prothrombotic processes. PMID:23816871

Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Kosmidou, Maria; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

2013-06-26

70

Amyloid deposits in senile vertebral arteries, immunohistological and ultrastructural findings.  

PubMed

In a study on amyloid deposits in vertebral arteries, many elderly patients showed amyloid deposits in the perivascular tissue. These proved to be senile systemic amyloidosis of the transthyretin-type by immunohistochemistry. Amyloid deposits were also found in the arterial wall. These intramural amyloid deposits showed significant affinity to elastic material of the arterial wall. The intramural amyloid deposits did not react with any of the known or available antibodies to amyloid subtypes. Only a polyclonal antibody to human elastin could mark this type of amyloid. It may therefore be assumed that the precursor protein of this amyloid is derived from elastin molecules. By electron microscopy, the light microscopic amyloid deposits were of fibrillary structure, typical for amyloid with a direct contact to elastic material. PMID:18817230

Doostkam, S; Bohl, J R E; Sahraian, A; Mahjoor, A A

2008-07-15

71

Vertebral artery aneurysm--a unique hazard of head banging by heavy metal rockers. Case report.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old drummer in a neighborhood rock music band suffered a traumatic true aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery from violent head and neck motion. He underwent excision of the aneurysm after distal and proximal ligation of the artery. He is neurologically normal 1 year after surgery. The mechanisms of injury caused by extremes of cervical motion, as well as 5 previously reported cases of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm from closed trauma, are discussed. Excision of vertebral artery aneurysms in patients with emboli from a mural thrombus is recommended. The consequences of vertebral artery ligation and the indications for distal reconstruction are discussed. PMID:1819327

Egnor, M R; Page, L K; David, C

72

Anomalous Origins of Bilateral Vertebral Arteries in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Variations in vertebral artery origin and course are well-described in the literature. The origin of right vertebral artery from the right common carotid artery is an extremely rare variant. We describe a unique case of a child with Down syndrome with variant origins of bilateral vertebral artery, an aberrant right subclavian artery and concomitant Moyamoya disease of intracranial circulation. The presence of variations of the origin and course of craniocervical arteries might have profound implications in angiographic and surgical procedures and hence it is of great importance to be aware of such a possibility.

Mishra, A.; Pendharkar, H.; Jayadaevan, E.R.; Bodhey, N.

2012-01-01

73

Injury of an aberrant vertebral artery during a routine corpectomy: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report:A case report of a 58-year-old man who sustained a laceration of his left vertebral artery during a routine corpectomy for cervical myelopathy is reported.Objective:To report iatrogenic injury of a tortuous vertebral artery during anterior cervical spine surgery and discuss appropriate diagnosis and treatment options for this complication.Setting:UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA.Background data:Vertebral artery anomalies, although rare,

M S Eskander; P J Connolly; J P Eskander; D D Brooks; Eskander

2009-01-01

74

Isolated medial medullary infarctiondue to vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract.\\u000a   A 54-year-old man developed left hemiparesis and tactile\\u000aand deep sensory disturbance following onset of rightside\\u000acervical pain. These symptoms resulted from an isolated infarct\\u000ain the right medial area of the upper medulla oblongata and\\u000aintracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Atherosclerotic\\u000adisease of the VA is the most common cause of medial medullary\\u000ainfarction. In past reports of

M. Wakita; H. Matsuoka; R. Hamada; J. Kasuya; M. Osame

2003-01-01

75

Occipital artery anastomosis to vertebral artery causing pulsatile tinnitus.  

PubMed

Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation. PMID:23470672

Alexander, Matthew David; English, Joey; Hetts, Steven W

2013-03-06

76

Occipital artery anastomosis to vertebral artery causing pulsatile tinnitus.  

PubMed

Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation. PMID:23493341

Alexander, Matthew David; English, Joey; Hetts, Steven W

2013-03-14

77

Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with bilateral carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carotid and vertebral artery dissections from blunt cervical trauma are uncommon injuries that in recent years are becoming increasingly recognized as a result of angiographic screening protocols in trauma patients. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas are even less common events, but represent the most common intracranial vascular anomaly after head injury. The present report details the unique case of a

R. L. Yong; N. S. Heran

2005-01-01

78

Ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms treated with endovascular treatment.  

PubMed

Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms often present with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and a subsequent high rate of mortality. We retrospectively studied the treatment efficacy and outcomes of 26 patients with ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms treated with endovascular surgery. Twenty-six patients with ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms were enrolled. Fifteen patients presented with poor-grade SAH and eleven with good-grade SAH. All patients were treated with endovascular treatment. We reviewed modes of therapy, complications and clinical outcomes. Coil occlusion of the artery at the dissecting aneurysm was performed in 24 patients. Proximal parent artery occlusion was performed in 2 patients. Obliteration of the dissecting aneurysm on postoperative angiogram was found in all patients. No patient sustained permanent complications associated with endovascular treatment. Regarding clinical outcome, although five patients died due to severe SAH, 19 patients had a good recovery or moderate disability. Ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms can be managed safely with coil occlusion of the lesion and/or parent artery. PMID:20027810

Shibukawa, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Matsushige, Toshinori; Kurisu, Kaoru

2009-09-01

79

Perfusion and Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging Guided Therapy of Vertebral Artery Dissection: Intraarterial Thrombolysis through an Occipital Vertebral Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Management of arterial dissections can be par- ticularly challenging. We report a case of vertebral artery dissection in which perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings suggested the presence of salvageable tissue, despite that the patient had symptoms for more than 40 hours. Direct access to the distal vascular territory was unattainable, and the presence of collateral circulation through an

Lucas Restrepo; Gustavo Pradilla; Rafael Llinas; Norman J. Beauchamp

80

Positional occlusion of the vertebral artery: A rare cause of embolic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A young, previously healthy patient developed embolic occlusions of the posterior cerebral, superior cerebellar, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. This patient also demonstrated positional occlusion of the left vertebral artery which may have been the etiology for his embolic stroke.

R. I. Grossmann; K. R. Davis

1982-01-01

81

Traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the common carotid and vertebral artery in a four-year-old child.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms of the neck arteries are rare lesions usually traumatic and less frequently infectious in origin. They are often described as case reports. We describe here an unusual occurrence of pseudoaneurysms in the common carotid and vertebral artery in a four-year-old child victim of a stab wound in the neck treated by parent artery occlusion of the vertebral and common carotid arteries. PMID:22958776

Mahmoud, M; Roshdi, E; Benderbous, D

2012-09-10

82

Traumatic Pseudoaneurysms of the Common Carotid and Vertebral Artery in a Four-Year-Old Child  

PubMed Central

Summary Pseudoaneurysms of the neck arteries are rare lesions usually traumatic and less frequently infectious in origin. They are often described as case reports. We describe here an unusual occurrence of pseudoaneurysms in the common carotid and vertebral artery in a four-year-old child victim of a stab wound in the neck treated by parent artery occlusion of the vertebral and common carotid arteries.

Mahmoud, M.; Roshdi, E.; Benderbous, D.

2012-01-01

83

A case of traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury presenting with life-threatening symptoms  

PubMed Central

Traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of loss of consciousness after hitting his head. After immediate resuscitation, he showed quadriplegia and absence of spontaneous breathing. Brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atlantoaxial subluxation, fractured C2 odontoid process, left vertebral artery occlusion, and bilateral extensive ischemia in the medulla oblongata and high cervical spinal cord. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated left vertebral artery dissection just below the level of vertebral body C2.

Kishi, Seiji; Kanaji, Kenji; Doi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

2012-01-01

84

Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Child with Brachial Plexus Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is an unusual event in children, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deficits. The authors present a case of a 4-year-old boy with a traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection, who suffers from left arm monoplegia due to brachial plexus injury.

Seong-Hyun Park; Joo-Kyung Sung; Sung-Kyoo Hwang

2005-01-01

85

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection in an adult with brachial plexus injury and cervical spinal fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a 32 year-old right-hand dominant woman who sustained a right brachial plexus injury, ipsilateral fractures of the cervical spine transverse processes, and vertebral artery dissection. She presented to us four days following the initiating accident. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed normal brachial plexus along with vertebral artery dissection with intramural thrombus and vascular lumen occlusion. The

Silas NS Motsitsi; Rian R Steyn

2007-01-01

86

Clinically Silent Circulating Microemboli in 20 Patients with Carotid or Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Carotid and vertebral artery dissections are frequently complicated by cerebral embolism. Detection of clinically silent circulating microemboli by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is now widely investigated in patients with carotid artery disease in the hope to identify patients at increased risk for stroke. Methods: In 20 patients with carotid (n = 17) or vertebral (n = 2)

Dirk W. Droste; Katja Junker; Florian Stögbauer; Stefan Lowens; Michael Besselmann; Bertram Braun; E. Bernd Ringelstein

2001-01-01

87

Incidence of Vertebral Artery Thrombosis in Cervical Spine Trauma: Correlation with Severity of Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of blunt traumatic vertebral artery dissec- tion\\/thrombosis varies widely in published trauma series and is associated with spinal trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of traumatic vertebral artery thrombosis (VAT) in cervically injured patients by using routine MR angiography (MRA) and MR imaging and identify associations with the severity of

Philip J. Torina; Adam E. Flanders; John A. Carrino; Anthony S. Burns; David P. Friedman; James S. Harrop; Alexander R. Vacarro

2005-01-01

88

Vertebral artery dissection complicated by basilar artery occlusion successfully treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis: three case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical artery dissection is an important cause of stroke in young patients and accounts of 10%–20% of stroke or TIA in patients\\u000a aged less than 50 years. Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is an infrequent cause of acute stroke, which invariably leads to\\u000a death or long-term disability if not recanalized. We describe three patients with BAO caused by vertebral dissection, successfully

Paolo Cerrato; Maurizio Berardino; Edo Bottacchi; Giovanni Corso; Alessandra Lentini; Giovanni Bosco; Eleonora Destefanis; Mariagiovanna Caprioli; Dino Daniele; Gianni Boris Bradac; Mauro Bergui

2008-01-01

89

Vertebral artery anomaly causing C2 suboccipital neuralgia, relieved by neurovascular decompression.  

PubMed

We report imaging and surgical findings of a symptomatic 40-year-old male with an anomalous left vertebral artery. MR, CT myelography, angiography, and intraoperative photos demonstrate the vertebral artery entering the thecal sac at the C1-C2 intervertebral foramen and compressing the dorsal C2 nerve rootlets against the cord. Open microvascular decompression alleviated the patient's long-standing suboccipital and posterior cervical neck pain. An embryologic review of the vertebral and lateral spinal artery systems reveals possible developmental explanations for this variant. Intradural course of the vertebral artery at C2 is one of the few symptomatic developmental vertebral artery anomalies. Recognition of this condition is important because surgical intervention can alleviate associated neck pain. PMID:21682793

Trimble, Christopher; Reeves, Alexa; Pare, Laura; Tsai, Fong

2011-06-17

90

[Cervical deficit radiculopathy in 3 cases of vertebral artery dissection].  

PubMed

Three cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissections with upper limb peripheral motor deficit (C5-C6) are reported. Six similar cases were also found in the literature. Central neurological symptoms occurred in five of these nine cases, suggesting the diagnosis of dissection. The peripheral motor or sensorial deficit was strictly isolated in the four other cases, simulating radicular neuralgia due to discopathy or foraminal compression. In case of dissections, a precise analysis of pain is helpful to guide diagnosis; sharp, unbearable, continuous and extended neck pain without nocturnal paroxysms and posterior neck stiffness is typical. Analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs are ineffective. Peripheral motor deficit is more common than sensory deficit. Recovery was complete in this series. In most cases, the radiculopathy appears to be due to cervical root compression in its extraforaminal course due to the dissection hematoma and rarely to radicular ischemia. PMID:9894290

de Bray, J M; Penisson-Besnier, I; Giroud, M; Klein, J; Tanguy, J Y; Pasco, A; Dubas, F

1998-11-01

91

[Vertebral artery dissection without subarachnoid hemorrhage studied by serial angiography].  

PubMed

We presented six cases we have encountered of vertebral artery dissection without subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by serial angiography. All six patients suffered from severe headache and/or nuchal pain at onset. Pain was acute at onset, with severe intensity and sharp quality and was located unilaterally on the dissection side. Only two patients showed neurological deficits. CT scan disclosed no abnormalities in any of the cases and angiography performed at the acute stage showed varied findings. The so-called pearl and string sign, which has been considered the most common finding of this disorder, was observed in only two cases. The definite diagnosis was able to be finally made by serial angiography. During the first few months after onset, dynamic changes of angiographical findings were demonstrated in all cases. During these periods, although transient deterioration of the angiographical findings was shown in four cases, spontaneous healing or improvement was finally recognized in all cases except one which progressed to total occlusion. In contrast to this, in the chronic stage, no changes of angiographical findings occurred in any of the cases. All six patients were treated non-surgically. All showed almost total recovery from symptoms and returned to their previous life styles. There were no cases of recurrent deterioration of symptoms in spite of the changes indicated by the angiographical findings. Our experience with these patients suggests that the actual incidence of vertebral artery dissection without subarachnoid hemorrhage may be much higher than is usually thought, and that the natural course of this disorder seems to be usually favorable. However, longer follow-up study and an analysis of a larger number of cases are required to identify the true incidence and the natural course of this disorder. In addition, we would like to emphasize that accurate diagnosis is most important. If it is clinically suspected, careful investigations including serial angiography should be carried out for the diagnosis of this disorder. PMID:8692370

Akiyama, Y; Itoh, T; Kumai, J; Iwamuro, Y; Miyake, H; Nishikawa, M

1996-05-01

92

Monolateral type I proatlantal artery with bilateral absence of vertebral arteries: description of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report a case of a patient with right type I proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with right fetal posterior cerebral artery and absence of both vertebral arteries and of the left posterior communicating artery. We also describe the clinical relevance of these findings for this patient. A 56-year-old woman with vertigo and tinnitus underwent contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) of the supra-aortic arteries using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Maximum intensity projection and volume rendering reconstructions were obtained. MRA demonstrated the persistence of an anastomotic artery between the right internal carotid artery and basilar artery, passing through the foramen magnum, suggesting a type I proatlantal intersegmental artery. The examination also showed the absence of both vertebral arteries and the presence of a right fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type I proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with an omolateral fetal-type posterior cerebral artery and the absence of both vertebral arteries and of the left posterior communicating artery. This condition requires a watchful monitoring of the patient and has to be considered in case of surgical procedures of the carotid arteries. PMID:23468000

Montechiari, M; Iadanza, A; Falini, A; Politi, L S

2013-03-07

93

Retrograde angioplasty for basilar artery stenosis: bypassing bilateral vertebral artery occlusions.  

PubMed

Basilar artery angioplasty with or without stenting is an emerging and promising treatment for vertebrobasilar insufficiency that is refractory to medical therapy. The usual approach is via a transfemoral route, with access directly through the vertebral artery (VA). An approach from the anterior circulation via the posterior communicating artery has been reported for optimal stent positioning and deployment across basilar apex aneurysms. No similar technique has been reported for treatment of midbasilar stenosis. The authors report a case of severe symptomatic basilar stenosis in which both VAs were occluded. The only option was to perform retrograde basilar angioplasty via the posterior communicating artery. This useful technique should be part of the armamentarium for the percutaneous treatment of symptomatic vertebrobasilar insufficiency for the occasional patient in whom occlusion or tortuosity precludes direct access to the VA. PMID:19012478

Chiam, Paul T L; Mocco, J; Samuelson, Rodney M; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I

2009-03-01

94

Bilateral Variation in the Origin and Course of the Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

Understanding the great vessels of the aortic arch and their variations is important for both the endovascular interventionist and the diagnostic radiologist. An understanding of the variability of the vertebral artery remains most important in angiography and surgical procedures where an incomplete knowledge of anatomy can lead to serious implications. In the present case, a bilateral variation in the origin and course of vertebral artery was observed. The left vertebral artery took origin from the arch of aorta and entered the foramen transversarium of the fourth cervical vertebra. The right vertebral artery took origin from the right subclavian artery close to its origin and entered the foramen transversarium of the third cervical vertebra. The literature on the variations of the artery is studied and its clinical significance and ontogeny is discussed.

Sikka, Aprajita; Jain, Anjali

2012-01-01

95

Ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm followed by spontaneous acute occlusion and early recanalization: case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by acute occlusion and early recanalization of the affected artery. Cerebral angiography 2 hours after the onset of the symptom showed pearl-and-string sign in the right vertebral artery. Serial angiography showed that the affected artery was occluded at 12 hours but was recanalized on the 4th day. The dissecting aneurysm was resected with side-to-side anastomosis between the bilateral posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Postoperative cerebral angiography demonstrated disappearance of the lesion and patency of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery via the anastomosis. Histological examination of the lesion showed hematoma between the media and adventitia, disrupting the internal elastica and intima. Acute occlusion and early recanalization of the affected artery may occur in ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Serial neurological and neuroradiological examinations are essential to decide the timing and method of treatment. PMID:16127257

Endo, Hidehiko; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

2005-08-01

96

Successful Treatment of Recurrent Basilar Artery Occlusion with Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis and Vertebral Artery Coiling in a Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Signs of brainstem ischemia in children may be subtle, and outcome following basilar artery occlusion is often poor. There\\u000a currently are no guidelines in children regarding the best methods to diagnose and treat basilar artery occlusion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Case report and literature review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We describe the presentation and management of recurrent basilar artery occlusion in a previously healthy 5-year-old boy with\\u000a vertebral

John Condie; Ali Shaibani; Mark S. Wainwright

97

Stent-assisted basilar reconstruction for a traumatic vertebral dissection with a large basilar artery thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual in their 30s presented with quadriplegia and coma 7 h after a 30-foot free-fall. Angiography confirmed left vertebral artery dissection causing vertebral artery occlusion (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0) and basilar artery thrombosis. Deployment of six self-expanding intracranial stents (right P1 to left V3) resulted in recanalization (TIMI 3). Postoperative MRI demonstrated a large brainstem infarction; the

Erik F Hauck; Sabareesh K Natarajan; Dennis B Horvathy; L Nelson Hopkins; Adnan H Siddiqui; Elad I Levy

2010-01-01

98

Vertebral arterial dissection associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral artery dissection resulting in stroke is rare in children. We report here on a 7-year-old boy with Klippel-Feil abnormality, who presented with a pontine infarction after a supervised swimming session. Methods: Evaluation after a second acute neurological event included a formal cerebral angiogram, which revealed a complete upper basilar artery occlusion and right vertebral arterial dissection. Cervical spine

I. Hasan; S. Wapnick; M. L. Kutscher; W. T. Couldwell

2002-01-01

99

Spontaneous healing of cervical pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection under anticoagulant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 41-year-old woman with embolic stroke of the mid-pons attributed to embolism from vertebral artery dissection.\\u000a Angiography revealed an occluded artery on one side and an incidental pseudoaneurysm of the midcervical portion of the vertebral\\u000a artery on the other. After 3 months of warfarin therapy control angiography showed complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.\\u000a We discuss therapeutic choices and

A. Sommer; W. Neff; A. Schwartz

1998-01-01

100

Late hemorrhage from persistent pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection presenting with ischemia: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDVertebral artery dissection lesions tend to resolve spontaneously, but abnormal findings such as aneurysmal dilatation occasionally persist. However, the clinical features and pathological findings in such cases have never been verified.CASE DESCRIPTIONA 62-year-old man presented with left cerebellar infarction. Angiography showed the “pearl and string sign” in the left vertebral artery, and he was diagnosed as having left vertebral artery

Masachika Sagoh; Yuichi Hirose; Hideki Murakami; Kazunori Akaji; Masateru Katayama; Takuro Hayashi

1999-01-01

101

Vertebral artery stump syndrome in acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Although the carotid artery stump as an embolic source for ischemic stroke has been well described, there have been few systematic reports of a similar syndrome in the posterior circulation (PC) after vertebral artery (VA) origin occlusion. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and characteristics of acute ischemic stroke with VA stump syndrome. Of 3463 consecutive patients who were admitted within 7 days after onset, 865 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the PC were enrolled. The diagnostic criteria of VA stump syndrome included: (1) acute ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation; (2) the VA origin occlusion identified on MRA, duplex ultrasound, CT angiography, and/or conventional angiography; (3) presence of distal antegrade flow in the ipsilateral VA; and (4) absence of other causes of ischemic stroke. Of the 865 patients with PC stroke, 12 (1.4%) were diagnosed as having VA stump syndrome. The ischemic lesions included the cerebellum in all patients. Nine patients had multiple ischemic lesions in the brain stem, thalamus, or posterior lobe other than cerebellum. On duplex ultrasound, a to-and-fro flow pattern was observed in the culprit VA in 10 patients. Three patients had recurrences of ischemic stroke in the PC during the acute phase. VA stump syndrome was not a rare mechanism of PC stroke, and there was a high rate of stroke recurrence during the acute phase. Vascular assessment by a multimodality approach can be used to promptly detect VA stump syndrome. PMID:23110982

Kawano, Hiroyuki; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Yonehara, Toshiro

2012-10-27

102

The characteristics of patients with type 1: intraforaminal vertebral artery anomalies?  

PubMed

In a previous study, intraforaminal anomalies were found to occur at a rate of 7.6%. This increases the risk of injury to this vessel if the surgeon is unaware of such abnormalities preoperatively. The aim of our retrospective study was to identify patient factors that may predict anomalous intraforaminal vertebral arteries. Patient records were obtained from a previous study. In that study, the records of each consecutive patient who underwent cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for axial neck pain, radiculopathy, or myelopathy between January 2007 and January 2008 were reviewed. The social and medical histories of each patient were evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of an aberrant vertebral artery. We reviewed the medical records of the 250 patients whose MRIs were reviewed in the previous study. Seven patients were excluded for incomplete records. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the normal vertebral artery anatomy patients to the aberrant patients. The medical records of 19 patients with aberrant vertebral arteries and 224 patients with normal vertebral arteries were reviewed. The aberrant group was significantly older than the normal group (P=.00015). The only diagnostic condition that represented a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups was incidence of cancer. A relationship may exist between patient age, cancer, and medialization of the vertebral artery. The mechanism of this possible relationship is unclear. Although aberrant vertebral arteries are rare, a surgeon should have raised suspicion of this possibility in patients with a history of cancer. PMID:21667905

Eskander, Mark S; Aubin, Michelle E; Major, Joshua W; Huning, Bree A; Drew, Jacob; Marvin, Julianne; Connolly, Patrick J

2011-06-14

103

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (dilatation) of carotid, vertebral, and innominate artery stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 5 years, 51 stenoses of brachiocephalic arteries were successfully dilated, and one subclavian occlusion\\u000a recanalized in 42 patients. Among 24 patients there were 21 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, two stenoses of the common\\u000a carotid artery, two stenoses of the innominate artery, five stenoses at the origin of the vertebral artery, and four stenoses\\u000a of

Reiner Kachel; Gerd Endert; Steffen Basche; Klaus Grossmann; Felix H. Glaser

1987-01-01

104

Bidirectional flow in the vertebral artery is not always indicative of the subclavian steal phenomenon.  

PubMed

Objective- To evaluate the causes of bidirectional flow in the vertebral artery detected by Doppler sonography and its differential diagnosis. Methods- Twenty-nine patients with bidirectional flow in the vertebral artery were retrospectively studied. The vertebral artery parameters, including peak antegrade velocity (PAV), peak reversed velocity (PRV), maximum peak velocity (MPV), peak systolic velocity, resistive index (RI), and diameter, were measured. The MPV was defined as the MPV of bidirectional flow regardless of the velocity of antegrade or retrograde flow. To better predict the cause of bidirectional flow, receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for these parameters, and the best cutoff values were obtained. The cause of bidirectional flow was determined by angiography. Results- The causes of bidirectional flow were classified as the subclavian steal phenomenon (n = 21) and factors unrelated to the steal phenomenon (n = 8, including a hypoplastic vertebral artery [n = 4] and proximal vertebral artery stenosis and occlusion [n = 4]). Significant differences were observed between the steal phenomenon and non-steal phenomenon groups (P< .05) for MPV, PRV, PAV, target vertebral artery diameter, and contralateral RI. To determine the cause of bidirectional flow, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the different parameters were obtained: 0.929 for MPV, 0.881 for PRV, 0.824 for PAV, 0.753 for target vertebral artery diameter, and 0.845 for contralateral RI. The cutoff value for MPV was 26.1 cm/s, and the accuracy was 93% (27 of 29). Conclusions- Bidirectional flow in the vertebral artery is not always indicative of the subclavian steal phenomenon. Measurement of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebral artery, such as MPV, can facilitate determination of the cause of bidirectional flow. PMID:24154898

Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Fan, Liang-Hao; Zhu, Xue-Lian

2013-11-01

105

Late Complications of Vertebral Artery Dissection in Children: Pseudoaneurysm, Thrombosis, and Recurrent Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craniocervical arterial dissection is an important cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke, accounting for 7.5% to 20% of cases. Significant neurologic morbidity and mortality may result and recurrence risk may be higher than in adults. However, the natural history and long-term outcome of pediatric dissection are poorly studied. We report 3 cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection with complications including

Marilyn A. Tan; Derek Armstrong; Daune L. MacGregor; Adam Kirton

2009-01-01

106

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting in a patient after cesarean section.  

PubMed

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset thunderclap headache and focal neurologic deficits. Once thought to be a rare syndrome, more advanced non-invasive imaging has led to an increase in RCVS diagnosis. Unilateral vertebral artery dissection has been described in fewer than 40% of cases of RCVS. Bilateral vertebral artery dissection has rarely been reported. We describe the case of a patient with RCVS and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting with an intramedullary infarct treated successfully with medical management and careful close follow-up. This rare coexistence should be recognized as the treatment differs. PMID:23354867

Mitchell, Lex A; Santarelli, Justin G; Singh, Inder Paul; Do, Huy M

2013-01-24

107

Covered Stent Application of a Repeatedly Regrowing Iatrogenic Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm at the Origin of the Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

Summary Formation of an iatrogenic subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm while attempting central venous access through the internal jugular vein is relatively uncommon. However, management of a subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm remains a challenge because of its growing tendency and its relation to the origin of the vertebral artery (VA). We report a strategy for using a covered stent as for the endovascular treatment of a patient with a repeatedly regrowing subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm at the origin of the VA.

Xu, G.F.; Suh, D.C.; Pyun, H.W.; Yoo, H.; Lee, S.W.; Huh, M.O.; Kwon, T.; Kim, S.J.

2007-01-01

108

A case of retroesophageal right subclavian artery, with special reference to the second intercostal artery, retroesophageal right vertebral artery, and thoracic duct.  

PubMed

We report a case of retroesophageal right subclavian artery identified in a 59-year-old Japanese female during routine dissection in Nagasaki University School of Medicine. This kind of variation is relatively rare; however, reports of such cases have accumulated. We paid attention to the intersegmental arteries and above all, the second intercostal artery. On the other hand, there have been reports of a retroesophageal right vertebral artery, although such cases are extremely rare. It is considered that both retroesophageal arteries are formed by similar mechanisms. In other words, the distal part of the right dorsal aorta remained in such cases. However, in the case of a retroesophageal right vertebral artery, there might be the possibility of intercostal arteries developing into the vertebral artery, and we discuss such points here. PMID:23677877

Okamoto, Keishi; Wakebe, Tetsuaki; Saiki, Kazunobu; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

2013-05-16

109

[Treatment of tumors in relation to the transverse portion of the vertebral artery].  

PubMed

Among 28 lesions, 22 tumors and 6 anteriovenous malformations, operated with control of the vertebral artery, 15 are located close to the transverse canal. Analysis of arteriographic datas from 20 cases of tumors related to the vertebral artery, points out the interest of the surgical control of this vessel, in the treatment of these tumors. This control is mainly indicated in case of hypervascularized tumors, or compression of the vertebral artery, especially if it is the dominant vessel or if it gives a radiculo-medullary branch. For this control, the lateral retro-jugular approach is used, and sometimes associated with other techniques: embolization, posterior approach, or anastomosis between carotid and vertebral artery about the lesion. PMID:6290917

George, G; Laurian, C; Cophignon, J; Rey, A

1982-01-01

110

Traumatic Vertebral Artery Occlusion in an Aviator: Case Report and Update on Diagnostic Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traumatic vertebral artery injuries arc relatively rare. Until recently, insufficient neurodiagnostic technology and a lack of normative data for the population of USAF aviators prevented recommending flying waivers following such vascular injuries. We re...

R. J. Montminy H. Cuervo A. F. Bell

1995-01-01

111

Vertebral artery dissection in a patient practicing self-manipulation of the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection.

John S. Mosby; Stephen M. Duray

112

Intracranial bilateral vertebral artery dissection during anticoagulation after cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CSVT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A 37-year-old woman presented with cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST). During the period of anticoagulation she developed\\u000a asymptomatic dissection of the intracranial segments of both vertebral arteries with an enlarging false aneurysm on the right\\u000a side. Endovascular occlusion of the pathological segment of the right vertebral artery including the dissecting aneurysm and\\u000a conservative management of the other side resulted

B. Turowski; D. Hanggi; M. Siebler

2007-01-01

113

Neurological Outcome and Quality of Life after Stroke due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral artery dissection is a well-recognized cause of posterior circulation stroke for which there is relatively little information on long-term outcomes. Quality of life (QOL) is an important patient-centred outcome measure. Methods: Stroke due to vertebral artery dissection was conservatively defined by neuroimaging documentation. Thirty sequential cases were identified based on a retrospective database and chart review with prospective

Diana Czechowsky; Michael D. Hill

2002-01-01

114

Intracranial bilateral vertebral artery dissection during anticoagulation after cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CSVT).  

PubMed

A 37-year-old woman presented with cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST). During the period of anticoagulation she developed asymptomatic dissection of the intracranial segments of both vertebral arteries with an enlarging false aneurysm on the right side. Endovascular occlusion of the pathological segment of the right vertebral artery including the dissecting aneurysm and conservative management of the other side resulted in complete recovery without neurological complications. PMID:17660937

Turowski, B; Hanggi, D; Siebler, M

2007-08-01

115

MR diagnosis of cerebellar infarction due to vertebral artery dissection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior circulation infarction is uncommon in children. We describe the clinical presentation and radiological findings\\u000a in two children with cerebellar infarction resulting from dissection of the vertebral artery. We emphasize that vertebral\\u000a artery injury should be considered in a child with acute symptoms and signs of ischaemia in the posterior circulation. MRI\\u000a and MRA may be helpful in the diagnosis

Jung-Eun Cheon; I.-O. Kim; W. S. Kim; Yong Seung Hwang; Kyu Chang Wang; Kyung Mo Yeon

2001-01-01

116

The arterial anatomy of the adult human lumbar vertebral body: a microarteriographic study.  

PubMed Central

The anatomy of the arteries of 93 adult human lumbar vertebral bodies was studied microarteriographically. There is a network of periosteal arteries joining the arteries of adjacent vertebrae on the anterolateral and posterior surfaces. These are prominent between the fourth and fifth lumbar arteries. There are three types of intra-osseous arteries: equatorial, metaphyseal and peripheral. Each supplies a separate zone. The peripheral arteries are short, branch early and have centripetally directed terminal branches; they supply the outer collar of the vertebral body. The equatorial and metaphyseal arteries are morphologically similar, having straight unbranching stems, pre-terminal coils and centrifugal terminal branches. The equatorial arteries supply the central core of the vertebral body subjacent to the nucleus pulposus, and the metaphyseal arteries supply an annular zone between the other two types. Some circumstantial evidence that discal degenerative disease is associated with discal, or vertebral body, anoxia is presented. The present study adds to this evidence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10(cont.) Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17

Ratcliffe, J F

1980-01-01

117

Vertebral artery dissection in children: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been infrequently recognized in children. The authors have reviewed 68 reported cases of VAD in children in the existing literature. An association between routine types of neck movement in sports and the evolution of VAD was recognized in half of the reported cases. Boys outnumbered girls by a ratio of 6.6 to 1, in contrast to adults, for whom the male to female ratio is approximately equal (1.3 to 1). Neck pain, one of the hallmark symptoms of VAD in adults, was infrequently noted in this young population (12%). Most children presented with various combinations of symptoms and signs, including ataxia (53%), headache (38%) and vomiting (34%). Eye signs or symptoms were noted in 72% of patients, and paresis/paralysis of one or more extremity occurred in 54%. Angiography was the method most frequently used to diagnose VAD (63/68; 93%). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed pathognomonic signs of VAD in only 3 out of 13 patients evaluated (23%). In this series of 68 patients, 48 reports failed to indicate whether or not a cervical X-ray was performed, but in the 20 patients for whom such information was recorded, half had skeletal abnormalities in the occipital/atlas/axis region. The most common treatments were antiplatelet therapy (n = 15) and anticoagulation with (n = 8) or without (n = 7) supplemental antiplatelet therapy. Asymptomatic recovery occurred in 12 of the 15 patients (80%) who received antiplatelet therapy compared with 4 of the 15 patients (27%) who received anticoagulation therapy with or without antiplatelet therapy. There is a very high incidence of associated cervical anomalies in children with VAD. Further studies are required to determine if noninvasive examinations such as magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography and MRA could replace angiography as the modality of choice in establishing the diagnosis of VAD in children. The role of different therapies for children presenting with symptoms related to VAD is unclear. PMID:12372909

Hasan, Izhar; Wapnick, Simon; Tenner, Michael S; Couldwell, William T

2002-10-01

118

Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

Hauth, Elke A.M. [University Hospital Essen, Essen, Department of Radiology andInterventional Radiology (Germany); Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D. [Klinikum Dortmund, Dortmund, Department ofRadiology (Germany)

2004-01-15

119

Extracranial internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections: angiographic spectrum, course and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the clinical and radiological findings of 93 consecutive patients with 111 extracranial internal carotid (ICAD) and vertebral artery (VAD) dissections and one concomitant intracranial VAD; 83% of the patients had unilateral and 17% multiple vessel dissections. The diagnosis was made by intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in 92 patients and MR angiography in one. Follow-up angiography was performed in

O. Pelkonen; T. Tikkakoski; S. Leinonen; J. Pyhtinen; M. Lepojärvi; K. Sotaniemi

2003-01-01

120

Multisection CT Angiography Compared with Catheter Angiography in Diagnosing Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multisection CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique that can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall. To our knowledge, the ability of multisection CT angiography in detecting vertebral artery (VA) dissection has never been evaluated. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a routine, standardized, multisection CT angiographic protocol for the detection

Chi-Jen Chen; Ying-Chi Tseng; Tsong-Hai Lee; Hui-Ling Hsu; Lai-Chu See

2004-01-01

121

Use of histomorphometry in the assessment of fatal vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To assess morphometrically the structural changes, which occur with ageing, along the length of the vertebral artery. METHODS--A series of 36 vessels were removed at necropsy from subjects aged between 9 months and 86 years. Image analysis was used to measure the medial width, the circumference, the intimal: medial area ratio and the adventitial: medial area ratio along each artery.

C P Johnson; W Lawler; J Burns

1993-01-01

122

Differential diagnosis between traumatic and nontraumatic rupture of the intracranial vertebral artery in medicolegal autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to establish histopathological identification between traumatic rupture and nontraumatic arterial dissection of the intracranial vertebral artery (IVA) resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Step-serial observations of ruptured IVAs among four traumatic and 44 nontraumatic SAH patients were investigated. We found that the most specific characteristic for differentiation was the shape of the ruptured adventitia. Extension of the adventitia was

Ayako Ro; Norimasa Kageyama; Akihiro Takatsu; Tatsushige Fukunaga

2009-01-01

123

Stent-assisted basilar reconstruction for a traumatic vertebral dissection with a large basilar artery thrombosis.  

PubMed

An individual in their 30s presented with quadriplegia and coma 7 h after a 30-foot free-fall. Angiography confirmed left vertebral artery dissection causing vertebral artery occlusion (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0) and basilar artery thrombosis. Deployment of six self-expanding intracranial stents (right P1 to left V3) resulted in recanalization (TIMI 3). Postoperative MRI demonstrated a large brainstem infarction; the patient was 'locked-in'. In the following 6 months, the patient recovered to ambulation and independence. Aggressive recanalization for symptomatic vertebrobasilar dissection/occlusion may be considered. Despite major diffusion-weighted imaging brainstem lesions, recovery is possible. PMID:21990788

Hauck, Erik F; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Horvathy, Dennis B; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I

2010-08-25

124

Anomalous vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction  

PubMed Central

Background: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare condition. Case Description: A 63-year-old female was originally diagnosed with occult hydrocephalus syndrome after presenting with symptoms of ataxia and urinary incontinence. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting induced an acute worsening of the patient?s symptoms as she immediately developed a sensory myelopathy. An MR scan demonstrated multiple congenital abnormalities including cervicomedullary stenosis with anomalous vertebral artery compression of the dorsal spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. The patient was taken to surgery for a suboccipital craniectomy, C1-2 laminectomy, vertebral artery decompression, duraplasty, and shunt ligation. Intraoperative findings confirmed preoperative radiography with ectactic vertebral arteries deforming the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. There were no procedural complications and at a 6-month follow-up appointment, the patient had experienced a marked improvement in her preoperative signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare disorder amenable to operative neurovascular decompression.

Ball, Bret Gene; Krueger, Bruce R; Piepgras, David G

2011-01-01

125

Echogenic carotid artery plaques are associated with vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with low bone mass.  

PubMed

Although low bone mass has been associated with atherosclerosis even after adjustment for age, little is known about the association between vertebral fractures and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Our objective was to investigate whether osteoporotic vertebral fractures are independently related to the prevalence of atherosclerotic carotid plaques in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We enrolled 195 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Bone mineral density and the presence of vertebral fractures were assessed. Intima media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery were assessed using ultrasonography. Of the 195 subjects in the study, 84 had no plaques and 111 had at least one. The percentage of women with vertebral fractures was significantly higher in subjects with echogenic carotid plaques than in those without (27% vs. 11%, respectively; P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the prevalence of vertebral fractures between women with echolucent plaques and those without (10.9% vs. 10.7%, respectively; P = nonsignificant). By logistic regression analysis with multivariate adjustment, age (P < 0.01), dyslipidemia (P < 0.05), and the presence of vertebral fracture (P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for echogenic carotid plaques. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with an increased risk of echogenic atherosclerotic plaques in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. It appears that the high association of echogenic atherosclerotic plaques and vertebral fractures could partially explain why osteoporotic vertebral fractures are linked to increased mortality. PMID:18496724

Kim, Se Hwa; Kim, Yoo Mee; Cho, Mi Ae; Rhee, Yumie; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Sung Kil

2008-06-01

126

Stenting of a symptomatic long-segment extracranial vertebral artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 56-year-old man who presented with bilateral vertebral artery occlusions and recurrent transient ischemic attacks and strokes despite maximal medical therapy. A long-segment extracranial right vertebral occlusion was noted and successfully reconstructed with four drug-eluting stents. The patient has been symptom free for 3 months and does not exhibit restenosis on follow-up angiography. Stenting and angioplasty of a

Rishi Gupta; Thinesh Sivapatham; Shaye I Moskowitz; Sunita Srivastava

2010-01-01

127

Bilateral vertebral artery dissection possibly precipitated in delayed fashion as a result of roller coaster rides.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of persistent vertigo after multiple roller coaster rides, followed by neck pain for 1 month and then 2 weeks of blurred vision related to diplopia. She was ultimately found to have bilateral cervical vertebral artery dissection. The images are described and the literature is reviewed regarding late diagnosis of vertebral dissection and prior cases of roller coaster-associated dissection. PMID:18190821

Schneck, Michael; Simionescu, Monica; Bijari, Armita

128

Resolution of isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy following microvascular decompression of the intracranial vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Isolated hypoglossal nerve paresis due to mechanical compression from a vascular lesion is very rare. We present a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with spontaneous abrupt-onset dysarthria, swallowing difficulty and left-sided tongue atrophy. Brain computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem demonstrated an abnormal course of the left vertebral artery compressing the medulla oblongata at the exit zone of the hypoglossal rootlets that was relieved by microvascular decompression of the offending intracranial vertebral artery. This case supports the hypothesis that hypoglossal nerve palsy can be due to nerve stretching and compression by a pulsating normal vertebral artery. Microvascular decompression of the intracranial nerve and careful evaluation of the imaging studies can resolve unexpected isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:21556237

Cheong, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jae Min; Yang, Moon Sul; Kim, Choong Hyun

2011-03-31

129

[Dissection of vertebral artery: report of a case and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissection seems to be a frequent cause of stroke in young adults. We report a 34 years old female that suffered a cardiac arrest while practicing aerobics, with complete recovery and four months later developed an acute Wallenberg's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarction in the right posterolateral medulla oblongata and in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Angiography revealed an occlusion of the third segment (V3) of the right vertebral artery which was hypoplastic. The patient was anticoagulated with a favorable clinical outcome. A follow up angiography, performed six months later, showed an incomplete recanalization of the vessel. Vertebral artery dissection should be suspected in every patient with ischemic symptoms or signs related to the vertebrobasilar territory, specially in young or middle aged patients with a history of trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-doppler examinations are the diagnostic test of choice. PMID:7597335

Castillo, J L; Araya, F; Fernández, V; Badilla, L; Monsalve, J

1994-09-01

130

Vessel occlusion using a single long oversized coil in vertebral artery dissection: a technical note.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissection may lead to stroke. Medical therapy is usually the first line of treatment. The endovascular approach of medically refractory vertebral artery dissection may include numerous techniques, including coil occlusion of the parent vessel. Two cases are presented of medically refractory symptomatic vertebral artery dissections in which vessel coil occlusion was successfully achieved with a single long oversized coil. There were no periprocedural complications and both patients had excellent clinical and angiographic outcome and remained asymptomatic on follow-up. The use of a single long oversized coil in vessel sacrifice has not been described previously. It represents a safe, rapid and cost effective alternative to the current existing techniques for vessel sacrifice. PMID:22326905

Grigoryan, Mikayel; Cordina, Steve M; Khatri, Rakesh; Hassan, Ameer E; Rodriguez, Gustavo J

2012-02-10

131

Subarachnoid haemorrhage with bilateral intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms treated by staged endovascular stenting.  

PubMed

Bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) are an exceedingly rare and deadly clinical dilemma. Prompt intervention in the case of unilateral VADAs is advocated to prevent rebleed; however, in the case of bilateral VADAs, the optimal therapeutic intervention is unclear. We describe the case of a patient presenting with SAH with bilateral VADAs treated by staged endovascular stenting. This led to resolution of the aneurysms with patency of both vertebral arteries. Stent-based therapy of the symptomatic aneurysm followed by staged stenting of the asymptomatic, contralateral aneurysm appears to be a viable treatment option. This method allows the ability to preserve flow in both vertebral arteries with minimal changes in flow characteristics that may threaten the contralateral, asymptomatic VADA, and appears to be the ideal treatment in these rare cases. PMID:23417929

Wilkinson, David Andrew; Wilson, Thomas J; Stetler, William R; Pandey, Aditya S

2013-02-15

132

Teaching NeuroImages: intermittent symptomatic occlusion of the vertebral artery caused by a cervical osteophyte.  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man presented with 2 episodes of waking up with symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia (figure, A and B) within 6 months. A CT angiogram showed narrowing of the right vertebral artery due to extrinsic compression by an osteophyte of the superior articular process of the fourth cervical vertebra, compromising the foramen transversarium (figure, C and D). Dynamic angiography demonstrated intermittent vascular occlusion associated with head turning (figure, E-G). After recurrence, surgical decompression of the vertebral artery was performed. Extrinsic compressions of the vertebral artery is rare.(1) The most frequent signs are those of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Surgical treatment has been proposed when conservative management fails.(1). PMID:23359379

Mourand, Isabelle; Azakri, Souhayla; Boniface, Guillaume; Bonafé, Alain; Maldonado, Igor Lima

2013-01-29

133

Emergent Endovascular Embolization for Iatrogenic Vertebral Artery Injury during Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Injury to the vertebral artery during anterior cervical discectomy is rare but potentially fatal. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after endovascular embolization for iatrogenic vertebral artery injury at C5-C6 during an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. A 61-year-old man had an intraoperative injury of the right vertebral artery that occurred during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at C5-C6. Hemorrhage was not controlled successfully by packing with surgical hemostatic agents. While the patient was still intubated, an emergency angiogram was performed. The patient underwent endovascular occlusion of the right V2 segment with coils. After the procedure, his course was uneventful and he did not show any neurologic deficits. Brain computed tomographic scans taken 3 days after the operation revealed a right cerebellar infarction. Anti-coagulation medication was administered, and at 3-month follow-up examination, he had no neurologic sequelae in spite of the cerebellar infarction.

Jung, Hyeun Jin; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Sung Myung

2011-01-01

134

Anomalous Origin of the Right Vertebral Artery from the Ascending Aorta in the Presence of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a 63-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital due to an acute coronary syndrome. Angiographic and\\u000a magnetic resonance angiography examination showed an abnormal right vertebral artery originating from the ascending aorta,\\u000a just above the left coronary sinus Valsalva in addition to aberrant retro-esophageal right subclavian artery. The variations\\u000a and the incidence of various abnormal

Bahri Akdeniz; Erkan Yilmaz; Nihat Pekel; Bekir U. Ergul

2007-01-01

135

Vertebral artery dissection diagnosed by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

A forty-year-old man developed right-sided neck discomfort whilst cycling to work. On admission to hospital he was found to have signs of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated bilateral areas of cerebellar infarction. Doppler ultrasound of the vertebral arteries was abnormal and non-invasive gradient echo time of flight magnetic resonance angiography confirmed the clinical diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection. The patient was anticoagulated for a period of three months and made a full recovery. PMID:11060916

Cawood, T J; Dyker, A G; Adams, F G

2000-08-01

136

Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation  

SciTech Connect

We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Deparment of Neurosurgery (Spain)

2005-01-15

137

The relation between the spatial distribution of vertebral artery compromise and exposure to cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose\\u000a   The vertebral artery is made up of four segments, one of which (V3) is connected to highly mobile cervical vertebrae. This\\u000a connection underlies the common assumption that persons with pre-event histories of mechanical neck movements, such as cervical\\u000a spine manipulation (cSMT), should experience increased V3 dissection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Two of the largest case series of vertebral artery dissection

Gregory N. Kawchuk; Gian S. Jhangri; Eric L. Hurwitz; Shari Wynd; S. Haldeman; Michael D. Hill

2008-01-01

138

Ischemic symptoms induced by occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery with head rotation together with contralateral vertebral artery dissection—case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 45-year-old woman whose unilateral vertebral artery (VA) was potentially occluded with head rotation at the C1–C2 level and her ischemic symptoms suddenly appeared because of contralateral VA dissection. She noticed first pain around the posterior part of her neck on the right side, and then dizziness when turning the head to the right side. The dizziness disappeared

Kouji Wakayama; Mineko Murakami; Megumi Suzuki; Seiitsu Ono; Natsue Shimizu

2005-01-01

139

Rebleeding and Ischemia after Acute Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Dissecting Subarachnoid Vertebral Artery Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Dissection aneurysms of the vertebral artery represent 3.2% of all cerebral aneurysms and 28% of intracranial dissection aneurysms. Dissection of the vertebral artery in its intracranial segment (V4) usually causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from subadventiatial extension of the vessel wall hematoma. Rarely (one case in seven), the symptomatology is characterized by brain stem ischemia from the vertebral artery and/or postero-inferior cerebellar artery occlusive dissection. The high rebleeding (18-33% with a 10+/-5 day interval between the first and the second bleeding) and mortality (>45%) rates 1,13 of this disease prompt emergency treatment usually consisting in endovascular coiling of the dissection aneurysm and/or the dissected segment of the parent vessel. Herein we report our experience in endovascular coiling of acutely ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery dissection in V4 segment. We focus the discussion on the risk of rebleeding and the ischemic complications that my occur after endovascular or surgical treatment

Mangiafico, S.; Padolecchia, R.; Cellerini, M.; Puglioli, M.; Villa, G.; Nistri, M.

2003-01-01

140

Clipping of a vertebral artery aneurysm behind the hypoglossal nerve under the monitoring of lower cranial nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under an operative view, an aneurysm of the vertebral artery is located behind the lower cranial nerves. To prevent neurological deficits we employed electrophysiological monitoring while clipping an aneurysm of the vertebral artery. A 64-year-old woman had suffered a sudden severe headache in the morning. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and CT angiography revealed an aneurysm at

Mami Ishikawa; Gen Kusaka; Kouichi Takashima; Haruna Kamochi; Soji Shinoda

2010-01-01

141

Vertebral artery dissection presenting with ispilateral acute C5 and C6 sensorimotor radiculopathy: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal manifestations of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) are rare events and are typically symptomatic with neck pain and ischemic brain injury. We report a patient presenting with unusual peripheral paresis of the right upper limb due to an intramural hematoma of the right vertebral artery with local compression of C5 and C6 as the cause of cervical radiculopathy. These symptoms

Ghazaleh Tabatabai; Wolfgang Schöber; Ulrike Ernemann; Michael Weller; Rejko Krüger

2008-01-01

142

Endovascular and Surgical Management of Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting With Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Medium-term Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery are associated with a high incidence of rebleeding and mortality if untreated. Current endovascular alternatives to surgery are being evaluated. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of our experience with endovascular as well as surgical treatments of dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms in 6 patients. Three patients were treated with a combination

K Sheah; W Lim; Chumpon Chan

143

Stroke due to a fusiform aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysms of the cervical vertebral artery (VA) are uncommon; they are often caused by trauma or spontaneous dissection.\\u000a A fusiform aneurysm without evidence of atherosclerosis or dissection has not been reported previously. A 46-year-old man\\u000a presented with a pontine infarct. Imaging revealed a fusiform aneurysm of the left VA at the C5–6 level, with occlusion of\\u000a the basilar artery. Associated

S. Suzuki; T. Inoue; S. Haga; S. Nishio; S. Kono; A. Mizushima; M. Fukui

1998-01-01

144

Blunt traumatic vertebral artery injury: a clinical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blunt traumatic vertebral injury (TVAI) is frequently associated with head and neck injury and is being detected with increasing\\u000a frequency due to improved imaging of the trauma patient. In a few cases, it can lead to potentially fatal posterior circulation\\u000a ischaemia There is debate in the literature regarding whether TVAI should be actively screened for and, if so, how. Management

R. M. deSouza; M. J. Crocker; N. Haliasos; A. Rennie; A. Saxena

145

Ultrasound findings of bilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries associated with a persistent carotid-hypoglossal artery.  

PubMed

We present a 31-year-old female who was admitted to our neurology department for vertigo, partial left-sided hemihypesthesia and nuchal headache of subacute onset. Colour-duplex ultrasound disclosed bilateral low flow with a high resistance flow pattern in both vertebral arteries in the V2 segments, while the basilar artery had normal flow. CT angiography and MRI ruled out any ischaemic cerebral infarct and disclosed a persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) originating from the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was eventually treated for cervicobrachialgia. Persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis such as PHA may account for an atypical stroke pattern in carotid disease, aneurysms and arterovenous malformations. In retrospect, PHA is amendable to colour-Duplex investigation due to an abnormal ICA flow and a discrepancy between the vertebral and basilar flow patterns. Ultrasound investigation of the vertebrobasilar system remains a challenge as variants appear frequently; hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries should thus be confirmed using CT or MR angiography. PMID:21686784

Janzen, Annette; Steinhuber, Christine Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Schlachetzki, Felix

2009-02-26

146

Ultrasound findings of bilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries associated with a persistent carotid-hypoglossal artery  

PubMed Central

We present a 31-year-old female who was admitted to our neurology department for vertigo, partial left-sided hemihypesthesia and nuchal headache of subacute onset. Colour-duplex ultrasound disclosed bilateral low flow with a high resistance flow pattern in both vertebral arteries in the V2 segments, while the basilar artery had normal flow. CT angiography and MRI ruled out any ischaemic cerebral infarct and disclosed a persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) originating from the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was eventually treated for cervicobrachialgia. Persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis such as PHA may account for an atypical stroke pattern in carotid disease, aneurysms and arterovenous malformations. In retrospect, PHA is amendable to colour-Duplex investigation due to an abnormal ICA flow and a discrepancy between the vertebral and basilar flow patterns. Ultrasound investigation of the vertebrobasilar system remains a challenge as variants appear frequently; hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries should thus be confirmed using CT or MR angiography.

Janzen, Annette; Steinhuber, Christine Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Schlachetzki, Felix

2009-01-01

147

Traumatic rupture of the intracranial vertebral artery due to rotational acceleration.  

PubMed

The reason for blunt forces against the head to rupture the basal brain arteries has been discussed in forensic and trauma research. However, well-documented case reports demonstrating the mechanism of injury, the clinical course and the forensic work up are rare. We present the case of a 40-year-old man, who was assaulted with blunt force to the head resulting in death 34 h later from a longitudinal rupture of the distal left vertebral artery. Computer tomography of the brain and the face demonstrated a basal subarachnoidal haemorrhage, signs of increased intracranial pressure and a fracture of the right orbital bone. Angiography showed a long fusiform dilatation of both intracranial vertebral arteries with an active pseudoaneurysm on the left side. At autopsy signs of a blunt trauma to the head, extensive basal subarachnoidal haemorrhage and a minor subdural haemorrhage were found. Histological examination revealed a transmural longitudinal rupture of the left vertebral artery with vital reaction and no signs of preexisting vascular disease. We discuss the current literature regarding traumatic basal brain artery rupture, important clinical decision making processes as well as pitfalls in the forensic work up. In addition, this singular well-documented case gives new insights in the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of traumatic basal artery rupture. PMID:19008059

Kaiser, Ch; Schnabel, A; Berkefeld, J; Bratzke, H

2008-11-13

148

Spontaneous Dissection of the Extracranial Vertebral Artery: Indications and Long-Term Outcome of Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous dissection of the vertebral artery (VA) is usually managed medically. The objective of this report was to describe 10 patients treated surgically for spontaneous dissection of the VA. Seven men and three women with a mean age of 52.5±11.3 years were treated between December 1978 and January 2001. In eight cases the presenting symptom was neck pain. Transient ischemic

Laurent Chiche; Barbara Praquin; Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer

2005-01-01

149

Thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with hemorrhage and bulbar compression: report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulbar compression by vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is extremely rare and only reported in a few cases. We report two cases with thrombosed VA aneurysm compressing medulla oblongata; one presented with bulbar apoplexy hemorrhage and the other with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 61-year-old male (case 1) presented with consciousness disturbances, left hemiplegia, and subsequent respiratory arrest. He was subjected to

Shin-ichiro Shiraishi; Miki Fujimura; Hiroyuki Kon; Osamu Motohashi; Motonobu Kameyama; Kiyoshi Ishii; Takehide Onuma

2005-01-01

150

Complete recovery following atlantoaxial fracture-dislocation with bilateral carotid and vertebral artery injury.  

PubMed

A patient sustained a flexion-distraction injury with atlantoaxial dislocation and traumatic dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries bilaterally. Difficulties in management including fracture reduction and stabilization, avoidance of further vascular injury and preservation of neural function are discussed. PMID:19234917

Leach, J C D; Malham, G M

2009-02-01

151

Clinical perceptions of the risk of vertebral artery dissection after cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: The growing recognition of cervical manipulation as a treatment of neck pain and cervicogenic headaches has lead to increased interest in potential complications that may result from this treatment approach. Recent surveys have reported that many neurologists will encounter cases of vertebral artery dissection that occur at various times after cervical manipulation, whereas most practitioners of spinal manipulation

Scott Haldeman; Paul Carey; Murray Townsend; Costa Papadopoulos

2002-01-01

152

MRI and MRA-guided therapy of carotid and vertebral artery dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high sensitivity and specificity has been shown for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) in the diagnosis of internal carotid (ICAD) and vertebral (VAD) artery dissections, where arteriography has been and still is the gold standard. Five patients (three with ICAD, two with VAD; age range 42–56 years) are presented, in whom diagnosis and follow-up management were exclusively

Andreas Jacobs; Heinrich Lanfermann; Michael Neveling; Brigitte Szelies; Rita Schröder; Wolf-Dieter Heiss

1997-01-01

153

Bilateral spontaneous vertebral artery dissection: management during labor and vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the successful management of labor and delivery of a parturient with a history of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection. We also outline the reasons why the obstetric anesthetist should be aware of this condition as well as other cranio-cervical dissections.

N O’Rourke; L Wollman; W Camann

2004-01-01

154

Magnetic resonance angiography of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection suspected on Doppler ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare but well-known cause of cerebrovascular disease and is often difficult to diagnose even using conventional arteriography. While noninvasive tests such as Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have failed to provide reliable criteria for the diagnosis of VAD, the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has not yet been undetermined.

Joachim Röther; Andreas Schwartz; Wolfgang Rautenberg; Michael Hennerici

1995-01-01

155

Management of 12 patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADA) are challenging disorders for neurosurgeons. Between December 2005 and May 2010, we treated 12 patients for DA of the intracranial VA. Three were treated by open surgery, seven underwent endovascular manipulation, and two were conservatively managed. Nine patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured aneurysm, and of these, two experienced abrupt re-hemorrhage and three

Wandong Su; Shouzhong Gou; Shilei Ni; Gang Li; Yuguang Liu; Shugan Zhu; Xingang Li

156

Magnetic resonance angiographic and clinical features of extracranial vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESClinical data and neuroradiological findings of 19 patients with 20 vertebral artery dissections were analysed to describe the features of time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis and follow up of this vascular disorder.METHODSAll patients underwent a combined MRI and MRA protocol with 1.5 T scanners, using a three dimensional flow compensated gradient echo sequence for MRA.

A Auer; S Felber; C Schmidauer; P Waldenberger; F Aichner

1998-01-01

157

Vertigo as Manifestation of Vertebral Artery Dissection after Chiropractic Neck Manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently observed a case of vertebral artery (VA) dissection following chiropractic neck manipulations. The first manifestation was unusual; in the form of vertigo. Therefore, the patient was referred to the otoneurologist. A VA dissection should be suspected in a case of vertigo following chiropractic neck manipulations, and vestibular tests should be done carefully, avoiding Rose’s positions. In our case,

Dominique Vibert; Josette Rohr-Le Floch; Gèrard Gauthier

1993-01-01

158

Surgical Anatomy of the Anterior Cervical Spine: The Disc Space, Vertebral Artery, and Associated Bony Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationships between the neurovascular structures and surrounding bone, which are hidden from the surgeon by soft tissue, and to aid in avoiding nerve root and vertebral artery injury in anterior cervical spine surgery. METHODS: Using six cadaveric spines, we measured important landmarks on the anterior surface of the spine, the bony housing protecting the neurovascular structures

T. Glenn Pait; James A. Killefer; Kenan I. Arnautovic

1996-01-01

159

Atherosclerosis in the vertebral artery: an intrinsic risk factor in the use of spinal manipulation?  

PubMed

The presence of atherosclerotic plaques and their influence on the vertebral artery is of clinical importance within the scope of spinal manipulation. Manipulation may stimulate the development of atherosclerotic plaques, could detach an embolus with ensuing infarction, injure the endothelium or may directly cause a dissection in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. In order to identify the sites and frequency of atherosclerotic plaques and to determine its relation to the tortuous course of the vertebral artery, a cadaveric study was performed. The vertebral arteries of 57 human cadavers were studied. The vertebral artery was virtually divided into four segments: the pre-vertebral (V1), the vertebral (V2), the atlanto-axial (V3), and the intracranial segment (V4). Abnormalities in the origin and course of the vertebral artery were noted, along with any associated osseous, or cartilaginous anomalies in the neck. After dissection, the artery was opened and macroscopically screened for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. In 22.8% of the cases, no atherosclerotic plaques were present. In 35.1% of the cases, the atherosclerotic plaques were unilateral, of which 60.0% was on the left side, 40.0% on the right side, and in 42.1%, the occurrence was bilateral. Atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more present in the V3 segment than in the V1 (0.007) and V2 segment (0.049). In the V1 (P=0.008) and V2 segment (P=0.002), there was a correlation between a tortuous course of the vessel and the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques. In individuals with marked atherosclerotic disease, stretching and compression effects of rotational manipulative techniques on atherosclerotic vessels impose a further risk factor for vertebrobasilar insufficiency. As direct evidence of atherosclerotic plaques are rarely available, therapists should avoid manipulative techniques at all levels of the cervical spine in the presence of any indirect sign of atherosclerotic disease or in the presence of calcified arterial walls or tortuosities of the vessels visible on routinely available X-ray images of the cervical or thoracic spine. It is strongly recommended, that if any doubt exists about the nature of a clinical presentation, vigorous manual procedures should be avoided until either the diagnosis is definitive or gentle manual therapy has proven effective. PMID:16557345

Cagnie, Barbara; Barbaix, Erik; Vinck, Elke; D'Herde, Katharina; Cambier, Dirk

2006-03-24

160

Concurrent basilar artery double fenestration with aneurysm and vertebral artery dissection: case report and literature review of rare cerebrovascular abnormalities.  

PubMed

Many disorders can cause aneurysm and/or dissection of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), connective tissue disorders, cerebral vasculitis, infection, and vascular malformations. Arterial fenestration is a rare congenital finding that can also cause aneurysms, and can rarely dissect and bleed. Treatment of aneurysm and dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage can be very complicated, and requires case-by-case analysis of the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy. To the authors' knowledge, no case of double fenestration of the basilar artery has been reported. This report presents a case of concurring vertebral artery dissection and double fenestration of the basilar artery with aneurysm. The fenestration and FMD are considered possible main contributing causes of this presentation. A literature review of cerebrovascular fenestration and FMD is provided and the relationship between the 2 is considered. Lastly, the use of antithrombotic therapy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage, dissection, and stent placement is discussed. PMID:23548267

Stark, Madeline M; Skeik, Nedaa; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Crandall, Benjamin M; Tubman, David E

2013-03-31

161

Spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries--two case reports.  

PubMed

Two patients had acute spontaneous dissection of both internal carotid arteries and of one or both vertebral arteries. One had angiographic signs suggestive of fibro-muscular dysplasia and both were on oral contraceptives. They were treated with high dose heparin and made a good clinical recovery. A digital intravenous angiography performed two to three months later showed a complete recanalization of arteries involved. These patients are similar to those reported as "idiopathic regressing arteriopathy" and "reversible angiopathy" which probably correspond to the same entity. PMID:3966257

Mas, J L; Goeau, C; Bousser, M G; Chiras, J; Verret, J M; Touboul, P J

162

Pseudoaneurysm of Lumbar Artery following a Vertebral Biopsy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old man developed a severe low back pain and a fever. In the initial examinations, a collapse of the L5 anterosuperior vertebral body and narrowing of the L4/5 disc space were identified on radiographs, and the laboratory data showed inflammatory results. A computed tomography (CT) and a magnetic resonance imaging showed collapse of L5. A needle biopsy was performed to make a diagnosis; however, an abdominal pain and a hypotension appeared after the biopsy. An abdominal CT showed a hematoma in the retroperitoneal space, and an angiography revealed a left fourth lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with transcatheter placement of microcoils. Although haemorrhagic complications following needle biopsy are very rare, patients with large amounts of vertebral destruction may have unusual anatomical positions of the lumber artery. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of lumbar artery injury during a needle biopsy and take care of prebiopsy plans.

Mifune, Yutaka; Yagi, Masayoshi; Iwasaki, Yasunobu; Doita, Minoru

2012-01-01

163

Vertebral artery thrombosis and subsequent stroke following attempted internal jugular central venous catheterization  

PubMed Central

Complications arising from internal jugular venous catheterization are uncommon. Injury to the carotid artery is reported as one of the more common injuries. Vertebral artery injuries are rare and include pseudoaneurysm formation, arteriovenous fistulas, lacerations, and dissection with thrombus formation. Occasionally, such injuries initially go unnoticed and have the potential to cause catastrophic outcomes, leaving clinicians and families wondering what transpired. A thorough autopsy can not only help discern the cause of death, but also help to bring closure to the family. Here we present a case of an unexpected death 3 days following surgery for idiopathic scoliosis in a 17-year-old male. During the surgical procedure, a right internal jugular venous catheterization was attempted but aborted after several failed tries. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient became obtunded and progressed to brain death. At autopsy, he was found to have a right transmural vertebral artery puncture wound with thrombosis leading to a massive posterior circulatory stroke.

Van Vrancken, Michael J.

2012-01-01

164

Successful surgical treatment of right subclavian artery aneurysm with a hypoplastic left vertebral artery using temporary cerebral perfusion to prevent cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man had a right subclavian artery aneurysm (dimension, 30 × 38 mm) that was adjacent to the right common carotid artery and exceedingly close to the right vertebral artery. The patient had a marked hypoplastic left vertebral artery, dominant right vertebral artery, and an incompletely formed and underdeveloped circle of Willis in the skull. While performing a median sternotomy and supraclavicular incision during the operation, we used temporal shunting for the cerebral perfusion. The subclavian artery aneurysm was resected, and a 10-mm diameter woven Dacron graft was used for reconstructing the subclavian artery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 18 days after surgery. Temporal shunting for maintaining cerebral perfusion was useful in preventing cerebral ischemia, and the median sternotomy plus supraclavicular incision approach afforded an unobstructed view of the surgical field. PMID:23555432

Ito, Hiroshi; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Koabayashi, Yurio

2011-03-26

165

Vertigo and cranial nerve palsy caused by different forms of spontaneous dissections of internal and vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we compare a subintimal hemorrhage of a dissected vertebral artery to a subadventitial hemorrhage of a dissected extracranial internal carotid artery. A subintimal hemorrhage compresses the lumen of the artery. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and ultrasound are screening methods. For the subadventitial hemorrhage, which does not really compress the lumen but forms an aneurysmal dilatation,

Victor Bonkowsky; Silke Steinbach; Wolfgang Arnold

2002-01-01

166

Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment.  

PubMed

Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries. PMID:21577335

Al Barbarawi, Mohamed; Odat, Ziad; Alheis, Mwaffaq; Qudsieh, Suhair; Qudsieh, Tareq

2010-06-21

167

Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries.

Al Barbarawi, Mohamed; Odat, Ziad; Alheis, Mwaffaq; Qudsieh, Suhair; Qudsieh, Tareq

2010-01-01

168

Different blood flow responses to dynamic exercise between internal carotid and vertebral arteries in women.  

PubMed

The blood flow regulation in vertebral system during dynamic exercise in humans remains unclear. We examined the blood flow responses in both the internal carotid artery (QICA) and vertebral artery (QVA) simultaneously during graded dynamic exercise by Doppler ultrasound to evaluate whether cerebrovascular responses to exercise were similar. In the semisupine position, 10 young women performed a graded cycling exercise at three loads of 30, 50, and 70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 5 min for each workload. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output increased progressively with three workloads (P<0.01). The end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) in the expired gas increased from the resting level (P<0.01) at 30 and 50% VO2peak. The PetCO2 at 70% VO2peak (43.2±1.6 Torr) was significantly lower than that at 50% VO2peak (45.3±1.4 Torr). In parallel with the changes in PetCO2, QICA increased from resting level by 11.6±1.5 and 18.4±2.7% at 30 and 50% VO2peak (P<0.01), respectively, and leveled off at 70% VO2peak. In contrast, QVA did not show a leveling off and increased proportionally with workload: 16.8±3.1, 32.8±3.6, and 39.5±3.4% elevations at the three exercise loads, respectively (P<0.01). With increasing exercise load, the cerebrovascular resistance in internal carotid artery increased (P<0.01), while cerebrovascular resistance in vertebral artery remained stable during exercise. The different responses between QICA and QVA in the present study indicate a heterogenous blood flow and cerebrovascular control in the internal carotid and vertebral systems during dynamic exercise in humans. PMID:20595539

Sato, Kohei; Sadamoto, Tomoko

2010-07-01

169

Traumatic Vertebral Arterial Dissection and Vertebrobasilar Arterial Thrombosis Successfully Treated with Endovascular Thrombolysis and Stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A case of traumatic extracranial vertebral arte- rial dissection leading to vertebrobasilar thrombosis and respiratory compromise requiring mechanical ventilation was managed with intraarterial thrombolysis and stenting of the vertebral intimal dissection. In contrast to similar, previously reported cases, this critically ill patient made a full recovery, returning to his job as a secondary school teacher.

Rupert F. Price; Robin Sellar; Clarence Leung; Michael J. O'Sullivan

1998-01-01

170

The use of flow diverter stents in the management of traumatic vertebral artery dissections.  

PubMed

Flow diverters constitute a new generation of flexible self-expanding stent-like devices with a high metal-surface area coverage, specifically designed for the endovascular management of complex cerebral aneurysms. Recently, other potential applications for these devices in the field of occlusive cerebrovascular disease have been described. In vertebral artery dissections causing occlusion associated with a burden of extensive clots, we have found that the reduced porosity of the diverter mesh serves as an effective barrier to in-stent clot protrusion and distal embolization. We describe the novel use of a flow diverter for the management of an occlusive traumatic vertebral artery dissection. Diverter implantation allowed subsequent angioplasty. PMID:23391813

Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Bala, Miklosh; Itshayek, Eyal

2013-02-04

171

Distal Embolization After Stenting of the Vertebral Artery: Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. We retrospectively evaluated our experience with stenting of the vertebral artery in an effort to determine the risk of distal embolization associated with the procedure. Methods. Between June 2000 and May 2005, 35 patients with 38 stenting procedures for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral origin in our institution were identified. The average age of the patients was 60.3 years (range 32-76 years). Sixteen of these patients (with 18 stents) had MR imaging of the brain with diffusion-weighted imaging and an apparent diffusion coefficient map within 2 days before and after procedure. Results. On seven of the 16 postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images, a total of 57 new hyperintensities were visible. All these lesions were focal in nature. One patient demonstrated a new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormality in the anterior circulation without MR evidence of posterior circulation ischemia. Six of 16 patients had a total of 25 new lesions in the vertebrobasilar circulation in postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images. One patient in this group was excluded from the final analysis because the procedure was complicated by basilar rupture during tandem stent deployment in the basilar artery. Hence, new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities were noted in the vertebrobasilar territory in 5 of 15 patients after 17 stenting procedures, giving a 29% rate of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities per procedure. No patient with bilateral stenting had new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities. Conclusion. Stenting of stenoses of the vertebral artery origin may be associated with a significant risk of asymptomatic distal embolization. Angiography, placement of the guiding catheter, inflation of the stent balloon, and crossing the lesion with guidewires or balloon catheters may potentially cause distal embolization. Further studies to evaluate measures to increase the safety of vertebral artery stenting, such as the use of distal protection devices or short-term postprocedural anticoagulation, should be considered for patients with clear indications for this procedure.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E.; Turkbey, Baris; Saatci, Isil; Cekirge, Saruhan; Balkanci, Ferhun [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

172

A Case of Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Morning Blood Pressure Surge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a middle-aged man who suffered a cerebral infarction resulting from dissection of a vertebral artery associated with morning blood pressure surge. A 56-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with dizziness and vomiting in the early morning on a cold day in winter. He reported that he had been standing in front of the sink

Kazuo Eguchi; Yuichi Tachikawa; Ryuichi Kashima; Michi Shinohara; Fumiya Fukushima; Takashi Sato; Akira Takeda; Toshio Numao; Kazuomi Kario; Kazuyuki Shimada

2005-01-01

173

Prediction of rebleeding from angiographic features in vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify patient characteristics and angiographic features that predict high risk for rebleeding in vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. We analyzed 62 patients treated for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from VA dissecting aneurysms (male: female, 46:16; mean age, 51.7??±??8 years). Univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between rebleeding rate and age, gender, history of hypertension, sidedness

Teruhide Takagi; Masakazu Takayasu; Yoshio Suzuki; Jun Yoshida

2007-01-01

174

Vertebral artery dissection in a patient practicing self-manipulation of the neck  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection. Clinical Features A 42-year-old female patient sought care for left shoulder pain with a secondary complaint of left lower neck pain. Twelve days prior, she had had “the worst headache of her life,” which began in her left lower cervical spine and extended to her left temporal region. The pain was sudden and severe, was described as sharp and burning, and lasted 3 hours. She reported nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Intervention and Outcome Initial history and examination suggested that the patient's head and neck pain was not musculoskeletal in origin, but vascular. She repeatedly requested that an adjustment be performed, but instead was referred to the local emergency department for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance angiogram revealed a dissection of the left vertebral artery from C6 to the C2-C3 interspace and a 3-mm dissecting pseudoaneurysm at the C3 level. She underwent stent-assisted percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combined with antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel) and experienced a good outcome. Conclusion This case suggests that careful history taking and awareness of the symptoms of VAD are necessary in cases of sudden head and neck pain. More research is needed on the relationship between vertebral artery dissection and self-manipulation of the neck.

Mosby, John S.; Duray, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

175

Recovery of reversed basilar artery flow as seen by transcranial sonography and MRA source images for vertebral dissection.  

PubMed

The dissection of the intracranial vertebral artery (VAD) is a common cause of young age brain stem stroke. VAD can be detected by conventional angiography, but there is yet no agreement on the most effective tool to use for the detection of VAD. Here, we report a patient with VAD, who was diagnosed with an intimal flap within the left vertebral artery by the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) source images. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) showed a reversed flow in the basilar artery. After 4 months, TCD and transcranial color-coded Doppler (TCCD) confirmed a normal anterograde flow of the vertebro-basilar arteries. PMID:18318795

Lee, Sung Ik; Yang, Hyun Duk; Son, Il Hong; Han, Sun Jung

2007-12-21

176

Unilateral and Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection Following Motor Vehicle Injury—Two Cases and a Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection in two patients with traumatic brain and cervical spine injury was treated in the intensive care\\u000a unit. In both cases vertebral artery dissection was suspected solely by the presence of ischemic lesions on the cervical spine\\u000a and by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, performed because of a failure to recover consciousness. In the intensive\\u000a care unit

Christina G. Mandila; Georgios V. Koukoulitsios; Georgios T. Stathopoulos; Ioannis Karampelas; Georgios Karydas; Andreas Karabinis

2005-01-01

177

[Radiculo-medullary arteries of vertebral origin. Various anatomic aspects from 30 injections-dissections].  

PubMed

Among medullary arteries we have only examined those directly arising from the vertebral artery at the cervical level. This study is about thirty anatomical samples of cervical spine removed during necropsies; there are treated by injection-dissection method. The observed variations do not allow isolation of any artery for the cervical bulge, as possible most frequently at the lumbar bulge level. We observed variations as sometimes alternate pedicles right or left, as sometimes a symmetrical aspect finishing at the same medullar level. By injecting differently colored liquids, in the right and in the left, a side prevalence has sometimes been noted but real conclusions cannot be draw without isobar and simultaneous injections. PMID:8241573

N'Diaye, A; Mauppin, J M; Dia, A; Sow, M L

1993-03-01

178

Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.  

PubMed

We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides. PMID:21341139

Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, An?l; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

2011-01-01

179

[Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery concurrent with contralateral intracerebellar hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A case of a dissecting vertebral aneurysm concurrent with contralateral cerebellar hemorrhage is reported. A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). On admission, CT scanning showed SAH and left cerebellar hematoma. Angiography was performed and it revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. Proximal clipping of the right vertebral dissecting artery was performed through right suboccipital craniotomy. During the operation, the cerebellar hemisphere gradually became firm, but the operation was finished without any complications. After the operation, the patient's consciousness level decreased from somnolence to semicomatose for a period of 2 hours 30 min. CT scanning showed the left cerebellar hematoma expanding. The cerebellar hematoma was evacuated immediately by midline suboccipital craniectomy, and the patient's consciousness level improved. In such a case, care must be taken to discover the cause of the expansion and to prevent concurrent hematoma during the operation. Through this case, discussion was held concerning the pitfalls of treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage concurrent with intracerebral hematoma in the remote region. PMID:11260895

Ochiai, H; Yamakawa, Y; Kawasoe, T

2001-02-01

180

The relationship of flow velocities to vessel diameters differs between extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries of stroke patients.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Chronic changes in flow rate through arteries produce adjustment of arterial diameters. We compared the relationship between flow velocity and diameter in the carotid and in the vertebral arteries of stroke patients. METHODS: Using triplex ultrasonography, the internal diameter and flow velocities of the common carotid, internal carotid, and vertebral arteries of 176 consecutive stroke patients were measured. Correlations were examined with Pearson's statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 59.3?±?12 years, and 66% had cerebral infarcts. Diameter and blood flow velocities showed significant negative correlations (-0.115???r???-0.382) in the carotid arteries on both sides, but positive correlations (0.211???r???0.320) in the vertebral arteries, even after controlling for age, gender, and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated different diameter/flow relationships in the carotid and the vertebral arteries of stroke patients, which may suggest pathologic changes in the adaptive processes governing vessel diameter and growth, especially in the carotid arteries. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013; PMID:23712586

Owolabi, Mayowa O; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Ogunniyi, Adesola

2013-05-24

181

Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation.

R. N. Nadgir; L. A. Loevner; T. Ahmed; G. Moonis; J. Chalela; K. Slawek; S. Imbesi

2003-01-01

182

Acute Vertebral Artery Origin Occlusion Leading to Basilar Artery Thrombosis Successfully Treated by Angioplasty with Stenting and Intracranial Fibrinolysis  

PubMed Central

There are few reports describing stroke due to the acute occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA) origin successfully treated by endovascularily. The authors report a case of 78-year-old man suffering from stroke owing to acute VA origin occlusion associated with contralateral hypoplastic VA leading to basilar artery (BA) thrombosis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated that the right VA was occluded at its origin, the left VA was hypoplastic, and BA was filled with thrombus. The occlusion of VA origin was initially passed through with a microcatheter and microwire. Hereafter, angioplasty was performed followed by stenting with a coronary stent. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. Next, a microcatheter was navigated intracranially through the stent and fibrinolysis was performed for BA thrombus. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Stroke due to acute VA origin occlusion leading to BA thrombosis was successfully treated by angioplasty and stenting followed by intracranial fibrinolysis.

Miyachi, Shigeru; Kojima, Takao; Nakai, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

183

Epidural haemorrhage during embolisation: a rare complication of intra-arterial embolisation of vertebral metastases  

PubMed Central

Pre-operative embolisation of vertebral metastases has been known to effectively devascularise hypervascular vertebral tumours and to reduce intra-operative bleeding. However, the complications that occur during the procedure are rarely reported. This case study attempts to highlight one rare complication, which is epidural tumoural haemorrhage intra-procedure. It may occur due to the fragility of the tumour and presence of neovascularisation. A small arterial dissection may also have occurred due to a slightly higher pressure exerted during injection of embolising agent. Haemostasis was secured via injection of Histoacryl into the area of haemorrhage. The patient was able to undergo the decompression surgery and suffered no direct complication from the haemorrhage.

Hashim, H; Abdul Kadir, KA

2011-01-01

184

Spontaneous dissection of the coronary and vertebral arteries post-partum: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous coronary and vertebral artery dissections are rare events occurring most commonly in otherwise healthy women during pregnancy or the post-partum period. Case presentation This report describes a 35-year-old female who presented with an acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction 7 months post-partum secondary to spontaneous dissection of the left obtuse marginal coronary artery. Despite appropriate medical therapy with dual anti-platelet therapy, the patient presented four weeks later with a spontaneous dissection of the right vertebral artery. Conclusion We review the presentation, diagnosis, and management of spontaneous dissections of the vasculature in the peri-partum period.

2012-01-01

185

Ligation of the vertebral (unilateral or bilateral) or basilar artery in the treatment of large intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed

The author reports the use of vertebral artery ligation, unilateral and bilateral, for the treatment of large vertebral-basilar aneurysms in 14 patients with one delayed death. Extracranial ligation was carried out unilaterally with a Selverstone clamp in three patients. In two, where the aneurysm filled only from one vertebral artery, there was extensive thrombosis within the sac and dramatic clinical improvement after decompression. Extracranial ligation was done bilaterally in three patients, temporarily in two. A 14-year-old boy is well after 5 years but the bilateral vertebrobasilar aneurysm did not undergo extensive thrombosis until both vertebral arteries were occluded at their intracranial entrance above collateral flow. In two others, the clamp had to be reopened on the second artery. In one patient, death from delayed thrombosis of a huge aneurysm and pontine infarction might have been prevented with anticoagulants. In the other, the aneurysm ruptured again fatally 18 months later. Unilateral intracranial occlusion of a vertebral artery was done in eight cases, with no morbidity and complete or nearly complete thrombosis in all but one aneurysm. Seven patients had excellent or good results while one showed little recovery from an existing medullary syndrome. Occlusion of the basilar artery was done in seven cases. In five it was used deliberately as the only treatment, but in two it was forced when an aneurysm burst during dissection. Only two of the patients in the first group and one of the second group have made complete recoveries. The results of vertebral artery occlusion are encouraging and the technique deserves further consideration. Extensive collateral circulation enhances the safety of cervical vertebral artery occlusion but can be of a degree to make the occlusion ineffective. For intracranial occlusion knowledge of the size and distribution of each vertebral artery is essential. Occlusion of the basilar artery is dangerous, although it seems to be effective in producing extensive thrombosis in the aneurysm. It should probably be done under anesthesia only when the artery fills spontaneously from the carotid circulation. Otherwise, even when reasonable posterior communicating arteries are demonstrated, it is best to test occlusion under local anesthesia. PMID:1097606

Drake, C G

1975-09-01

186

Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

Yip, H.-K. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Youssef, Ali A. [Suez Canal University Hospital, Cardiology Department (Egypt); Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China); Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J. [Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital- Kaohsiung Medical Center (China)], E-mail: tang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2007-09-15

187

Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note  

SciTech Connect

Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

Rabellino, Martin, E-mail: jmrabellino@hotmail.co [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Garcia Nielsen, L. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Interventional Cardiology (Spain); Baldi, S.; Zander, T. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain); Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Spain); Maynar, M. [Hospiten Rambla, Department of Endovascular Therapy (Spain)

2009-01-15

188

Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures: a case report.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered. PMID:23904852

Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

2013-07-18

189

A novel sling technique for microvascular decompression of a rare anomalous vertebral artery causing cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical radiculopathy secondary to compression from congenital anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs) is a known entity. Patients present with a variety of symptoms ranging from upper-extremity numbness to true occipital neuralgia. Treatment options for extracranial tortuous VAs include conservative management or some form of surgical microvascular decompression (MVD). The authors report on a patient with a congenital anomalous VA loop causing cervical nerve root compression. Successful MVD was conducted with relief of the patient's symptoms. A novel sling technique was used for mobilization of the VA. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first MVD described utilizing this technique. PMID:23991815

Tandon, Adesh; Chandela, Sid; Langer, David; Sen, Chandranath

2013-09-01

190

[Pharmacophysiotherapy in combined treatment of neurosensory hypoacusis in the presence of circulatory disorders in the vertebral arteries].  

PubMed

Basing on the results of ultrasound dopplerography of the vertebral arteries of 337 patients with neurosensory hypoacusis (NSH), we identified 104 (30.9%) patients having vertebrobasilar hemodynamic disorders. We performed endaural phonoelectrophoresis of cavinton in modification, with application of the second electrode with vasoactive drugs on the region of cervical spine. This method of NSH treatment in patients with vertebral circulatory disorders showed clinical efficacy. PMID:17828103

Starokha, A V; Khandazhapova, Iu A; Soldatenko, M V; Solodilov, V Iu; Davydov, A V

2007-01-01

191

Multiple spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and vertebral arteries.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old woman presented with rare multiple dissecting aneurysms that appeared first in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and shortly afterwards in the vertebral artery (VA). She initially suffered sudden motor weakness in the left lower limb due to acute brain infarction. Angiography revealed diffuse string sign in the right ACA. Conservative treatment resulted in resolution of the deficits. Follow-up angiography performed 1 year later revealed recovery of the ACA stenosis. Fourteen days later, she complained of sudden headache and became comatose. Computed tomography showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a new right VA dissecting aneurysm involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The orifice of the dissection was not apparent in the operative field and the dissection extended to the median. The patient underwent extracranial right VA ligation, clipping of the proximal PICA, and revascularization between the right occipital artery and distal PICA. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged without neurological deficits. VA dissecting aneurysms involving the PICA without evident orifice or extending over the median can be treated by extracranial ligation with clipping of the PICA, followed by revascularization. PMID:15914967

Matsushige, Toshinori; Kiya, Katsuzo; Satoh, Hideki; Mizoue, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Kota; Araki, Hayato

2005-05-01

192

The distribution of blood flow in the carotid and vertebral arteries during dynamic exercise in humans.  

PubMed

The mechanism underlying the plateau or relative decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during maximal incremental dynamic exercise remains unclear. We hypothesized that cerebral perfusion is limited during high-intensity dynamic exercise due to a redistribution of carotid artery blood flow. To identify the distribution of blood flow among the arteries supplying the head and brain, we evaluated common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow during dynamic exercise using Doppler ultrasound. Ten subjects performed graded cycling exercise in a semi-supine position at 40, 60 and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) for 5 min at each workload. The ICA blood flow increased by 23.0 ± 4.6% (mean ± SE) from rest to exercise at 60% (VO2 peak). However, at 80% (VO2 peak), ICA blood flow returned towards near resting levels (9.6 ± 4.7% vs. rest). In contrast, ECA, CCA and VA blood flow increased proportionally with workload. The change in ICA blood flow during graded exercise was correlated with end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (r = 0.72). The change in ICA blood flow from 60% (VO2 peak) to 80% (VO2 peak) was negatively correlated with the change in ECA blood flow (r = ?0.77). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between forehead cutaneous vascular conductance and ECA blood flow during exercise (r = 0.79). These results suggest that during high-intensity dynamic exercise the plateau or decrease in ICA blood flow is partly due to a large increase in ECA blood flow, which is selectively increased to prioritize thermoregulation. PMID:21486813

Sato, Kohei; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Sadamoto, Tomoko

2011-03-28

193

C1-C2 instability with severe occipital headache in the setting of vertebral artery facet complex erosion.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: An exact understanding of patient vertebral artery anatomy is essential to safely place screws at the atlanto-axial level in posterior arthrodesis. We aim to report a case of erosion of the left vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex with resultant rotatory and lateral listhesis presenting with severe occipital headache. This represents a novel etiology for this diagnosis and our report illustrates technical considerations when instrumenting the C1-C2 segment. METHODS: We report a case of severe occipital headache due to C1-C2 instability with resultant left C2 nerve compression in the setting of erosion of the vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex. RESULTS: A 68-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of progressively debilitating headache and neck pain with atlanto-axial instability. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated erosion of the left vertebral artery into the left C1-C2 facet complex. In addition, the tortuous vertebral arteries had eroded into the C2 pedicles, eliminating the possibility for posterior pedicle screw placement. The patient underwent posterior arthrodesis of C1-C2 utilizing bilateral lateral mass fixation into C1 and bilateral trans-laminar fixation into C2 with resolution of all preoperative complaints. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes the first report of a tortuous vertebral artery causing the partial destruction of a C1-C2 facet complex, as well as instability, with the clinical presentation of severe occipital headache. It hereby presents a novel etiology for both the development of C1-C2 segment instability as well as the development of occipital headache. Careful evaluation of such lesions utilizing CT angiography is important when formulating a surgical plan. PMID:23616203

Taher, Fadi; Bokums, Kristaps; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

2013-04-25

194

Differential blood flow responses to CO2 in human internal and external carotid and vertebral arteries  

PubMed Central

Arterial CO2 serves as a mediator of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and its relative influence on the regulation of CBF is defined as cerebral CO2 reactivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there are differences in CBF responses to physiological stimuli (i.e. dynamic exercise and orthostatic stress) between arteries in humans. These findings suggest that dynamic CBF regulation and cerebral CO2 reactivity may be different in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. The aim of this study was to identify cerebral CO2 reactivity by measuring blood flow and examine potential differences in CO2 reactivity between the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood flow responses by duplex ultrasonography (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery (BA) by transcranial Doppler (Vivid-7, GE healthcare) during two levels of hypercapnia (3% and 6% CO2), normocapnia and hypocapnia to estimate CO2 reactivity. To characterize cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, we used both exponential and linear regression analysis between CBF and estimated partial pressure of arterial CO2, calculated by end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. CO2 reactivity in VA was significantly lower than in ICA (coefficient of exponential regression 0.021 ± 0.008 vs. 0.030 ± 0.008; slope of linear regression 2.11 ± 0.84 vs. 3.18 ± 1.09% mmHg?1: VA vs. ICA, P < 0.01). Lower CO2 reactivity in the posterior cerebral circulation was persistent in distal intracranial arteries (exponent 0.023 ± 0.006 vs. 0.037 ± 0.009; linear 2.29 ± 0.56 vs. 3.31 ± 0.87% mmHg?1: BA vs. MCA). In contrast, CO2 reactivity in ECA was markedly lower than in the intra-cerebral circulation (exponent 0.006 ± 0.007; linear 0.63 ± 0.64% mmHg?1, P < 0.01). These findings indicate that vertebro-basilar circulation has lower CO2 reactivity than internal carotid circulation, and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation, which may explain different CBF responses to physiological stress.

Sato, Kohei; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Ai; Oue, Anna; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

195

A case of extracranial vertebral artery dissection with spontaneous recovery Diagnosis and follow-up by duplex and color Doppler.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old women developed an acute vestibular syndrome with a peripheral facial palsy not associated with any trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an ischemic lesion in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Color Doppler ultrasonography detected an occlusion of the right vertebral artery and dissection of the artery was confirmed by a subsequent angiography. During follow-up Duplex-Doppler allowed a non-invasive monitoring of recanalization of the occluded artery. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. PMID:9795057

Casali; Gaiani; Piscaglia; Gramantieri; Masi; Valgimigli; Bolondi

1997-12-01

196

A possible correlation between vertebral artery insufficiency and degenerative changes in the cervical spine.  

PubMed

We studied 130 patients, aged 20 to 81 years, with symptoms of tinnitus, vertigo or dizziness. Radiological examinations revealed degenerative changes in the cervical spines of all patients such as discopathy or osteophytes. Head and neck and neurological examinations ruled out other symptoms apart from vertebrobasilar artery flow insufficiency. The vertebrobasilar arteries were examined by means of a color Doppler ultrasonograph using duplex scanning. The correlation coefficient (CC) defining the relationship between the number of patients with abnormal blood flow and the total number of patients with radiologically confirmed changes in the cervical spine was 41.5%. When patients were separated by age, the value of the CC coefficient increased proportionally according to age, changing from 0 to 79.1%. Use of the Doppler ultrasonograph was found to be a safe and non-invasive diagnostic method that enabled us to assess the influence of degenerative changes in the cervical spine on hemodynamic disturbances in the inner ear and brain stem. Our findings demonstrated a pathological decrease of vertebral artery flow velocity in relationship to degenerative changes in the cervical spine. PMID:9833209

Strek, P; Rero?, E; Maga, P; Modrzejewski, M; Szybist, N

1998-01-01

197

Clipping of a vertebral artery aneurysm behind the hypoglossal nerve under the monitoring of lower cranial nerves.  

PubMed

Under an operative view, an aneurysm of the vertebral artery is located behind the lower cranial nerves. To prevent neurological deficits we employed electrophysiological monitoring while clipping an aneurysm of the vertebral artery. A 64-year-old woman had suffered a sudden severe headache in the morning. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and CT angiography revealed an aneurysm at a branching point of the left vertebral artery. The condylar fossa approach was taken while recording electromyography (EMG) of the lower cranial nerves. The aneurysm was located just behind the hypoglossal nerve and could not be clipped without strong traction of the hypoglossal nerve. Therefore, the hypoglossal nerve was divided to separate the lower two bundles of the hypoglossal nerve from the other bundles, and the clip was applied to the aneurysm between the nerve bundles without any change of the tongue EMG. The patient went home 10 days after operation with no neurological deficit. In conclusion, we report a case of a ruptured aneurysm of a vertebral artery, which was clipped while monitoring the lower cranial nerves. Tongue EMG monitoring enabled us to clip the aneurysm without nerve injury and revealed that the hypoglossal nerve near the hypoglossal canal can be divided into several bands without neurological deficit. PMID:20197210

Ishikawa, Mami; Kusaka, Gen; Takashima, Kouichi; Kamochi, Haruna; Shinoda, Soji

2010-03-01

198

Spontaneous bilateral carotid and vertebral artery dissections associated with multiple disparate intracranial aneurysms, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spontaneous resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous bilateral carotid and vertebral artery dissections (CADs and VADs) are rare. A 29-year-old female presented with a collapse, 4 weeks after a sudden onset of severe neck and shoulder pain. CT scan revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and early hydrocephalus. Angiography revealed bilateral CADs and VADs, along with multiple fusiform and saccular aneurysms. Systemic vessels – including the renal

Laurence A. G. Marshman; Luke Ball; Changez K. Jadun

2007-01-01

199

Endarterectomy of the intradural vertebral artery via the far lateral approach.  

PubMed

Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) of the posterior circulation are associated with a significant risk of subsequent infarction, particularly when caused by stenotic lesions in the intracranial portion of the vertebral artery (VA). Eight patients who had persistent posterior circulation TIAs despite receiving maximal medical therapy (including anticoagulation) and who had angiographic evidence of severe stenosis of the proximal intracranial VA with poor collateral flow were treated by endarterectomy of the intradural VA. Their ages ranged from 52 to 65 years. Five of these operations were performed via the far lateral approach. In all patients, the contralateral VA was hypoplastic or occluded, or ended in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Postoperative angiograms showed that the arteries of five of the patients were widely patent, one was improved but still stenotic, and two were occluded. The latter two patients subsequently underwent thrombectomy, after which the artery was patent in one patient and remained occluded in the other. After surgery, the TIAs of seven patients were relieved completely, and the patients were neurologically intact. The patient with persistent occlusion ultimately had moderate disability. Complications included the two cases of thrombotic occlusion that required a second operation, three cases of communicating hydrocephalus that required lumboperitoneal shunts, and two cases of transient dysfunction of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves. Suitable patients with persistent posterior circulation TIAs refractory to medical therapy who have appropriate angiographic evidence of proximal VA stenosis and poor collateral flow may benefit from endarterectomy of the intradural VA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8264876

Anson, J A; Spetzler, R F

1993-11-01

200

Mechanically-induced proximal arterial occlusion and stent-within-a-stent technique for the treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several endovascular approaches have been used in the treatment of dissecting aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system. We present a case of a bilateral spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms presenting with a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The dominant left VA aneurysm was treated with a stent- within-a-stent construct and the contralateral VA aneurysm was proximally occluded, with no complications, by an unintentional

T-K Kim; S I Seo; H Y Seol; B J Kwon; M H Han

2006-01-01

201

Endovascular surgery using stents for vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The treatment of dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VA) involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) or presenting with hypoplasia of the contralateral VA is controversial. We describe our experience with 4 ruptured and 2 unruptured VA dissecting aneurysms and discuss the efficacy of endovascular surgery using stents. All patients were male; their mean age was 50.7 years. According to World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading, 3 of the ruptured aneurysms were grade V, the other was grade I. All patients were successfully treated using stents; in 5 we also coil-embolized the aneurysmal lumen. One aneurysm was treated by the placement of 2 stents covering the dissection site; there was a danger of aneurysmal rupture during coil embolization. No technical complications were encountered although one patient suffered minor rebleeding 5 days post-treatment. Delayed vasospasm occurred in 4 cases. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), at 3 months after treatment 2 patients had made a good recovery, one was moderately disabled, one suffered severe disability, and 2 had died. One death each was due to acute myocardial and brain stem infarction. Endovascular surgery using stents may be a useful treatment in patients in poor condition who manifest dissecting VA aneurysms involving the PICA or hypoplasia of the contralateral VA, especially in the acute period after rupture. PMID:18683108

Suzuki, S; Kurata, A; Iwamoto, K; Sato, K; Niki, J; Miyazaki, T; Yamada, M; Oka, H; Fujii, K; Kan, S

2008-08-01

202

Spontaneous dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery: indications and long-term outcome of surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Spontaneous dissection of the vertebral artery (VA) is usually managed medically. The objective of this report was to describe 10 patients treated surgically for spontaneous dissection of the VA. Seven men and three women with a mean age of 52.5 +/- 11.3 years were treated between December 1978 and January 2001. In eight cases the presenting symptom was neck pain. Transient ischemic attack or completed stroke in the vertebrobasilar distribution followed in nine cases. In the remaining case, symptoms resulted from irritation of the superior roots of the brachial plexus. Dissection was located in one segment of the VA in seven cases and two contiguous segments in three cases. Lesions involved aneurysm in seven cases, tight stenosis in two, and occlusion in one. The decision to perform surgery was made because of either continued symptoms despite maximal anticoagulation therapy or the presence of an aneurysm causing recurrent thromboembolism or threatening rupture. In eight cases the revascularization procedure consisted of bypass from the carotid artery to the distal VA. In the remaining two cases revascularization was achieved by transposition of the VA directly onto the common or internal carotid artery. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all cases. No further neurological events were observed in any patient at a mean follow-up of 96.9 +/- 66 months (range, 12-216 months). Long-term resolution of vertebrobasilar symptoms was achieved in all cases, including one patient whose bypass occluded at 6 months. From these results we conclude that surgical treatment is the method of choice for spontaneous dissection of the extracranial VA associated with continued vertebrobasilar symptoms despite maximal medical therapy or with an expanding aneurysm. The most useful technique is bypass to the distal VA. Morbidity is low and long-term outcome is excellent. PMID:15714360

Chiche, Laurent; Praquin, Barbara; Koskas, Fabien; Kieffer, Edouard

2005-01-01

203

Spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries: the 10-year UCSD experience.  

PubMed

The etiology of spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries without antecedent trauma remains unclear. The goal of this 10-year review was to examine factors regarding presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome for all patients at our institution who were diagnosed with spontaneous carotid dissections (SCD) or spontaneous vertebral dissections (SVD) with no prior trauma history. A retrospective chart analysis was performed involving all discharges from UCSD Medical Center from 1995 to 2005. Patients were selected for inclusion based on the diagnosis of carotid or vertebral dissection with no associated traumatic or iatrogenic cause for their presentation. Characteristics of these patients' medical risk factors, presenting symptoms, diagnostic method and time, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed. A total of 20 patients (10 male, age 44.8 +/- 12.9 yrs; 10 female, age 39.6 +/- 14.9 yrs) were included for study. These patients represented 12 cases of SCD and nine SVD. On presentation, a majority of patients with both SVD and SCD reported headache as their primary complaint while a significantly higher rate of nausea (25% vs. 67%, p < 0.01) was reported in SVD. SVD was associated with a significantly longer diagnostic time (11 hr vs. 16 hr, p < 0.01). The most commonly performed diagnostic exam in both SCD and SVD was magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Anticoagulation was the primary treatment in 11 of 12 SCD and all nine SVD. One patient with persistent, symptomatic bilateral carotid dissection after anticoagulation was treated with stent placement resulting in unilateral intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Length of stay was significantly longer in SVD (5 d vs. 7 d, p < 0.02). A significantly higher incidence of persistent neurologic deficits on discharge was seen in SCD (71% vs. 33%, p < 0.02). Radiographic evidence of cerebral infarction on discharge had a stronger correlation with clinical deficits in SCD. Although there were only two cases, those treated with endovascular therapy in the setting of SCD suffered complications related to the intervention. On discharge, there did not seem to be a correlation between persistent neurologic deficits and radiographic evidence of infarction in SVD reflecting that recovery after these episodes may not be predictable based on the appearance of the infarction. PMID:17349360

Chandra, Ankur; Suliman, Ahmed; Angle, Niren

2007-03-01

204

Fenestration and duplication of the vertebral artery: The anatomical and clinical points of view.  

PubMed

The vertebral artery (VA) acts as a foundation for the posterior circulation of the head and neck. It presents a number of anomalies that can be easily visualized thanks to modern imaging techniques, such as MR and CT angiography or color Doppler ulrasonography. Determining the appropriate terminology for those anomalies can be sometimes more challenging than their recognition. One particular challenge concerns the differentiation betweenVA fenestration and duplication. Because of the different clinical prognoses associated with those anomalies, confusion should be avoided. Knowledge of the morphological anomalies associated with the VA is important for both radiologists and head and neck surgeons, because any injury to the VA can result in a threat to the vascular supply of the brain stem, the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres, the thalamus, cervical nerve roots and particularly the lateral medulla (Wallenberg's syndrome). This article analyses world literature concerning the issue of VA fenestration and duplication to facilitate a differential diagnosis. Clin. Anat. 26:933-943, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23553773

Polguj, Micha?; Podgórski, Micha?; J?drzejewski, Kazimierz; Topol, Miros?aw; Majos, Agata

2013-03-28

205

[Endovascular treatment for vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm: effectiveness of internal trapping with proximal flow arrest].  

PubMed

Ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms are associated with a higher incidence of rebleeding than saccular aneurysms, so, it is encouraged that diagnosis be followed by early treatment. The standard treatment for VA dissecting aneurysms is internal trapping using an endovascular technique. In this procedure, a proximal flow arrest is sometimes used to ensure safety. In this report, we demonstrated the usefulness of proximal flow arrest. The subjects consisted of seven patients treated with endovascular treatment for ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms from 1997 to 2005. Two of the seven patients were treated without proximal flow arrest and one of the two encountered rerupture of the aneurysm at coil embolization. Five patients were treated with proximal flow arrest. Internal trapping was safely completed in these patients. Overall outcomes measurment by Glasgow Outcome Scale were good recovery in three, moderate disability in one, vegetative state in one and dead in two. Proximal flow arrest is considered to be useful for the following four reasons: 1) for the prevention of distal embolism; 2) for the prevention of distal coil migration; and 3) to block blood flow upon rerupture; 4) for the balloon occlusion test, but the necessity of this technique is now controversial. However it is difficult to prove the necessity, we believe it is an effective optional technique for safety embolization. PMID:17052013

Uda, Takehiro; Murata, Keiji; Ichinose, Tsutomu; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Kusakabe, Taro; Sakaguchi, Masakazu

2006-10-01

206

Thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with hemorrhage and bulbar compression: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Bulbar compression by vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is extremely rare and only reported in a few cases. We report two cases with thrombosed VA aneurysm compressing medulla oblongata; one presented with bulbar apoplexy hemorrhage and the other with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 61-year-old male (case 1) presented with consciousness disturbances, left hemiplegia, and subsequent respiratory arrest. He was subjected to controlled ventilation, and computed tomography (CT) scan showed bulbar hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) revealed fusiform right VA aneurysm with partial thrombosis and bulbar compression. Intra-aneurysmal embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) relieved his clinical symptom including respiratory disturbance. Three months after the onset, he remained moderately disabled. A 76-year-old male (case 2) presented with severe headache and subsequent respiratory disturbance. CT scan on admission showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with acute hydrocephalus. Ventricular drainage rapidly improved consciousness while respiratory disturbance persisted over several days. MRI and DSA suggested spontaneous thrombosis of the right VA dissection with bulbar compression. He showed gradual recovery of his respiration over a week. After ventriculo-peritoneal shunting, he was transferred with moderate disability. These results suggest that the elimination of the pulsatile effect of VA aneurysm adjacent to medulla oblongata can improve symptoms caused by aneurysm-related compression. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment such as intra-aneurysmal embolization for ameliorating the blood flow inside the aneurysm can relieve mass effect and clinical symptoms. PMID:15708227

Shiraishi, Shin-ichiro; Fujimura, Miki; Kon, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Osamu; Kameyama, Motonobu; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide

2005-02-01

207

Lateral medullary ischaemic events in young adults with hypoplastic vertebral artery  

PubMed Central

Objective To present three cases of young adults with lateral medullary ischaemic events associated with a hypoplastic vertebral artery (VA). All three patients had two additional atherosclerotic or non?atherosclerotic risk factors for stroke. Patients and methods One female, aged 40?years, and two males, aged 38 and 37?years, each with two risk factors for stroke, presented to the emergency department with acute onset of symptoms and findings consistent with lateral medullary syndrome. All three patients underwent emergency CT scan of the brain followed by MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Results The CT scans were negative in all patients. MRI revealed a lateral medullary lesion in only one patient. All three patients had a hypoplastic VA ipsilateral to the clinical ischaemic event on MRA. Conclusions Hypoplasia of VA is not considered a risk factor for stroke as it is a common variant in up to 75% of the general population. However, in our patients, hypoplastic VA coexisted with two risk factors and resulted in stroke. Thus although a hypoplastic VA may not be an uncommon asymptomatic finding, it may contribute to stroke if additional risk factors are present.

Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Markoula, Sofia; Kosmidou, Maria; Pelidou, Sygliti-Henrietta; Kyritsis, Athanassios P

2007-01-01

208

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms.

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

209

Bilateral thalamic infarct caused by spontaneous vertebral artery dissection in pre-eclampsia with HELLP syndrome: a previously unreported association.  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular accidents are not rare during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Pre-eclampsia is a common condition that is characterized by proteinuria and de novo hypertension that may be complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. Spontaneous cervical artery dissection has been rarely reported in the postpartum period but never in association with HELLP syndrome. We describe a case of pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome complicated in the postpartum period by bilateral thalamic infarct as result of left vertebral artery dissection. We speculated about the possible common etiopathologic mechanisms involved in this previously unreported association. PMID:22341668

Borelli, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Del Dotto, Paolo; Lucetti, Claudio; Nuti, Angelo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

2012-02-15

210

The usefulness of 3DCT angiography for the diagnosis of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection—report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been recognized as being more common than was first thought, with the growing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, simple MRI alone is not always satisfactory for making an accurate diagnosis. We experienced two cases of VAD in our clinic, in which three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) was performed. Our scanner has the

Y Kurokawa; Y Yonemasu; H Kano; T Sasaki; K Inaba

2000-01-01

211

Dissecting aortic aneurysm involving an anomalous right subclavian artery and isolated left vertebral artery: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old hypertensive woman was admitted with severe interscapular back pain. A chest radiograph showed marked widening of the mediastinum. Aortography demonstrated a DeBakey type III, a thoracic aortic dissection and an anomalous right subclavian artery which was associated with an isolated left vertebral artery. The patient underwent aortic arch replacement with 5 branches and made an uneventful recovery. As far as we can determine, this is the first reported occurrence of these anomalies together with acquired disease of the aorta. PMID:9972891

Nonami, Y; Tomosawa, N; Nishida, K; Nawata, S

1998-12-01

212

Locked in and out: a case of emerging basilar artery obstruction secondary to vertebral artery dissection thrombolysed with intravenous rt-PA  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case in which intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) potentially saved a young man from locked-in syndrome or life threatening consequences. The patient presented with acute stroke secondary to vertebral artery dissection and was treated with intravenous rt-PA. There were no post thrombolysis complications and the patient left hospital with mild neurological symptoms. Our report suggests that in cases of acute posterior circulation stroke due to arterial dissection, treatment with intravenous thrombolysis is safe, practicable and effective.

Al-Raweshidy, Y H; Sinha, D M; Coward, L J; Guyler, P C; O'Brien, A

2011-01-01

213

[Changes in vertebral arteries in patients with ischemic stroke in the vertebro-basilar basin as a result of duplex scanning].  

PubMed

With duplex scanning of neck vessels in 120 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar basin revealed changes in the vertebral artery in (68.3%) of patients, which cause difficulty in blood flow in the vessels of vertebro-basilar basin. Among them were seen often atherosclerotic stenoses (53.3%), deformation (11.7%) and abnormal discharge of vertebral arteries (3.3%). PMID:23951915

214

Ultrasonic duplex scanning in atherosclerotic disease of the innominate, subclavian and vertebral arteries. A comparative study with angiography.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic duplex scanning of the vertebral artery has a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.83 for the detection of an obstructive lesion of 50% or more at the site of the ostium. For the subclavian arteries these values are respectively 0.73 and 0.91. For both vessels the test has a very high negative predictive value of respectively 0.96 and 0.97. Therefore duplex ultrasound scanning is a reliable test in screening patients suspected of multi-level atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial cerebral vessels. The problem remains in classifying the degree of stenosis. In the case of the vertebral artery the sample volume of the pulsed Doppler is usually too large in relation to the vessel diameter. In the case of the subclavian and innominate artery one of the main problems is the range of the pulsed Doppler system. A subclavian steal syndrome is easily diagnosed without any special test. PMID:6390900

Ackerstaff, R G; Hoeneveld, H; Slowikowski, J M; Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Ludwig, J W

215

[A case of a vertebral artery fusiform aneurysm treated with stent assisted coil embolization: technique to prevent coil migration].  

PubMed

Placement of a stent over the aneurysm neck and secondary coil embolization prevents coil migration and allows attenuated packing of the coils. However, during the course of the embolization, coils project over and obscure the parent vessel. Here we report a novel technique for endovascular parent vessel reconstruction with aneurysm embolization. A 73-year-old male had an incidental fusiform aneurysm at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. The size of the aneurysm increased from 7 mm to 8 mm in diameter. Since the right vertebral artery was hypoplastic, endovascular parent vessel reconstruction with coil embolization was performed. A flexible balloon-expandable coronary stent was navigated to the lesion and deployed successfully followed by coil embolization using a microcatheter through the stent. The balloon was inflated intermittently during coil insertion avoiding coil migration to inside the stent. Furthermore, the angle of the image intensifier was manipulated to visualize the inside of the stent. Postoperative course was uneventful and follow-up MRI three moths later demonstrated obliteration of the aneurysm and patency of the parent artery. This technique provides a practical treatment strategy for the management of a circumferential aneurysm. PMID:17052016

Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Minoru; Kawakubo, Jun-ichi; Hiu, Takeshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Nagata, Izumi

2006-10-01

216

Carotid and vertebral artery injury in survivors of atlanto-occipital dislocation: case reports and literature review.  

PubMed

Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) usually results in immediate death from transection of the upper cervical spinal cord near the spinomedullary junction. However, over the last several decades increasing numbers of AOD survivors have been identified. Although many of these patients initially demonstrate profound neurologic deficits, a number who survive have regained most or all neurologic functions, indicating that they did not suffer mechanical disruption of the spinal cord at the time of AOD. In the survivors, a growing body of evidence indicates that many of the initial neurologic deficits are related to vascular injury to the carotid or vertebral arteries and their branches. We recently encountered three AOD survivors with no evidence of mechanical injury to the spinal cord in which angiography demonstrated vascular injury to the internal carotid artery in the form of vasospasm in one case and to the vertebral arteries in the forms of focal stenosis at the site of dural penetration, focal stenosis and distal vasospasm, and focal stenosis with distal intimal flap and dissection in one case each. Autopsy after one of the three died after cardiac arrest demonstrated diffuse infarction of the cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, brainstem, and upper cervical spinal cord without evidence of mechanical laceration or transection of the spinal cord. Recovery of neurologic function in two cases following prompt immobilization and angiography suggests that neurologic deficits secondary to vascular injury are potentially reversible. PMID:2002530

Lee, C; Woodring, J H; Walsh, J W

1991-03-01

217

Endovascular management of pediatric high-flow vertebro-vertebral fistula with reversed basilar artery flow. A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

Honarmand, A R; Ansari, S A; Alden, T D; Soltanolkotabi, M; Schoeneman, S E; Hurley, M C; Rahman, O; Shaibani, A

2013-05-21

218

Endovascular coil trapping for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms by using double microcatheters technique in the acute stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶Background. In the treatment of vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms, only proximal occlusion of the VA does not necessarily prevent\\u000a rerupture. We evaluated the efficacy of coil trapping for the ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms using the double microcatheters\\u000a technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. We treated 11 patients who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of a VA dissecting aneurysm which\\u000a did

Y. Kai; J.-I. Hamada; M. Morioka; T. Todaka; T. Mizuno; Y. Ushio

2003-01-01

219

Effect of rheological property on blood flow in vertebral artery branch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blocking of an artery is one of mechanisms for cerebral stroke development. If an important cerebral artery is occluded by any reason and if there is no sufficient collaterals, tissue ischemia occurs at brain tissues distal to the occluded artery, which is a well known clinical situation. However, in practice, ischemia or hypoperfusion has also been observed through the branches proximal to the occluded artery. The unexpected ``proximal ischemia'' is not yet known, from which patients could suffer serious complications. In the present study, two patient cases are presented to elucidate this phenomenon from the view point of fluid dynamics, especially with emphasis on the role of rheology in hemodynamics.

Min, Taegee; Kim, Myungjoon; Kim, Taesung; Kwon, O.-Ki

2011-11-01

220

Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: clinical aspects, imaging features and endovascular treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracranial arterial dissections are a recognised cause of stroke, particularly in young adults. Clinical diagnosis may be\\u000a difficult, and the classical triad of symptoms is uncommon. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of extracranial\\u000a arterial dissections, and this review provides a detailed discussion of the relative merits and limitations of currently available\\u000a imaging modalities. Conventional arteriography has been

Christine M. Flis; H. Rolf Jäger; Paul S. Sidhu

2007-01-01

221

Vertebral artery dissection in a child. Is “spontaneous” still an appropriate definition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though a rare cause of stroke in the general population, in almost one quarter of young patients affected by stroke cervical\\u000a artery dissection (CAD) is the underlying cause. Among these cases “spontaneous” dissections, intended as non-traumatic, represent\\u000a about 34% of posterior circulation arterial dissection in patients aged less than 18 years. We here describe the case of a\\u000a seven-year-old boy

S. Bacigaluppi; R. Rusconi; P. Rampini; F. Annoni; M. L. Zavanone; V. Carnelli; S. M. Gaini

2006-01-01

222

A possible correlation between vertebral artery insufficiency and degenerative changes in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 130 patients, aged 20 to 81 years, with symptoms of tinnitus, vertigo or dizziness. Radiological examinations\\u000a revealed degenerative changes in the cervical spines of all patients such as discopathy or osteophytes. Head and neck and\\u000a neurological examinations ruled out other symptoms apart from vertebrobasilar artery flow insufficiency. The vertebrobasilar\\u000a arteries were examined by means of a color Doppler

P. Str?k; E. Rero?; P. Maga; M. Modrzejewski; N. Szybist

1998-01-01

223

Terson's syndrome as the initial symptom of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm. Case report.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old male initially presented to the ophthalmology department complaining of sudden visual loss. Fundus photography and ultrasonography followed by computed tomography identified Terson's syndrome caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the left vertebral artery. Other than obtunded visual acuity, his neurological examination was normal and he denied any headache. He was treated conservatively with pain and blood pressure control. He complained of headache associated with rerupture of the aneurysm on day 5. The patient died of rerupture on day 14. The clinical course of this patient indicates that Terson's syndrome may occur without sudden increase of intracranial pressure. Terson's syndrome may occur as a rare initial clinical sign of SAH caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm. PMID:16861828

Inoue, Tomohiro; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Shigeeda, Takashi

2006-07-01

224

The Difference of Each Angiographic Finding After Multiple Stent According to Stent Type in Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report a case of spontaneous bilateral intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with subarachnoid hemorrhage. One dissecting lesion was treated with a coronary balloon-mounted stent (BMS) technique; however, due to differences in access route tortuosity, the other lesion was treated with a self-expandable stent (SES) technique. After 2 months, the angiographic outcome showed complete healing of the dissected segment on the side that was treated with BMS; in contrast, the dissection lesion appeared to be re-growing on the side that was treated with SES. Complete treatment of the aggravated lesion was achieved by additional deployment of BMSs. Therefore, we have provided a discussion of the possible reasons for this difference in outcome according to the stent type.

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Woon Ki; Baik, Min Woo

2013-01-01

225

Intraoperative Vertebral Artery Angiography to Guide C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation in a Patient with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

We present a case of an athetoid cerebral palsy with quadriparesis caused by kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, severe spinal stenosis at the cervicomedullary junction, and atlantoaxial instability. The patient improved after the first surgery, which included a C1 total laminectomy and C-arm guided righ side unilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. C1-2 fixation was not performed on the other side because of an aberrant and dominant vertebral artery (VA). Eight months after the first operation, the patient required revision surgery for persistent neck pain and screw malposition. We used intraoperative VA angiography with simultaneous fluoroscopy for precise image guidance during bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Intraoperative VA angiography allowed the accurate insertion of screws, and can therefore be used to avoid VA injury during C1-2 transarticular screw fixation in comorbid patients with atlantoaxial deformities.

Chung, Jong Chul; Park, Ki Seok; Ha, Ho Gyun

2012-01-01

226

Vertebral artery insufficiency as a possible mechanism for sudden infant death – in vivo evidence does not support findings from postmortem studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent postmortem studies have suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might involve an underlying, gradual brain stem injury caused by repeated episodes of transiently compromised brain stem circulation. Autopsy studies have also reported that vertebral artery occlusion due to head rotations, such as occurs, e.g. during prone sleeping, would be a physiological phenomenon of infant atlantooccipital junction. The present

Sampsa Vanhatalo; Kari Nikolajev; Olavi Kiekara; Raija Seuri; Raili Riikonen

2003-01-01

227

Uncommon course for a vertebral artery dissection: Rupture, occlusion and recanalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial arterial dissections of the vertebrobasilar system are recognized as a cause of stroke. Although the pathogenic mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown, in some cases the stroke originates from subarachnoid hemorrhage, while in others ischemia is the cause. In cases where hemorrhage occurs, occlusion of the lesion is effective in reducing the risk of re-bleeding. However, deciding on treatment

Yasushi Matsumoto; Hisashi Nagashima; Toshihide Toriyama; Shigeaki Kobayashi; Kazuhiro Hongo

2008-01-01

228

Traumatic rupture of the intracranial vertebral artery due to rotational acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reason for blunt forces against the head to rupture the basal brain arteries has been discussed in forensic and trauma research. However, well-documented case reports demonstrating the mechanism of injury, the clinical course and the forensic work up are rare.We present the case of a 40-year-old man, who was assaulted with blunt force to the head resulting in death

Ch. Kaiser; A. Schnabel; J. Berkefeld; H. Bratzke

2008-01-01

229

Endovascular reconstruction of vertebral artery occlusion prior to basilar thrombectomy in a series of six patients presenting with acute symptomatic basilar thrombosis.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Symptomatic acute basilar thrombosis is associated with a high mortality rate. Aggressive endovascular management has led to survival rates of 35-50%. We report the largest series of endovascular reconstruction of occluded dominant vertebral arteries prior to basilar thrombectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database since August 2010 of all neuroendovascular interventions was mined for patients undergoing basilar artery thrombolysis from which a group with vertebral artery reconstruction was selected. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant clinical, technical, and outcome data. RESULTS: From August 2010 to September 2012, six patients were identified who underwent vertebral reconstruction prior to basilar thrombectomy. Patients ranged in age from 42 to 57 years (mean 51 years). Mean time from symptoms until recanalization was approximately 6 h. Angiographic Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction IIB reconstitution of the basilar trunk was achieved in all cases. There were no technical complications. Two patients had care withdrawn secondary to massive completed brainstem infarction and poor neurological status post intervention. Three patients are now independent at 12, 14, and 31 months, respectively. One patient, after a follow-up of only 8 months, has achieved a modified Rankin Scale score of 3. CONCLUSIONS: Complete vertebral occlusion below a basilar thrombus can be recanalized prior to thrombectomy. In this case series, 100% of the acutely occluded vertebral arteries could be opened using either anterograde or retrograde access. However, basilar thrombosis continues to be a devastating illness, with one-third of the patients in this series dying of progressive infarction despite angiographic patency of the large conduit vessels with technical complications. PMID:23737492

Ecker, Robert D; Tsujiura, Crystiana A; Baker, Christopher B; Cushing, Deborah

2013-06-01

230

Endovascular treatment of ruptured dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms—long-term follow-up results, benefits of early embolization, and predictors of outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of endovascular treatment of ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral\\u000a artery, the benefits of early embolization, and the predictors of outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical material and methods  Between September, 2001 and May, 2009, 25 patients with ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms were treated by internal coil\\u000a trapping (n?=?23) or stents (n?=?2) in our hospital.

Jong-Myong Lee; Tae-Sun Kim; Sung-Pil Joo; Woong Yoon; Ha-Young Choi

2010-01-01

231

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

2008-04-01

232

[Clinical features of unruptured vertebral artery dissection presenting as isolated occipital headache and/or neck pain].  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissection(VAD)presenting as isolated occipital headache and/or neck pain is being increasingly diagnosed because of the development of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). While a majority of the patients diagnosed with this condition shows a favorable prognosis, the pain may be a predictor of fatal stroke in some patients. We aimed to find out the features of headache with VAD, identify the clinical manifestations indicative of VAD, and determine the ideal diagnostic approach to this condition to avoid fatal stroke. We reviewed medical records of 41 consecutive patients who showed VAD with isolated headache and were diagnosed between 1995 and 2008. All patients experienced pain in the occipitocervical area ipsilateral to the affected VA. Pain showed a sudden onset in 21(51%)patients, was persistent over several days in 31(76%)patients, and was severe enough to disable daily life activities in 34(83%)patients. Progression of stenosis or aneurysmal dilatation of the vessel was identified on follow-up imaging(angiography, magnetic resonance angiography)in 7 patients(17%), and was found within 14 days after pain onset in 6 of these patients(86%). Patients with persistent, severe, and unilateral pain in the occipitocervical area should undergo MRI examination, including surface anatomy scanning(SAS)imaging, and the possibility of VAD should be considered in their diagnosis. Once VAD is diagnosed, the patient should undergo meticulous blood pressure control, bed rest, and repeated MRI examination for at least 2 weeks after onset. PMID:23542792

Echigo, Tadashi; Matsui, Hiroki; Oka, Hideki; Hashimoto, Yoichi; Hino, Akihiko; Shiomi, Naoto; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

2013-04-01

233

A single microvascular decompression surgery cures a patient with trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, tinnitus, hypertension, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by the compression of a vertebral artery.  

PubMed

This report presents a 72-year-old woman with posterior cranial fossa neurovascular compression syndrome that included paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the posterior cranial fossa, and a gross left vertebral artery was identified as the offending vessel. The neurovascular conflicts were associated with the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, IX, and X. The patient experienced significant postoperative relief. Probably this is the first report of a single microvascular decompression, having cured such a high number of syndromes, including paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. PMID:23466845

Jia, Yin; Wenhua, Wang; Quanbin, Zhang

234

Abnormal course of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction in patients with Down syndrome visualized by three-dimensional CT angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We determined the incidence of vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in patients with Down\\u000a syndrome, and characterized the VA anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The course of the VA in 46 consecutive patients who were due to undergo posterior arthrodesis surgery at the CVJ were evaluated\\u000a by three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA). Included were five patients with Down syndrome who suffered

Masashi Yamazaki; Akihiko Okawa; Mitsuhiro Hashimoto; Atsuomi Aiba; Yukio Someya; Masao Koda

2008-01-01

235

Fatal outcome after brain stem infarction related to bilateral vertebral artery occlusion - case report of a detrimental complication of cervical spine trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after blunt cervical trauma occurs more frequently than historically believed. The symptoms due to vertebral artery (VA) occlusion usually manifest within the first 24 hours after trauma. Misdiagnosed VAI or delay in diagnosis has been reported to cause acute deterioration of previously conscious and neurologically intact patients. Case presentation A 67 year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) sustaining multiple injuries. Initial evaluation by the emergency medical response team revealed that he was alert, oriented, and neurologically intact. He was transferred to the local hospital where cervical spine computed tomography (CT) revealed several abnormalities. Distraction and subluxation was present at C5-C6 and a comminuted fracture of the left lateral mass of C6 with violation of the transverse foramen was noted. Unavailability of a spine specialist prompted the patient's transfer to an area medical center equipped with spine care capabilities. After arrival, the patient became unresponsive and neurological deficits were noted. His continued deterioration prompted yet another transfer to our Level 1 regional trauma center. A repeat cervical spine CT at our institution revealed significantly worsened subluxation at C5-C6. CT angiogram also revealed complete occlusion of bilateral VA. The following day, a repeat CT of the head revealed brain stem infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion. Shortly following, the patient was diagnosed with brain death and care was withdrawn. Conclusion Brain stem infarction secondary to bilateral VA occlusion following cervical spine trauma resulted in fatal outcome. Prompt imaging evaluation is necessary to assess for VAI in cervical trauma cases with facet joint subluxation/dislocation or transverse foramen fracture so that treatment is not delayed. Additionally, multiple transportation events are risk factors for worsening when unstable cervical injuries are present. Close attention to proper immobilization and neck position depending on the mechanism of injury is mandatory.

2011-01-01

236

Stenting of Symptomatic Basilar and Vertebral Artery Stenosis in Patients Resistant to Optimal Medical Prevention: The Lyon Stroke Unit Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial angioplasty stenting may be an efficient therapy in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis unresponsive to optimal medical therapy. We present our experience in this setting. Results: The study included 12 cases (8 men, 4 women), with an age range of 43–78 years (mean 62.6 years). Intracranial stenosis that resulted in qualifying stroke or transient ischemic attack

Ionela-Camelia Ralea; Norbert Nighoghossian; Florence Tahon; Laurent Derex; Serkan Cakmak; Paul Trouillas; Francis Turjman

2008-01-01

237

Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis.

Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

2011-01-01

238

Percutaneous transvenous embolisation of iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients presented with vertebral arteriovenous fistulae following unintentional puncture of the vertebral artery. A percutaneous transvenous approach was used in both cases and the fistula was successfully embolised with microcoils. A complete cure was achieved in both patients.

S. Fukao; N. Hashimoto; K. Kazekawa; Y. Kaku

1995-01-01

239

Vertebral artery dissection and chirotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The case of a 49-year-old busdriver is referred, who died 6 days after heavy neck-ache in course of a Wallenberg's syndrome.\\u000a Although neurological examination gave all the signs of a brain-stem-vessel-disease, the definite verification by ultrasound\\u000a and x-rays (CT and MRI) took several days and was not out of doubts until the infarction and the occlusion of the basilar

K. Bayer

1998-01-01

240

Bow-hunter's syndrome caused by dynamic vertebral artery stenosis at the cranio-cervical junction--a management algorithm based on a systematic review and a clinical series.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is defined as symptomatic, vertebro-basilar insufficiency caused by mechanical occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA) at the atlanto-axial level during head rotation. In the literature, about 40 cases have been reported. However, due to the rarity of this pathology, there are no guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Conservative, surgical, and endovascular concepts have been proposed. In order to work out an algorithm, we performed a systematic review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of patients, which have been treated in our institutions over the last decade. The clinical series was comprised of five patients. The symptoms ranged from transient vertigo to posterior circulation stroke. Diagnosis was established by dynamic angiography. In all patients, the VA was decompressed; one patient required additional fusion. The clinical and radiological results were good, and the treatment-related morbidity was low. The literature review demonstrated that Bow hunter's syndrome is a rare pathology but associated with a pathognomonic and serious clinical presentation. The gold standard of diagnosis is dynamic angiography, and patients were well managed with tailored vertebral artery decompression. By this management, clinical and radiological results were excellent and the treatment-related morbidity was low. PMID:21789571

Cornelius, Jan Frederick; George, Bernard; N'dri Oka, Dominique; Spiriev, Toma; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2011-07-26

241

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

242

Intracranial arterial dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the angiographic and CT findings, precipitating factors and clinical features in nine patients with ten intracranial\\u000a arterial dissections. The internal carotid artery was involved in five cases, the vertebral artery in four and the posterior\\u000a inferior cerebellar artery in one. Angiography revealed irregular stenosis in four cases, irregular stenosis and a pseudoaneurysm\\u000a in two, irregular stenosis and irregular

O. Pelkonen; T. Tikkakoski; S. Leinonen; J. Pyhtinen; K. Sotaniemi

1998-01-01

243

Anterior Spinal Artery Collateral Flow in Vertebrobasilar Occlusive Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 49-year-old man was referred for an episode of regressive hemiparesis, caused by proven brainstem infarction. Five weeks later, he started a series of posterior circulation transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and angiography revealed left intracranial vertebral artery occlusion with contralateral severe vertebral artery stenosis and a significant collateral flow from the anterior spinal artery to the basilar artery. The TIAs

Andreas Bender; Siegfried Bien; Christine Thomas; Dirk Petersen

1996-01-01

244

Histological and Morphometric Study of the Arterial Route from the Intercostal\\/Lumbar Artery via the Adamkiewicz Artery to the Anterior Spinal Artery Using Elderly Cadavers with or without Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Adamkiewicz artery originates from the lower intercostal\\/lumbar artery, runs along the vertebral roots of the spinal nerve, and communicates with the anterior spinal artery. In graft replacement for an aortic aneurysm, the lower intercostal\\/lumbar artery should be reconstructed to maintain the arterial blood supply to the lumbar spinal cord via the Adamkiewicz artery. To date, there are few reports

Yasuaki Fujisawa; Kiyofumi Morishita; Gen Murakami; Tomio Abe

2006-01-01

245

Detection of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of vertebral compression fractures, there is much that remains uncertain. There is no "gold standard" for the definition which has led to epidemiologic and study differences. Height loss is a way to suspect vertebral fractures but it has its own issues. There are multiple radiographic systems for defining vertebral fractures, both prevalent and incident; risk factors for prevalent fractures have already been delineated. Recent studies have elucidated the risk factors for incident vertebral fractures including age, low weight, late menarche, lower bone mineral density, history of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, smoking, and use of a walking aid. Fan beam densitometers have had improving ability to image the spine, a procedure now known as vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Recently (in the United States) a CPT code and reimbursement was established. Yet, many vertebral fractures go undiagnosed, diagnosed but unreported, or reported but not utilized in patient care. Because of this, the International Osteoporosis Foundation developed a Vertebral Fracture Initiative for radiologists and the International Society for Clinical Densitometry began a VFA course. Both teaching programs use the semi-quantitative assessment of Genant to aid the radiologists and clinicians in detecting vertebral fractures. PMID:16303112

Schwartz, Elliott N; Steinberg, Dee

2005-12-01

246

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

247

Vertebral deformities and scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoliosis, especially idiopathic scoliosis, is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine in which the vertebral deformities are known, cuneal deformation being the most commonly known deformity but not the only one. We report here data concerning these specific vertebral deformities in chickens. A pinealectomy was performed in a controlled series of animal experiments. This technique induces progressive scoliosis in

C. Coillard; C. H. Rivard

1996-01-01

248

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

249

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

250

Vertebral body stenting / stentoplasty.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequent. Although the majority of fractures follow a benign course, there are certain fracture types which result in severe spinal deformity and / or are associated with neurological complications. These patients should be detected early and undergo surgical treatment. Vertebroplasty remains an important and effective treatment option for acute painful vertebral fractures showing progressive collapse. By this procedure the fracture can be stabilised, the pain is controlled and the progression of height loss is also halted. If a vertebral body shows a higher degree of collapse and kyphotic deformity or even some posterior wall involvement, the stentoplasty procedure (further evolution of kyphoplasty) allows height resotartion by the stent and the stabilisation of the vertebral body by cement. PMID:22869449

Heini, Paul F; Teuscher, Regula

2012-08-06

251

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

252

Embolic internal auditory artery infarction from vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 51-year-old man developed sudden vertigo, right hearing loss and dysphagia. Examination revealed right Horner syndrome, spontaneous torsional-horizontal nystagmus, right central type facial palsy, dysarthria, reduced soft palate elevation without gag reflex, left hypesthesia, right dysmetria and imbalance. Audiometry and bithermal caloric tests documented right sensorineural hearing loss and canal paresis. Brain MRI and cerebral angiography documented right lateral medullary

Kwang-Dong Choi; Jong-Un Chun; Moon Gu Han; Seong-Ho Park; Ji Soo Kim

2006-01-01

253

[Two cases of iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistulas successfully treated by surgery].  

PubMed

Cervical vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are very rare. The most frequent cause is trauma including iatrogenesis which result from vertebral artery penetration during central venous catheterization. Some endovascular techniques have been reported for this type of lesion. However, several potential problems exist, such as possibility of recurrence of AVFs and VA occlusion with endovascular treatment. In this article, we review two cases with iatrogenic vertebral AVFs which were successfully treated surgically and report the advantages of surgical treatment. PMID:21372336

Ishiguro, Taichi; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Yoneyama, Taku; Yamaguchi, Koji; Kawamata, Takakazu; Okada, Yoshikazu

2011-03-01

254

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained.

Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

1983-01-01

255

Vertebrate GABA receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologic-pharmacologic studies in vivo and with tissue cultures have revealed that synaptic GABA receptors exist in the vertebrate CNS. The GABA antagonist, bicuculline, can be used to detect synaptic GABA receptors in both the presence and absence of Na+, even though GABA binding to cerebral subcellular fractions occurs mainly to transport (uptake) receptors in the presence of Na+.

Francis V. DeFeudis

1978-01-01

256

Vertebrate limb development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing limb is a good model for exploring mechanisms that establish cell and tissue plans during vertebrate development. A set of inductive cell interactions along each of the three limb axes specify the pattern of structures that involve the production of a signal by one group of cells and the response to this signal by a second group of

C. Tickle

1996-01-01

257

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

258

Homocystinuria presenting as fatal common carotid artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with homocystinuria presenting with fatal cerebral infarction that resulted from left common carotid artery occlusion is reported. This 13-year-old, healthy and intelligent girl presented with progressive cerebral infarction. Angiography revealed total occlusion of the left common carotid artery and stenosis of the right common carotid artery. Distal stenosis of bilateral vertebral arteries was also observed. Initially Takayasu arteritis

Chun-Yi Lu; Jia-Woei Hou; Pen-Jung Wang; Hsiu-Hui Chiu; Tso-Ren Wang

1996-01-01

259

Bilateral aberrant origin of the inferior thyroid artery from the common carotid artery.  

PubMed

The thyroid gland is mainly supplied by the superior and inferior thyroid arteries, with the latter being its principal arterial supply in adults. The inferior thyroid artery usually arises from the thyrocervical trunk, and less frequently from the subclavian artery. Rarely, it may originate from the vertebral artery or the common carotid artery. In the present report, we describe a unique case of a 56-year-old patient, undergoing total thyroidectomy and level VI lymph node dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma, with aberrant origin of both inferior thyroid arteries from the common carotid arteries. PMID:23783369

Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Kalles, Vasileios; Papapanagiotou, Ioannis; Bonatsos, Vasileios; Orfanos, Nikolaos; Kaklamanos, Ioannis G; Manolis, Evangelos

2013-06-20

260

The taxonomy of vertebrate viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses that infect vertebrates (i.e. humans and higher animals) exhibit great diversity. They also create a variety of diseases that arise from interaction with their vertebrate hosts. This review presents the diversity of the biological and molecular properties of vertebrate viruses that aid their transmission and survival using the currently accepted taxonomic system. The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy has

Craig R. Pringle

2006-01-01

261

Head segmentation in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze.

Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

2008-01-01

262

Vertebrate heart development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes recent studies of the cellular and molecular events involved in the determination and differentiation of cardiac myocytes in vertebrate embryos. Fate-mapping studies in mouse, chick, amphibian and zebrafish embryos suggest that cardiac muscle precursors are specified shortly before or at the time of gastrulation. Nuclear factors, such as dHAND, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, GATA-6, Nkx-2.3, growth arrest homeobox

Gary E Lyons

1996-01-01

263

Were vertebrates octoploid?  

PubMed Central

It has long been suggested that gene and genome duplication play important roles in the evolution of organismal complexity. For example, work by Ohno proposed that two rounds of whole genome doubling (tetraploidy) occurred during the evolution of vertebrates: the extra genes permitting an increase in physiological and anatomical complexity. Several modifications of this 'two tetraploidies' hypothesis have been proposed, taking into account accumulating data, and there is wide acceptance of the basic scheme. In the past few years, however, several authors have raised doubts, citing lack of direct support or even evidence to the contrary. Here, we review the evidence for and against the occurrence of tetraploidies in early vertebrate evolution, and present a new compilation of molecular phylogenetic data for amphioxus. We argue that evidence in favour of tetraploidy, based primarily on genome and gene family analyses, is strong. Furthermore, we show that two observations used as evidence against genome duplication are in fact compatible with the hypothesis: but only if the genome doubling occurred by two closely spaced sequential rounds of autotetraploidy. We propose that early vertebrates passed through an autoautooctoploid phase in the evolution of their genomes.

Furlong, Rebecca F; Holland, Peter W H

2002-01-01

264

Non-vertebrate melatonin.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

2003-05-01

265

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools.

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

266

Biomechanics of vertebral bone augmentation.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation is a successful means of relieving pain and reducing disability after vertebral compression fracture; however, the exact mechanism by which vertebral augmentation eliminates pain remains unproven. Most likely, pain relief is because of stabilization of microfractures. The biomechanical effects of vertebral fracture and subsequent vertebral augmentation therapy, however, are topics for continued investigation. Altered biomechanical stresses after treatment may affect the risk of adjacent fracture in an osteoporotic patient; that risk may be different after vertebral augmentation with cavity creation (balloon assisted vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) when compared with vertebral augmentation without cavity creation (vertebroplasty). Polymethyl methacrylate cement used in these procedures may have an important effect on the load transfer and disk mechanics, and therefore, the variables of cement volume, formulation, and distribution should also be evaluated. Finally, the question of whether prophylactic treatment of adjacent intact levels is indicated must be considered. PMID:20439011

Hadley, Celene; Awan, Omer Abdulrehman; Zoarski, Gregg H

2010-05-01

267

Revascularization of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion at the chronic stage.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who underwent intracranial angioplasty and Solitaire stent placement for recanalization of a vertebrobasilar artery occlusion 2 months after symptom onset. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed that both vertebral arteries and the proximal basilar artery were occluded. Balloon angioplasty was performed on a segment of the occluded left vertebral artery and basilar artery, followed by successful detachment of one Solitaire stent. Repeat angiography showed near normal patency of the left vertebrobasilar artery. The patient`s symptoms improved significantly, and postoperative transcranial Doppler sonography 3 months later showed no evidence of in-stent restenosis. PMID:23887219

Liu, Xun-Can; Chen, Chen; Shi, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shou-Chun

2013-07-01

268

Vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality in haemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Vascular calcifications and the bone fractures caused by abnormal bone fragility, also called osteoporotic fractures, are frequent complications associated with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vascular calcifications, osteoporotic bone fractures and survival in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods. A total of 193 HD patients were followed up to 2 years. Vascular calcifications and osteoporotic vertebral fractures (quoted just as vertebral fractures in the text) were assessed by thoracic, lumbar spine, pelvic and hand X-rays and graded according to their severity. Clinical, biochemical and therapeutic data gathered during the total time spent on HD were collected. Results. The prevalence of aortic calcifications was higher in HD patients than in a random-based general population (79% versus 37.5%, P < 0.001). Total time on any renal replacement therapy (RRT) and diabetes were positively associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcifications. In addition to these factors, time on HD was also positively associated with the severity of vascular calcifications, and higher haemoglobin levels were associated with a lower prevalence of severe vascular calcifications in large and medium calibre arteries. The prevalence of vertebral fractures in HD patients was similar to that of the general population (26.5% versus 24.1%). Age and time on HD showed a positive and statistically significant association with the prevalence of vertebral fractures. Vascular calcifications in the medium calibre arteries were associated with a higher rate of prevalent vertebral fractures. In women, severe vascular calcifications and vertebral fractures were positively associated with mortality [RR = 3.2 (1.0–10.0) and RR = 4.8 (1.7–13.4), respectively]. Conclusions. Positive associations between vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality have been found in patients on HD.

Rodriguez-Garcia, Minerva; Gomez-Alonso, Carlos; Naves-Diaz, Manuel; Diaz-Lopez, Jose Bernardino; Diaz-Corte, Carmen; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.

2009-01-01

269

The dissections of craniocervical arteries.  

PubMed

Dissection of craniocervical arteries internal carotid artery (ICA), or vertebral artery (VA) is an increasingly recognized entity and infrequent cause of stroke. We investigated 8 patients (4 women and 4 men) with dissections of the craniocervical arteries. Diagnostic procedures for detection of craniocervical dissection included: extracranial ultrasound-color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) of carotid and vertebral arteries, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and radiological computed tomography (CT) and digital subtractive angiography (DSA) examinations. Ultrasound findings (CDFI of carotid and vertebral arteries) were positive for vessel dissection in seven patients (or 87.5 per cent) and negative in one patient. DSA was consistent with dissection in five patients (or 62.5 per cent), negative in one, while in two patients the examination was not performed due to known allergy to contrast media. Five patients (62.5 per cent) were treated with anticoagulants, one with suppressors of platelet aggregation, and two patients were operated. Six patients (75 per cent) after the treatment showed partial recovery of neurological defects, and an improvement of ultrasound finding of dissected arteries. In one patient, following operation, stroke developed with deterioration of motor deficit, and one patient was readmitted three months later due to a newly developed stroke and soon died. The diagnosis should be suspected in any young or middle-age patient with new onset of otherwise unexplained unremitting headache or neck ache, especially in association with transient or permanent focal neurological deficits. PMID:16417172

Pasi?, Marija Bosnjak; Solter, Vesna Vargek; Seri?, Vesna; Uremovi?, Melita; Vidrih, Branka; Lisak, Marijana; Demarin, Vida

2005-12-01

270

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

271

Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.  

PubMed

Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-07-03

272

[Vascular supply of recurrent juvenile angiofibroma after external carotid artery ligation].  

PubMed

A case of recurrent juvenile angiofibroma after the operation with external carotid artery ligation is described. Arteriography demonstrated significant collateral circulation to the tumour from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. PMID:14994624

Szyma?ska, Anna; Szyma?ski, Marcin; Krzyzanowski, Wojciech; Siwiec, Henryk

2003-01-01

273

NFAT signaling in vertebrate development  

Microsoft Academic Search

NFATc proteins transduce Ca2+ signals to the nucleus and then pair with other proteins on DNA to generate NFAT complexes that activate transcription in response to both electrical and tyrosine kinase signaling. The four NFATc genes arose at the origin of vertebrates, implying that they have evolved for the development of vertebrate-specific functions, such as a complex nervous system, a

Isabella A Graef; Feng Chen; Gerald R Crabtree

2001-01-01

274

Tuberculosis affecting multiple vertebral bodies.  

PubMed

Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation. PMID:24066219

Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi; Osaki, Makoto

2013-09-04

275

Tuberculosis Affecting Multiple Vertebral Bodies  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation.

Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi

2013-01-01

276

Biomechanics of Vertebral Fractures and the Vertebral Fracture Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures (VFxs) are the most common osteoporotic fracture, and are a strong risk factor for future fracture. The\\u000a presence of a VFx greatly increases the risk of sustaining subsequent VFxs—a phenomenon often referred to as the “vertebral\\u000a fracture cascade.” VFxs do not occur uniformly along the spine, but occur more often at the mid-thoracic and thoracolumbar\\u000a regions than elsewhere.

Blaine A. Christiansen; Mary L. Bouxsein

2010-01-01

277

The Structure of Vertebrate Retinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The vertebrate retina is formed from six distinct neuronal classes: (1) photoreceptors; (2) bipolar cells; (3) ganglion cells; (4) horizontal cells ; (5) amacrine cells and (6) interplexiform cells. Most vertebrates possess a single type of rod photoreceptor and most non-mammalians,have morphologically,pleomorphic,cone photoreceptors displaying different pigments and\\/or connectivities. Cartilaginous fishes and mammals,possess monomorphic,cones of similar forms regardless of pigment

Robert E. Marc

278

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates approximately 450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A; Larhammar, Dan

2008-10-01

279

Chapter 2 Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in the molecular genetics, paleobiology, and the evolutionary developmental biology of vertebrate skeletogenesis have improved our understanding of the early evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton. These studies have involved genetic analysis of model organisms, human genetics, comparative developmental studies of basal vertebrates and nonvertebrate chordates, and both cladistic and histological analyses of fossil vertebrates. Integration of

GuangJun Zhang; B. Frank Eames; Martin J. Cohn

2009-01-01

280

[Management of coexistent advanced coronary artery disease and internal carotid artery stenosis].  

PubMed

We discuss a case of a 60-year old man admitted to our Department with symptoms of unstable angina and stenosis of carotid artery. Coronary angiography revealed three-vessel coronary artery disease. Doppler ultrasound (USG) and multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) of carotid and vertebral arteries showed a high-grade stenosis of the left internal carotid artery with a poststenotic aneurysm containing thrombi. Since the risk of a simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was assessed as high, a two-staged procedure was performed. The CEA was performed first and one month later patient underwent CABG with a good result. PMID:12516250

Kab?ak-Ziembicka, Anna; Hlawaty, Marta; Sadowski, Jerzy; Pieniazek, Piotr; Pasowicz, Mieczys?aw; Tracz, Wies?awa

2002-01-01

281

Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception  

PubMed Central

Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

Lamb, Trevor D.

2009-01-01

282

External Carotid Dissection and External Carotid Proatlantal Intersegmental Artery with Subclavian Steal Prompting External Carotid and Subclavian Artery Stenting.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The authors describe a case of a proatlantal intersegmental artery seen in the setting of external carotid artery dissection and subclavian steal due to proximal subclavian artery stenosis. METHODS: An 83-year-old woman presented with left homonymous hemianopsia and a right posterior cerebral artery distribution stroke. She was found to have severe left subclavian artery stenosis proximal to the vertebral artery (VA) and an occluded contralateral VA. Doppler ultrasonography and angiography both showed a dissection of the proximal left external carotid artery. Left common carotid artery angiography also demonstrated a connection between the external carotid and vertebral arteries at the C1 level with anterograde flow into the vertebrobasilar system and retrograde flow toward the vertebral origin, consistent with subclavian steal. RESULTS: The patient underwent successful stenting of the subclavian and external carotid arteries with resolution of anterograde flow in the left VA. CONCLUSIONS: This case represents an interesting presentation of both subclavian steal and an external carotid artery to VA anastomosis. Also, the presence of a dissection of the external carotid artery represents a rare finding. PMID:23311947

Abla, Adib A; Kan, Peter; Jahshan, Shady; Dumont, Travis M; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2013-01-11

283

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial task for paleontologists and paleobiologists is the reconstruction of the appearance, movements, and behavior of extinct vertebrates from studies of their bones or other, more rarely preserved parts. A related issue is the boundary between the scientific evidence for reconstruction and the need to resort to imagination. In this book, sixteen paleontologists and biologists discuss these questions, review the current status of functional studies of extinct vertebrates in the context of similar work on living animals, and present a broad philosophical view of the subject's development within the framework of phylogenetic analysis. The authors describe and debate methods for making realistic inferences of function in fossil vertebrates, and present examples where we may be confident that our reconstructions are both detailed and accurate.

Thomason, Jeffrey J.

1997-10-01

284

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

285

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

286

Endovascular stent-graft treatment of an iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula caused by percutaneous catheterisation of the internal jugular vein.\\u000a Endovascular transarterial treatment with a self-expanding covered stent was used to close the fistula successfully with preservation\\u000a of the parent artery.

A. González; A. Mayol; A. Gil-Peralta; J. R. González-Marcos

2001-01-01

287

Translational control in vertebrate development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translational control plays a large role in vertebrate oocyte maturation and contributes to the induction of the germ layers. Translational regulation is also observed in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The features of an mRNA that mediate translational control are found both in the 5? and in the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs). In the 5? UTR, secondary structure,

Cornelia H. de Moor; Joel D. Richter

2001-01-01

288

Understanding Vertebrate Brain Evolution1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Four major questions can be asked about vertebrate brain evolution: 1) What major changes have occurred in neural organization and function? 2) When did these changes occur? 3) By what mecha- nisms did these changes occur? 4) Why did these changes occur? Comparative neurobiologists have been very successful in recognizing major changes in brain structure. They have also made

R. GLENN NORTHCUTT

2002-01-01

289

Tracking vertebrates for conservation: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching mission of Endangered Species Research (ESR), when founded, was to support the protection of nature (Kinne 2004). Management and conservation efforts for many vertebrate species need explicit data on animal spatial ecology, and acquisition of these are often problematic because many species prefer not to be seen and may travel large distances in habitats that prove difficult for

Brendan J. Godley; Rory P. Wilson

2008-01-01

290

Case report: spontaneous resolution of an established iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery injuries can complicate attempted cannulation of the internal jugular vein including arteriovenous fistula formation. Such a fistula may occlude spontaneously in the acute phase but once established, spontaneous occlusion is extremely unusual. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been reported in the medical literature. We present a case of a patient who developed a right-sided vertebral arteriovenous fistula following instrumentation of the neck vessels but formal angiography/intervention was declined. The reason to report this case is that follow-up magnetic resonance angiography was performed, with spontaneous resolution of the right-sided vertebral arteriovenous fistula occurring postoperatively between days 30 and 135. Endovascular treatment options are available but for those who decline intervention, this report highlights the fact that spontaneous resolution of vertebral arteriovenous fistulae can occur. PMID:22532542

Adams, Ashok; Allouni, Kader; Basheer, Sheikh; Evanson, Jane; Mankad, Kshitij

2012-04-24

291

Duplex Scan Findings in Patients with Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim to report duplex scan findings in patients with spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Material and methods the records of 24 patients (13 males and 11 females, median age 48 years [range 25–68 years]) with spontaneous extracranial ICA dissection (n=20) or VA dissection (n=4), identified between January 1995 and December 1999, were retrospectively analysed. Results

K. Logason; H.-G. Hårdemark; T. Bärlin; D. Bergqvist; H. Ahlstöm; S. Karacagil

2002-01-01

292

Unilateral upper cervical posterior spinal artery syndrome following sneezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35 year old man experienced severe transitory neck pain following a violent sneeze. This was followed by neurological symptoms and signs indicating a left sided upper cervical cord lesion. MRI showed an infarct at this site in the territory of the left posterior spinal artery. This discrete infarct was probably due to partial left vertebral artery dissection secondary to

N J Gutowski; R P Murphy; D J Beale

1992-01-01

293

Homeobox genes and the vertebrate head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several Drosophila genes important in the control of embryonic development contain a characteristic se- quence of DNA, known as the homeobox. Homeobox sequences are also present in a family of vertebrate genes, which may therefore have regulatory roles during vertebrate embryogenesis. In this article, data concerning the spatial patterns of vertebrate homeo- box gene expression are discussed in relation

PETER W. H. HOLLAND

1988-01-01

294

Pediatric traumatic carotid, vertebral and cerebral artery dissections: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic cerebral dissections are rare but potentially dangerous conditions that through improved diagnostics have recently\\u000a gained increased interest. However, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the natural history, as well as on the\\u000a best treatment options. Most of the literature on this topic consists of case reports and retrospective studies with no prospective\\u000a randomized controlled studies. In

Martin M. Mortazavi; Ketan Verma; R. Shane Tubbs; Mark Harrigan

295

Vertebral artery dissection causing an acute C5 radiculopathy.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old mechanic developed severe left neck pain at work. Two days later, he experienced left arm weakness, particularly shoulder and elbow flexion; after another 2 days, he noted numbness at the left jaw angle. Examination revealed weakness in the C5 myotome, absent biceps reflex, but no facial or jaw numbness. PMID:24042574

Quinn, Colin; Salameh, Johnny

2013-09-17

296

Cervical artery dissection—clinicalfeatures, risk factors, therapy and outcome in 126patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly variable clinical course of cervical artery dissections still poses a major challenge to the treating physician. This study was conducted (1) to describe the differences in clinical and angiographic presentation of patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissections (CAD, VAD), (2) to define the circumstances that are related to bilateral arterial dissections, and (3) to determine factors that

Rainer Dziewas; Carsten Konrad; Bianca Dräger; Stefan Evers; Michael Besselmann; Peter Lüdemann; Gregor Kuhlenbäumer; Florian Stögbauer; E. Bernd Ringelstein

2003-01-01

297

Basilar Artery Rethrombosis: Successful Treatment with Platelet Glycoprotein IIB\\/IIIA Receptor Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We describe the use of abciximab to prevent rethrom- bosis of the basilar artery after transluminal angioplasty. A 60- year-old patient with vertebral basilar insufficiency and acute occlusion of the basilar artery underwent revascularization with urokinase and angioplasty. Despite the repeated use of uroki- nase and angioplasty under anticoagulation with heparin, the basilar artery immediately rethrombosed. In a final

Robert C. Wallace; Anthony J. Furlan; David J. Moliterno; Glen H. J. Stevens; Thomas J. Masaryk; John Perl II

1997-01-01

298

Cement Embolization of a Segmental Artery after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: a Potentially Catastrophic Vascular Complication  

PubMed Central

Summary Serious complications related to percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are rare and most often result from local cement leakage or venous embolization. We describe an adult patient who underwent multi-level, thoracic percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures for painful osteoporotic compression fractures. The patient’s percutaneous vertebroplasty performed at the T9 level was complicated by the asymptomatic, direct embolization of the right T9 segmental artery with penetration of cement into the radicular artery beneath the pedicle. We review the literature regarding the unusual occurrence of direct arterial cement embolization during vertebral augmentation procedures, discuss possible pathomechanisms, and alert clinicians to this potentially catastrophic vascular complication.

Matouk, C.C.; Krings, T.; Ter Brugge, K.G.; Smith, R.

2012-01-01

299

Cement embolization of a segmental artery after percutaneous vertebroplasty: a potentially catastrophic vascular complication.  

PubMed

Serious complications related to percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are rare and most often result from local cement leakage or venous embolization. We describe an adult patient who underwent multi-level, thoracic percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures for painful osteoporotic compression fractures. The patient's percutaneous vertebroplasty performed at the T9 level was complicated by the asymptomatic, direct embolization of the right T9 segmental artery with penetration of cement into the radicular artery beneath the pedicle. We review the literature regarding the unusual occurrence of direct arterial cement embolization during vertebral augmentation procedures, discuss possible pathomechanisms, and alert clinicians to this potentially catastrophic vascular complication. PMID:22958778

Matouk, C C; Krings, T; Ter Brugge, K G; Smith, R

2012-09-10

300

Ultrasound assessment of cervical artery dissection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to present ultrasound and, in particular, color duplex sonography (CDS) assessment of spontaneous dissection of the cervical internal carotid (sICAD) and vertebral (sVAD) arteries. The examination, typical ultrasound findings and pitfalls in the acute sICAD and sVAD, detection of microembolic signals, and recanalization will be discussed. PMID:17290115

Benninger, D H; Caso, V; Baumgartner, R W

2005-01-01

301

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail.

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

302

Permanent cortical blindness after bronchial artery embolization.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent. PMID:23580115

van Doorn, Colette S; De Boo, Diederick W; Weersink, Els J M; van Delden, Otto M; Reekers, Jim A; van Lienden, Krijn P

2013-04-12

303

Rupture and migration of an endovascular stent in the brachiocephalic trunk causing a vertebral steal syndrome.  

PubMed

Delayed stent fracture has been observed in many different arteries and may represent a risk factor for restenosis. We describe the case of a delayed rupture of an endovascular brachiocephalic trunk stent. The complete fracture allowed a fragment to migrate distally and tilt, resulting in a hemodynamic pattern similar to that of a prevertebral stenosis with complete inversion of the homolateral vertebral blood flow. The induced vertebral steal syndrome as well as the risk of cerebral embolism was corrected by an aortobrachiocephalic bypass and resection of the ruptured stent. PMID:18172713

Periard, D; Haesler, E; Hayoz, D; Von Segesser, L K; Qanadli, S D

2008-01-03

304

[Spontaneous dissection (intramural hematoma) in vertebrobasilar artery and ischemic stroke].  

PubMed

Twelve patients (mean age 36,0+/-10,4 years) with a vertebral artery dissection (VAD) were followed-up during 2,5 months - 5 years. All patients underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head, MR-angiography (11 patients - repeated studies), 5 patients - conventional cerebral angiography. VAD was located on extracranial (7), intracranial (1), extra-intracranial levels (4), the extension of dissection to the basilar artery was found in 2 patients. Dissection involving both vertebral arteries was observed in 6 patients, recurrent VAD after 4-15 months - in 3 patients. A total number of VAD was 22, a total number of cerebrovascular events - 15. The latter included ischemic strokes (13), transient ischemic attacks (1) and isolated headache (1). Ischemic cerebrovascular events were characterized by the combination of cerebral ischemic symptoms with occipital headache and/or posterior neck pain (79%) which usually preceded ischemic cerebral symptoms by the interval of several hours - 3 weeks as well as a goof recovery of neurological deficit (92%). In a half of patients, cerebral ischemic symptoms developed after neck movements or manual therapy. Angiography revealed the stenosis of vertebral arteries, usually elongated, irregular or tapered (64%), more often located at the level of V3-V4 segments, vertebral artery occlusion (36%) and pseudoaneurisms (19%). The repeated angiography performed in 2-3 months or more showed positive changes in 82%, the complete (86%) or partial (14%) resolution of all stenoses and the complete or partial recanalization of the half of vertebral artery occlusions, the regress of all pseudoaneurisms. An intramural hematoma on MR imaging (the axial plane) was found in 85% dissections analyzed, the increased vertebral artery outer diameter - in 69%. Atherosclerotic plaques were absent in all cases. VAD is one of unknown causes of ischemic stroke in vertebrobasilar circulation. Diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical and angiography data. PMID:18379492

Kalashnikova, L A; Krotenkova, M V; Knovalov, R N; Protski?, S V; Kadykov, A S

2007-01-01

305

Vertebral morphometry: current methods and recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis and are associated with increased morbility and mortality. Because a\\u000a majority of vertebral fractures often occur in absence of specific trauma and are asymptomatic, their identification is radiographic.\\u000a The two most widely used methods to determine the severity of vertebral fractures are the visual semiquantitative (SQ) assessment\\u000a and the morphometric quantitative approach, involving

G. Guglielmi; D. Diacinti; C. van Kuijk; F. Aparisi; C. Krestan; J. E. Adams; T. M. Link

2008-01-01

306

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates.

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

307

Traumatic cervical artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents. TCAD are increasingly recognized, and incidences of up to 0.86% for internal carotid and 0.53% for traumatic vertebral artery dissections (TVAD) among blunt trauma victims are reported. Diagnostic evaluation for TCAD is mandatory in the presence of (1) hemorrhage of potential arterial origin originating from the nose, ears, mouth, or a wound; (2) expanding cervical hematoma; (3) cervical bruit in a patient >50 years of age; (4) evidence of acute infarct at brain imaging; (5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack, or (6) Horner syndrome, neck or head pain. In addition, a number of centers screen asymptomatic patients with blunt trauma for TCAD. Catheter angiography is the standard of reference for diagnosis of TCAD. Color duplex ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance angiography are noninvasive screening alternatives, but each method has its diagnostic limitations compared to catheter angiography. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may prevent ischemic stroke, but bleeding from traumatized tissues may offset the benefits of antithrombotic treatment. Endovascular therapy of dissected vessels, thrombarterectomy, direct suture of intimal tears, and extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered in exceptional cases. Neurological outcome is probably worse in TCAD compared to spontaneous CAD, although it is unclear whether this is due to dissection-induced ischemic stroke or associated traumatic lesions. PMID:17290111

Nedeltchev, Krassen; Baumgartner, Ralf W

2005-01-01

308

Basilar Artery Occlusion Following C1 Lateral Mass Fracture Managed by Mechanical and Pharmacological Thrombolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma can be associated with stroke. We present a case of a C1 fracture\\u000a resulting in vertebral artery dissection and neurological decline as a result of basilar artery occlusion treated with chemical\\u000a and mechanical thrombolysis resulting in basilar artery patency and clinical improvement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case description  The patient is a 43-year-old female who was involved in

Patrick A. Sugrue; Ziad A. Hage; Daniel L. Surdell; Mina Foroohar; John Liu; Bernard R. Bendok

2009-01-01

309

Lateral vertebral assessment: a valuable technique to detect clinically significant vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many vertebral fractures are clinically silent, they are associated with increased risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures. A substantial number of these fractures are demonstrable using instant vertebral assessment with Hologic densitometers. Whether similar recognition is possible using dual-energy lateral vertebral assessment (LVA) with GE Lunar densitometers remains uncertain. Thus, we evaluated the ability of clinicians using LVA to detect

Neil Binkley; D. Krueger; R. Gangnon; H. K. Genant; M. K. Drezner

2005-01-01

310

Arterial Ageing  

PubMed Central

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed.

Lee, Seung-Jun

2013-01-01

311

Arterial ageing.  

PubMed

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed. PMID:23508642

Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

2013-02-28

312

Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

Mayer, Thomas E., E-mail: t.e.mayer@med.uni-jena.d [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU), Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Hamann, Gerhard F. [Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Wiesbaden, Department of Neurology (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2008-11-15

313

Intra-Arterial Infusion of Fasudil Hydrochloride for Treating Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?In this pilot study we treated cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage to assess intra-arterial fasudil\\u000a hydrochloride. We analysed effects of intra-arterial infusion on angiographically evident cerebral vasospasm in 10 patients\\u000a including 3 with symptoms of vasospasm. Over 10 to 30 min 15 to 60 mg was administered via the proximal internal carotid artery\\u000a or vertebral artery following standard

E. Tachibana; T. Harada; M. Shibuya; K. Saito; M. Takayasu; Y. Suzuki; J. Yoshida

1999-01-01

314

Spontaneous vertebral dissection: Clinical, conventional angiographic, CT, and MR findings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if typical clinical and neuroradiologic patterns exist in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The medical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 14 patients with spontaneous VA dissection were reviewed. The medical records were examined to exclude patients with a history of trauma and to record evidence of a nontratimatic precipitating event ({open_quotes}trivial trauma{close_quotes}) and presence of possible risk factors such as hypertension. All patients under-went conventional angiography, 13 either CT or MRI (II both CT and MRI), and 3 MRA. Conventional arteriograrris were evaluated for dissection site, evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia, luminal stenosis or occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation, CT examinations for the presence of infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage, MR examinations for the presence of infarction or arterial signal abnormality, and MR angiograms for abnormality of the arterial signal column. Seven patients had precipitating events within 24 h of onset of symptoms that may have been causative of dissection and five had hypertension. At catheter angiography, two patients had dissections in two arteries (both VAs in one patient, VA and internal carotid artery in one patient), giving a total of 15 VAs with dissection. Dissection sites included V1 in four patients, V2 in one patient, V3 in three patients, V4 in six patients, and both V3 and V4 in one patient. Luminal stenosis was present in 13 VAs, occlusion in 2, pseudoaneurysm in 1, and evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in 1. Posterior circulation infarcts were found on CT or MR in five patients. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found on CT in two patients and by lumbar puncture alone in two patients. Abnormal periarterial signal on MRI was seen in three patients. MRA demonstrated absent VA signal in one patient, pseudoaneurysm in one, and a false-negative examination in one.

Provenzale, J.M.; Morgenlander, J.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Gress, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

315

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

316

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

2007-09-21

317

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

318

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using

Julien Roux; Marc Robinson-Rechavi

2008-01-01

319

Vertebrate evolution: recent perspectives from fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes has been rapid, and previous notions that all such genomes could be regarded as equivalent in their gene content have been rendered outdated. This notion, often embodied in the representation that vertebrates possess four Hox complexes, still appears in contemporary textbooks of developmental biology. Recent data from the genomes of teleost

Samuel Aparicio

2000-01-01

320

Spinal cord compression due to vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of multiple vertebral hemangiomas in a 58-year-old man with pain in the dorsal region and bilateral progressive foot numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple vertebral hemangiomas. One hemangioma at the T7 level demonstrated epidural extension, causing spinal cord compression. After treatment with radiotherapy, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. PMID:19292199

Aksu, Gorkem; Fayda, Merdan; Saynak, Mert; Karadeniz, Ahmet

2008-02-01

321

HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF WEST INDIAN VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate fauna of the West Indies (1262 species) exhibits high levels of en­ demism and has a taxonomic composition characteristic of more isolated oceanic islands. Many groups that are widespread on the mainland are absent in the is­ lands, and some of those present are characterized by large adaptive radiations. The growing fossil record of West Indian vertebrates, including

S. Blair Hedges

1996-01-01

322

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

323

Segmental patterning of the vertebrate embryonic axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body axis of vertebrates is composed of a serial repetition of similar anatomical modules that are called segments or metameres. This particular mode of organization is especially conspicuous at the level of the periodic arrangement of vertebrae in the spine. The segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis when the somites — the embryonic segments of vertebrates — are rhythmically

Mary-Lee Dequéant; Olivier Pourquié

2008-01-01

324

Hox Genes and Axial Specification in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The colinear, anterior to posterior expression domains of the Hox genes in vertebrate embryos is strongly correlated with regional changes in ver- tebral morphology. The limbs of tetrapods are consistently aligned with specific areas of the vertebral column. However, control of limb development is apparently situated in the lateral plate mesoderm, and has been experimentally shown to be independent

Ann Campbell Burke; Julie L. Nowicki

2001-01-01

325

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively. These three events coincide with bursts of character acquisition and increases in phenotypic complexity, and many researchers have suggested a causal relationship between the two. However, this pattern is derived from data for

Philip C. J. Donoghue; Mark A. Purnell

2005-01-01

326

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty and skyphoplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a safe, inexpensive, and effective interventional vertebral augmentation technique that provides pain relief and stabilization in carefully selected patients with severe back pain due to vertebral compression. Complications from percutaneous vertebroplasty can be devastating, but are rare and avoidable with application of a meticulous technique. Percutaneous vertebroplasty has a role in the management pathway of patients presenting with painful vertebral compression fractures. Kyphoplasty uses a balloon tamp with the aim of restoring vertebral body height, improving kyphotic deformity, and creating a cavity into which bone cement is injected. Kyphoplasty is as effective and safe as vertebroplasty in treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures. Skyphoplasty, a modification of kyphoplasty, is a promising new technique. PMID:18707964

Peh, Wilfred C G; Munk, Peter L; Rashid, Faisal; Gilula, Louis A

2008-05-01

327

Lamprey Dlx genes and early vertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

Gnathostome vertebrates have multiple members of the Dlx family of transcription factors that are expressed during the development of several tissues considered to be vertebrate synapomorphies, including the forebrain, cranial neural crest, placodes, and pharyngeal arches. The Dlx gene family thus presents an ideal system in which to examine the relationship between gene duplication and morphological innovation during vertebrate evolution. Toward this end, we have cloned Dlx genes from the lamprey Petromyzon marinus, an agnathan vertebrate that occupies a critical phylogenetic position between cephalochordates and gnathostomes. We have identified four Dlx genes in P. marinus, whose orthology with gnathostome Dlx genes provides a model for how this gene family evolved in the vertebrate lineage. Differential expression of these lamprey Dlx genes in the forebrain, cranial neural crest, pharyngeal arches, and sensory placodes of lamprey embryos provides insight into the developmental evolution of these structures as well as a model of regulatory evolution after Dlx gene duplication events.

Neidert, Adam H.; Virupannavar, Vikrant; Hooker, Gillian W.; Langeland, James A.

2001-01-01

328

Spontaneous cervical and cerebral arterial dissections: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Arterial dissections of head and neck arteries were first identified pathologically in the 1950s, but not until the 1970s and the 1980s did they begin to be widely recognized as a clinical entity. Carotid and vertebral artery dissections account for only 2% of all ischemic strokes, but they account for approximately 20% of thromboembolic strokes in patients younger than 45 years. The cause of supra-aortic dissections can be either spontaneous or traumatic. This article addresses spontaneous cervical and cerebral artery dissections. PMID:24156857

Rahme, Rudy J; Aoun, Salah G; McClendon, Jamal; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Bendok, Bernard R

2013-05-17

329

Arterial embolism.  

PubMed

Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

Lyaker, Michael R; Tulman, David B; Dimitrova, Galina T; Pin, Richard H; Papadimos, Thomas J

2013-01-01

330

Vertebral body innervation: Implications for pain.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures often cause intractable pain. To define the involvement of vertebral body innervation in pain, we collected specimens from male and female patients during percutaneous kyphoplasty, a procedure used for reconstruction of the vertebral body. Specimens were taken from 31 patients (9 men and 22 women) suffering high-intensity pain before surgery. In total, 1,876 histological preparations were obtained and analysed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to locate the nerves in the specimens. The nerve fibres were labelled by indirect immunofluorescence with the primary antibody directed against Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a pan-neuronal marker; another primary antibody directed against type IV collagen (Col IV) was used to identify vessels and to determine their relationship with vertebral nerve fibres. The mean percentage of samples in which it was possible to identify nerve fibres was 35% in men and 29% in women. The percentages varied depending on the spinal level considered and the sex of the subject, nerve fibres being mostly present around vessels (95%). In conclusion, there is scarce innervation of the vertebral bodies, with a clear prevalence of fibres located around vessels. It seems unlikely that this pattern of vertebral body innervation is involved in vertebral pain or in pain relief following kyphoplasty. PMID:20020509

Buonocore, Michelangelo; Aloisi, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Massimo; Gatti, Anna Maria; Bonezzi, Cesare

2010-03-01

331

Back pain in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review article examines the epidemiology and pathogenesis of back pain and vertebral fractures in osteoporosis, reviewing\\u000a the management of pain in patients with vertebral fractures and the direct and indirect effect of osteoporosis treatments\\u000a on back pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The management of patients with vertebral fractures has largely concentrated on the prevention of further fractures by the\\u000a treatment of underlying osteoporosis,

R. M. Francis; T. J. Aspray; G. Hide; A. M. Sutcliffe; P. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

332

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-05-27

333

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

334

Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rudiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

335

4.2.1 Vertebral Fusion Studies  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionStryker Biotech Briefing for 31 March 2009 Advisory Committee Meeting 4.2.1 Vertebral Fusion Studies (Content from P060021/A011 Section IV ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

336

The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species of introduced exotic vertebrates of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are identified and described. The principal factors responsible for their introductions are explored and recommendations are made for alleviation of current problems cau...

J. P. Crowder

1974-01-01

337

Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

Sues, Hans-Dieter

2000-08-01

338

Cervicobrachialgia with congenital vertebral anomalies and diastematomyelia.  

PubMed

A case of diastematomyelia in an adult female patient is reported. The relationship of the cervicobrachialgia, which was the presenting sign, to the diastematomyelia and the congenital vertebral anomalies is discussed. PMID:6710330

Roosen, N; De Moor, J

1984-05-01

339

Reference values for vertebral shape in young Chinese women: implication for assessment of vertebral deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The race- and sex-specific reference values for vertebral shape are important to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral fracture. However, these reference values are absent in Chinese women. In the present study, the anterior, middle\\u000a and posterior heights and the ratios of these heights were measured from 14 vertebral bodies (T4–L5) in 60 premenopausal Chinese\\u000a women (aged 19–25 years). Cutoff values

Lingjun Gao; Tianyou Fan; Yongqiang Chen; Shijing Qiu

2010-01-01

340

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

341

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in

Katherine A. Hartley; Chenghong Li; Fred H. Laningham; Matthew J. Krasin; Xiaoping Xiong; Thomas E. Merchant

2008-01-01

342

Cilia in vertebrate development and disease  

PubMed Central

Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction.

Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2012-01-01

343

Dissecting Aneurysm of the Peripheral Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?Dissecting aneurysms of intracranial posterior circulation have recently been shown to be less uncommon than previously\\u000a thought. However, those involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and not vertebral artery at all are extremely\\u000a rare. We report here a case of a patient with a dissecting aneurysm of the lateral medullary segment of PICA which presented\\u000a as subarachnoid haemorrhage. The

Y. Kanou; K. Arita; K. Kurisu; F. Ikawa; K. Eguchi; S. Monden; K. Watanabe

2000-01-01

344

CIRCULATORY MECHANICS IN THE TOAD BUFO MARINUS H. HAEMODYNAMICS OF THE ARTERIAL WINDKESSEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examines the importance of vascular elasticity to arterial haemo- dynamics in a poikilothermic vertebrate. Pulsatile blood pressure, flow and vessel diameter were recorded at several locations within the arterial tree of the toad, Bufo marinus. We then determined the dynamic elastic modulus, the pulse wave velocity and the hydraulic impedance characteristics of the aorta. The relatively low

CAROL A. GIBBONS; ROBERT E. SHAD WICK

1991-01-01

345

Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

Fowell, Sarah

346

Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera.

Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

1998-01-01

347

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2012-06-15

348

Arterial stiffness  

PubMed Central

Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV), is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

Quinn, Ursula; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Cockcroft, John R

2012-01-01

349

Lateral vertebral assessment: a valuable technique to detect clinically significant vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Although many vertebral fractures are clinically silent, they are associated with increased risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures. A substantial number of these fractures are demonstrable using instant vertebral assessment with Hologic densitometers. Whether similar recognition is possible using dual-energy lateral vertebral assessment (LVA) with GE Lunar densitometers remains uncertain. Thus, we evaluated the ability of clinicians using LVA to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. Dual-energy LVA and conventional thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were concurrently obtained in 80 postmenopausal women. Using an established visual semiquantitative system, vertebral fractures were identified individually by two non-radiologist clinicians on LVA images, and the results were compared with spinal radiograph evaluation by an expert radiologist. Using LVA, 95% of vertebral bodies from T7 through L4 were evaluable, but a majority (66%) of vertebrae from T4 to T6 were not adequately visualized. In the LVA-evaluable vertebrae, prevalent fractures were identified in 40 vertebral bodies by radiography. In this regard, the clinicians using LVA detected 17 of 18 radiographically evident vertebral fractures of grade 2 or 3, a false negative rate of 6%. They identified 50% (11/22) of grade 1 fractures. Additionally, the vast majority of evaluable non-fractured vertebrae, (764/794, 96.2%) were correctly classified as normal by LVA. Thus, clinicians utilizing LVA correctly identified the vast majority of grade 2 or 3 vertebral compression fractures and normal vertebral bodies, although detection of grade 1 fractures was less effective. In conclusion, the low-radiation, dual-energy LVA technique provides a rapid and convenient way for clinicians to identify patients with, and without, grade 2 or 3 vertebral fractures, thereby enhancing care of osteoporotic patients. PMID:15834512

Binkley, Neil; Krueger, D; Gangnon, R; Genant, H K; Drezner, M K

2005-04-15

350

Spontaneous dissections of cervicocephalic arteries in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Among 263 consecutive patients with spontaneous cervicocephalic arterial dissections evaluated at the Mayo Clinic, 18 (6.8%) were 18 years of age or younger (mean age, 12 years). The dissection involved the cervical arteries in 11 patients and the intracranial arteries in seven. Extracranially, the internal carotid artery was involved in eight patients, the vertebral artery in two, and both arteries in one. Intracranially, only the anterior circulation was affected. All the patients had cerebral or retinal ischemic symptoms, usually preceded by headache. Death occurred in a 13-year-old boy with intracranial arterial dissection and coarctation of the aorta. For the 17 remaining patients, the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 21 years. A complete or good clinical recovery occurred in 10 of the 11 patients with cervical arterial dissection but in only four of the seven with dissection of intracranial arteries. Recurrent arterial dissection occurred in two patients with cervical arterial dissections and in one patients with intracranial arterial dissection. PMID:7936283

Schievink, W I; Mokri, B; Piepgras, D G

1994-09-01

351

Two cases of dissecting aneurysm of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery: possible involvement of segmental mediolytic arteriopathy in the pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dissecting aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) uninvolved with the vertebral artery is rare. The exact pathohistological diagnosis might result in ‘unknown’ because the underlying pathoanatomical features are, for a variety of reasons, not always identified. Case description: We report herein two cases of dissecting aneurysm harbored in different segments of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

Haruki Yamakawa; Yasuhiko Kaku; Shin-ichi Yoshimura; Akio Ohkuma; Noboru Sakai

2005-01-01

352

Severity of prevalent vertebral fractures and the risk of subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures: results from the MORE trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent vertebral fractures and baseline bone mineral density (BMD) predict subsequent fracture risk. The objective of this analysis is to examine whether baseline vertebral fracture severity can predict new vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. In the randomized, double-blind 3-year Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (low BMD or prevalent vertebral fractures) were randomly assigned

P. D Delmas; H. K Genant; G. G Crans; J. L Stock; M Wong; E Siris; J. D Adachi

2003-01-01

353

Is kyphoplasty reliable for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with vertebral wall deficiency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVertebral compression fractures are a common clinical manifestation of osteoporosis. The introduction of kyphoplasty has allowed minimally invasive treatment of these fractures. However, in patients with loss of vertebral wall integrity, balloon kyphoplasty is contraindicated due to the possibility of extruding wall fragments into the canal and cement extravasation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of kyphoplasty in the treatment

Jun Zou; Xin Mei; Minfeng Gan; Genlin Wang; Jian Lu; Huilin Yang

2010-01-01

354

Post-traumatic Vertebral Compression Fracture Treated with Minimally Invasive Biologic Vertebral Augmentation for Reconstruction.  

PubMed

In the United States, there is a high incidence of motor vehicle and sports injuries among the active population causing symptomatic post-traumatic vertebral compression fracture. At our institution, 28 cases of painful post-traumatic vertebral compression fractures (PPT-VCFs) were successfully treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (VA) for stabilization and reconstruction with intravertebral polyethylene mesh sac (OptiMesh®, Spineology, Inc., Stillwater, MN) and biological morcelized bone graft. The surgical approach provides an efficacious and controlled minimally invasive delivery mechanism to stabilize and reconstruct VCFs, as well as avoiding serious complications from Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The construct for biological bone graft/vertebral augmentation is osteoconductive and osteoinductive, and is used to create biologic vertebral stabilization and reconstruction. The adjacent vertebra integrity is protected by the construct with similar elasticity and physical characteristics of the biologic morcelized bone, more matched to that of adjacent bone than PMMA. The surgical techniques are described herein. PMID:22505001

Chiu, John C; Maziad, Ali M

2011-12-01

355

Dolichoectasia of the circle of Willis arteries and fusiform aneurysm of basilar artery - case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is a rare arteriopathy characterized by elongation and widening of the arteries and disturbance of the laminar blood flow. It involves mostly vertebral and basilar arteries. In advanced cases, formation of a fusiform aneurysm is possible. Case Report: A sixty-four-year-old female with hypertension was admitted to the hospital with severe non-systemic vertigo and dysarthria, which had lasted for a couple of weeks. Imaging of the brain revealed dolichoectasia of arteries of the circle of Willis coexisting with a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial dolichoectasia may be asymptomatic for a long time. However, in many cases it leads to neurological symptoms associated with haemodynamic disturbance (due to unstable wall clots) and mass effect caused by the widened vessel.

Baran, Boguslawa; Kornafel, Olga; Guzinski, Maciej; Sasiadek, Marek

2012-01-01

356

The evolution of somatostatin in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Somatostatins (SS) play important roles in the regulation of growth in vertebrates. In the present study, we identified six SS genes in zebrafish and named them SS1, SS2, SS3, SS4, SS5 and SS6. We subsequently found that five SS genes (SS1, SS2, SS3, SS4 and SS5) also existed in stickleback, medaka, Takifugu and Tetraodon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that vertebrate SS genes were grouped into five clades. Using a comparative genomic approach, we further investigated the evolutionary origin of these SS genes in vertebrates, and the results revealed that: (1) SS1, SS2 and SS5 were generated by two rounds of genome duplications (2R) that happened during the early stages of vertebrate evolution; (2) SS4 is an SS1 paralog generated by a third genome duplication (3R) that occurred to most teleost fish; and (3) SS3 and SS6 were produced by tandem duplication of SS1 and SS2 in teleost fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that all six SS genes were functionally expressed in different zebrafish tissues. These data indicate that both genome-wide duplication and local duplication contribute to the expansion of SS genes in vertebrates. PMID:20472043

Liu, Yun; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

2010-05-21

357

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

358

Homology of lungs and gas bladders: insights from arterial vasculature.  

PubMed

Gas bladders of ray-finned fishes serve a variety of vital functions and are thus an important novelty of most living vertebrates. The gas bladder has long been regarded as an evolutionary modification of lungs. Critical evidence for this hypothesized homology is whether pulmonary arteries supply the gas bladder as well as the lungs. Pulmonary arteries, paired branches of the fourth efferent branchial arteries, deliver blood to the lungs in osteichthyans with functional lungs (lungfishes, tetrapods, and the ray-finned polypterid fishes). The fact that pulmonary arteries also supply the respiratory gas bladder of Amia calva (bowfin) has been used to support the homology of lungs and gas bladders, collectively termed air-filled organs (AO). However, the homology of pulmonary arteries in bowfin and lunged osteichthyans has been uncertain, given the apparent lack of pulmonary arteries in critical taxa. To re-evaluate the homology of pulmonary arteries in bowfin and lunged osteichthyans, we studied, using micro-CT technology, the arterial vasculature of Protopterus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Polyodon, Amia, and Lepisosteus, and analyzed these data using a phylogenetic approach. Our data reveal that Acipenser and Polyodon have paired posterior branches of the fourth efferent branchial arteries, which are thus similar in origin to pulmonary arteries. We hypothesize that these arteries are vestigial pulmonary arteries that have been coopted for new functions due to the dorsal shift of the AO and/or the loss of respiration in these taxa. Ancestral state reconstructions support pulmonary arteries as a synapomorphy of the Osteichthyes, provide the first concrete evidence for the retention of pulmonary arteries in Amia, and support thehomology of lungs and gas bladders due to a shared vascular supply. Finally, we use ancestral state reconstructions to show that arterial AO supplies from the celiacomesenteric artery or dorsal aorta appear to be convergent between teleosts and nonteleost actinopterygians. PMID:23378277

Longo, Sarah; Riccio, Mark; McCune, Amy R

2013-02-02

359

[Basilar artery occlusion--a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].  

PubMed

Acute basilar artery occlusion is a neurological emergency that almost invariably leads to death or severe disability if not recanalized. Therapeutic recanalization is attempted using thrombolytic therapy either intravenously alone or by bridging it to on-demand, endovascular procedures. Due to often demanding differential diagnosis, angiographic evidence of basilar artery occlusion is necessary before treatment decisions. The etiology is often cardioembolism or vertebrobasilar thromboembolism due to atherothrombotic disease, or vertebral artery dissection in less than one in ten cases. Different therapeutic approaches have not been compared in randomized controlled trials. The selection of recanalization therapies thus builds on empirical knowledge and availability of vascular interventional services in the local setting. PMID:23786108

Sairanen, Tiina; Strbian, Daniel; Lindsberg, Perttu J

2013-01-01

360

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-06-19

361

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land.

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

362

Wnt signaling in vertebrate axis specification.  

PubMed

The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y

2013-01-01

363

Reference values for vertebral shape in young Chinese women: implication for assessment of vertebral deformity.  

PubMed

The race- and sex-specific reference values for vertebral shape are important to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. However, these reference values are absent in Chinese women. In the present study, the anterior, middle and posterior heights and the ratios of these heights were measured from 14 vertebral bodies (T4-L5) in 60 premenopausal Chinese women (aged 19-25 years). Cutoff values were set as standard deviations (3 and 3.5 SD) and percentages (15 and 20%) below the means of vertebral height (VH) ratios to define vertebral deformities. The number of subjects with a VH ratio lower than -15% cutoff were significantly more than those with a VH ratio lower than -3 SD cutoff (p < 0.05), but this difference did not occur when a -20% cutoff was selected. A few VH ratios were distributed below -20% and -3 SD cutoffs, and none was below -3.5 SD. The vertebral shape defined by VH ratios was different between Chinese and European women. We conclude that 3.5 SD below the reference mean is an ideal cutoff value for the definition of prevalent vertebral fractures in Chinese women, and reference data should be obtained from young premenopausal women. PMID:20186444

Gao, Lingjun; Fan, Tianyou; Chen, Yongqiang; Qiu, Shijing

2010-02-26

364

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis.

Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

365

The architecture of internal blood vessels in human fetal vertebral bodies  

PubMed Central

The internal vascular system of vertebral bodies was investigated in 17–24 wk human fetuses by acrylic dye injection and by corrosion casting/scanning electron microscopy. The regions of intervertebral spaces did not contain blood vessels. The radial metaphyseal vessels were at the stage of centripetal ingrowth into the vertebral body cartilage and their terminal, blindly ending segments had a form of cuff-like capillary plexuses. The anterolateral equatorial arteries communicating with the vessels of the ossification centre were only rarely found. The centre was usually supplied by 2 posterior (nutrient) arteries which branched into an arcade-like array of arterioles equipped with occasional sphincters and giving origin to a dense network of peripherally located capillaries. Numerous blind capillary buds formed the advancing border of the ossification centre. The veins usually accompanied the arteries. In the ossification centre the venous compartment consisted of sinuses drained by larger posterior veins. In the 17 wk fetus, an axial avascular area was observed in the place of notochord localisation, indicating the formation of a ring-shaped ossification centre around the notochord remnants at earlier stages of fetal development.

SKAWINA, A.; LITWIN, J. A.; GORCZYCA, J.; MIODONSKI, A. J.

1997-01-01

366

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Peripheral Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the body become ...

367

Separation of vertebral epiphyses in bovine carcases.  

PubMed

Separation of vertebral epiphyses in the thoracolumbar region is a cause of rejection of beef carcases for Intervention storage. Incidence is highest in younger cattle and the problem is associated with certain types of hide puller and dressing technique. Three dressing methods are evaluated and tensile strenght of bone specimens is measured. PMID:22056116

Cooke, M

1987-01-01

368

Late development of hagfish vertebral elements.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. PMID:23401412

Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

2013-02-08

369

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

370

Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus agalactiae is a rare cause of vertebral osteomyelitis. We present four cases of spondylitis caused by this micro-organism and a review of 20 cases previously described in the literature. Only seven patients (29%) were under 50 years of age. Diabetes mellitus and neoplasms were the most frequent underlying conditions, although 37.5% of the patients did not have any predisposition.

J. Sol??s-Garcia del Pozo; E. Martinez-Alfaro; L. Abad; J. Solera

2000-01-01

371

West Nile virus in the vertebrate world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. West Nile virus (WNV), an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, had been recognized in Africa, Asia and the south of Europe for many decades. Only recently, it has been associated with an increasing number of outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and equines as well as an increasing number of infections in vertebrates of a wide variety of

K. M. van der Meulen; M. B. Pensaert; H. J. Nauwynck

2005-01-01

372

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

373

Managing acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with calcitonin.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform family physicians of current issues in the management of acute vertebral fractures and to examine the evidence specifically supporting a role for calcitonin in ameliorating pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations for use of calcitonin were based primarily on a MEDLINE review of the literature for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the present using key words calcitonin, osteoporosis, pain, and vertebral fracture. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of review articles. Eight trials were identified, and the conclusions drawn were based on data reported in all eight trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Several randomized, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that calcitonin had a rapid onset and a strong analgesic effect on patients with acute vertebral fractures. Nasal and subcutaneous administration were both beneficial. Pain relief occurred within the first 2 weeks, could continue for at least 4 months, and might occur if treatment were instituted any time within the first year after fracture. Side effects were generally inconvenient rather than serious. CONCLUSIONS: Calcitonin in a dose of 50 to 100 IU daily, given subcutaneously or intranasally, should be offered to all patients with serious pain related to acute vertebral fractures for symptom relief and to facilitate mobilization.

Maksymowych, W. P.

1998-01-01

374

The behavioral significance of pheromones in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces the concept of pheromones, external chemical secretions having conspecific communication functions, and discusses its significance for vertebrate behavior. The physiological regulatory functions and communication functions of pheromones are distinguished. Physiological regulatroy functions discussed are related to estrous synchrony in females and include the S. Lee-L. M. Boot, W. Whitten, and H. M. Bruce effects. Communication functions discussed include sex

Kathryn K. Gleason; James H. Reynierse

1969-01-01

375

New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of an Early-Middle Pleistocene continental vertebrate fauna from El Salvador is here reported. These fossils provide information about a poorly studied geographic area that played an important role during the Great American Faunal Interchange. The fauna is dominated by numerous remains of the proboscidean Cuvieronius tropicus and probably represents the largest known concentration of this genus in America.

Juan Carlos Cisneros

2005-01-01

376

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus ), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus ) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1 ), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1 ) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

377

Sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to sex differences in the behavior of nonhuman animals may contribute to the understanding of sex differences in humans. In vertebrate model systems, a single factor—the steroid hormone testosterone—accounts for most, and perhaps all, of the known sex differences in neural structure and behavior. Here we review some of the events triggered by testosterone

John A Morris; Cynthia L Jordan; S Marc Breedlove

2004-01-01

378

Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful…

Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

379

Diverse functions of vertebrate gap junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gap junctions are clusters of intercellular channels between adjacent cells. The channels are formed by the direct apposition of oligomeric transmembrane proteins, permitting the direct exchange of ions and small molecules (<1kDa) between cells without involvement of the extracellular space. Vertebrate gap junction channels are composed of oligomers of connexins, an enlarging family of proteins consisting of perhaps >20 members.

Alexander M Simon; Daniel A Goodenough

1998-01-01

380

Vertebrate photoreceptor cell development and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoreceptors provide an excellent model for studies of vertebrate neuronal differentiation, and many human diseases resulting in blindness primarily affect photoreceptors. There is therefore great interest in studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoreceptor development. This article discusses our current understanding of this process, including the recent discovery of the homeodomain transcription factor Crx and its potential role in

Eric M Morrow; Takahisa Furukawa; Constance L Cepko

1998-01-01

381

Morphogen gradients in vertebrate limb development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing limb is an excellent model for pattern formation in vertebrate embryos. Signalling by the polarizing region controls limb pattern across the antero-posterior axis of the chick limb. It was suggested first on theoretical grounds that signalling by the polarizing region could involve a morphogen gradient. Embryological manipulations provided evidence consistent with this model and, more recently, signalling molecules

Cheryll Tickle

1999-01-01

382

PATTERNING MECHANISMS CONTROLLING VERTEBRATE LIMB DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Vertebrate limb buds are embryonic structures for which much molecu- lar and cellular data are known regarding the mechanisms that control pattern formation during development. Specialized regions of the developing limb bud, such as the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), and the non-ridge ectoderm, direct and coordinate the development of the limb bud

Javier Capdevila; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

2001-01-01

383

RARE AND ENDANGERED VERTEBRATES OF OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, an annotated list of Ohio's rare and endangered vertebrate species, was compiled to supplement a similar national list and includes 10 mammals, 62 birds, 10 reptiles, 4 amphibians, and 33 fishes. Where possible, suggestions are made both as to causes of the rare or endangered status of these species and as to means of halting the trend. Ratings

H. G. SMITH; R. K. BURNARD; E. E. GOOD; J. M. KEENER

384

Isochores and the evolutionary genomics of vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear genomes of vertebrates are mosaics of isochores, very long stretches (?300kb) of DNA that are homogeneous in base composition and are compositionally correlated with the coding sequences that they embed. Isochores can be partitioned in a small number of families that cover a range of GC levels (GC is the molar ratio of guanine+cytosine in DNA), which is

Giorgio Bernardi

2000-01-01

385

Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter I, an outline of this thesis is given. In Chapter 2 we prospectively determined the natural course of pain in patients with conservatively treated acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). In addition, we assessed the type of conservative therapy that these patients received. The natural fracture healing, in terms of pain relief, of an acute, osteoporotic VCF mainly

C. A. H. Klazen

2010-01-01

386

Conservation anchors in the vertebrate genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic segments that do not code for proteins yet show high conservation among vertebrates have recently been identified by various computational methodologies. We refer to them as ANCORs (ancestral non-coding conserved regions). The frequency of individual ANCORs within the genome, along with their (correlated) inter-species identity scores, helps in assessing the probability that they function in transcription regulation or RNA

Ronny Aloni; Doron Lancet

2005-01-01

387

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2012-11-28

388

Vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis: Patient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in new treatments aimed at preventing bone loss and conserving bone mass, insufficient attention has been given to symptomatic treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Patients often believe that the pain and impaired mobility associated with these fractures are permanent and that little can be done to help. This is a serious misconception. Prompt intervention using

Juan Tamayo-Orozco; Pedro Arzac-Palumbo; Héctor Peón-Vidales; Rafael Mota-Bolfeta; Fernando Fuentes

1997-01-01

389

Spontaneous Mirror Dissections of Cervicocephalic Arteries  

PubMed Central

Summary While so-called twin or mirror aneurysms constitute an established subgroup of multiple aneurysms, simultaneous spontaneous mirror dissections of cervicocephalic artery have not yet been reported as a particular entity. Among the patients treated at our institution since 1989, we identified 74 patients with spontaneous, nontraumatic dissections. Six of these cases presented with simultaneous bilateral dissections and four of the six patients had mirror dissections. Acute or chronic headache was present in all four cases. Additional clinical presentations consisted of impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, and tinnitus. Angiography revealed irregular stenosis, dilatation or aneurysms located in the cervical ICA (internal carotid artery), VA (vertebral artery), or MCA (middle cerebral artery) without evident location bias. Although mirror dissections seems to be an exceptional finding, they may shed light on the vulnerability of different arterial segments to specific diseases. Similar to arterial aneurysm formation, pathogenesis of mirror dissection may involve an underlying "shared defect" in the endothelial cells, since these cells demonstrate a bilateral distribution during embryological development. This particular distribution therefore also provides a chronicle trail of the first trigger striking during embryonic development and demonstrates the segmental vulnerability to highly specific triggers.

Zhao, W.Y.; Krings, T.; Alvarez, H.; Ozanne, A.; Holmin, S.; Lasjaunias, P.L.

2006-01-01

390

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss\\u000a of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS)\\u000a was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent

Robert Rotter; Heiner Martin; Sebastian Fuerderer; Michael Gabl; Christoph Roeder; Paul Heini; Thomas Mittlmeier

2010-01-01

391

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.  

PubMed

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 +/- 6.2; VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation. PMID:20191393

Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

2010-03-01

392

Development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has

Michael S. Hedrick

2005-01-01

393

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

394

Minimally Invasive Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures is increasing. This investigation assesses the efficacy and safety of PV for refractory pain owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: A retrospective investigation of PV was conducted with a minimal of 1 year follow up. PV with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed on 75 patients with osteoporotic vertebral

Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Shang-Won Yu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

395

Current Optimal Assessment and Management of Carotid and Vertebral Spontaneous and Traumatic Dissection.  

PubMed

Dissection of the internal carotid or vertebral artery has been recognized as a cause of stroke in young patients. It is disproportionate in its representation as a cause of stroke in this age group. Intimal tears, intramural hematomas, and dissection aneurysms may be the result of trauma or may occur spontaneously. Spontaneous dissection may be the result of inherent arterial weakness or in association with other predisposing factors. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult, but increased awareness and a range of modern investigations such as computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may aid in diagnosis. Management options include antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and surgical or endovascular procedures. Prognosis is variable, and dissection may be asymptomatic but may lead to profound neurological deficit and death. PMID:23401625

Mohan, Irwin V

2013-02-11

396

Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift

Daniel A. Duprez

397

Coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.

P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

2000-01-01

398

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D. N.; Grand, J. B.; Arnold, J. M.

2006-01-01

399

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology); Mr. Keith T. Sillar (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

400

A walk though vertebrate and invertebrate protamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated comparative analysis of protamines and their corresponding genes is presented, including representative organisms\\u000a from each of the vertebrate classes and one invertebrate (squid, Loligo opalescens). Special emphasis is placed on the implications for sperm chromatin organization and the evolutionary significance. The\\u000a review is based on some of the most recent publications in the field and builds upon previously

John D. Lewis; Yue Song; Miriam E. de Jong; Sabira M. Bagha; Juan Ausió

2003-01-01

401

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above.

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

402

Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a systemic disease currently afflicting approx 44 million Americans; this figure will increase as the population\\u000a ages. It results in progressive bone mineral loss and concurrent changes in bony architecture that leave bone vulnerable to\\u000a fracture, often after minimal or no trauma. The spine is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture, with vertebral compression\\u000a fracture (VCF) occurring

Daisuke Togawa; Isador H. Lieberman

403

Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

Flammer, Larry

404

Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma related to pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report a case of vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy in a 21-year-old woman presenting with paraparesis\\u000a of rapid onset. An emergency MRI scan of the dorsal spine showed a lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra with extradural extension\\u000a and marked spinal cord compression. A cesarean section was done, and this was followed by emergent laminectomy. Her symptoms

Murvet Yuksel; K. Zafer Yuksel; Deniz Tuncel; Beyazit Zencirci; Sevgi Bakaris

2007-01-01

405

Evolution of Sirtuins From Archaea to Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most eukaryotic sirtuins (sir2-like proteins) can be grouped into four classes. In deuterostomes such as vertebrates, the\\u000a urochordate sea squirt Ciona, and the echinoderm sea urchin Strongylocentrotus, there are seven sirtuins. Class I includes SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3. SIRT4 is in class II and SIRT5 is in class III. Class\\u000a IV includes SIRT6 and SIRT7. Fish have two SIRT5 orthologs

Roy A. Frye

406

Hox patterning of the vertebrate rib cage.  

PubMed

Unlike the rest of the axial skeleton, which develops solely from somitic mesoderm, patterning of the rib cage is complicated by its derivation from two distinct tissues. The thoracic skeleton is derived from both somitic mesoderm, which forms the vertebral bodies and ribs, and from lateral plate mesoderm, which forms the sternum. By generating mouse mutants in Hox5, Hox6 and Hox9 paralogous group genes, along with a dissection of the Hox10 and Hox11 group mutants, several important conclusions regarding the nature of the ;Hox code' in rib cage and axial skeleton development are revealed. First, axial patterning is consistently coded by the unique and redundant functions of Hox paralogous groups throughout the axial skeleton. Loss of paralogous function leads to anterior homeotic transformations of colinear regions throughout the somite-derived axial skeleton. In the thoracic region, Hox genes pattern the lateral plate-derived sternum in a non-colinear manner, independent from the patterning of the somite-derived vertebrae and vertebral ribs. Finally, between adjacent sets of paralogous mutants, the regions of vertebral phenotypes overlap considerably; however, each paralogous group imparts unique morphologies within these regions. In all cases examined, the next-most posterior Hox paralogous group does not prevent the function of the more-anterior Hox group in axial patterning. Thus, the ;Hox code' in somitic mesoderm is the result of the distinct, graded effects of two or more Hox paralogous groups functioning in any anteroposterior location. PMID:17626057

McIntyre, Daniel C; Rakshit, Sabita; Yallowitz, Alisha R; Loken, Luke; Jeannotte, Lucie; Capecchi, Mario R; Wellik, Deneen M

2007-07-11

407

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

408

Vertebrate kinetochore protein architecture: protein copy number.  

PubMed

To define the molecular architecture of the kinetochore in vertebrate cells, we measured the copy number of eight kinetochore proteins that link kinetochore microtubules (MTs [kMTs]) to centromeric DNA. We used a fluorescence ratio method and chicken DT40 cell lines in which endogenous loci encoding the analyzed proteins were deleted and complemented using integrated green fluorescent protein fusion transgenes. For a mean of 4.3 kMTs at metaphase, the protein copy number per kMT is between seven and nine for members of the MT-binding KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex network. It was between six and nine for four members of the constitutive centromere-associated network: centromere protein C (CENP-C), CENP-H, CENP-I, and CENP-T. The similarity in copy number per kMT for all of these proteins suggests that each MT end is linked to DNA by six to nine fibrous unit attachment modules in vertebrate cells, a conclusion that indicates architectural conservation between multiple MT-binding vertebrate and single MT-binding budding yeast kinetochores. PMID:20548100

Johnston, Katherine; Joglekar, Ajit; Hori, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Aussie; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Salmon, E D

2010-06-14

409

Synchrotron radiation dichromographic imaging of the extra- and intracranial arterial circulations and choroid plexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication proposes the use of synchrotron radiation based k-edge dichromographic imaging for the simultaneous study of the extracranial and intracranial arterial circulations following a single peripheral intravenous injection of a contrast agent. This approach can provide images of the vertebral arteries, the common, external and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries, during a single scanning procedure, lasting only a few seconds, requiring an X-ray exposure on the order of about 30mGy/image. The method has specific advantages for the evaluation of the perfusion of the choroid plexus.

Rubenstein, E.

2002-05-01

410

Vertebral augmentation in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures: review and new insights from recent studies.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fractures (VCF) due to osteoporotic degeneration and metastatic disease represent an increasingly significant public health problem. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) began as a simple, low-cost procedure that aimed to provide pain relief for patients with VCF. Balloon kyphoplasty (KP) was introduced later, and was presented not only as a "pain killer," but also as a deformity correction procedure. The preponderance of evidence has shown that vertebral augmentation provides significant and sustained clinical benefit for patients with VCF. The debate raised by studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine comparing VP with a sham procedure highlights the importance of very careful patient selection for vertebral augmentation procedures, since osteoporotic VCF is usually a self-limiting condition. However, vertebral augmentation may be beneficial in patients with comorbidities that make prolonged bed rest dangerous, in patients with fractures that fail to heal, and in patients with painful VCF due to metastatic disease. Patient selection should be based on a combination of clinical and radiological indications. We review recent studies in the extensive literature on vertebral augmentation, with the goal of clarifying some of the controversy surrounding these procedures. PMID:22595547

Itshayek, Eyal; Miller, Peter; Barzilay, Yair; Hasharoni, Amir; Kaplan, Leon; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E

2012-06-01

411

Peripheral arterial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) comprises those entities which result in obstruction to blood flow in the arteries, exclusive of the coronary and intracranial vessels. Although the definition of PAD technically includes problems within the extracranial carotid circulation, the upper extremity arteries, and the mesenteric and renal circulation, we will focus on chronic arterial occlusive disease in the arteries to the

Kenneth Ouriel

2001-01-01

412

Nitric oxide control of lower vertebrate blood vessels by vasomotor nerves.  

PubMed

In mammals, much is understood about the endothelial and neural NO control mechanisms in the vasculature. In contrast, NO control of blood vessels in lower vertebrates is poorly understood, with the majority of research focusing on the presence of an endothelial NO system; however, its presence remains controversial. This study examined the mechanisms by which NO regulates the large blood vessels of non-mammalian vertebrates. In all species examined, the arteries and veins contained a plexus of NOS-positive perivascular nerves that included nerve bundles and fine, varicose nerve terminals. However, in the large arteries and veins of various species of fishes and amphibians, no anatomical evidence was found for endothelial NOS using both NADPH-diaphorase and eNOS immunohistochemistry. In contrast, perinuclear NOS staining was readily apparent in blue-tongue lizard, pigeon and rat, which suggested that eNOS first appeared in reptiles. Physiological analysis of NO signalling in the vascular smooth muscle of short-finned eel and cane toad could not find any evidence for endothelial NO signalling. In contrast, it appears that activation of the nitrergic vasomotor nerves is responsible for NO control of the blood vessels. PMID:16139537

Donald, John A; Broughton, Brad R S

2005-08-31

413

Brain base arteries: pattern and variation in the European otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

The pattern and variation of the brain base arteries were investigated in 30 specimens of European otter. It was found that the vascular pattern in this species is similar to the vascular pattern found in other Carnivora. A very well-developed basilar artery, which was formed as a result of the anastomosis of equally well-developed vertebral arteries and the ventral spinal artery, was demonstrated to be characteristic of the species. Most of the variation in the pattern of origin concerned the origin of the middle cerebral arteries and labyrinthine arteries. In a single individual, a double middle cerebral artery was observed. Overall, the specimens demonstrated a clear regularity in the pattern of vessels in the base of the brain and a small range of variation. PMID:22414248

Brudnicki, W

2012-03-14

414

Cerebellar stroke in elderly patient with basilar artery agenesia: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 76-year-old woman admitted to our institution with sudden onset of dizziness and vertigo followed by vomiting and blurred vision. Her medical history was remarkable for hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic stroke in the territory of the left cerebral median artery. Her symptoms were suggestive of a cerebellar stroke. Computed tomography brain scan and neck vessel ultrasounds produced normal findings. A 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed a reverse dipping pattern. Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed, showing a hyperintense ischemic focus involving pons and left middle cerebellar peduncle, on T2-weighted images. On Time-of-flight (TOF)-3-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography, there was a marked reduction of basilar artery signal. The digital subtraction angiography showed a vertebrobasilar system anomaly. The right vertebral artery was hypoplastic with few thin terminal spinal branches. The left vertebral artery was vicarious to the right one in intracranial tract. V3 to V4 tract showed multiple atherosclerotic wall irregularities. The basilar common trunk was absent. An abnormal posterior inferior cerebellar artery replaced the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and superior cerebellar artery. Right posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and superior cerebellar artery arose from ipsilateral V4 tract. This case is the first description of pure basilar agenesia. The symptoms might be related to temporary decrement of the flow in the left vertebral artery. Furthermore, the reverse dipping pattern together with the aging, hypertension, and diabetes had probably contributed to a hemodynamic malfunction of the cerebral vascular system. PMID:20123233

Savica, Rodolfo; Longo, Marcello; La Spina, Paolino; Pitrone, Antonio; Calabrò, Rocco S; Trifirò, Gianluca; Cotroneo, Masina; Granata, Francesca; Musolino, Rosa

2010-01-01

415

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: StabilitiT a new delivery system for vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for compression fractures with bone cement has become an increasingly popular form of treatment. Various delivery techniques and bone cements have been developed. StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA) is a unique radiofrequency (RF) based system which delivers an ultra-high viscosity bone cement. The patented StabiliT ER bone cement has an extended working time prior to RF warming. When delivered through this unique hydraulic system an on-demand ultra-high viscosity cement can be delivered into an osteotome created cavity resulting in a clinical procedure with the best qualities of both vertebroplasty and conventional balloon assisted kyphoplasty. PMID:21107958

Robertson, Scott C

2011-01-01

416

Current status of percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques for vertebral compression fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a common and debilitating problem that occurs in patients with osteoporosis and osteolytic tumors. Standard conservative management with narcotic analgesics, bracing, and immobilization is often ineffective, and major reconstructive surgery is poorly tolerated by this frail patient population. The limitations of conventional treatments stimulated the development of minimally invasive, percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, which have become established as safe and effective treatments for VCF. This report reviews the current status of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in the management of acute VCF. PMID:16967354

Deen, H Gordon

417

Coronary artery disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, if the ...

418

Segmental Artery Injury Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Using Extrapedicular Approach  

PubMed Central

We performed a percutaneous vertebroplasty at the compressed L2 vertebral body of a 73-year-old female using a left-sided unilateral extrapedicular approach. She complained severe radiating pain and a tingling sensation in her left leg two hours after the vertebroplasty. Spinal computed tomographic scan showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma, and a subsequent spinal angiography revealed a left L2 segmental artery injury. Bleeding was successfully controlled by endovascular embolization. Recently, extrapedicular approaches have been attempted, allowing for the avoidance of facet and pedicle injury with only a unilateral approach. With this approach, however, the needle punctures the vertebral body directly. Therefore, this procedure carries the potential risk of a spinal segmental artery.

Cho, Yong Jun

2011-01-01

419

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

420

Arterial thromboembolism in senile systemic amyloidosis: report of two cases.  

PubMed

We describe a rare complication, systemic arterial thromboembolism, seen in two patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). Case 1 was a 73-year-old man who was tentatively diagnosed as having cardiac amyloidosis. Five months later, he was afflicted by severe left flank pain. CT disclosed renal infarction and then he received endomyocardial biopsy and the transthyretin (TTR) gene analysis, leading to the final diagnosis of SSA. Case 2 was an 88-year-old woman who had been definitively diagnosed as having SSA-related heart failure with atrial fibrillation two years before. She was transferred to the emergency room in our hospital and enhanced CT revealed complete occlusions of the left internal carotid and left vertebral arteries, both subclavian arteries, and the left renal and left internal iliac arteries. Paying much attention to intracardiac thrombosis might be necessary in taking care of SSA patients. PMID:22583098

Nakagawa, Michitaka; Tojo, Kana; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Kyo-hei; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

2012-05-15

421

Evaluation and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures  

PubMed Central

Compression fractures affect many individuals worldwide. An estimated 1.5 million vertebral compression fractures occur every year in the US. They are common in elderly populations, and 25% of postmenopausal women are affected by a compression fracture during their lifetime. Although these fractures rarely require hospital admission, they have the potential to cause significant disability and morbidity, often causing incapacitating back pain for many months. This review provides information on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of compression fractures, as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options. Among the available treatment options, kyphoplasty and percutaneous vertebroplasty are two minimally invasive techniques to alleviate pain and correct the sagittal imbalance of the spine.

Alexandru, Daniela; So, William

2012-01-01

422

[Vertebral hydatidosis. Complications, contribution of modern imaging].  

PubMed

Vertebral hydatidosis is the commonest skeletal manifestation of echinococcosis. It is also the most serious: among 6 patients followed-up for a mean period of 10 years, all had neurological complications and only one is free of neurological sequelae at the present time (at the price of multiple spinal operations). While current medical treatment remains essential, it does not always control this skeletal parasite infestation which requires careful monitoring (CT scan, NMR) in order to detect and treat all possible recurrences. PMID:1604224

Hernigou, P; Nabih, A; Goutallier, D

1992-02-01

423

Endopolyploidy in vertebrate liver: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclei in several species of vertebrates were examined, to establish the frequency of polyploidy and related parameters along evolutionary lines. Nuclei were compared in terms of volume, DNA content, ploidy ranges and internal organization. Several trends emerged. When present, heterochromatin occupied 20--25% of nuclear profile areas, irrespective of nuclear volume and poloidy; the volume of heterochromatin, however, increased in direct proportion to ploidy level. Regardless of internal organization, ploidy and species, a direct correlation emerged between the volumes of nuclei and their absolute DNA content. Results are discussed in terms of structural and genic DNA. PMID:7388971

Brasch, K

1980-02-01

424

Chromatic aberration of the vertebrate lens.  

PubMed

A split-laser technique employing red and blue lasers was used for direct measurement of longitudinal chromatic aberration of excised lenses from a spectrum of vertebrates (fish, amphibians, birds and mammals). The chromatic aberration (442-633 nm) of lenses of most species amounts to a relatively constant 4.6% of equivalent focal length. Dog lenses show somewhat larger amounts (5.7%) while duck and rock bass lenses show less wavelength variation in focal length (3.42-2.70%). In general, chromatic aberration varies little with lens eccentricity, although this point requires further study with more attention to paraxial measurements. PMID:3871931

Kreuzer, R O; Sivak, J G

1985-01-01

425

[Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: operative technique].  

PubMed

The intravertebral injection of acrylic resin cement -usually polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- into a fractured vertebral body, constitutes the basis of the so called "vertebral augmentation techniques", "vertebroplasty" and "kyphoplasty", to manage pain and to strengthen and stabilize the compromised vertebra. In some ocassion, prior to the PMMA injection, an inflatable bone tamp was inserted into both pedicles of the fractured vertebra with the aim of restoring vertebral height to correct the kyphosis deformation. This procedure is called kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty). The indications for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are evolving, from stabilization of painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures to vertebral collapse secondary to spinal metastases. In this paper we review the technical basis of both procedures, according to our experience in the treatment of vertebral fractures. Further studies are required to define the role for each technique in the spinal surgery's armamentarium. PMID:16276451

Martinez-Quiñones, J V; Aso-Escario, J; Arregui-Calvo, Y R

2005-10-01

426

Determination of strain energy function for arterial elastin: Experiments using histology and mechanical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-range reversible deformation of vertebrate arteries is primarily mediated by elastin networks that endure several million deformation cycles without appreciable fatigue. To determine how elastin contributes to the composite arterial properties, we studied the three-dimensional microstructure and biomechanics of isolated elastin. We initially estimated the sensitivity of these studies by comparing two elastin isolation protocols, autoclaving and alkali-extraction, and

Namrata Gundiah; Mark B Ratcliffe; Lisa A Pruitt

2007-01-01

427

Cervical cerebral artery dissection: a multicenter prospective study (preliminary report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine cases of dissection of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries are reported in our prospective multicenter study of 35 men and 14 women, with a mean age of 46.77 years. (range 17–60 years). We evaluated etiology, clinical manifestations, investigative techniques, and treatment. Thirty-one patients had so-called spontaneous dissections, although in the remaining 18 minimal or obvious trauma was considered

P. Bassi; P. Lattuada; A. Gomitoni

2003-01-01

428

Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4–5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ?35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition.

Cates, Matthew J.; Steed, Peter W.; Abdala, Ana P. L.; Langton, Philip D.

2011-01-01

429

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

430

Vertebral fractures in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis causes significant morbidity for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Corticosteroid therapy given to prolong mobility may increase the rate of osteoporosis and risk of fracture. This study of 33 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy determined retrospectively the incidence of vertebral fractures particularly after initiation of corticosteroids. A latency period of 40 months after commencement of steroids occurred before the first vertebral fracture appeared. However, by 100 months of treatment approximately 75% had sustained a vertebral fracture. PMID:12800730

Bothwell, J E; Gordon, K E; Dooley, J M; MacSween, J; Cummings, E A; Salisbury, S

2003-05-01

431

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

432

Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery\\u000a are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with\\u000a anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications\\u000a associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral

Kevin J. Daly; E. Raymond S. Ross; Heather Norris; Charles N. McCollum

2006-01-01

433

Vertebrate endothelial lipase: comparative studies of an ancient gene and protein in vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

Endothelial lipase (gene: LIPG; enzyme: EL) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from other human 'neutral lipase' genes, hepatic lipase (gene: LIPC; enzyme: HL) and lipoprotein lipase (gene: LPL; enzyme: LPL) examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a 'stop' codon' within exon 9. Vertebrate EL protein subunits shared 58-97% sequence identity as compared with 38-45% sequence identities with human HL and LPL. Four previously reported human EL N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate EL sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key EL amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (PL) (Bourne et al. 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the LIPG gene promoter and a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3'-untranslated region. Promoter regions containing functional polymorphisms that regulate HDL cholesterol in baboons were conserved among primates but not retained between primates and rodents. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families, LIPC and LPL. It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution >500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

Holmes, Roger S; Vandeberg, John L; Cox, Laura A

2011-01-26

434

[Corrective growth after vertebral body fracture in the adolescence].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 13-year-old female patient who sustained an incomplete burst fracture of the 1st lumbar vertebral body and an impression fracture of the 3rd vertebral body. Using a dorsal instrumentation the kyphosis of the thoracolumbar junction was treated. The radiographical follow-up indicated a correction of the involved vertebral bodies. However, complete restoration of the height of the vertebral bodies was not achieved. In view of this long-term follow-up the potential for correction of the adolescent thoracolumbar junction spine is discussed. PMID:19938356

Schmidt-Rohlfing, B; Nossek, M; Hofman, M; Delbrück, H; Hohl, C

435

Chest pain? An unusual presentation of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

We present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis presenting as chest pain. The patient initially underwent a CT chest angiogram to rule out a pulmonary embolism, which incidentally showed a soft tissue vertebral mass at T3-T4 disk space. Subsequent thoracic vertebral MRI was consistent with osteomyelitis with cord compression. Tissue culture from a CT-guided biopsy grew MRSA. The patient was successfully treated with Vancomycin. This is a rare presentation of vertebral osteomyelitis which poses an interesting diagnostic challenge. PMID:23476664

Landa, Cristian; Giddings, Stanley; Reddy, Pramod

2013-02-11

436

Evolutionary aspects of positioning and identification of vertebrate limbs  

PubMed Central

Emerging developmental studies contribute to our understanding of vertebrate evolution because changes in the developmental process and the genes responsible for such changes provide a unique way for evaluating the evolution of morphology. Endoskeletal limbs, the locomotor organs that are unique to vertebrates, are a popular model system in the fields of palaeontology and phylogeny because their structure is highly visible and their bony pattern is easily preserved in the fossil records. Similarly, limb development has long served as an excellent model system for studying vertebrate pattern formation. In this review, the evolution of vertebrate limb development is examined in the light of the latest knowledge, viewpoints and hypotheses.

TAMURA, KOJI; KURAISHI, RITSU; SAITO, DAISUKE; MASAKI, HIDEKI; IDE, HIROYUKI; YONEI-TAMURA, SAYURI

2001-01-01

437

Vertebral fracture assessment: impact of instrument and reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Many osteoporotic vertebral fractures are not clinically recognized but increase fracture risk. We hypothesized that a newer\\u000a generation densitometer increases the number of evaluable vertebrae and vertebral fractures detected. We also explored the\\u000a impact of reader experience on vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) interpretation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  VFA images obtained using Prodigy and iDXA densitometers in 103 older adults were evaluated for vertebral visualization

B. Buehring; D. Krueger; M. Checovich; D. Gemar; N. Vallarta-Ast; H. K. Genant; N. Binkley

2010-01-01

438

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development.

2011-01-01

439

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth.  

PubMed

The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise as an ectodermal invagination. Consistent with this, oral teeth are proposed to arise exclusively from ectoderm, contributing to tooth enamel epithelium, and from neural crest derived mesenchyme, contributing to dentin and pulp. Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity, but extend posteriorly as pharyngeal teeth that could be derived either directly from the endodermal epithelium, or from the ectodermal epithelium that reached this location through the mouth or through the pharyngeal slits. However, when the oropharyngeal membrane, which forms a sharp ecto/endodermal border, is broken, the fate of these cells is poorly known. Here, using transgenic axolotls with a combination of fate-mapping approaches, we present reliable evidence of oral teeth derived from both the ectoderm and endoderm and, moreover, demonstrate teeth with a mixed ecto/endodermal origin. Despite the enamel epithelia having a different embryonic source, oral teeth in the axolotl display striking developmental uniformities and are otherwise identical. This suggests a dominant role for the neural crest mesenchyme over epithelia in tooth initiation and, from an evolutionary point of view, that an essential factor in teeth evolution was the odontogenic capacity of neural crest cells, regardless of possible 'outside-in' or 'inside-out' influx of the epithelium. PMID:18794902

Soukup, Vladimír; Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

2008-09-14

440

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution.

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

441

The right bronchial artery  

PubMed Central

The precise course and relations of the right bronchial artery are presented with an emphasis on the characteristic parallelism between the arches of this artery and the azygos vein. The technique for an easy surgical approach to the bronchial artery is described. Various pathological conditions involving this artery are discussed in relation to possible surgical applications. Images

Nathan, Hilel; Orda, Ruben; Barkay, Michel

1970-01-01

442

Transradial artery coronary angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty

Ferdinand Kiemeneij; Gert Jan Laarman; Edwin de Melker

1995-01-01

443

The Hypodense Artery Sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: An acute intracranial embolus may be associ- ated with a hyperdense artery sign on CT, related to acute thrombus within the affected artery, a phenomenon that is well known and has been extensively documented. We present an unusual case of a middle cerebral artery terri- tory acute infarct with a hypodense artery on CT. The Hounsfield unit attenuation of

Thomas C. Lee; Eric S. Bartlett; Allan J. Fox; Sean P. Symons

444

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... away from the heart to the head and brain. Located on each side of the neck, these arteries can easily be felt pulsating by ... arteries, are located along the back of the neck adjacent to the spine, and supply blood to the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease ...

445

Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult  

PubMed Central

The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries.

Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

446

Mechanical testing of mouse carotid arteries: from newborn to adult.  

PubMed

The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall(1). When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation(2). In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental(3) and aging studies(4) can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression(5) and disease treatment(6). Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process(7). One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P; Wagenseil, Jessica E

2012-02-23

447

Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

Chatziioannou, Sofia N.; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S.

2010-01-01

448

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

PubMed Central

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar’s endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history.

Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

2013-01-01

449

Severe aortic and arterial aneurysms associated with a TGFBR2 mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A 24-year-old man presented with previously diagnosed Marfan's syndrome. Since the age of 9 years, he had undergone eight cardiovascular procedures to treat rapidly progressive aneurysms, dissection and tortuous vascular disease involving the aortic root and arch, the thoracoabdominal aorta, and brachiocephalic, vertebral, internal thoracic and superior mesenteric arteries. Throughout this extensive series of cardiovascular surgical repairs, he recovered

Scott A LeMaire; Hariyadarshi Pannu; Van Tran-Fadulu; Stacey A Carter; Joseph S Coselli; Dianna M Milewicz

2007-01-01

450

Ischemic infarct in childhood secondary to internal carotid artery dissection. Report of a case.  

PubMed

A previously healthy 6-year-old boy, suddenly developed a complete right hemiparesis and dysarthria while playing at school without any history of trauma. All laboratory examinations were normal except for CT brain scan that revealed a small ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory. Four vessel cerebral angiography demonstrated a left internal carotid artery dissective obstruction while filling of the right or left vertebral artery resulted in the simultaneous retrograde appearance of the respective middle cerebral artery possibly via the posterior communicating artery. In contrast to the literature data, the patient showed a significant recovery with conservative treatment. This uncommon stroke type in children and the possible protective role of the posterior communicating artery's collateral are further discussed. PMID:2792864

Karoutas, G; Karacostas, D; Artemis, N; Tsounis, S; Dukidis, A

451

The epigenome in early vertebrate development.  

PubMed

Epigenetic regulation defines the commitment and potential of cells, including the limitations in their competence to respond to inducing signals. This review discusses the developmental origins of chromatin state in Xenopus and other vertebrate species and provides an overview of its use in genome annotation. In most metazoans the embryonic genome is transcriptionally quiescent after fertilization. This involves nucleosome-dense chromatin, repressors and a temporal deficiency in the transcription machinery. Active histone modifications such as H3K4me3 appear in pluripotent blastula embryos, whereas repressive marks such as H3K27me3 show a major increase in enrichment during late blastula and gastrula stages. The H3K27me3 modification set by Polycomb restricts ectopic lineage-specific gene expression. Pluripotent chromatin in Xenopus embryos is relatively unconstrained, whereas the pluripotent cell lineage in mammalian embryos harbors a more enforced type of pluripotent chromatin. PMID:22139962

Bogdanovi?, Ozren; van Heeringen, Simon J; Veenstra, Gert Jan C

2011-12-27

452

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

453

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.  

PubMed

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

2013-01-01

454

[Vertebral osteoblastoma and scoliosis. Two cases report].  

PubMed

We report two cases of spinal osteoblastoma in two boys aged 16 and 19 years. The lesion was disclosed by scoliosis with signs of thoracic and lumbar neurological compression. The diagnosis was provided by the CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging and was confirmed by the histology study of the surgical specimen. Involvement of the vertebral column has been estimated to range from 30 to 40% for these rare tumors that account for less than 1% of all bone tumors. Localization on the convex aspect of scoliosis is rare. CT-scan provides an analysis of the tumor components and clearly demonstrates intraspinal extension. MRI is superior in visualizing neurological compression. In our experience, function outcome has been favorable after surgical decompression. PMID:11283455

Akhaddar, A; Gazaz, M; Rifi, L; Amarti, A; Bouyaakoub, F; Derraz, S; El Ouhabi, A; El Khamlichi, A

2001-02-01

455

The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens  

PubMed Central

Summary The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusi