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1

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-10-01

2

A rare variation of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Variations of the vertebrobasilar arterial complex are important with regard to their potential clinical impact. We present an unusual case of the vertebral artery, in which the left vertebral artery in its ascent in the neck through the transverse foramina passed posteriorly between the transverse processes of C3 and C4 and supplied the posterior muscles of the neck without continuing intracranially. Albeit speculatively, we hypothesise that the variation of the vertebral artery reported here was caused by degeneration of the proximal portion of the left postcostal longitudinal anastomosis (i.e. C1 and C2 intersegmental arteries) in the context of a persistent third cervical intersegmental artery. Our case is unique in that the left vertebral artery terminated extracranially. Knowledge of the variations of the vertebrobasilar arterial complex is important for surgeons operating at the skull base, craniocervical junction, and cervical region, and for clinicians interpreting the imaging of this region. PMID:16773609

Shoja, M M; Tubbs, R S; Khaki, A A; Shokouhi, G; Farahani, R M; Moein, A

2006-05-01

3

Bilateral vertebral artery stenosis present with vertigo  

PubMed Central

Of ischaemic stroke patients, about 25% rise from the posterior or vertebrobasilar system. The ischaemia of vertebral arteries may emerge for different vascular pathological reasons, at different localisations and with different clinical findings. Despite its low morbidity and mortality risk, early diagnosis and treatment is of importance. Vertebrobasilar ischaemia symptoms can be observed clinically such as vertigo, tinnitus, double vision, headache, hypokinesis and hearing disorders, etc. In this article, a 42-year-old stroke patient case is presented, who applied to the emergency service with vertigo and then, was diagnosed with bilateral vertebral artery stenosis by means of cranial MR angiography. PMID:23376658

Kotan, Dilcan; Sayan, Saadet; Acar, Bilgehan Atilgan; Polat, Pinar

2013-01-01

4

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

5

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before. PMID:22031481

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

6

Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

2012-01-01

7

Vertebral artery occlusion with vertebral artery-to-posterior inferior cerebellar artery stenting for preservation of the PICA in treating ruptured vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with a right vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm who was treated by placing an Enterprise stent\\u000a (Cordis Neurovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) from the proximal VA to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in order to\\u000a save the patency of the PICA. A 47-year-old man was admitted with a ruptured right VA dissecting aneurysm that involved the

Joonho Chung; Bum-soo Kim; Dongwoo Lee; Tae-Hyun Kim; Yong Sam Shin

2010-01-01

8

Rotational vertebral artery syndrome due to compression of nondominant vertebral artery terminating in posterior inferior cerebellar artery.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) is characterized by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal vertigo, nystagmus, and ataxia induced by head rotation. We report on a patient who developed atypical RVAS due to compression of the vertebral artery (VA) terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). A 59-year-old man suffered from vertigo and nystagmus induced by leftward head rotation and oculography showed right beating horizontal-torsional and downbeat nystagmus. Cerebral angiography showed hypoplastic right VA terminating in PICA without connection to the basilar artery. The basilar artery received its flow from the left VA only and branched out both anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Cerebral angiography revealed a complete occlusion of the right distal VA at the level of the C1-2 junction when the head was rotated to a leftward position. In contrast, the blood flow through the left vertebral and basilar arteries remained intact while turning the head to either side. The hemodynamic compromise observed in our patient with RVAS indicates that isolated vertigo and nystagmus may occur due to transient ischemia of the inferior cerebellum or lateral medulla. PMID:21416208

Noh, Young; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji Soo

2011-10-01

9

Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-year-old woman presented a sudden left occipital headache and a posterior circulation stroke after cervical manipulation\\u000a for neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a left intracranial vertebral artery occlusive dissection associated\\u000a with an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection with vessel stenosis in its prepetrous tract. This is the first reported\\u000a case showing an associate vertebral and carotid artery dissection

Giuliano Parenti; Giovanni Orlandi; Mariacristina Bianchi; Maria Renna; Antonio Martini; Luigi Murri

1999-01-01

10

Direct transposition of the distal cervical vertebral artery into the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

From January 1979 to December 1991, 92 revascularizations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery were performed in 91 patients through a direct transposition of this artery into the internal carotid artery (ICA). These cases represented 15.1% of 610 vertebral revascularizations and 38.8% of 280 distal vertebral revascularizations performed during this period at our institution. The sex ratio of

Fabien Koskas; Edouard Kieffer; Gérald Rancurel; Amine Bahnini; Carlo Ruotolo; Giulio Illuminati

1995-01-01

11

Vertebral Artery Dissection as a Cause of Cervical Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

The acute onset of neck pain and arm weakness is most commonly due to cervical radiculopathy or inflammatory brachial plexopathy. Rarely, extracranial vertebral artery dissection may cause radiculopathy in the absence of brainstem ischemia. We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection presenting as cervical radiculopathy in a previously healthy 43-year-old woman who presented with proximal left arm weakness and neck pain aggravated by movement. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed dissection of the left vertebral artery with an intramural hematoma compressing the left C5 and C6 nerve roots. Antiplatelet treatment was commenced, and full power returned after 2 months. Recognition of vertebral artery dissection on cervical MRI as a possible cause of cervical radiculopathy is important to avoid interventions within the intervertebral foramen such as surgery or nerve root sleeve injection. Treatment with antithrombotic agents is important to prevent secondary ischemic events. PMID:24353851

Khangure, Mark; Silbert, Peter Linton

2013-01-01

12

[Postoperative dissection of the vertebral artery in two steps].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of perioperative vertebral artery dissection can be difficult because of non-specific clinical signs. We report a case revealed by a tegmento-thalamic stroke after an abdominal second surgical look. The interest of this observation is related to a particular evolution in two steps separated by a 2-month-interval and an intercurrent cervical manipulation. After the second anesthesia, neck pain associated with a third cranial nerve palsy and a supranuclear ophtalmoplegia revealed a tegmento-thalamic ischemic stroke due to vertebral artery dissection. We discuss here the different factors possibly involved in the pathophysiology of postoperative vertebral artery dissection: positioning, cervical manipulation, subclavian central venous access and cisplatin toxicity. Vertebral artery dissection should be discussed in case of postoperative neck pain, especially with non-typical symptomatology. PMID:25447780

Bien, J-Y; Morel, J; Demasles, S; Abboud, K; Molliex, S

2014-12-01

13

Bow hunter's syndrome secondary to bilateral dynamic vertebral artery compression.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome is a condition in which vertebrobasilar insufficiency is resultant from head rotation, clinically manifested by presyncopal sensation, syncope, dizziness, and nausea. It is usually diagnosed clinically, with supporting vascular imaging demonstrating an occluded or at the very least compromised unilateral vertebral artery, while the dominant vertebral artery remains patent in the neutral position. Dynamic imaging is utilized to confirm the rotational compression of the dominant vertebral artery. We present the rare case of a patient with typical Bow hunter's symptoms, bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging, and bilateral compromise with head rotation. Our patient underwent posterior decompression of the culprit atlanto-axial transverse foramen and subaxial cervical fusion, with resolution of his symptoms. Our patient exemplifies the possibility of bilateral dynamic vertebral artery occlusion. We show that Bow hunter's syndrome cannot be ruled out in the setting of bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging and that severe cervical spondylosis should impart further clinical suspicion of this unusual phenomenon. PMID:25070633

Healy, Andrew T; Lee, Bryan S; Walsh, Kevin; Bain, Mark D; Krishnaney, Ajit A

2015-01-01

14

Spontaneus resolution of a traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed

Injuries of the vertebral artery are rare and are usually seen after penetrating or blunt cervical trauma. Vertebral artery injuries (VAI) have been reported in 0.5% of blunt trauma cases. These injuries can lead to hemorrhage, thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula or traumatic pseudoaneurysm in the early or late period. They must be treated carefully due to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this case report, we present a case of asymptomatic traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm(TVAP) seen after cervical spinal trauma with C5-C6 listhesis developing afterwards, treated with anterior-posterior stabilization and fusion. Spontaneous resolution of the pseudoaneurysm is demonstrated by vertebral arter angiogrphy. PMID:21294098

Tekiner, Ayhan; Gokcek, Cevdet; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Erdem, Yavuz; Kilic, Celal

2011-01-01

15

Observation of vertebral artery damage using angioscopy in autopsy cases.  

PubMed

The vertebral arteries are important blood vessels that supply the cerebral circulation in conjunction with the internal carotid arteries. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is necessary to examine the vertebral arteries as potential sources of bleeding due to blunt trauma (head and neck) or of cerebral embolism that originated on the surface of the damaged intima as a result of hyperflexion or hyperextension. However, a considerable part of the vertebral arterial surface is surrounded by bone, resulting in challenges during examination in a routine autopsy. In this study, angioscopy was used to inspect the vertebral artery intima for damage in cases of neck injury, head injury, or neck strangulation. Intimal damage was detected in 34 out of the total 75 cases. Of the 28 cases with cervical discopathy or fracture, 61% had intimal damage. In addition, postmortem application of computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the injured vessel in a case with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and a perforated hole was detected using angioscopy, which did not introduce autopsy-related artifacts. Therefore, angioscopy may be a useful and nondestructive method to identify intimal damage in the vertebral arteries during an autopsy. PMID:25030189

Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Sato, Kaoru; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2014-11-01

16

Endovascular interventional therapy and classification of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The current study aimed to summarise the clinical features and classifications of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to optimise strategies for endovascular interventional therapy. The clinical features and results of 31 inpatients with VADA were retrospectively analysed. The aneurysms were classified according to their location and association between the aneurysm and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and into subtypes according to the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral artery. Different endovascular interventional therapy strategies were selected for each classification. Three types of aneurysm with two subtypes each were identified. An aneurysm located distally to the PICA was termed type I (10/31 patients). Aneurysms with a contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype a (type Ia, 6/31 patients) and aneurysms with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype b (type Ib, 4/31 patients). An aneurysm located at the origin of the PICA was termed type II (13/31 patients), with seven cases classified as IIa and six cases as IIb. An aneurysm located proximally to the PICA was termed type III (8/31 patients), with five cases classified as IIIa and three cases as IIIb. Among the 31 patients, 18 received stent-assisted coiling, two received coiling, 10 received coiling with parent artery occlusion and one patient received conservative treatment. Among the 31 patients with VADA, 21 were occluded completely, nine were partially occluded and one was not occluded. One patient developed a coma following coiling; however, the other 30 patients recovered well. Thus, the classification of an aneurysm based on its location and the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral arteries appears to be an effective and safe approach for the selection of appropriate endovascular interventional therapy strategies. PMID:25289031

WANG, YIHUA; ZHAO, CUIPING; HAO, XIAOGUANG; WANG, CHENGWEI; WANG, ZHIGANG

2014-01-01

17

Vertebral artery occlusion by a cervical `hour-glass' neurofibroma  

PubMed Central

A case of total vertebral artery occlusion by a cervical `hour-glass' or `dumb-bell' neurofibroma is reported. To the author's knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature. A causal relationship between the arterial occlusion and the patient's symptoms has been postulated. The angiographic study of these patients is further emphasized to enhance safer and more effectual removal of these lesions. Images PMID:4647861

Geissinger, James D.; Gruner, George; Ruge, Daniel

1972-01-01

18

Vertebral Artery Dissection in Children: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been infrequently recognized in children. The authors have reviewed 68 reported cases of VAD in children in the existing literature. An association between routine types of neck movement in sports and the evolution of VAD was recognized in half of the reported cases. Boys outnumbered girls by a ratio of 6.6 to 1, in contrast

Izhar Hasan; Simon Wapnick; Michael S. Tenner; William T. Couldwell

2002-01-01

19

Giant vertebral artery aneurysm in a child treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization  

PubMed Central

Background: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are extremely rare in the pediatric population and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes a case of a pediatric patient with giant vertebral artery aneurysm who presented with intracranial mass effect. This patient was successfully treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization. Case Description: A 7-year-old girl presented with tetraparesis, ataxia, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Cerebral angiography revealed intracranial giant aneurysm arising from the right vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular parent artery occlusion alone to facilitate aneurysmal thrombosis as an initial treatment. This was done to avoid a coil mass effect to the brainstem. However, incomplete thrombosis occurred in the vicinity of the vertebral artery union. Therefore, additional coil embolization for residual aneurysm was performed. Two additional coil embolization procedures were performed in response to recurrence. Mass effect and clinical symptoms gradually improved, and the patient had no associated morbidity or recurrence at 2 years after the last fourth coil embolization. Conclusion: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and challenging in pediatric patients. Staged endovascular strategy can be a safe and effective treatment option. PMID:25071937

Park, Hun-Soo; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Wada, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hironaka, Yasuo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

20

Spontaneous Thrombolysis of Multiple Thrombi at Distal Region of Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery After Stent-assisted Angioplasty on Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis: Angiographic Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) can be easily overlooked if the contralateral side vertebral artery is intact, because of compensation by the contralateral artery or cerebral collateral network. The clinical relevance and hemodynamic impact of VAH is still controversial. However, VAH has recently been considered a risk factor for posterior circulation ischemia. Ischemic stroke is seldom caused by free floating thrombi (FFT) in the artery. Pathophysiology of FFT has not yet been clarified. The state of reduced blood flow such as a vertebral artery origin stenosis may cause FFT. Their instability may make them sources of recurrent artery to artery embolism. Patients with FFT will require appropriate medical and endovascular treatment. The current case illustrates a short-term angiographic change of spontaneous thrombolysis of VAH and multiple thrombi at the distal region of the stenosed lesion after stent-assisted angioplasty for a vertebral artery origin stenosis. PMID:25340032

Huh, Choon-Woong; Kim, Dal-Soo; Mok, Jin-Ho; Kim, In-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwan

2014-01-01

21

Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma  

PubMed Central

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized. PMID:25317310

Dabke, Harshad V.

2014-01-01

22

Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

Jones, Jeremy; Jones, Catherine; Nugent, Kenneth

2015-01-01

23

Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

Jones, Jeremy; Nugent, Kenneth

2015-01-01

24

Crossover balloon technique for vertebral artery thrombus: a novel method  

PubMed Central

A 54-year-old man presented with recurrent episodes of transient ischemic attacks and acute stroke secondary to a floating thrombus in the right vertebral artery (VA) with narrowing of the right VA. He was initially treated medically with anticoagulation, antiplatelets and statins but developed multiple fresh infarcts. He was then referred for endovascular treatment, which was performed in a novel way. PMID:23386534

Huded, Vikram; Ellajosyula, Ratnavalli; de Souza, Romnesh; Zafer, Syed Moeed

2013-01-01

25

Numerical simulation of vertebral artery stenosis treated with different stents.  

PubMed

We sought to investigate the effects of endovascular stents with different links for treating stenotic vertebral artery and to determine the relationship between the shape of the link and in-stent restenosis (ISR). We also attempted to provide scientific guidelines for stent design and selection for clinical procedures. Models of three types of stent with different links (L-stent, V-stent, and S-stent) and an idealized stenotic vertebral artery were established. The deployment procedure for the stent in the stenotic vertebral artery was simulated for solid mechanics analysis. Next, the deformed models were extracted to construct the blood flow domain, and numerical simulations of the hemodynamics in these models were performed using the finite element method. The numerical results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with the L-stent and V-stent, the S-stent has a better flexibility and induces less stress in the stent strut. Furthermore, less stress is generated in the arterial wall. (2) Vascular straightening is scarcely influenced by the shape of the link, but it is closely related to the flexibility of the stent. (3) The S-stent has the smallest foreshortening among the three types of stents. (4) Compared with the V-stent and S-stent, the L-stent causes a smaller area with low wall shear stress, less blood stagnation area, and better blood flow close to the artery wall. From the viewpoint of the combination of solid mechanics and hemodynamics, the S-stent has better therapeutic effects because of its lower potential for inducing ISR and its better prospects in clinical applications compared with the L-stent and V-stent. PMID:24337228

Qiao, Aike; Zhang, Zhanzhu

2014-04-01

26

Multidetector computed tomography angiography: Application in vertebral artery dissection  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is a minimally invasive radiological technique providing high-resolution images of the arterial wall and angiographic images of the lumen. We studied the radiological features of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a consecutive series of patients investigated for acute stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to confirm and define the diagnostic features of VAD on MDCTA. Patients and Methods: Review of patients identified prospectively over a 4-year period with VAD assessed by MDCTA was conducted. Radiological features of VAD on MDCTA were reanalyzed utilising previously reported criteria for VAD. Results: Thirty-five patients (25 males, mean age 49.6 years) with a total of 45 dissected vertebral arteries were reviewed. MDCTA features of VAD included increased wall thickness in 44/45 (97.7%) arteries and increased total vessel diameter in 42/45 arteries (93.3%). All dissected arteries had either lumen stenosis (21/45) or associated segmental occlusion (24/45). An intimal flap was detected in 6/45 (13.3 %) vessels. Twenty-five patients had follow-up imaging, 14/32 vessels returned to normal, 4 showed improvement in stenosis but did not return to normal and 14 demonstrated no change. The majority of non-occluded vessels became normal or displayed improved patency. Only 4/17 occluded arteries demonstrated re-establishment of flow. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusions: MDCTA is a safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of VAD. Increased wall thickness (97.7%) and increased vessel wall diameter (93.3%) were the most frequently observed features. PMID:21633613

Teasdale, Evelyn; Zampakis, Peter; Santosh, Celestine; Razvi, Saif

2011-01-01

27

A Vertebral Artery Dissection with Basilar Artery Occlusion in a Child  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services. PMID:25587466

Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

2014-01-01

28

Flow-area relationship in internal carotid and vertebral arteries  

PubMed Central

Subject-specific computational and experimental models of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms require the specification of physiologic flow conditions. Because patient-specific flow data is not always available, researchers have used “typical” or population average flow rates and waveforms. However, in order to be able to compare the magnitude of hemodynamic variables between different aneurysms or groups of aneurysms (e.g. ruptured vs. unruptured) it is necessary to scale the flow rates to the area of the inflow artery. In this work, a relationship between flow rates and vessel areas is derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance measurements in the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries of normal subjects. PMID:18460763

Cebral, J R; Castro, M A; Putman, C M; Alperin, N

2009-01-01

29

Cerebellar hemorrhage after embolization of ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to PICA including parent artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Some complications related to vertebral artery occlusion by endovascular technique have been reported. However, cerebellar hemorrhage after vertebral artery occlusion in subacute phase is rare. In this report, we describe a patient who showed cerebellar hemorrhage during hypertensive therapy for vasospasm after embolization of a vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Case Description: A 56-year-old female with a ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery developed cerebellar hemorrhage 15 days after embolization of the vertebral artery, including the dissected site. In this patient, the preserved posterior inferior cerebellar artery fed by retrograde blood flow might have been hemodynamically stressed during hypertensive and antiplatelet therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusion: Although cerebellar hemorrhage is not prone to occur in the nonacute stage of embolization of the vertebral artery, it should be taken into consideration that cerebellar hemorrhage may occur during hypertensive treatment. PMID:24872921

Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Shima, Hiroshi; Seki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

30

[Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].  

PubMed

From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

2004-01-01

31

Cervical Compressive Myelopathy due to Anomalous Bilateral Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal. PMID:24294461

Ha, Eun Jin; Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2013-01-01

32

Usefulness of Intraoperative Monitoring during Microsurgical Decompression of Cervicomedullary Compression Caused by an Anomalous Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cervicomedullary compression by an anomalous vertebral artery treated using microsurgical decompression with intraoperative monitoring. A 68-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. MRI revealed multiple abnormalities, including an anomalous vertebral artery that compressed the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. Suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy was performed. The spinal cord was found to be compressed by the vertebral arteries, which were retracted dorsolaterally. At that time, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changed. After release of the vertebral artery, the SSEP signal normalized instantly. The vertebral artery was then lifted gently and anchored to the dura. There was no other procedural complication. The patient's symptoms improved. This case demonstrates that intraoperative monitoring may be useful for preventing procedural complications during spinal cord microsurgical decompression. PMID:25628814

Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Dong Mun; Lee, Kun Soo

2014-01-01

33

Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

34

Endovascular Recanalization for Chronic Symptomatic Intracranial Vertebral Artery Total Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The outcome of recanalization in patients with chronic symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery (ICVA) total occlusion is poor. This paper reports the technical feasibility and long-term outcome of ICVA stenting in patients with chronic symptomatic total occlusion. Methods. Retrospective review of our prospectively maintained intracranial intervention database to identify patients with symptomatic total occlusion of ICVA with revascularization attempted >1 month after index ischemic event. Results. Eight patients (mean age 58 years) were identified. One had stroke and 7 had recurrent transient ischemic attacks. Four had bilateral ICVA total occlusion and 4 had unilateral ICVA total occlusion with severe stenosis contralaterally. Seven of 8 patients underwent endovascular recanalization, which was achieved in 6. Periprocedural complications included cerebellum hemorrhage, arterial dissection, perforation, and subacute in-stent thrombosis which occurred in 3 patients. One patient died of cerebellum hemorrhage. The other patients improved clinically after endovascular therapy. Conclusions. Stent-supported recanalization of ICVA total occlusion is technically feasible, and may become a viable treatment option in selected patients. PMID:25276423

Xu, Ziqi; Ma, Ning; Mo, Dapeng; Wong, Edward Ho chung; Gao, Feng; Jiao, Liqun; Miao, Zhongrong

2014-01-01

35

Atypical Anterior Spinal Artery Infarction due to Left Vertebral Artery Occlusion Presenting with Bilateral Hand Weakness  

PubMed Central

Background Infarct of the anterior spinal artery is the most common subtype of spinal cord infarct, and is characterized by bilateral motor deficits with spinothalamic sensory deficits. We experienced a case with atypical anterior-spinal-artery infarct that presented with bilateral hand weakness but without sensory deficits. Case Report A 29-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and bilateral weakness of the hands. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not reveal any lesion. His motor symptoms improved rapidly except for mild weakness in his left wrist and fingers. Magnetic resonance angiography showed proximal occlusion of the left vertebral artery; a spine MRI revealed left cervical cord infarction. Conclusions Bilateral or unilateral hand weakness can be the sole symptom of a cervical cord infarct. PMID:24829605

Kim, Min-Ji; Jang, Mi-Hee; Choi, Mi-Song; Kang, Suk Yun; Kim, Joo Yong; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kang, Ik-Won

2014-01-01

36

Cerebellar Infarction Originating from Vertebral Artery Stenosis Caused by a Hypertrophied Uncovertebral Joint: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of cerebellar infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by a hypertrophied uncovertebral joint. A 38-year-old male patient presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and dysarthria. The brain MR image showed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery (SCA). The MR

Jong Mun Choi; Hyeok Jin Hong; Suk Ki Chang; Sung Han Oh

37

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting in a patient after cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset thunderclap headache and focal neurologic deficits. Once thought to be a rare syndrome, more advanced non-invasive imaging has led to an increase in RCVS diagnosis. Unilateral vertebral artery dissection has been described in fewer than 40% of cases of RCVS. Bilateral vertebral artery dissection has rarely been reported. We describe the case of a patient with RCVS and bilateral vertebral artery dissection presenting with an intramedullary infarct treated successfully with medical management and careful close follow-up. This rare coexistence should be recognized as the treatment differs. PMID:23354867

Mitchell, Lex A; Santarelli, Justin G; Singh, Inder Paul; Do, Huy M

2013-01-01

38

Extensive bilateral vertebral artery remodeling following treatment of dissection using pipeline embolic device  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral artery dissection remains a significant cause of stroke, and the mainstay of treatment has been medical management with anticoagulation, although flow-diverting stents have been used in some cases of arterial dissection resistant to medical management. Methods We present a case report of bilateral vertebral artery stenting using pipeline embolic device flow-diverting stents, after failed medical management of the dissection. Results This case demonstrated substantial subsequent vertebral arterial remodeling and good clinical outcome with maintenance of posterior circulation. The patient did not suffer any further strokes or posterior circulation symptoms following vertebral artery remodeling. Conclusion In cases where traditional management of arterial dissection has not been efficacious, flow-diverting stents may be useful in treating dissections of the posterior cerebral circulation, even with bilateral involvement.

Mitchell, Bartley; Momin, Eric; Jou, Liang-Der; Shaltoni, Hashem; Morsi, Hesham; Mawad, Michel

2014-01-01

39

[Symptomatological rubral tremor caused by vertebral-basilar artery embolism].  

PubMed

Rubral tremor is a distinct clinical entity as described by Gorden Holmes. We have reported here a 44 years old woman with rubral tremor appearing about 2 months after an embolic attack of vertebral-basilar artery. On neurological examination there were left homonymous hemianopsia, dysarthria very mild weakness of left upper and lower limbs with clumsiness of her left lower limb and the tremor of the left upper limb. Muscle tone was increased in her left upper limb with dystonic posturing. The tremor of her left upper limb was present at rest with regular rhythm of 2.8 Hz. This tremor included the reciprocal movements such as radial and ulnar flexion of the left wrist and independent movements of different fingers. It was accentuated by postural adjustment and by guided voluntary movements and disappeared during sleep. Surface EMG demonstrated that the grouping discharge was seen not only alternatingly but also synchronously between agonists and antagonists. A brain MRI image revealed multiple lesions including right thalamus and left cerebellum. No lesions were detected in brain stem. On the basis of MRI, it was questionable whether the lesion involved the dentate nucleus in the left cerebellum although the lesion was located at the medulla near the dentate nucleus extending from the cortex. So-called rubral tremor could be generated in lesions of cerebello-rubro-thalamic system without rubral lesion itself. PMID:1802467

Yamamoto, M; Wakayama, Y; Kawasaki, H; Kawase, Y; Okayasu, H

1991-10-01

40

Vertebral artery dissection after neck extension in an adult patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome.  

PubMed

The association between Klippel-Feil syndrome and vertebral artery dissection is quite rare. We report an adult patient with vertebral artery dissection and Klippel-Feil syndrome, to our knowledge only the third reported case of its kind. A 45-year-old woman with a known history of Klippel-Feil syndrome presented with occipital head and neck pain following forced neck extension. Diagnostic cerebral angiography revealed a high grade vertebral artery stenosis, consistent with vertebral artery dissection. Following 6 months of medical management, a repeat diagnostic angiogram revealed complete healing of the vessel. While cervical fusion, as seen in Klippel-Feil syndrome, has previously been shown to cause neurologic injury secondary to hypermobility, the association with vertebral artery dissection is incredibly rare. We hypothesize that this hypermobility places abnormal shear force on the vessel, causing intimal injury and dissection. Patients with seemingly spontaneous vertebral artery dissection may benefit from cervical spine radiography, and this predisposition to cerebrovascular injury strongly suggests further evaluation of vascular injury following trauma in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome or other cervical fusion as clinically warranted. PMID:24156906

Dornbos, David; Ikeda, Daniel S; Slivka, Andrew; Powers, Ciaran

2014-04-01

41

Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

2014-10-01

42

Clinical Characteristics of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Dissection. A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is an important cause of stroke in the young. It can present nonspecifically and may be misdiagnosed with adverse consequences. We assessed the frequency of head/neck pain, other neurological symptoms, and cerebrovascular events in symptomatic VAD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) for English-language manuscripts with >5 subjects with clinical or radiological features of VAD. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion; a third adjudicated differences. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and clinical data were abstracted. Pooled proportions were calculated. Results Of 3996 citations, we screened 511manuscripts and selected 75 studies describing 1,972 VAD patients. The most common symptoms were dizziness/vertigo (58%), headache (51%) and neck pain (46%). Stroke was common (63%), especially with extracranial dissections (66% vs. 32%, p<0.0001), while TIA (14%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (10%) were uncommon. SAH was seen only with intracranial dissections (57% vs. 0%, p=0.003). Fewer than half of the patients had obvious trauma, and only 7.9% had a known connective tissue disease. Outcome was good (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1) in 67% and poor (mRS 5-6) in 10%. Conclusion VAD is associated with nonspecific symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, headache, or neck pain. Ischemic stroke is the most common reported cerebrovascular complication. VAD should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with dizziness or craniocervical pain, even in the absence of other risk factors. Future studies should compare clinical findings as predictors in well-defined, undifferentiated populations of clinical VAD suspects. PMID:22931728

Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Sharma, Priti; Robinson, Karen A.; Arnan, Martinson; Tsui, Megan; Ladha, Karim; Newman-Toker, David E.

2013-01-01

43

Endovascular Management of Pediatric High-Flow Vertebro-Vertebral Fistula with Reversed Basilar Artery Flow  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral artery arteriovenous fistula (VAVF) is mostly known as a post-traumatic and/or iatrogenic arteriovenous complication. However, spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery has not been reported in children. We describe a unique asymptomatic presentation of a spontaneous high-flow VAVF associated with flow reversal in the basilar artery in a pediatric patient. The literature for classification, pathophysiology, treatment strategies, and post-procedural complications is also reviewed. PMID:23693046

Honarmand, A.R.; Ansari, S.A.; Alden, T.D.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Hurley, M.C.; Rahman, O.; Shaibani, A.

2013-01-01

44

Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

Bani?, Tihomir; Bani?, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bili?, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavi?, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Koki?, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

2014-09-01

45

Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

2014-04-01

46

Cerebellar infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by a hypertrophied uncovertebral joint.  

PubMed

We report a case of cerebellar infarction originating from vertebral artery stenosis caused by a hypertrophied uncovertebral joint. A 38-year-old man presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and dysarthria. The magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery (SCA). Magnetic resonance, 3-dimensional computed tomographic, and conventional angiography revealed severe right vertebral artery stenosis by extrinsic compression of the hypertrophied right C5-C6 uncovertebral joint. The diagnosis was acute cerebellar infarction, which was probably caused by embolism from the right vertebral artery stenosis that was caused by the hypertrophied C5-C6 uncovertebral joint. C5-C6 anterior discectomy and fusion were performed together with direct uncovertebral joint decompression. Postoperative 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography revealed improvement in antegrade filling in the right vertebral artery. The imaging findings for this patient and the pathogenesis of cerebellar infarction for our patient are discussed. PMID:22365284

Choi, Jong Mun; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Chang, Suk Ki; Oh, Sung Han

2012-11-01

47

Resolution of Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Following Microvascular Decompression of the Intracranial Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

Isolated hypoglossal nerve paresis due to mechanical compression from a vascular lesion is very rare. We present a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with spontaneous abrupt-onset dysarthria, swallowing difficulty and left-sided tongue atrophy. Brain computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem demonstrated an abnormal course of the left vertebral artery compressing the medulla oblongata at the exit zone of the hypoglossal rootlets that was relieved by microvascular decompression of the offending intracranial vertebral artery. This case supports the hypothesis that hypoglossal nerve palsy can be due to nerve stretching and compression by a pulsating normal vertebral artery. Microvascular decompression of the intracranial nerve and careful evaluation of the imaging studies can resolve unexpected isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:21556237

Cheong, Jin Hwan; Yang, Moon Sul; Kim, Choong Hyun

2011-01-01

48

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection in an adult with brachial plexus injury and cervical spinal fractures  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 32 year-old right-hand dominant woman who sustained a right brachial plexus injury, ipsilateral fractures of the cervical spine transverse processes, and vertebral artery dissection. She presented to us four days following the initiating accident. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed normal brachial plexus along with vertebral artery dissection with intramural thrombus and vascular lumen occlusion. The dissection was managed conservatively. A repeat CAT-SCAN Angiography three months later showed healing of the dissection plus vascular lumen re-canalization. There were no sequelae due to the dissection. The details of the case are discussed in this report. PMID:17822530

2007-01-01

49

A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments. PMID:24321776

Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-02-01

50

The Role of Controlled Anticoagulation in Balloon Occluding Vertebral Arteries to Treat Giant Fusiform Aneurysms of the Basilar Artery  

PubMed Central

Summary We suggest and discuss the role of controlled anticoagulation therapy after the balloon occlusion of vertebral arteries to treat giant fusiform aneurysms in the basilar trunk. Two cases of giant fusiform aneurysms were treated with balloon occlusion of vertebral arteries. Both of these patients suffered severe brain stem ischaemia. Anticoagulants were used to adjust the PTT to 1.5-2.5 times the normal level to control the formation speed of thrombosis inside the aneurysms. Case 1 was obliged to suspend the anticoagulation therapy one week after occlusion because of digestive tract haemorrhage, and died of severe brain stem ischaemia. On autopsy, the sac of the aneurysm was totally occupied by the thrombus. Two perforating arteries feeding the brain stem arising from the wall of the aneurysm and infarction in the brain stem were found. Case 2 was anticoagulated strictly and progressively improved after three weeks. Anticoagulation was terminated after one month. Follow-up MRI showed the aneurysm had disappeared six months later. Giant fusiform aneurysms in the basilar artery trunk can be treated with the balloon occlusion of vertebral arteries which induces thrombosis in the sac of aneurysm. Controlled anticoagulation should be given to slow down the thrombotic obliteration in the perforators arising from the aneurysm wall to the brain stem and give the brain stem have enough time to establish the sufficient collateral circulation. PMID:20670503

Ling, F.; Zhang, H.; Wang, D.; Li, M.; Miao, Z.; Song, Q.; Hao, M.; Li, X.

1999-01-01

51

Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.  

PubMed

We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

Kim, Myeong-Soo

2013-06-01

52

Vertigo as Manifestation of Vertebral Artery Dissection after Chiropractic Neck Manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently observed a case of vertebral artery (VA) dissection following chiropractic neck manipulations. The first manifestation was unusual; in the form of vertigo. Therefore, the patient was referred to the otoneurologist. A VA dissection should be suspected in a case of vertigo following chiropractic neck manipulations, and vestibular tests should be done carefully, avoiding Rose’s positions. In our case,

Dominique Vibert; Josette Rohr-Le Floch; Gèrard Gauthier

1993-01-01

53

Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology  

PubMed Central

Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the anatomical features of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures, which facilitates the planning of individual surgeries in the CVJ. PMID:24829084

Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

2014-01-01

54

Drug eluting stents for symptomatic intracranial and vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The use of bare metal stents (BMS) to prevent recurrent stroke due to stenosis of the cerebral vasculature is associated with high rates of restenosis. Drug-eluting stents (DES) may decrease this risk. We evaluated the performance of DES in a cohort of patients treated at our institution.Consecutive patients treated with DES were identified by a case log and billing records; data regarding procedural details, clinical outcome and angiographic follow-up was obtained by retrospective chart review.Twenty-six patients (27 vessels; 14 vertebral origin (VO); 13 intracranial) were treated. Stenosis was reduced from mean 81% to 8% at the VO and 80% to 2% intracranially. No strokes occurred in the first 24 hours after stenting or at any time point in the VO group during a mean follow-up period of nine months. Among patients with intracranial stents, stroke with permanent disability occurred within 30 days in 1/12 (8%) and after 30 days in 1/11 (9%) with clinical follow-up (mean follow-up, 14 months). Follow-up catheter angiography was obtained in 14/14 (100%) in the VO group at mean eight months and in 8/11 surviving patients (73%) at a mean of ten months after stenting in the intracranial group. The restenosis rate was 21% at the VO (3/14) and 38% (3/8) for intracranial stents. Restenosis at the VO was less frequent than might have been expected from reports utilizing BMS, however, overall restenosis rates appeared higher than previously reported for patients with intracranial DES and comparable with restenosis rates for intracranial BMS. PMID:21696666

Fields, J D; Petersen, B D; Lutsep, H L; Nesbit, G M; Liu, K C; Dogan, A; Lee, D S; Clark, W M; Barnwell, S L

2011-06-01

55

Stenting of symptomatic vertebral artery ostium stenosis with self-expanding stents.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral arterial stenosis carries a stroke risk of 30% at 5 years. The efficacy of stenting with balloon-expandable stents remains questionable due to a high long-term restenosis rate. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of using self-expanding stents to treat symptomatic vertebral artery ostium (VAO) stenosis in selected patients. Clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively reviewed in patients with symptomatic VAO stenosis who underwent stenting with self-expanding stents between June 2008 and December 2011. In total, 32 patients were included. Self-expanding stents (25 tapered and seven non-tapered) were deployed with a modified technique of deploying the stents from the V1 segment to the proximal subclavian artery. The mean degree of stenosis before and after stenting declined from 76.4% to 11.4%. No peri-procedural complications occurred. During the mean clinical follow-up of 18.3 months, no vertebrobasilar stroke, transient ischemic attack or death occurred. During the mean angiographic follow-up of 12.5 months, asymptomatic restenosis occurred in one (3.1%) patient 6 months after the procedure. No stent fracture occurred. The involved subclavian artery was patent and no clinically apparent events occurred in the dependent upper extremity. Stenting with self-expanding stents for symptomatic VAO stenosis is technically feasible and safe, with reduced restenosis and stent fracture rates in selected patients. Long-term investigations are warranted to validate its performance. PMID:24128770

Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yongwei; Hong, Bo; Deng, Benqiang; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

2014-02-01

56

Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation.

R. N. Nadgir; L. A. Loevner; T. Ahmed; G. Moonis; J. Chalela; K. Slawek; S. Imbesi

2003-01-01

57

Acute vertebral artery origin occlusion leading to basilar artery thrombosis successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting and intracranial fibrinolysis.  

PubMed

There are few reports describing stroke due to the acute occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA) origin successfully treated by endovascularily. The authors report a case of 78-year-old man suffering from stroke owing to acute VA origin occlusion associated with contralateral hypoplastic VA leading to basilar artery (BA) thrombosis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated that the right VA was occluded at its origin, the left VA was hypoplastic, and BA was filled with thrombus. The occlusion of VA origin was initially passed through with a microcatheter and microwire. Hereafter, angioplasty was performed followed by stenting with a coronary stent. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. Next, a microcatheter was navigated intracranially through the stent and fibrinolysis was performed for BA thrombus. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Stroke due to acute VA origin occlusion leading to BA thrombosis was successfully treated by angioplasty and stenting followed by intracranial fibrinolysis. PMID:23515590

Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kojima, Takao; Nakai, Yoshinori

2013-02-01

58

Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Column Metastases Using Intra-Arterial Cisplatin: Pilot Experience  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance. Treatment of spinal column metastatic tumors is challenging, especially in the setting of progressive disease despite previous radiation and chemotherapy. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is an uncommonly used but established treatment for head and neck cancers, retinoblastoma, and glioblastoma. The author reports extension of the IAC concept to vertebral metastatic tumors. Clinical Presentation. Two patients with intractable spinal pain secondary to spinal metastatic involvement at T11-L1 segments were treated with intra-arterial injections of cisplatin, with simultaneous sodium thiosulfate chelation. The first patient, a 60-year old female with metastatic lung carcinoma underwent, three cycles of therapy over a 9-week period; the treated regions demonstrated bone remodeling and sclerosis. The second case was a 40-year old male with malignant pheochromocytoma, who underwent a single treatment and succumbed 5 weeks later from progressive widespread disease. Both patients reported significant pain relief and neither of them exhibited a decline in neurologic function. Conclusion. The intra-arterial delivery of cisplatin appeared to be well tolerated in the two cases. In the case with the longest survival, the treated vertebral segments became more sclerotic, consistent with biomechanical stabilization. Endovascular treatment of spinal metastases may hold promise, especially as newer categories of biologic agents become more widely available. PMID:24963303

Chopko, Bohdan W.

2014-01-01

59

Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures: a case report.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered. PMID:23904852

Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

2013-05-01

60

Endovascular Management of Complete Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Summary Spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection may involve the intradural segment of the VA and result in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). These lesions are frequently associated with recurrent SAH, and have a high mortality. Prior to the development of endovascular techniques the majority of these lesions were treated surgically. In cases where the dissection involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin surgery was associated with significant complications including recurrent SAH from retrograde VA flow into the dissected segment above the surgical clip. We describe two cases of complete VA dissection in which the entire intradural VA was sacrificed to prevent recurrent SAH. The first case tolerated planned left PICA occlusion without developing a significant neurological deficit. The second case had infarcted the right PICA territory at presentation. PMID:20670506

Lenthall, R.K.; White, B.D.; Mcconachie, N.S.

1999-01-01

61

Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment  

PubMed Central

In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy. PMID:25685576

Elmadag, Mehmet; Güzel, Yunus; Uzer, Gokcer; Tuncay, ?brahim

2015-01-01

62

A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery  

PubMed Central

Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. PMID:24570816

Chung, Seung-Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min

2014-01-01

63

Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

2015-02-01

64

Occipitoaxial spinal interarticular stabilization with vertebral artery preservation for atlantal lateral mass failure.  

PubMed

The treatment of craniocervical instability caused by diverse conditions remains challenging. Different techniques have been described to stabilize the craniocervical junction. The authors present 2 cases in which tumoral destruction of the C-1 lateral mass caused craniocervical instability. A one-stage occipitoaxial spinal interarticular stabilization (OASIS) technique with titanium cages and posterior occipitocervical instrumentation was used to reconstruct the C-1 lateral mass and stabilize the craniocervical junction. The ipsilateral vertebral artery was preserved. The OASIS technique offers single-stage tumor resection, C-1 lateral mass reconstruction, and stabilization with a loadsharing construct. It could be an option in the treatment of select cases of C-1 lateral mass failure. PMID:25415481

Bobinski, Lukas; Levivier, Marc; Duff, John M

2015-02-01

65

Microvascular decompression of a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery producing trigeminal hypesthesia.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of trigeminal hypesthesia caused by compression of the spinal cord by a C-2 segmental-type vertebral artery (VA) that was successfully treated with microvascular decompression. Aberrant intradural VA loops have been reported as causes of cervical myelopathy, some of which improved with microvascular decompression. A 52-year-old man presented with progressive complaints of headache, dizziness, left facial numbness, and left upper-extremity paresthesia that worsened when turning his head to the right. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed the left VA passing intradurally between the axis and atlas, foregoing the C-1 foramen transversarium, and impinging on the spinal cord. The patient underwent left C-1 and C-2 hemilaminectomies followed by microvascular decompression of an aberrant VA loop compressing the spinal cord. The patient subsequently reported complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:24972125

Sellin, Jonathan N; Al-Hafez, Baraa; Duckworth, Edward A M

2014-10-01

66

Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng, E-mail: xfliu2@yahoo.com.cn [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (China)

2011-06-15

67

Stent fracture and occlusion after treatment of symptomatic vertebral artery ostium stenosis with a self-expanding device. A case report.  

PubMed

Endovascular stenting with a balloon expandable device is currently the preferred treatment modality for symptomatic proximal vertebral artery stenosis, but high rates of in-stent restenosis remain a major problem, for which stent fracture might be a contributing factor. Limited reports showed that placement of self-expanding stents in the proximal vertebral artery might reduce restenosis; no stent fracture has been reported to date. We describe here a new case of fracture and occlusion of a self-expanding stent after endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral artery ostium stenosis. PMID:25496687

Lu, Jun; Liu, Jiachun; Wang, Daming; Wang, Shuo

2014-12-01

68

Ultrasonic analysis of the anatomical relationships between vertebral arteries and internal jugular veins in children  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental puncture of the vertebral arteries (VAs) can occur through the internal jugular veins (IJVs) during central venous catheterization (CVC). We evaluated the anatomic relation of the VAs to the IJVs in children undergoing IJV cannulation. Methods Fifty-five patients were placed in the supine position under general anesthesia. The right IJV, common carotid artery (CCA), and VA were described with an ultrasound probe perpendicular to all planes of the skin at the mid-portion between the suprasternal notch and mastoid process. The depth from the skin to VAs (D), width of the VAs (W), and distance from the IJVs to VAs (DIV) were measured. The extent of overlap between the IJVs and VAs was classified into overlapping, partially overlapping, and nonoverlapping. The risk was scored as 0–3 for each measurement. The scores were added and categorized into a low-risk group (L), 0–3, moderate-risk (M) group, 4–7; and high-risk (H) group, 8–10. Results Mean (sd) age was 20.3 (33.9) months, height was 72.1 (26.0) cm, and weight was 8.9 (9.0) kg. The mean D, W, and DIV were 15.1 (3.3), 2.8 (1.1), and 4.6 (1.8) mm, respectively. Of the 55 patients, 7 were in group H, 33 in group M, and 15 in group L. Conclusions Seven of the 55 children were categorized under the H group for accidental puncture of the VAs. Thus, it is important to identify the presence of the VAs to avoid accidental puncture during pediatric CVC. PMID:22340889

Kayashima, Kenji; Ueki, Masaya; Kinoshita, Yuki; Anderson, Brian

2012-01-01

69

A case of intimal hyperplasia induced by stenting for vertebral artery origin stenosis: assessed on intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

We report a case of proximal vertebral artery restenosis following stent placement. Intravascular ultrasound study helped delineate its characteristics. A 69-year-old man was admitted because of dysarthria and dysphagia. Angiography revealed hypoplasia of left vertebral artery (VA) and remarkable stenosis of the proximal right VA with inadequate collateral flow from the anterior circulation. Balloon angioplasty and stent placement at the VA was performed to an excellent angiographic result with recovery of neurological symptoms. His condition deteriorated six months later due to intimal hyperplasia, which we evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Balloon angioplasty was then performed. Stent placement may induce intimal hyperplasia and IVUS is useful to assess the lesion. PMID:12870261

Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Minoru; Kaminogo, Makio

2003-06-01

70

Recanalization of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm after occlusion of the dilated segment only  

PubMed Central

Background: Internal trapping in which the dissecting aneurysm is occluded represents reliable treatment to prevent rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. Various methods of internal trapping are available, but which is most appropriate for preventing both recanalization of the VA and procedural complications is unclear. Case Description: A 61-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a left VA dissecting aneurysm. Only the dilated segment of the aneurysm was occluded by coil embolization. Sixteen days after embolization, angiography showed recanalization of the treated left VA with blood supplying the dilated segment of the aneurysm, which showed morphological change between just proximal to the coil mesh and just distal to a coil, and antegrade blood flow through this part. Pathological examination showed that the rupture site that had appeared to be the most dilated area on angiography was located just above the orifice of the entrance. However, we think that this case of ruptured aneurysm had an entrance into a pseudolumen that existed proximal to the dilated segment, with antegrade recanalization occurring through the pseudolumen with morphological change because of insufficient coil obliteration of the entrance in the first therapy. Conclusions: This case suggests that occlusion of both the proximal and dilated segments of a VA dissecting aneurysm will prevent recanalization, by ensuring that any entrance to a pseudolumen of the aneurysm is completely closed. Careful follow-up after internal trapping is important, since antegrade recanalization via a pseudolumen may occur in the acute stage. PMID:25396072

Tanabe, Jun; Moroi, Junta; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

71

Delayed Brain Infarction due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Occlusion Which Occurred 5 Days after Cervical Trauma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery (VA) injuries usually accompany cervical trauma. Although these injuries are commonly asymptomatic, some result in vertebrobasilar infarction. The symptoms of VA occlusion have been reported to usually manifest within 24 hours after trauma. The symptoms of bilateral VA occlusions seem to be more severe and seem to occur with shorter latencies than those of unilateral occlusions. A 48-year-old man had a C3-4 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord compression that resulted from a traffic accident. After surgery, his initial quadriparesis gradually improved. However, he complained of sudden headache and dizziness on the 5th postoperative day. His motor weakness was abruptly aggravated. Radiologic evaluation revealed an infarction in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. Cerebral angiography revealed complete bilateral VA occlusion. We administered anticoagulation therapy. After 6 months, his weakness had only partially improved. This case demonstrates that delayed infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion can occur at latencies as long as 5 days. Thus, we recommend that patients with cervical traumas that may be accompanied by bilateral VA occlusion should be closely observed for longer than 5 days. PMID:25328652

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin

2014-01-01

72

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

73

Vertebral artery dissection due to an esophageal foreign body migration: a case report  

PubMed Central

Unintentional foreign bodies‘ swallowing is a fairly common occurrence in ENT consultation especially among children. They usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. It represents about 1% to 4% of all cases of foreign bodies‘ ingestion. A 16 year's old female patient has presented to ENT emergency with a painful dysphagia following an accidental ingestion of a metallic pin. Cervical X ray confirmed the presence of the pin while endoscopic investigations have shown no foreign body. Cervical CT scan revealed the migration of the foreign body through the esophageal wall with left vertebral artery dissection. Endoscopic management has been sufficient with an uneventful post operative follow up. Esophageal foreign bodies are very diverse mainly dominated by fish bones (60%) and chicken bones (16%). Metallic pins are rare. The major risks of migration of those foreign bodies are cervical abscess, mediastinitis and oeso-vascular fistulae. Cases of self extrusion through the skin have been reported. Migration of a foreign body through the esophageal wall is rare. Endoscopic management has been sufficient. PMID:25018833

Benmansour, Najib; Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmlih, Amine; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

2014-01-01

74

Spontaneous atraumatic vertebral artery occlusion due to physiological cervical extension: case report.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery (VA) occlusion is a serious and potentially life-threatening occurrence. Bow hunter's syndrome, a mechanical occlusion of the VA due to physiological head rotation, has been well described in the medical literature. However, mechanical VA compression due to routine flexion or extension of the neck has not been previously reported. The authors present the unique case of a woman without any history of trauma who had multiple posterior fossa strokes and was found to have dynamic occlusion of her right VA visualized via cerebral angiogram upon extension of her neck. This occlusion was attributed to instability at the occipitocervical junction in a patient with a previously unknown congenital fusion of both the occiput to C-1 and C-2 to C-3. An occiput to C-3 fusion was performed to stabilize her cervical spine and minimize the dynamic vascular compression. A postoperative angiogram showed no evidence of restricted flow with flexion or extension of the neck. This case emphasizes the importance of considering symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency as a result of physiological head movement. The authors also review the literature on VA compression resulting from physiological head movement as well as strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24438424

Safain, Mina G; Talan, Jordan; Malek, Adel M; Hwang, Steven W

2014-03-01

75

Posterior circulation infarction in patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and its relationship to vertebral artery injury.  

PubMed

Study design:Prospective study.Objective:To ascertain the prevalence of posterior circulation stroke in traumatic chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and associated traumatic vertebral artery injuries (VAI).Methods:All adult patients with cervical SCI and American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A or B referred for follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of their spinal cord were invited to take part in the study between January 2010 and December 2012 at the National Spinal Injury Centre. Two additional sequences were added to the existing imaging protocol to evaluate the brain and vertebral arteries.Results:Ninety-eight patients were recruited. All imaging were analysed independently by three consultant radiologists. Posterior circulation infarcts were noted in seven (7%) patients. Significant VAI was noted in 13 patients (13%) with 10 occlusions and 3 with high-grade stenosis. However, only one patient had co-existent posterior circulation infarct and significant VAI.Conclusion:There is an increased prevalence of posterior circulation infarction in SCI patients. The relationship with associated traumatic VAI requires further investigation.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 September 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.145. PMID:25179661

de Heredia, L L; Belci, M; Briley, D; Hughes, R J; McNeillis, B; Meagher, T M; Yanny, S; McKean, D

2014-09-01

76

Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis: effects on cerebellar function remodeling verified by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Vertebral artery orifice stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood flow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after interventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery orifice stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treatment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery orifice angioplasty and stenting + identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery orifice stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

Liu, Bo; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

2014-01-01

77

Vertebral artery transposition for revascularization of the posterior circulation: a critical assessment of temporary and permanent complications and outcomes.  

PubMed

OBJECT Despite advances in medical management and endovascular therapies, including the introduction of statins, antiplatelet agents, and drug-eluting stents, some patients experience medically refractory vertebrobasilar insufficiency and may benefit from robust surgical revascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate such patients after surgical revascularization, emphasizing long-term outcomes and rates of complications. METHODS The authors retrospectively identified 22 patients (5 women and 17 men) whose mean age was 69.1 years (range 48-81 years) who underwent revascularization of the posterior circulation via a proximal vertebral artery-carotid artery transposition between 2005 and 2013. The patients' conditions before surgery were clinically summarized, and long-term outcomes and complication rates after surgery were evaluated. RESULTS All the patients were symptomatic before surgery although they received the best medical therapy as defined by their primary care physician. Presenting symptoms consisted of stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and/or findings attributable to posterior circulation hypoperfusion. There were no deaths associated with revascularization surgery. The postoperative complication rate was 45.5%, which included 3 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, 1 case of thoracic duct injury, 2 cases of TIA, and 4 cases of Horner's syndrome. The thoracic duct injury was identified intraoperatively and ligated without sequelae, all the TIAs resolved within 24 hours of surgery, all 4 sympathetic plexus injuries resolved, and all but 1 of the recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies resolved, resulting in a 4.5% complication rate in a mean follow-up period of 8.8 months. All the patients had resolution of their presenting symptoms, and a single patient had symptomatic restenosis that required stenting and angioplasty, resulting in a restenosis rate of 4.5%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the optimization of medical therapies and lifestyle modifications, a select subset of patients with posterior vascular circulation insufficiency remains. In the authors' experience, vertebral artery-carotid artery transposition provides a surgical option with relatively low long-term complication and restenosis rates that are comparable or lower than those reported with endovascular treatment. PMID:25397367

Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Kalani, M Yashar S; Cronk, Katherine; Zabramski, Joseph M; Russin, Jonathan J; Spetzler, Robert F

2014-11-14

78

Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

2014-10-24

79

Optimal measurement for “posterolateral protrusion” of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction using computed tomography angiography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Among extraosseous abnormalities of the vertebral artery (VA) at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), available evidence regarding “posterolateral protrusion,” the VA running distant from the groove over the superior surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal measurement to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) images of 40 consecutive patients with cervical disease were reviewed. Ultimately, 66 arteries were included in this study. Five parameters predicted to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA were defined (A–E) and measured by two surgeons twice over a 2-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to examine intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the most optimal parameter to predict posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Results: Excellent inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were obtained for all parameters (ICC = 0.87-0.99). Among them, parameter A, defined as the maximal length from the outer surface of the VA to the outer surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, was most accurately described posterolateral protrusion of the VA. The optimal cut-off value of parameter A obtained with ROC curves was 8.3 mm (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 100%). Conclusions: The measurement in this study can quantitatively evaluate the posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Before posterior surgery at the CVJ, pre-operative CTA can help surgeons detect anomalous VA and reduce the risk of intra-operative VA injury.

Ohya, Junichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, KO; Fukushima, Masayoshi; Nagata, Kosei

2014-01-01

80

Traumatic vertebral artery injury: proposal for classification of the severity of trauma and likelihood of fatal outcome.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery injury (VAI) occurs after (blunt) trauma as well as spontaneously. The risk of incurring VAI from a blunt trauma probably parallels the severity of trauma, often referred to as major- and minor-trauma. However, the literature does not provide concrete definitions of these terms. This study aims to define minor- and major-trauma and to analyze the likelihood of fatal outcome in VAI. For this purpose, classification criteria of major- and minor-trauma were developed and a PubMed database search was performed for articles on VAI published prior to 2013. The definitions of minor- and major-trauma, derived mainly from radiological screening criteria in cervical spine injury and based on the mechanism leading to the injury, were used in the analysis of the literature. The search produced 241 VAI cases with sufficiently detailed data for the comparison of major-trauma (52 cases, 50 lethal), minor-trauma (8 cases, none lethal), and no-trauma (182 cases, 69 lethal). The numbers of lethal cases in the total study population and subgroups differed significantly between the groups (Fisher's exact test) and the likelihood ratios (LRs) of lethal outcome were substantially higher in the major-trauma group compared to the other groups. The highly significant p values show that the proposed criteria differentiate between trauma types with regard to fatal outcome. The presented results can assist in the evaluation of forensic cases of VAI. PMID:25311511

Kubat, Bela B; Buiskool, Marijke M; van Suylen, Robert-Jan

2015-01-01

81

Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented to a chiropractic physician for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Clinical features A 45-year-old otherwise healthy female presented for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Within minutes, non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms progressed to neurological deficits, including limb ataxia and cognitive disturbances. Suspicion was raised for cerebrovascular ischemia and emergent referral was initiated. Intervention and outcome Paramedics were immediately summoned and the patient was transported to a local hospital with a working diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular ischemia. Multiplanar computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed vertebral artery dissection of the V2 segment in the right vertebral artery. Anticoagulation therapy was administered and the patient was discharged without complications after 5 days in the hospital. Conclusion This case highlights the potential for patients with vertebral artery dissection to present with nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints. Neurological symptoms may not manifest initially, but their sudden onset indicates the possibility of an ischemic cerebrovascular event. We suggest that early recognition and emergent referral for this patient avoided potential exacerbation of an evolving pre-existing condition and resulted in timely anticoagulation treatment.

Mattox, Ross; Smith, Linda W.; Kettner, Norman W.

2014-01-01

82

Vertebral artery insufficiency as a possible mechanism for sudden infant death--in vivo evidence does not support findings from postmortem studies.  

PubMed

Recent postmortem studies have suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might involve an underlying, gradual brain stem injury caused by repeated episodes of transiently compromised brain stem circulation. Autopsy studies have also reported that vertebral artery occlusion due to head rotations, such as occurs, e.g. during prone sleeping, would be a physiological phenomenon of infant atlantooccipital junction. The present study was undertaken to examine whether vertebral artery insufficiency does truly occur in live infants during such head rotations. We studied by transcranial doppler sonography the blood flow velocity of the basilar artery (BA) in 27 infants during head rotation from straight position to maximal rotation in three directions (left, right, dorsiflexion). No significant change in BA blood flow was seen between any head positions. Weight and gestational age, but not arterial pressure or hematocrit, of the infants were correlated with blood flow velocity. Our results suggest that brain stem circulation in live infants may not be compromised due to changing the head position, which is inconsistent with the postmortem findings showing insufficiency of brain stem circulation in both controls and those succumbed to SIDS. We hence propose that the brain stem pathology observed with SIDS is likely caused by other factors (e.g. systemic disturbance) rather than by mechanical obstruction of brain stem circulation. PMID:12850510

Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Nikolajev, Kari; Kiekara, Olavi; Seuri, Raija; Riikonen, Raili

2003-08-01

83

Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on canine cerebral artery strips and the in-vivo vertebral blood flow in dogs.  

PubMed

The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on canine cerebral arteries and on vertebral blood flow were investigated in-vivo and in-vitro and the findings compared with the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P. Administration of CGRP into the vertebral artery caused a dose-dependent and long-lasting increase in blood flow. The in-vivo vasodilatory effects of substance P and VIP were short-lasting. CGRP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of the isolated middle cerebral and basilar arteries when the tissues were precontracted by exposure to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). This effect was not antagonized by propranolol, atropine, tetrodotoxin, (N-Ac-Tyr1, D-Phe2)-growth hormone-releasing factor(1-29)-NH2 or (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9) substance P. CGRP also reduced concentration-dependently the contraction of cerebral arteries induced by KCl or 9,11-epithio-11,12-metano-thromboxane A2 (STXA2). Mechanical removal of the endothelium did not abolish the vasodilatory response to CGRP. In PGF2 alpha-contracted canine cerebral arteries, VIP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) was less potent a vasodilator than CGRP. At low concentrations (0.01 to 1 nmol/l) substance P elicited a rapid and short-lasting relaxation, and in the absence of endothelium this relaxation disappeared. These findings are clear evidence that CGRP modulates vascular tone. PMID:2479844

Ikegaki, I; Suzuki, Y; Satoh, S; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Sugita, K

1989-10-01

84

The baroreflex, or pressure reflex, is the primary mechanism in adult vertebrates for rapid regulation of arterial pressure  

E-print Network

regulation of arterial pressure through changes in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Such a mechanism is important for buffering fluctuations in arterial pressure, to maintain tissue perfusion pressure and manipulation of arterial pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. The results demonstrated

Altimiras, Jordi

85

Are Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms a Specific Type of Dissection? A Comparative Study of Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms and Ruptured Mizutani Type 4 Vertebral Artery Dissections  

PubMed Central

Objective Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) resemble arterial dissections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between these two disease entities and highlight commonalities and distinct features. Methods Among 871 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 BBAs of internal carotid artery and seven vertebral artery dissections (VADs) with a short segmental eccentric dilatation (Mizutani type 4), which is morphologically similar to a BBA, were selected. The following clinical factors were studied in each group : age, gender, risk factors, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), Fisher grade (FG), vasospasms, hydrocephalus, perioperative rebleeding rate, and treatment outcome. Results The mean age was 47.9 years in the BBAs group and 46.4 years in the type 4 VADs group. All the BBA patients were female, whereas there was a slight male predominance in the type 4 VAD group (male : female ratio of 4 : 3). In the BBA and type 4 VAD groups that underwent less aggressive treatment to save the parent artery, 29% (n=2/7) and 66.6% (n=2/3), respectively, eventually required retreatment. Perioperative rebleeding occurred in 72.7% (n=8) and 28.6% (n=2) of patients in the BBA and type 4 VAD groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the other clinical factors in both groups, except for the male dominancy in the type 4 VAD group (p=0.011). Conclusion BBAs and ruptured type 4 VADs have a similar morphological appearance but there is a distinct clinical feature in gender and perioperative rebleeding rates. Complete isolation of an aneurysm from the parent artery might be the most important discipline for the treatment of these diseases.

Sim, Sook Young; Chung, Joonho

2014-01-01

86

Impaired cognitive function due to cerebellar infarction and improvement after stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis--case report.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old female presented with multiple cerebellar infarctions and mild cognitive dysfunction. Cerebral angiography revealed severe right vertebral artery (VA) stenosis just proximal to the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Neuropsychology tests showed the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score was 21, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) score was 70. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was decreased in the bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Stent-assisted angioplasty of the right VA was performed to prevent recurrence of the cerebellar infarction. Post-procedure, the neuropsychology tests showed cognitive improvement to MMSE score of 26 and WAIS-R score of 84. CVR had also improved in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Cerebellar hypoperfusion due to VA stenosis had probably caused functional depression of the cerebello-cerebral pathway, a condition referred to as crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis. In this case, cognitive dysfunction was reversed due to recovery of the cerebello-cerebral pathway. PMID:20185879

Ito, Yoshiro; Matsumaru, Yuji; Suzuki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Akira

2010-01-01

87

Extrinsic risk factors for compromised blood flow in the vertebral artery: anatomical observations of the transverse foramina from C3 to C7.  

PubMed

The vertebral artery (VA) is often involved in the occurrence of complications after spinal manipulative therapy. Due to osteophytes compressing the VA anteriorly from the uncinate process or posteriorly from the facet complex, the VAs are susceptible to trauma in the transverse foramina. Such altered anatomical configurations are of major clinical significance, as spinal manipulations may result in dissection of the VA with serious consequences for the blood supply to the vertebrobasilar region. The purpose of this study is to describe numerous structural features of the third to seventh cervical vertebrae in order to contribute to the understanding of pathological conditions related to the VA. The minimal and maximal diameter of 111 transverse foramina in dry cervical vertebrae were studied. The presence of osteophytes and their influence on the VA were evaluated at the vertebral body and at the superior and inferior articular facets. The diameter of the transverse foramina increased from C3 to C6, while the transverse foramina of C7 had the smallest diameter. At all levels the mean dimensions of the left foramina were greater than those of the right side. Osteophytes from the uncinate process of C5 and C6 vertebrae were found in over 60% of dry vertebrae. Osteophytes from the zygapophyseal joints were more frequent at C3 and C4 vertebrae. About half of the osteophytes of the uncinate and of the superior articular process partially covered the transverse foramina. This was less common with those of the inferior articular facets. Osteophytes covering the transverse foramen force the VAs to meander around these obstructions, causing narrowing through external compression and are potential sites of trauma to the VAs potentially even leading to dissection. We strongly advocate that screening protocols for vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) be used prior to any manipulation of the cervical spine and should include not only extension and rotation but any starting position from which the planned manipulation will be performed. PMID:16132191

Cagnie, Barbara; Barbaix, Erik; Vinck, Elke; D'Herde, Katharina; Cambier, Dirk

2005-11-01

88

Bow-hunter’s syndrome caused by dynamic vertebral artery stenosis at the cranio-cervical junction—a management algorithm based on a systematic review and a clinical series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is defined as symptomatic, vertebro-basilar insufficiency caused by mechanical occlusion of the\\u000a vertebral artery (VA) at the atlanto-axial level during head rotation. In the literature, about 40 cases have been reported.\\u000a However, due to the rarity of this pathology, there are no guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Conservative, surgical,\\u000a and endovascular concepts have been proposed. In

Jan Frederick Cornelius; Bernard George; Dominique N’dri Oka; Toma Spiriev; Hans Jakob Steiger; Daniel Hänggi

89

Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis. PMID:21697983

Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

2011-01-01

90

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

91

Treatment of a Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm with a Balloon-Expandable Stent and Guglielmi Detachable Coils  

PubMed Central

Summary A 43-year-old man with dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The vertebral angiography showed a fusiform dilatation at the right intracranial vertebral artery between the origin of posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the vertebral union. After failing conservative therapy, a balloon-expandable stent was placed at intracranial vertebral artery; in a manner such that the entire dissecting aneurysm was covered. On follow-up angiogram, we recognized regrowth of theresidual aneurysm and stent deformation. The parent artery was occluded completely with several Guglielmi detachable coils. Brainstem dysfunction or rebleeding of the aneurysm were not encountered. Recently stenting therapy was deployed for a patient with dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial carotid or vertebral artery who was not a candidate for surgical treatment. We discuss the feasibilities and limitations of stent therapy. PMID:20670508

Nakahara, T.; Kurisu, K.; Yano, T.; Sakoda, K.

1999-01-01

92

Vertebrate skeletogenesis  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2011-01-01

93

Vertebrate skeletogenesis.  

PubMed

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as nonexperts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone, and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made toward uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2010-01-01

94

Successful Treatment of Iatrogenic Vertebral Pseudoaneurysm Using Pipeline Embolization Device  

PubMed Central

Traumatic pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and one of the most difficult lesions to treat. Traditional treatment methods have focused on parent vessel sacrifice with or without revascularization. We report the case of a patient who underwent successful treatment of an iatrogenic extracranial vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm using the Pipeline Embolization Device. A 47-year-old man sustained an inadvertent injury to the left vertebral artery during C1-C2 fixation. Subsequent imaging revealed an iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm. Immediate angiogram was normal. A repeat angiogram done after 3 days of the surgery revealed a vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm. He underwent aneurysm exclusion and vascular reconstruction using the Pipeline Embolization Device. Although flow-diverting stents are currently not being used for treating traumatic pseudoaneurysms, their use may be considered in such cases if active bleeding has ceased. In our case, the patient did well and the aneurysm was excluded from circulation while reconstructing the vessel wall. PMID:25276469

Sharma, Mayur; Smith, Donald

2014-01-01

95

Effects of hypoxia on vertebrate blood vessels.  

PubMed

Hypoxia contracts mammalian respiratory vessels and increases vascular resistance in respiratory tissues of many vertebrates. In systemic vessels these responses vary, hypoxia relaxes mammalian vessels and contracts systemic arteries from cyclostomes. It has been proposed that hypoxic vasoconstriction in cyclostome systemic arteries is the antecedent to mammalian hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, however, phylogenetic characterization of hypoxic responses is lacking. In this study, we characterized the hypoxic response of isolated systemic and respiratory vessels from a variety of vertebrates using standard myography. Pre-gill/respiratory (ventral aorta, afferent branchial artery, pulmonary artery) and post-gill/systemic (dorsal and thoracic aortas, efferent branchial artery) from lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), chicken (Gallus domesticus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to hypoxia at rest or during pre-stimulation (elevated extracellular potassium, epinephrine or norepinephrine). Hypoxia produced a relaxation or transient contraction followed by relaxation in all pre-gill vessels, except for contraction in lamprey, and vasoconstriction or tri-phasic constriction-dilation-constriction in all pulmonary vessels. Hypoxia contracted systemic vessels from all animals except shark and rat and in pre-contracted rat aortas it produced a transient contraction followed by relaxation. These results show that while the classic "systemic hypoxic vasodilation and pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction" may occur in the microcirculation, the hypoxic response of the vertebrate macrocirculation is quite variable. These findings also suggest that hypoxic vasoconstriction is a phylogenetically ancient response. PMID:18214862

Russell, Michael J; Dombkowski, Ryan A; Olson, Kenneth R

2008-03-01

96

Intradural vertebral endarterectomy with nonautologous patch angioplasty for refractory vertebrobasilar ischemia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: The natural history of patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms due to chronic bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease is progressive, and poses significant challenges when refractory to medical therapy. Surgical treatment options depend largely on location and characteristics of the atheroma (s), and generally include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement, posterior circulation revascularization (bypass), extracranial vertebral artery reconstruction, or vertebral artery endarterectomy. Case Description: We present the case of a 56-year-old male with progressive vertebrobasilar ischemia due to tandem lesions in the right vertebral artery at the origin and intracranially in the V4 segment. The contralateral vertebral artery was occluded to the level of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and posterior communicating arteries were absent. Following PTA and stent placement at the right vertebral artery origin, the patient was successfully treated with intradural vertebral artery endarterectomy (V4EA) and patch angioplasty via the far lateral approach. Distal endovascular intervention at the V4 segment proved not technically feasible after multiple attempts. Conclusions: V4EA is an uncommonly performed procedure, but may be considered for carefully selected patients. The authors’ techniques and indications are discussed. Historical outcomes, relevant anatomic considerations, and lessons learned are reviewed from the literature.

Uschold, Timothy; Abla, Adib A.; Wilson, David A.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Nakaji, Peter

2014-01-01

97

Stylocarotid artery syndrome.  

PubMed

Stylocarotid artery syndrome is a rare condition that results from compression of the internal or external carotid artery by the styloid process of the temporal bone. Here we present the case of a patient suffering from syncope, monoparesis of the right arm, and dysarthria due to recurrent transient ischemic attacks that resulted from severe compression of the midsegment of the left extracranial internal carotid artery between an elongated styloid process and a C2 vertebral body osteophyte. This case demonstrates successful surgical management of a condition rarely encountered by the vascular surgeon. PMID:25088736

David, Joshua; Lieb, Michael; Rahimi, Saum A

2014-12-01

98

[Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].  

PubMed

Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

1997-09-01

99

Embolic internal auditory artery infarction from vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 51-year-old man developed sudden vertigo, right hearing loss and dysphagia. Examination revealed right Horner syndrome, spontaneous torsional-horizontal nystagmus, right central type facial palsy, dysarthria, reduced soft palate elevation without gag reflex, left hypesthesia, right dysmetria and imbalance. Audiometry and bithermal caloric tests documented right sensorineural hearing loss and canal paresis. Brain MRI and cerebral angiography documented right lateral medullary

Kwang-Dong Choi; Jong-Un Chun; Moon Gu Han; Seong-Ho Park; Ji Soo Kim

2006-01-01

100

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

101

Vertebral deformities and scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoliosis, especially idiopathic scoliosis, is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine in which the vertebral deformities are known, cuneal deformation being the most commonly known deformity but not the only one. We report here data concerning these specific vertebral deformities in chickens. A pinealectomy was performed in a controlled series of animal experiments. This technique induces progressive scoliosis in

C. Coillard; C. H. Rivard

1996-01-01

102

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

103

Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

104

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

105

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

106

Vertebral osteitis adjacent to kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and vertebral kyphoplasty are increasingly performed to treat vertebral fractures, most notably those related to osteoporosis. Adverse effects are uncommon and consist chiefly of cement leakage out of the vertebral body and of vertebral fractures adjacent to the treatment site. We report two cases of vertebral osteitis adjacent to vertebroplasty sites, in a 60-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man.

Daniel Wendling; Michel Runge; Eric Toussirot; Ewa Bertolini; Clément Prati

2010-01-01

107

[A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].  

PubMed

Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. PMID:24598790

Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

2015-01-01

108

Coronary Arteries  

MedlinePLUS

... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

109

[Oto-vertebral syndrome].  

PubMed

The oto-vertebral syndrome is supposed to be caused by an early embryonic exogenous damage which at the same time affects the development of the ear and vertebral column and possibly also causes cardiac anomalies. Animal studies showed that the malformation syndrome originates in the 6th-7th week of embryonic development. The extent of the malformations of the ear and the vertebral column varies. Frequently seen are dysplasia of the external ear and dystopia and atresia of the external ear canal as well as vertebral malformations, mostly involving the thoracic region. Only 4 case reports have been published in the literature. The differential diagnosis includes Goldenhar-syndrome, oculo-vertebral syndrome. Thalidomide-syndrome and chromosomal aberrations. Therapy depends on the extent of the malformations. In case of atresia of the ear canal hearing is first of all improved with a hearing aid, operative procedures are to be planned later on. Child development is promoted with acustic stimulation. PMID:1225802

Böggering, B

1975-10-23

110

Vertebral sclerosis in adults.  

PubMed Central

Narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with sclerosis of the adjacent vertebral bodies may occur as a consequence of infection, neoplasia, trauma, or rheumatic disease. Some patients have been described with backache and these radiological appearances without any primary cause being apparent. The lesions were almost always of 1 or, at most, 2 vertebrae and most frequently involved the inferior margin of L4. We describe 3 patients with far more extensive vertebral involvement and present the clinical, radiological, scintiscan, and histological findings. The only patient we have seen with the better known, isolated L4/5 lesion was shown on biopsy to have staphylococcal osteomyelitis. For this reason we would still recommend a biopsy of all such sclerotic vertebral lesions if they occur in the absence of other rheumatic disease. Images PMID:434941

Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Lentle, B C

1979-01-01

111

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

112

Bilaterally absent posterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report.  

PubMed

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the cerebellar arteries which originates from the vertebral artery and has the most complex and variable course. The PICA usually originates from the vertebral artery intracranially as a single trunk, however, absent, double trunk, extracranial, and extradural PICA may also exist. In a collection of 50 cerebellar specimens (100 hemispheres) injected with colored gelatin, one case of bilaterally absent PICA was encountered, male aged 59 (causes of the death was not taken into consideration). PMID:23337996

Sharifi, Mansoor; Ciszek, Bogdan

2013-09-01

113

Egg envelopes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

As the material presented in this chapter was being collated, our existing perceptions about the basic similarities of vertebrate (and indeed most, if not all, invertebrate) egg envelopes became increasingly strengthened. Perhaps without exception, all vertebrate and invertebrate eggs acquire a "vitelline" envelope. Interestingly, its filamentous ultrastructure and chemical composition--basically protein and carbohydrate--is similar in all species as is its permeability to large molecules. Furthermore, many (if not all) of its functions are shared among the animal phyla as is its potential to become altered at the time of fertilization and, in its altered state, to provide a new set of modi operandi. It provides sperm receptors that are generally species specific and helps prevent polyspermy; it protects the developing embryo yet yields at the time of hatching. In most vertebrate eggs (including some mammals), a jelly or albumen coat is added to the vitelline envelope. These components may vary immensely in thickness, but again their basic chemical composition is common to all. The functions of these envelopes, while perhaps somewhat less clear than those of the vitelline envelope, are related to species-specific fertilization and to embryonic protection. Albumen serves a nutritional role--most clearly shown in the birds. Finally, the shell membrane and shell present in diverse groups contribute additional adaptations for embryo protection. Vertebrate egg envelopes, then, are basically similar; the modifications, including the addition of shell membranes and shells in some groups, reflect adaptations to differing reproductive strategies and to the environmental exigencies with which the egg must cope. With the growth of our understanding about the structure, chemistry, function, and evolution of egg envelopes new questions will continually be formulated. Many will be the same as those asked years ago but they will be answered with newer techniques and with greater insight. PMID:3917202

Dumont, J N; Brummett, A R

1985-01-01

114

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

115

Spinal Cord Infarction Complicating Embolisation of Vertebral Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Summary A 70-year-old woman presented with severe back pain secondary to metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the second lumbar vertebral body. She had no evidence of spinal cord compression clinically or on MR imaging. Tumour embolisation was performed for pain relief The embolisation was complicated by spinal cord infarction resulting from angiographic masking of a spinal artery by diversion of contrast material into the high-flow tumour. PMID:20670493

Cloft, H.J.; Jensen, M.E.; Do, H.M.; Kallmes, D.E.

1999-01-01

116

Functional similarities in the mechanical design of the aorta in lower vertebrates and mammals.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of the aorta from the toad Bufo marinus, the lizard Gekko gecko and the garter snake Thamnophis radix were compared to those of the rat, by inflation of vessel segments in vitro. The arteries of the lower vertebrates, like those of mammals, were compliant, highly resilient, and non-linearly elastic. The elastic modulus of the artery wall was similar in the lower vertebrates and mammals, at their respective mean physiological pressures. We conclude that the aorta in each of these animals is suitably designed to function effectively as an elastic pulse smoothing component in the circulation; differences in the pressure wave transmission characteristics of lower vertebrates and mammals do not result from dissimilarities in arterial elastic properties, but from substantial differences in heart rate of these two groups. PMID:2513219

Gibbons, C A; Shadwick, R E

1989-12-01

117

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

118

Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.  

PubMed

Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-01-01

119

Carotid artery stenting improves cerebral hemodynamics regardless of the flow direction of ophthalmic artery.  

PubMed

We enrolled 221 patients with elective carotid artery stenting (CAS). Patients with contralateral carotid stenosis exceeding 50%, insufficient vertebral artery (VA) flows, or angioplasty at subclavian artery were excluded. All patients underwent serial cerebral ultrasound studies. Of the 116 included patients, the direction of ophthalmic artery (OA) flow was forward in 74 patients while reversed in 42. The reversed flow group had worse ipsilateral stenosis, higher hemoglobin, and cardiac output. After CAS, the reversed flow group had an immediate recovery of ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow volume (FV; P < .0001), time average velocity (TAV) of middle cerebral artery (P = .02), and normalization of OA flow. The forward flow group had gradual decrement in TAV of contralateral anterior cerebral artery (P = .01) and total FV of VA (P = .001). Our results suggest CAS improves cerebral hemodynamics through different ways regardless of the direction of OA flow. PMID:24569514

Liu, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chien-Hung; Chang, Ting-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Jr-Rung; Chen, Yu-Wei; Yip, Bak-Sau; Ryu, Shan-Jin; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Lee, Tsong-Hai

2015-02-01

120

Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2013-12-15

121

EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 6: EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR #12;Process: adaptive response of the CNS #12;Salmo (a nonspecialized species) Gnathonemus (a mormyrid fish) Process and pattern in brain structure Pattern: the same divisions of the CNS are found in all vertebrates. Process: specializations have

Cooper, Brenton G.

122

Mechanisms of vertebrate synaptogenesis.  

PubMed

The formation of synapses in the vertebrate central nervous system is a complex process that occurs over a protracted period of development. Recent work has begun to unravel the mysteries of synaptogenesis, demonstrating the existence of multiple molecules that influence not only when and where synapses form but also synaptic specificity and stability. Some of these molecules act at a distance, steering axons to their correct receptive fields and promoting neuronal differentiation and maturation, whereas others act at the time of contact, providing positional information about the appropriateness of targets and/or inductive signals that trigger the cascade of events leading to synapse formation. In addition, correlated synaptic activity provides critical information about the appropriateness of synaptic connections, thereby influencing synapse stability and elimination. Although synapse formation and elimination are hallmarks of early development, these processes are also fundamental to learning, memory, and cognition in the mature brain. PMID:16022596

Waites, Clarissa L; Craig, Ann Marie; Garner, Craig C

2005-01-01

123

Arterial insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... is hard for blood to flow through your arteries. Blood flow may be suddenly stopped due to a ... may have a stroke . If it affects the arteries that bring blood to your legs, you may have frequent leg ...

124

Acute arterial occlusion - kidney  

MedlinePLUS

Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

125

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics  

E-print Network

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology in vertebrate biomechanics. These papers are salient examples of the use of FEA to test hypotheses regarding in the methodological arsenal of vertebrate biomechanics. One of the central aims of vertebrate biomechanics

126

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

127

In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates, crustaceans and cephalopod  

E-print Network

In the simplest functional terms, closed circulatory systems such as those of vertebrates is an exquisite mechanical one that seems to be common to all circulatory systems examined so far: distensible is a profoundly important determinant of blood flow dynamics in any circulatory system. Arteries must have non

Meyers, Ron

128

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

2008-01-01

129

DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. PMID:23287039

Zarkower, David

2013-01-01

130

Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

Mayer, Thomas E., E-mail: t.e.mayer@med.uni-jena.d [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU), Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie [University of Munich (LMU), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany); Hamann, Gerhard F. [Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Wiesbaden, Department of Neurology (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2008-11-15

131

Arterial embolism  

PubMed Central

Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

132

Vertebral artery dissection mimicking Parsonage–Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with subacute onset of pain in the right shoulder–arm region, initially without neurologic deficits. About 2 weeks later progressive polysegmental paresis of the right shoulder girdle and proximal arm muscles appeared. Because of the time course and the predominance of motor symptoms primarily Parsonage–Turner syndrome was suspected. Parsonage–Turner syndrome is a rare

Herbert Stimmer; Ernst J. Rummeny

2010-01-01

133

Vertebral Artery Injuries Following Chiropractic Cervical Spine Manipulation —Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients undergoing cervical spinal manipulations for nonneurologic diseases and with no previous neurologic signs or symptoms all developed significant neurologic deficits, one fatal, following manipulations of the cervical spine. Both the literature and the authors' series show that a number of patients have a prodrome prior to the onset of neurologic changes. There is no established therapy for the

Robert Raskind; Charles M. North

1990-01-01

134

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA  

E-print Network

] or more seed points placed in the vessel to be extracted. This precludes preprocessing the data before angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels particularly on the initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation

Boyer, Edmond

135

[Peripheral arteries].  

PubMed

Peripheral arterial disease is a main cause of morbidity in industrialised countries. It chiefly affects older people. The most common causes are atherosclerosis and vasodilatatory abnormalities. In the presence of unexplained leg symptoms, peripheral arterial disease can be diagnosed or ruled out by non-invasive diagnostic methods such as history, clinical examination and the measurement of ankle and brachial artery pressure by Doppler ultrasound, as well as by calculating the ankle brachial index. Colour coded duplex sonography, computer tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and arteriography are the imaging modalities used. Current diagnostic strategies are analysed for the different peripheral artery diseases. PMID:17479237

Vosshenrich, R; Reimer, P; Landwehr, P

2007-06-01

136

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

137

Calcium transport in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

The title of this paper commemorating the contributions made by Professor Urist has an interesting bearing upon basic skeletal tissue biology. This is because the calcium-binding proteins (vitellogenins), upon which Professor Urist and Schjeide have focused much of their attention in non-mammalian vertebrates, although produced by the liver and present in the blood plasmas of non-mammalian vertebrates during vitellogenesis, are, in effect, substitutes for the protein casein present in the milk of mammalian vertebrates. Vitellogenins (180,000-250,000 daltons) appear to be produced solely for deposition in the yolk of the egg so that the calcium they carry (considerably more than is associated with casein of milk) and the amino acids of which they are comprised can be utilized during embryonic development. In many instances the progeny of non-mammalian vertebrates emerge from the shell as miniatures of the adult, capable of rapid movement and thus requiring a well developed skeletal as well as muscular system. Vitellogenins are not found in any other cells (phagocytes excepted) other than hepatocytes wherein they are made, nor are they present in the intercellular matrix of developing or remodeling bone. In non-vitellogenic females and in males of non-mammalian vertebrates, they are absent from the blood plasma altogether, so that nonionized calcium therein is solely bound to such proteins as albumin and the lipoproteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3905108

Schjeide, O A

1985-11-01

138

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial task for paleontologists and paleobiologists is the reconstruction of the appearance, movements, and behavior of extinct vertebrates from studies of their bones or other, more rarely preserved parts. A related issue is the boundary between the scientific evidence for reconstruction and the need to resort to imagination. In this book, sixteen paleontologists and biologists discuss these questions, review the current status of functional studies of extinct vertebrates in the context of similar work on living animals, and present a broad philosophical view of the subject's development within the framework of phylogenetic analysis. The authors describe and debate methods for making realistic inferences of function in fossil vertebrates, and present examples where we may be confident that our reconstructions are both detailed and accurate.

Thomason, Jeffrey J.

1997-10-01

139

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

140

Coronary artery spasm  

MedlinePLUS

Coronary artery spasm is a temporary, sudden narrowing of one of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to ... with angina (chest pain and pressure) have coronary artery spasm. Coronary artery spasm occurs most commonly in people ...

141

Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

2014-01-01

142

Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

2014-12-01

143

Fugu: a compact vertebrate reference genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 400 Mb, the Japanese pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, has the smallest vertebrate genome but has a similar gene repertoire to other vertebrates. Its genes are densely packed with short intergenic and intronic sequences devoid of repetitive elements. It likely has a mutational bias towards DNA elimination and is probably close to a ‘minimal’ vertebrate genome. As such it is a

Byrappa Venkatesh; Patrick Gilligan; Sydney Brenner

2000-01-01

144

[Correlation between the prostatic vessels and vertebral venous system of the dog].  

PubMed

We examined the correlation between the intrapelvic vessels, especially prostatic vessels, and the vertebral venous system in the male dog by radiography. Aorta abdominalis branches the right and left external iliac arteries at the 6th lumbar vertebra, and is divided into the right and left internal iliac arteries and arteria sacralis mediana at the 7th lumbar vertebra. Arteria urogenitalis arises from the internal iliac artery at the middle of articulatio iliosacralis, and is divided into arteria vesicalis caudalis cranially and arteria prostatica caudally. Arteria prostatica is divided in the prostatic capsule and distributed to the prostatic parenchyma in which arteries form the network. Vena prostatica is distributed to the prostatic parenchyma, forming the network and entered vena urogenitalis after joining vena vesicalis caudalis. Vena urogenitalis joins the internal iliac vein, and then the common iliac vein and vena cava posterior after joining the external iliac vein. The anastomosis between the intrapelvic vein and the vertebral venous system is formed by the vena intervertebralis. The vertebral venous system is anastomosis with the vena cava posterior, the common iliac vein, the internal iliac vein and vena pudenda interna. PMID:1762263

Suzuki, T; Kurokawa, K; Okabe, K; Ito, K; Hatori, T; Imai, K; Yamanaka, H

1991-11-01

145

Clinical presentation and surgical management of dissecting posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: 2 case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial dissection presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) most commonly involves the vertebral artery. The natural history of this lesion suggests frequent early rehemorrhage and need for urgent treatment. Isolated dissection of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is very rare.We present 2 cases of isolated PICA dissections presenting with SAH. Both patients were middle-aged men who presented with transient loss

Nicholas M. Wetjen; Michael J. Link; Ronald Reimer; Douglas A. Nichols; Caterina Giannini

2005-01-01

146

Persistent stapedial arteries in human: from phylogeny to surgical consequences.  

PubMed

The stapedial artery is an embryonic artery which disappears during the tenth week in utero, in human species. During its short life, this artery shapes the stapes and transforms the middle meningeal artery from the internal carotid artery to a branch of the external carotid system. Nevertheless, a persistent stapedial artery is seen in 0.2-4.8 per thousand of human adults. This persistence is usually asymptomatic but can sometimes cause pulsatile tinnitus or conductive hearing loss. Despite the risk of facial palsy, hearing loss and even hemiplegia argued by several authors, some surgeons have succeeded in coagulation without side effects. Reviewing the literature, we seek to enlighten the actual knowledge about the persistent stapedial artery to evaluate the risk to coagulate it. Embryologic studies explain the four types of persistent stapedial arteries: the hyoido-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-stapedial artery, the pharyngo-hyo-stapedial artery and aberrant internal carotid with persistent stapedial artery. Phylogenetic studies show that the stapedial artery persists in adulthood in many vertebrates. Its disappearance is therefore either a random effect or an adaptative convergence. This adaptation could be partially linked to the negative allometry of the stapes. Practically, the risk to coagulate a stapedial artery seems limited thanks to anastomoses, for example with the stylomastoid artery. The risk of hemiplegia reported is in fact an extrapolation of variation in rats' embryos. A persistent stapedial artery can therefore reasonably be coagulated, with special attention to the facial nerve, because the facial canal is always dehiscent where the artery penetrates. PMID:23640742

Hitier, Martin; Zhang, M; Labrousse, M; Barbier, C; Patron, V; Moreau, S

2013-12-01

147

Vertebral Fractures Predict Subsequent Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  This population-based study documents an increase in most types of fractures following the occurrence of a clinically recognized\\u000a vertebral fracture among 820 Rochester, Minnesota, residents. During 4349 person-years of follow-up, 896 new fractures were\\u000a observed. Relative to incidence rates in the community, there was a 2.8-fold increase in the risk of any fracture, which was\\u000a greater in men (standardized incidence

L. J. Melton III; E. J. Atkinson; C. Cooper; W. M. O’Fallon; B. L. Riggs

1999-01-01

148

Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.  

PubMed

Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

1999-01-01

149

Development of the vertebrate tailbud.  

PubMed

The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from the tailbud undoubtedly involves unique and distinct mechanisms for forming axial tissues, such as the secondary neurulation process that generates the tailbud-derived spinal cord. Tailbud formation in the frog Xenopus laevis has been demonstrated to involve interaction of three posterior regions of the embryo that first come into alignment at the end of gastrulation, and molecular models for tailbud outgrowth and patterning have been proposed. While classical studies of other vertebrate models, such as the chicken, initially appeared to draw incompatible conclusions, molecular studies have subsequently shown the involvement of at least some similar genetic pathways. Finally, there is an emerging consensus that at least some vertebrate tailbud cells are multipotent progenitors with the ability to form tissues normally derived from different germ layers- a trait normally associated with regeneration of complex appendages, or stem-like cells. WIREs Dev Biol 2015, 4:33-44. doi: 10.1002/wdev.163 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25382697

Beck, Caroline W

2015-01-01

150

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdo?an

2014-01-01

151

Spontaneous vertebral dissection: Clinical, conventional angiographic, CT, and MR findings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if typical clinical and neuroradiologic patterns exist in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The medical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 14 patients with spontaneous VA dissection were reviewed. The medical records were examined to exclude patients with a history of trauma and to record evidence of a nontratimatic precipitating event ({open_quotes}trivial trauma{close_quotes}) and presence of possible risk factors such as hypertension. All patients under-went conventional angiography, 13 either CT or MRI (II both CT and MRI), and 3 MRA. Conventional arteriograrris were evaluated for dissection site, evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia, luminal stenosis or occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation, CT examinations for the presence of infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage, MR examinations for the presence of infarction or arterial signal abnormality, and MR angiograms for abnormality of the arterial signal column. Seven patients had precipitating events within 24 h of onset of symptoms that may have been causative of dissection and five had hypertension. At catheter angiography, two patients had dissections in two arteries (both VAs in one patient, VA and internal carotid artery in one patient), giving a total of 15 VAs with dissection. Dissection sites included V1 in four patients, V2 in one patient, V3 in three patients, V4 in six patients, and both V3 and V4 in one patient. Luminal stenosis was present in 13 VAs, occlusion in 2, pseudoaneurysm in 1, and evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in 1. Posterior circulation infarcts were found on CT or MR in five patients. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found on CT in two patients and by lumbar puncture alone in two patients. Abnormal periarterial signal on MRI was seen in three patients. MRA demonstrated absent VA signal in one patient, pseudoaneurysm in one, and a false-negative examination in one.

Provenzale, J.M.; Morgenlander, J.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Gress, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

152

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

153

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Peripheral Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the body become ...

154

May 2012 Arterial  

E-print Network

May 2012 Arterial Transitway Corridors Study: Results and Conclusions about Arterial Bus Rapid Transit #12;Arterial Transitway Corridors Study of "Arterial BRT" concept from Met Council TPP ­ Concept/feasibility study led by Metro

Minnesota, University of

155

Carotid artery surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... A flexible tube (catheter) is put in the artery. Blood flows through the catheter around the blocked area ... the artery. After the plaque is removed, the artery is closed with stitches. Blood now flows through the artery to your brain. ...

156

Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Associated with Vertebrobasilar Artery  

PubMed Central

Objective Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is considered as a reversible pathophysiological condition mainly induced by continuous vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) at the cerebellopontine angle. As an offending vessel, vertebrobasilar artery tends to compress much more heavily than others. The authors analyzed HFS caused by vertebrobasilar artery and described the relationships between microsurgical findings and clinical courses. Methods Out of 1,798 cases treated with microvascular decompression (MVD) from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2004, the causative vessels were either vertebral artery or basilar artery in 87 patients. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, computed tomography (CT) or brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 3-dimentional short range MR technique was performed and CT was checked immediately or 2-3 days after anesthetic recovery. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, the compression patterns of the vessels at the time of surgery and treatment outcomes. Results There were 47 were male and 32 female patients. HFS developed on the left side in 52 cases and on the right side in 27. The mean age of onset was 52.3 years (range 19-60) and the mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years. Many patients (39 cases; 49.1%) had past history of hypertension. HFS caused only by the vertebral artery was 8 cases although most of the other cases were caused by vertebral artery (VA) in combination with its branching arteries. Most frequently, the VA and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were the simultaneous causative blood vessels comprising 32 cases (40.5%), and in 27 cases (34.2%) the VA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were the offenders. Facial symptoms disappeared in 61 cases (77.2%) immediately after the operation and 68 cases (86.1%) showed good outcome after 6 months. Surgical outcome just after the operation was poor in whom the perforators arose from the offending vessels concurrently (p<0.05). Conclusion In case where the vertebral artery is a cause of HFS, commonly branching arteries associated with main arterial compression on facial REZ requires more definite treatment for proper decompression because of its relatively poor results compared to the condition caused by other vascular compressive origins. PMID:19096662

Kim, Joo Pyung; Choi, Seok Keun; Rhee, Bong Arm; Lim, Young Jin

2008-01-01

157

Arterial embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... arm or leg. There may be signs of tissue death or gangrene. Tests to diagnose arterial embolism or reveal the source of emboli may include: Angiography of the affected extremity or organ Doppler ultrasound exam of an extremity Duplex Doppler ultrasound ...

158

Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3?years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

2012-01-01

159

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates. PMID:19443856

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

160

Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development  

PubMed Central

The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

161

Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates. PMID:23277534

Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

2012-01-01

162

Coma with Vertical Gaze Palsy: Relevance of Angio-CT in Acute Percheron Artery Syndrome.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: A 63-year-old woman with chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin was admitted to emergency for coma and complete vertical gaze palsy. Investigations: Brain CT and MRI, echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels, angio-CT of the intracranial vessels, EEG, transesophageal echocardiogram, biohumoral tests. Brain CT and MRI scans showed bilateral thalamic lesions with involvement of the right midbrain; EEG showed a diffuse alpha rhythm prevalent on the posterior regions; echo-colour Doppler sonography of the supraaortic vessels showed marked reduction of blood flow in the right vertebral artery; angio-CT scans showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a significant filling defect of the first part of the right posterior cerebral artery (P1) from which the artery of Percheron arises. A follow-up angio-CT showed a complete recanalization of P1. Diagnosis: Percheron artery syndrome. Treatment and Management: Aspirin, neurorehabilitation. PMID:20671861

Godani, M; Auci, A; Torri, T; Jensen, S; Del Sette, M

2010-01-01

163

Effect of tibolone treatment on intima-media thickness and the resistive indices of the carotid arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the effect of tibolone treatment on the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the resistive indices (RIs) of the CCA and internal (ICA) and external (ECA) carotid and the vertebral arteries (VAs) in postmenopausal women as sonographic markers of atherosclerosis.

Mithat Erenus; A. Hakan Ilhan; Koray Elter

2003-01-01

164

Coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.

P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

2000-01-01

165

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

166

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

167

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively. These three events coincide with bursts of character acquisition and increases in phenotypic complexity, and many researchers have suggested a causal relationship between the two. However, this pattern is derived from data for

Philip C. J. Donoghue; Mark A. Purnell

2005-01-01

168

Biodiversity loss caused by invasive alien vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The introduction of invasive alien vertebrates is a major cause of the loss of native biodiversity in many regions of the world. The threats posed by them are especially severe on oceanic islands and other isolated ecosystems, in which there are many examples of extinctions or declines of native species caused by alien vertebrates. Predatory mammals are the worst

M. N. Clout

2002-01-01

169

Report on the Assessment of Vertebrate Paleontological  

E-print Network

Report on the Assessment of Vertebrate Paleontological Collections, Burke Museum of Natural History of vertebrate paleontologists examined the collections stored at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture hand-written on index cards and stored in steel drawers. Beginning in the middle 1960's, Dr. Rensberger

Sidor, Christian

170

[Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis and pulmonary function].  

PubMed

Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis (HVA) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease often seen in the middle-aged and elderly, frequently in patients older than 70 years (10.1% in men, 6.8% in women). Enthesal ossifications can occur at any site of tendinous or ligamentous insertion. The spine is commonly involved. The characteristic appearance is the presence of thick bony bridges between vertebral bodies of the right side of thoracic spine. Many authors, especially Fischer and Stecher, have described hyperostosis of the rib at the costo-vertebral articulation. In our study, 52 patients were examined. The physical examination consisted essentially in pulmonary function and measurement of thoracic and spinal mobility. In spite of severe ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis, which evokes important ossification of the costo-vertebral articulation, we couldn't demonstrate any change in pulmonary function. PMID:2500693

Pardon-Zryd, F; Gobelet, C; Saudan, Y

1989-05-23

171

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

172

Compositional gene landscapes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The existence of a well conserved linear relationship between GC levels of genes' second and third codon positions (GC2, GC3) prompted us to focus on the landscape, or joint distribution, spanned by these two variables. In human, well curated coding sequences now cover at least 15%-30% of the estimated total gene set. Our analysis of the landscape defined by this gene set revealed not only the well documented linear crest, but also the presence of several peaks and valleys along that crest, a property that was also indicated in two other warm-blooded vertebrates represented by large gene databases, that is, mouse and chicken. GC2 is the sum of eight amino acid frequencies, whereas GC3 is linearly related to the GC level of the chromosomal region containing the gene. The landscapes therefore portray relations between proteins and the DNA environments of the genes that encode them. PMID:15123586

Cruveiller, Stéphane; Jabbari, Kamel; Clay, Oliver; Bernardi, Giorgio

2004-05-01

173

Compositional Gene Landscapes in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The existence of a well conserved linear relationship between GC levels of genes' second and third codon positions (GC2, GC3) prompted us to focus on the landscape, or joint distribution, spanned by these two variables. In human, well curated coding sequences now cover at least 15%–30% of the estimated total gene set. Our analysis of the landscape defined by this gene set revealed not only the well documented linear crest, but also the presence of several peaks and valleys along that crest, a property that was also indicated in two other warm-blooded vertebrates represented by large gene databases, that is, mouse and chicken. GC2 is the sum of eight amino acid frequencies, whereas GC3 is linearly related to the GC level of the chromosomal region containing the gene. The landscapes therefore portray relations between proteins and the DNA environments of the genes that encode them. PMID:15123586

Cruveiller, Stéphane; Jabbari, Kamel; Clay, Oliver; Bernardi, Giorgio

2004-01-01

174

Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation treated by percutaneous closure.  

PubMed

Accidental arterial puncture occurs in around 1% and 2.7% of jugular and subclavian approaches, respectively. When a line has been inadvertently inserted into an artery at a noncompressible site, there is an increased risk for serious complications. This complication can be treated by either surgical or endovascular intervention or a combination; however, in critically ill patients or in those with impaired coagulation, therapeutic options are more limited. We describe successful endovascular management of inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation during insertion of a triple lumen central line catheter in a 35-year-old man suffering from leukemia, with sepsis and multi-organ failure. He was hypotensive and hemodynamically unstable, with severe coagulopathy. The catheter had entered the artery at the level of the origin of the internal mammary artery, just above the origin of the vertebral artery. The tip was lying in the aortic arch. The artery was successfully closed by endovascular deployment of an 8 French Angio-Seal device (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). The device is licensed for use in femoral arterial puncture sites but provided safe and effective closure of the subclavian artery puncture in our patient. PMID:24913929

Cohen, José E; Moshe Gomori, J; Anner, Haim; Itshayek, Eyal

2014-11-01

175

Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,  

E-print Network

3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

Socha, Jake

176

[Spontaneous occlusion of PICA-involved dissecting aneurysm with development of a collateral channel from the posterior meningeal artery].  

PubMed

A 53-year-old man suffered severe headache, which continued for three days. No abnormality was shown on CT scan, and a dissecting aneurysm of the right vertebral artery was suspected on MRI. Cerebral angiography revealed a dissection aneurysm of the right vertebral artery involved with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) as pearl and string sign. The patient was conservatively managed under careful blood pressure control, and was followed by serial MRI. He presented with Wallenberg syndrome three weeks later. Second angiography revealed the occlusion of the PICA-involved dissecting aneurysm and the lateral medullary segment of the PICA supplied by a newly arising vessel from the right posterior meningeal artery (PMA). For the conservative treatment of a vertebral dissection aneurysm involved with PICA presenting with only pain, observation of the course by MRI was effective, and the PMA could develop as the collateral channel to the PICA territory. PMID:23100389

Arai, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Hirohito; Ashida, Noriaki; Kohmura, Eiji

2012-11-01

177

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

178

Brain base arteries: pattern and variation in the European otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

The pattern and variation of the brain base arteries were investigated in 30 specimens of European otter. It was found that the vascular pattern in this species is similar to the vascular pattern found in other Carnivora. A very well-developed basilar artery, which was formed as a result of the anastomosis of equally well-developed vertebral arteries and the ventral spinal artery, was demonstrated to be characteristic of the species. Most of the variation in the pattern of origin concerned the origin of the middle cerebral arteries and labyrinthine arteries. In a single individual, a double middle cerebral artery was observed. Overall, the specimens demonstrated a clear regularity in the pattern of vessels in the base of the brain and a small range of variation. PMID:22414248

Brudnicki, W

2012-10-01

179

The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.  

PubMed

The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty. PMID:24046041

Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

2013-10-01

180

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6367920

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

181

Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries  

MedlinePLUS

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; iliac artery-angioplasty; fermoral artery-angioplasty; popliteal artery-angioplasty; tibial artery-angioplasty; peroneal artery- ...

182

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

183

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

184

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS Contents Amphibians Birds Fish, Characteristics Fish, Populations Fish, Productivity Fish, Systematics and Evolution Mammals Reptiles Amphibians W. Introduction The basic physiology of all amphibians makes these organisms dependent on sources of freshwater

Lowe, Winsor H.

185

RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development  

PubMed Central

RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play.

Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

2014-01-01

186

Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function  

E-print Network

natural selection for function acting on existing structures. Vertebrate morphology thus depends, and sharks, (you'll meet them in the first part of the class) - so that they all look alike even though

Adl, Sina

187

Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-01-01

188

Comparative study of Moroto vertebral specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypodigm of Morotopithecus bishopi includes several vertebral specimens from Moroto II in addition to a scapular fragment, and femoral and craniodental specimens. The Moroto vertebral specimens include UMP 67.28, which is a well-preserved lumbar vertebra. Based on the derived morphological traits in UMP 67.28, together with evidence from other postcranial elements, it has been claimed that certain aspects of

Masato Nakatsukasa

2008-01-01

189

Arterial thromboembolism in senile systemic amyloidosis: report of two cases.  

PubMed

We describe a rare complication, systemic arterial thromboembolism, seen in two patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). Case 1 was a 73-year-old man who was tentatively diagnosed as having cardiac amyloidosis. Five months later, he was afflicted by severe left flank pain. CT disclosed renal infarction and then he received endomyocardial biopsy and the transthyretin (TTR) gene analysis, leading to the final diagnosis of SSA. Case 2 was an 88-year-old woman who had been definitively diagnosed as having SSA-related heart failure with atrial fibrillation two years before. She was transferred to the emergency room in our hospital and enhanced CT revealed complete occlusions of the left internal carotid and left vertebral arteries, both subclavian arteries, and the left renal and left internal iliac arteries. Paying much attention to intracardiac thrombosis might be necessary in taking care of SSA patients. PMID:22583098

Nakagawa, Michitaka; Tojo, Kana; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Kyo-hei; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

2012-06-01

190

Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

2014-01-01

191

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck  

PubMed Central

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

192

Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4–5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ?35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition. PMID:21493719

Cates, Matthew J.; Steed, Peter W.; Abdala, Ana P. L.; Langton, Philip D.

2011-01-01

193

Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction  

PubMed Central

Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

2012-01-01

194

Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

Fowell, Sarah

195

Vapor resistant arteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

196

Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Lillywhite, Harvey B.

1994-01-01

197

Cerebral Arterial Variations Associated with Moyamoya Disease Diagnosed by MR Angiography.  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease associated with different variations of the cerebral arteries. We evaluated the types and prevalence of such variations among patients with moyamoya disease. In our institution during the past seven years, we diagnosed 72 patients (24 male, 48 female; aged 6 to 75 years, mean, 42 years) with moyamoya disease by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography using either a 3-Tesla or one of two 1.5-T imagers and a standard time-of-flight technique without contrast media. An experienced neuroradiologist retrospectively reviewed the images. There were 15 cerebral arterial variations in 13 of 72 patients with moyamoya disease (18.1%), including four basilar artery fenestrations, three ophthalmic arteries arising from the middle meningeal artery, two intracranial vertebral artery fenestrations, two persistent first cervical intersegmental arteries, two persistent trigeminal arteries, one extracranial origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and one persistent stapedial artery. Although our number of patients was small, moyamoya disease was frequently associated with variations of the cerebral arteries, especially fenestrations in the vertebrobasilar system and persistent trigeminal artery. PMID:25489893

Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

2014-12-01

198

Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult  

PubMed Central

The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries. PMID:22395422

Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

199

Bradykinin and its receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

The generation of bradykinin (BK) in blood by the action of the kallikrein-kinin system has been studied intensively in mammals but the system has received relatively little attention in non-mammalian vertebrates. The plasma of crocodilians and Testudines (turtles and tortoises) contains all the components of the kallikrein-kinin system found in mammals (prekallikrein activator, prekallikrein, kininogen, and kininases) and activation results in generation of [Thr6]-BK. Plasma of birds and snakes probably lacks a prekallikrein activator analogous to mammalian Factor XII but treatment with exogenous proteases (pig pancreatic kallikrein and/or trypsin) generates [Thr6, Leu8]-BK (chicken), [Ala1, Thr6]-BK (python) and [Val1, Thr6]-BK (colubrid snakes). The skins of certain frogs, particularly of the genus Rana, contain very high concentrations of BK-related peptides but their pathway of biosynthesis involves the action of cellular endoproteinase(s) cleaving at the site of single arginyl residues rather than by the action of the kallikrein-kinin system. Evidence for a prekallikrein activator in fish plasma is lacking but treatment with exogenous proteases generates [Arg0, Trp5, Leu8]-BK (trout and cod), [Trp5]-BK (bowfin and gar), [Met1, Met5]-BK (sturgeon). The cardiovascular actions and effects upon gastrointestinal smooth muscle of these peptides in their species of origin differ markedly. For example, intra-arterial injections of the native BK peptides into unanesthetized fish produce transient hypertension in the cod, complex depressor and pressor responses in the trout and bowfin and hypotension in the sturgeon. Pharmacological studies in snakes and fish and with the recombinantally expressed chicken BK receptor have demonstrated that the BK receptors in the tissues of non-mammalian vertebrates have appreciably different ligand binding properties from the well-characterized mammalian B1 and B2 receptors. PMID:10100919

Conlon, J M

1999-02-01

200

Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

Cohn, M J

2001-01-01

201

Bilateral superficial median arteries  

PubMed Central

A superficial artery may be present in the forearm, arising from the axillary, brachial or superficial brachial arteries and crossing over the origin of the flexor muscles of the forearm to reach the palm (Adachi, 1928; Bergman et al. 1988). When this superficial artery continues as the normal ulnar artery accompanying the ulnar nerve at the wrist, it is referred to as the superficial ulnar artery, with an incidence of ?4%. When the artery passes below or superficial to the flexor retinaculum in the middle of the forearm, sometimes continuing to join the superficial palmar arch, it is called the superficial median artery, with an incidence of ?1%. We have observed a relatively rare variation involving the presence of a superficial median artery in both upper limbs. We discuss the clinical importance and the developmental aspects of this arterial variation. PMID:10386784

NAKATANI, TOSHIO; IZUMI, ATSUSHI; TANAKA, SHIGENORI

1999-01-01

202

Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended. PMID:24119627

Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

2014-01-01

203

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

204

The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.  

PubMed

Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

2013-04-12

205

Cooled artery extension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

206

Comparative study of Moroto vertebral specimens.  

PubMed

The hypodigm of Morotopithecus bishopi includes several vertebral specimens from Moroto II in addition to a scapular fragment, and femoral and craniodental specimens. The Moroto vertebral specimens include UMP 67.28, which is a well-preserved lumbar vertebra. Based on the derived morphological traits in UMP 67.28, together with evidence from other postcranial elements, it has been claimed that certain aspects of the modern hominoid body plan appeared in the hominoid lineage by as early as 20Ma. Other vertebral specimens from the site are not well-preserved and have not been described in detail. This article provides the first detailed description of these specimen with an emphasis on a lumbar vertebral body UMP 68.06. Results confirm the existing interpretations that M. bishopi had a more dorsostable lumbar column compared to other African Miocene hominoids, such as Proconsul nyanzae/heseloni or Nacholapithecus kerioi. The vertebral body is craniocaudally short and the median ventral keel is absent through the lumbar column. However, M. bishopi might have had a similar number segments as inferred for P. nyanzae (6-7) if UMP 68.06 and UMP 67.28 are associated. Likewise, the ventral wedging of UMP 68.06 may suggest that M. bishopi had more lumbar vertebrae than extant great apes. The origin of the transverse process relative to the vertebral body is variable by level among the Moroto specimens. Thus, if these specimens derive from a single taxon, this may suggest considerable variability in this feature that would advise caution when using this feature to draw taxonomic or functional conclusions. PMID:18672267

Nakatsukasa, Masato

2008-10-01

207

Vertebrate and Invertebrate Carotenoid-Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on carotenoid-binding proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate systems, and we report our initial purification and characterization of a novel lutein-binding protein isolated from liver of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). PMID:17188641

Bhosale, Prakash

2007-01-01

208

Wnt Signaling in Vertebrate Axis Specification  

PubMed Central

The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2013-01-01

209

Complex osteotomies vertebral column resection and decancellation.  

PubMed

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is nowadays widely used to treat sagittal imbalance. Some complex malalignment cases cannot be treated by a PSO, whereas the imbalance is coronal or mixed or the sagittal imbalance is major and cannot be treated by a single PSO. The aim of this article was to review these complex situations--coronal imbalance, mixed imbalance, two-level PSO, vertebral column resection, and vertebral column decancellation, and to focus on their specificities. It wills also to evoke the utility of navigation in these complex cases. PMID:24831304

Obeid, Ibrahim; Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Barrey, Cédric

2014-07-01

210

Coronary Artery Bypass  

MedlinePLUS

... procedures performed each year in the United States. Arteries can become clogged over time by the buildup ... bypass" around a section of clogged or diseased artery. The surgery involves using a section of blood ...

211

Coronary Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

212

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

213

Transit & Arterial Performance  

E-print Network

Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

Bertini, Robert L.

214

Arterial pulse wave velocity in coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse wave velocity is related to arterial stiffness. Pulse wave velocity changes with age and disease and is a useful indicator of cardiovascular disease. Different methods are used for evaluating pulse wave velocity in systemic vessels, but none is applicable to coronary arteries. In this study we first compare values of wave speed (c) calculated from measurements of pressure (P)

J. Aguado-Sierra; K. H. Parker; J. E. Davies; D. Francis; A. D. Hughes; J. Mayer

2006-01-01

215

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

E-print Network

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna Karen E, Illinois, United States of America, 5 Association Vahatra, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 6 Department a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does

Vences, Miguel

216

Blood Flow in Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living

David N. Ku

1997-01-01

217

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using EST counts for 26 stages of development. We show that, in both species, genes expressed early in development (1) have a more dramatic effect of knock-out or mutation and (2) are more likely to revert to single copy after whole genome duplication, relative to genes expressed late. This supports high constraints on early stages of vertebrate development, making them less open to innovations (gene gain or gene loss). Results are robust to different sources of data—gene expression from microarrays, ESTs, or in situ hybridizations; and mutants from directed KO, transgenic insertions, point mutations, or morpholinos. We determine the pattern of these constraints, which differs from the model used to describe vertebrate morphological conservation (“hourglass” model). While morphological constraints reach a maximum at mid-development (the “phylotypic” stage), genomic constraints appear to decrease in a monotonous manner over developmental time. PMID:19096706

Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

2008-01-01

218

Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

Botha, Rudolf P.

2002-01-01

219

Modelling Oscillator Synchronisation During Vertebrate Axis Segmentation  

E-print Network

influence the synchronisation of neighbouring cells. Random cell movement has also been quantifiedModelling Oscillator Synchronisation During Vertebrate Axis Segmentation Philip J. Murray Philip K form in the posterior pre-somitic mesoderm. Whilst cell heterogeneity results in noisy oscillation

Maini, Philip K.

220

Measurement of vertebral rotation: Perdriolle versus Raimondi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of vertebral rotation according to Perdriolle is widely used in the French-speaking and Anglo-American countries. Even in this measurement technique there may be a relatively high estimation error because of the not very accurate grading in steps of 5°. The measurement according to Raimondi seems to be easier to use and is more accurate, with 2° steps. The

H.-R. Weiss

1995-01-01

221

Did language evolve like the vertebrate eye?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On various modern accounts, human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection. The present article offers a critical appraisal of the way in which this idea is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution—the most sophisticated account of its kind. It is argued that this account is less than

Rudolf P. Botha

2002-01-01

222

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

223

EVOLUTIONARY ATTEMPTS AT 4 EYES IN VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. Methods: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes is defined as the duplication of one or more structures integral to the refrac- tion or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known

Ivan R. Schwab; Viet Ho; Alan Roth; Thomas N. Blankenship; Paul G. Fitzgerald

2001-01-01

224

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

225

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

226

Origin and evolution of the vertebrate vomeronasal  

E-print Network

's organ or the vomeronasal organ (VNO), because of its proximity to the vomer bone in the nasal cavity. The location of this organ suggests that it is involved in detecting smells (Fig. 1). Indeed, the vomeronasalOrigin and evolution of the vertebrate vomeronasal system viewed through system-specific genes

Zhang, Jianzhi

227

Managing acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with calcitonin.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform family physicians of current issues in the management of acute vertebral fractures and to examine the evidence specifically supporting a role for calcitonin in ameliorating pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations for use of calcitonin were based primarily on a MEDLINE review of the literature for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the present using key words calcitonin, osteoporosis, pain, and vertebral fracture. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of review articles. Eight trials were identified, and the conclusions drawn were based on data reported in all eight trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Several randomized, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that calcitonin had a rapid onset and a strong analgesic effect on patients with acute vertebral fractures. Nasal and subcutaneous administration were both beneficial. Pain relief occurred within the first 2 weeks, could continue for at least 4 months, and might occur if treatment were instituted any time within the first year after fracture. Side effects were generally inconvenient rather than serious. CONCLUSIONS: Calcitonin in a dose of 50 to 100 IU daily, given subcutaneously or intranasally, should be offered to all patients with serious pain related to acute vertebral fractures for symptom relief and to facilitate mobilization. PMID:9805171

Maksymowych, W. P.

1998-01-01

228

Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

1998-01-01

229

RARE AND ENDANGERED VERTEBRATES OF OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, an annotated list of Ohio's rare and endangered vertebrate species, was compiled to supplement a similar national list and includes 10 mammals, 62 birds, 10 reptiles, 4 amphibians, and 33 fishes. Where possible, suggestions are made both as to causes of the rare or endangered status of these species and as to means of halting the trend. Ratings

H. G. SMITH; R. K. BURNARD; E. E. GOOD; J. M. KEENER

230

MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the Miocene and Pliocene vertebrates of Arizona, spanning the time period from about 2 to 20 Ma. The best known Miocene faunas are Wellton and Anderson Mine from the late Arikareean or Hemingfordian North American land-mammal \\

GARY S. MORGAN; RICHARD S. WHITE

2005-01-01

231

HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

232

STATUS OF APHIS VERTEBRATE PESTICIDES AND DRUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Services (WS) Program manages wildlife\\/human conflicts by using an integrated approach employing some vertebrate pesticides. These are used in such small quantities that private industry cannot afford to register and produce them profitably. On behalf of WS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) maintains about 30 federal and state pesticide registrations, containing seven active ingredients, with

Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Schafer Edward W. Jr

1998-01-01

233

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*  

E-print Network

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

Danchin, Etienne

234

The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate

Jean-Dominique Lebreton

2011-01-01

235

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

236

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):502506, June 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

individual. * Present address: Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Department of Zoology, Kyoto University502 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):502­506, June 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate

Holroyd, Patricia A.

237

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER

Benton, Michael

238

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

89 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89­106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION LEON P. A. M. CLAESSENS Museum of Comparative

Claessens, Leon

239

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOB

Blob, Richard W.

240

Renal artery aneurysms.  

PubMed

A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes. PMID:24363127

González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

2014-01-01

241

Jet pump assisted artery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

1975-01-01

242

External artery heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

243

Adenosine does not save the heart of anoxia-tolerant vertebrates during prolonged oxygen deprivation.  

PubMed

Despite adenosine being regarded as an important signaling molecule capable of coordinating ATP supply and demand during periods of oxygen deprivation in anoxia-intolerant mammals, the importance of adenosinergic cardiovascular control in anoxia-tolerant vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we report on adenosinergic cardiovascular control during normoxia and prolonged (hours to days) oxygen deprivation for three vertebrate species tolerant of severe hypoxia/anoxia, the closely related common (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian (Carassius carassius) carp, and the freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). Using an intra-arterial injection of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline while measuring cardiac output (Q), heart rate (f(H)) and arterial blood pressure, we establish that adenosinergic cardiovascular control is unimportant during prolonged anoxia in the freshwater turtle (6 h at 21 degrees C and 14 d at 5 degrees C) and the crucian carp (5 d at 8 degrees C). In contrast, adenosinergic control contributes to the down-regulation of cardiac activity exhibited by 5 degrees C-acclimated common carp during a 12.5 h severe hypoxia (<0.3 mg O2 l(-1)) exposure. Specifically, aminophylline injection resulted in significant increases in f(H) and Q, and a decrease in total peripheral resistance. These species-specific differences in adenosinergic cardiovascular control during prolonged periods of oxygen deprivation may be related to differences displayed by these three species in their anoxia tolerance and survival strategies. PMID:17433747

Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P

2007-08-01

244

[Interventional revascularization for severe mesenteric ischemia in contribution with venal artery angioplasty].  

PubMed

A 82 year old lady presented with haemorraghic erosive gastritis, progressing lost of weight, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction. Colour flow duplex scanning and MRA revealed subtotal stenosis of the celiac artery and the right renal artery, proximal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and complete occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery. There were also stenoses in the left renal artery. The patient was accessed via the left brachial artery, because of the relatively unfavourable angle of the mesenteric arteries. The procedures were done using F8-sheath-, F7-guiding catheter and vertebral shaped F5-diagonstic catheter. The celiac trunk und the right renal artery were initially treated with 7 x 12 and 5 x 17 mm balloon-expanding Stents. 7 x 40 mm self-expanding stent (Carotid wallstent) was inserted in the superior mesenteric artery following balloon dilatation with 5-mm-PTA-ballon. Dilatation of the superior mesenteric artery was done also after placement of the stent with 7-mm-PTA-ballon. One stage successful endovascular treatment was performed in the three vascular territories. A follow-up of 3 months period with colour duplex sonography revealed the stent to be patent with normal flow, better control of the hypertension and improvement of the renal function. PMID:16535967

Basche, S; Neumeister, A

2006-02-01

245

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683­704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

Clark, James M.

246

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

Olsen, Paul E.

247

Endovascular treatment of basilar artery stenosis due to cerebral vasculopathy related to neurofibromatosis (NF1)  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrovascular lesions are uncommon in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Case Description We report a case of 34-year-old man with NF1 who developed posterior circulation stroke. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed acute infarcts in the right vertebra basilar artery territory. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated significant stenosis of the basilar artery in the mid segment that was identified as the etiology of the symptoms. The vertebral arteries were tortuous and the basilar artery was ectatic. Subsequently endeavour resolute stent was placed across the lesion and post-procedure angiogram showed resolution of stenosis. Conclusion Selective stenotic involvement of the basilar artery with ectatic vertebrobasilar circulation associated with NF1, which was successfully treated with endovascular method, was not been reported previously to our knowledge. PMID:24920981

Alurkar, Anand; Prasanna Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha; Oak, Sagar

2014-01-01

248

Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

249

The Effect of Intra-Vertebral Heterogeneity in Microstructure on Vertebral Strength and Failure Patterns  

PubMed Central

Purpose The overall goal of this study was to determine the influence of intra-vertebral heterogeneity in microstructure on vertebral failure. Methods Trabecular density and microarchitecture were quantified for 32 thoracic vertebrae using micro-computed tomography (?CT)-based analyses of 4.81mm, contiguous cubes throughout the centrum. Intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density was defined as the inter-quartile range and quartile coefficient of variation of the cube densities. The vertebrae were compressed to failure to measure stiffness, strength, and toughness. Pre- and post-compression ?CT images were analyzed using digital volume correlation to quantify failure patterns in the vertebrae, as defined by the distributions of residual strain. Results Failure patterns consisted of large deformations in the mid-transverse plane with concomitant endplate biconcavity and were linked to the intra-vertebral distribution of bone tissue. Low values of connectivity density and trabecular number, and high values of trabecular separation, were associated with high strains. However, local microstructural properties were not the sole determinants of failure. For instance, the mid-transverse plane experienced the highest strain (p<0.008) yet had the highest density, lowest structure model index, and lowest anisotropy (p<0.013). Accounting for the intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density improved predictions of strength and stiffness as compared to predictions based only on mean density (strength: R2 = 0.75 vs. 0.61, p<0.001; stiffness: R2 = 0.44 vs. 0.26, p=0.001). Conclusions Local variations in microstructure are associated with failure patterns in the vertebra. Non-invasive assessments of the intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density—which are feasible in clinical settings—can improve predictions of vertebral strength and stiffness. PMID:22707063

Hussein, Amira I.; Morgan, Elise F.

2013-01-01

250

Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

Chandrasekhar, Anand

2007-01-01

251

Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

Carroll, Robert Lynn

1997-04-01

252

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

2006-01-01

253

Vitellogenin motifs conserved in nematodes and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenins are encoded by a family of six genes, one of which,vit-5, has been previously sequenced and shown to be surprisingly closely related to the vertebrate vitellogenin genes. Here we report an alignment of the amino acid sequences of vitellogenins from frog and chicken with those from threeC. elegans genes:vit-5 and two newly sequenced genes,vit-2 andvit-6. The

John Spieth; Mignon Nettleton; Erin Zucker-Aprison; Kristi Lea; Thomas Blumenthal

1991-01-01

254

Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

Larry Flammer

255

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

256

The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

2014-01-01

257

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

PubMed Central

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

2014-01-01

258

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

259

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

260

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

261

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates.  

PubMed

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

262

About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)  

MedlinePLUS

About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

263

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy. PMID:23653867

Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Amer, Syed; Rahman, Ambreen; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

264

Absent pulmonary artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cardiac catheterization was performed in nine patients with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery. Aortography revealed\\u000a a diverticulum of the innominate artery in five of six patients in whom the aortic arch and absent pulmonary artery were on\\u000a opposite sides. It is suggested that the diverticulum indicates fetal systemic blood supply to the affected lung through the\\u000a distal part of

Joachim R. Pfefferkorn; Hermann Löser; Gabriele Pech; Robert Toussaint; Fritz Hilgenberg

1982-01-01

265

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

MedlinePLUS

... damages the heart in babies with ALCAPA. The low blood pressure in the pulmonary artery causes blood from the abnormal left coronary artery to flow toward the pulmonary artery instead of toward the ...

266

Arterial waveform analysis.  

PubMed

The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

2014-12-01

267

Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion  

PubMed Central

High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment. PMID:25371787

Jang, Hyun Jun; Shim, Yu Shik; Yoon, Seung Hwan

2014-01-01

268

Living with Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

269

[Evaluation of the function of extracranial-intracranial microarterial anastomoses in occlusive diseases of the main arteries of the head (Doppler and angiographic study)].  

PubMed

The comparison of the results of Doppler and angiographic examinations of 82 patients with combined occlusive disorders of the major arteries of the head before and after creating an extra-intracranial microarterial bypass showed a high informative value of Doppler sonography as a noninvasive method of the diagnosis of impairments of the cerebral arteries and as a method of control of microarterial anastomosis functioning. Placement of a microanastomosis between the external carotid and middle cerebral arteries eliminated or reduced the steal-phenomenon in relation to the brain or vertebral-basilar bed in combined lesions of the major arteries of the head. PMID:3314285

Dobzhanski?, N V; Bragina, L K; Nikitin, Iu M; Peresedov, V V; Kle?menova, N B

1987-01-01

270

Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates. PMID:24507155

Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

2014-01-01

271

BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodflow in arteries is dominated by unsteadyflow phenomena. The cardiovas- cular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley num- ber, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. Thearteriesarelivingorgansthatcanadapttoandchangewiththevaryinghemo- dynamic conditions. In

David N. Ku

1997-01-01

272

Coronary artery disease (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

273

Splenic artery aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of splenic artery aneurysms and the indications for their treatment remain controversial. Splenic artery aneurysms occur more frequently in women and are associated with pregnancy and multiparity. Whether arteriosclerosis is the cause of the aneurysm or is a secondary phenomenon is unknown. Patients not treated do well, especially if the aneurysm is less than 2 cm in diameter.

Victor F. Trastek; Peter C. Pairolero; Philip E. Bernatz

1985-01-01

274

Genetics in Arterial Calcification  

PubMed Central

Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature. PMID:21852556

Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

2011-01-01

275

Arterial Calcifications in ?-Thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of arterial calcifications in patients with ?-Thalassemia. ?-thalassemia patients have been shown to present a high preva lence of angioid streaks and skin lesions characteristic of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). Given the fact that vascular involvement in the form of arterial calcifications is also a common manifestation of PXE, the authors

Athanassios Aessopos; Michael Samarkos; Ersi Voskaridou; Dimitris Papaioannou; Maria Tsironi; Emmanuel Kavouklis; George Vaiopoulos; George Stamatelos; Dimitris Loukopoulos

1998-01-01

276

Location of Resistance Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickening and narrowing of resistance arteries must, by definition, be key elements in the control of the cardiovascular system. However, the precise location of resistance arteries is difficult to establish. This is due to technical problems related to the small size of the vessels, to the measurement conditions disturbing the hemodynamics, and to the status of the animals while the

Kent L. Christensen; Michael J. Mulvany

2001-01-01

277

Arterial Pressure Analog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

1980-01-01

278

Weak Radial Artery Pulse  

PubMed Central

We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

2012-01-01

279

Radial Artery Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... because of a blood clot forming in the artery. Blood thinners given during the procedure help to prevent ... in less than 2% of cases. When radial artery occlusion does occur, it generally causes no issue for the hand because there are redundant blood supplies to the hand. Previous Section Next Section ...

280

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

281

Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.  

PubMed

We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Akesson, K

2014-11-01

282

Measurement of vertebral rotation: Perdriolle versus Raimondi.  

PubMed

The measurement of vertebral rotation according to Perdriolle is widely used in the French-speaking and Anglo-American countries. Even in this measurement technique there may be a relatively high estimation error because of the not very accurate grading in steps of 5 degrees. The measurement according to Raimondi seems to be easier to use and is more accurate, with 2 degrees steps. The purpose of our study was to determine the technical error of both measuring methods. The apex vertebra of 40 curves on 20 anteroposterior (AP) radiographs were measured by using the Perdriolle torsion meter and the Regolo Raimondi. Interrater and intrarater reliability were computed. The thoracic Cobb angle was 43 degrees, the lumbar Cobb angle 36 degrees. The average rotation according to Perdriolle was 19.1 degrees thoracic (SD 11.14), 12.7 degrees lumbar (11.21). Measurement of vertebral rotation according to Raimondi showed an average rotation of 20.25 degrees in the thoracic region (11.40) and 13.4 degrees lumbar (10.92). The intrarater reliability was r = 0.991 (Perdriolle) and r = 0.997 (Raimondi). The average intrarater error was 1.025 degrees in the Perdriolle measurement and 0.4 degrees in the Raimondi measurement. Interrater error was on average 3.112 degrees for the Perdriolle measurement and 3.630 degrees for the Raimondi measurement. This shows that both methods are useful tools for the follow-up of vertebral rotation as projected on standard X-rays for the experienced clinical. The Raimondi ruler is easier to use and is slightly more reliable. PMID:7749905

Weiss, H R

1995-01-01

283

Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger to subsequent vertebrate diversifications. However, although they are

D.-G. Shu; S. Conway Morris; J. Han; Z.-F. Zhang; K. Yasui; P. Janvier; L. Chen; X.-L. Zhang; J.-N. Liu; Y. Li; H.-Q. Liu

2003-01-01

284

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

285

Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

Bennike, Ole

286

Growing models of vertebrate limb development.  

PubMed

The developing limb has been a very influential system for studying pattern formation in vertebrates. In the past, classical embryological models have explained how patterned structures are generated along the two principal axes of the limb: the proximodistal (shoulder to finger) and anteroposterior (thumb to little finger) axes. Over time, the genetic and molecular attributes of these patterning models have been discovered, while the role of growth in the patterning process has been only recently highlighted. In this review, we discuss these recent findings and propose how the various models of limb patterning can be reconciled. PMID:19103802

Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

2009-01-01

287

A standard system to study vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using 'staging tables' of 'model organisms'. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

288

Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation  

PubMed Central

The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms; including frog, fish, chick, and mouse; have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models. PMID:19575677

Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M.

2010-01-01

289

Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems  

E-print Network

The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

Choma, Michael A.

290

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

291

Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

2014-10-01

292

TRPM7 regulates gastrulation during vertebrate embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation, cells in the dorsal marginal zone polarize, elongate, align and intercalate to establish the physical body axis of the developing embryo. Here we demonstrate that the bifunctional channel-kinase TRPM7 is specifically required for vertebrate gastrulation. TRPM7 is temporally expressed maternally and throughout development, and is spatially enriched in tissues undergoing convergent extension during gastrulation. Functional studies reveal that TRPM7’s ion channel, but not its kinase, specifically affects cell polarity and convergent extension movements during gastrulation, independent of mesodermal specification. During gastrulation, the non-canonical Wnt pathway via Dishevelled (Dvl) orchestrates the activities of the GTPases Rho and Rac to control convergent extension movements. We find that TRPM7 functions synergistically with non-canonical Wnt signaling to regulate Rac activity. The phenotype caused by depletion of the Ca2+- and Mg2+-permeant TRPM7 is suppressed by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac, as well as by Mg2+ supplementation or by expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. Together, these studies demonstrate an essential role for the ion channel TRPM7 and Mg2+ in Rac-dependent polarized cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation. PMID:21145885

Liu, Wei; Su, Li-Ting; Khadka, Deepak K.; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Komiya, Yuko; Sato, Akira; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W.

2010-01-01

293

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development. PMID:21356103

2011-01-01

294

Neural induction and early patterning in vertebrates.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the development of the nervous system is triggered by signals from a powerful 'organizing' region of the early embryo during gastrulation. This phenomenon--neural induction--was originally discovered and given conceptual definition by experimental embryologists working with amphibian embryos. Work on the molecular circuitry underlying neural induction, also in the same model system, demonstrated that elimination of ongoing transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling in the ectoderm is the hallmark of anterior neural-fate acquisition. This observation is the basis of the 'default' model of neural induction. Endogenous neural inducers are secreted proteins that act to inhibit TGF? ligands in the dorsal ectoderm. In the ventral ectoderm, where the signaling ligands escape the inhibitors, a non-neural fate is induced. Inhibition of the TGF? pathway has now been demonstrated to be sufficient to directly induce neural fate in mammalian embryos as well as pluripotent mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Hence the molecular process that delineates neural from non-neural ectoderm is conserved across a broad range of organisms in the evolutionary tree. The availability of embryonic stem cells from mouse, primates, and humans will facilitate further understanding of the role of signaling pathways and their downstream mediators in neural induction in vertebrate embryos. PMID:24014419

Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Kintner, Chris; Brivanlou, Ali H

2013-07-01

295

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

296

Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

2005-02-07

297

Trial by fire in the vertebrate graveyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an introduction to vertebrate skeletal material, students work individually through a series of stations displaying isolated bones and teeth. Associated with each station are two to six short-answer questions that ask the students to identify, orient, and taxonomically classify the specimens, and to describe the rationale for their answers. Students must respond to every question. Even if they have no prior course experience with vertebrate anatomy, they are required to propose and defend an answer, based on careful observation, "common sense," and relevant personal experience. After the students have worked through the stations and answered all the questions, instructor and class discuss the samples and student interpretations. This activity is deliberately designed to force students to work outside of their comfort zone. In the exercise and discussion, students are required to employ careful and reasoned observation in developing hypotheses concerning the identities of the samples, and to defend those hypotheses based on physical characteristics of the bones. The point of the exercise is not to identify the specimens correctly (although students often do better than they expect), but to demonstrate that skeletal anatomy makes "sense", and that thoughtful reasoning based on solid evidence is key to interpreting skeletal remains.

Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

298

What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?  

PubMed Central

Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

2014-01-01

299

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

McCoy, Michael W.

2014-01-01

300

The road to the vertebral formula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

2009-01-01

301

A Membrane-Bound Vertebrate Globin  

PubMed Central

The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O2 binding with a variable affinity (P50?1.3–12.5 torr), depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein. PMID:21949889

Blank, Miriam; Wollberg, Jessica; Gerlach, Frank; Reimann, Katja; Roesner, Anja; Hankeln, Thomas; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E.; Burmester, Thorsten

2011-01-01

302

[Stenting for cerebral infarction due to stenosis of a persistent primitive proatlantal artery: a case report].  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular disorders complicated by persistent primitive arteries are commonly reported, but, we herein present a 78-year-old man with cerebral infarction due to stenosis of a persistent primitive artery by itself. Cerebral angiography revealed bilateral vertebral artery aplasia to be complicated by a persistent primitive proatlantal artery which had become an important collateral circulation pathway. While the patient was hospitalized because of mild sensory impairment, he also developed visual field constriction and cerebellar symptoms due to recurrent stroke despite anticoagulation treatment. Based on the results of various examinations, cerebral embolism, probably caused by stenosis at the origin of the persistent proatlantal artery, was diagnosed. Carotid artery stenting for the stenosis was planned. A filter protection device was found to be very useful for stenting with maintenance of blood flow in the persistent primitive proatlantal artery. There have been no reports of stenting in persistent primitive proatlantal arteries, such as that our present case is considers. It provides valuable information on the management of this rare disorder. PMID:23269257

Ohhashi, Genichiro; Inoya, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

303

Genetic Determinants of Arterial Stiffness.  

PubMed

Stiffness of large arteries (called arteriosclerosis) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although previous studies have shown that arterial stiffness is moderately heritable, genetic factors contributing to arterial stiffness are largely unknown. In this paper, we reviewed the available literature on genetic variants that are potentially related to arterial stiffness. Most variants have shown mixed depictions of their association with arterial stiffness across multiple studies. Various methods to measure arterial stiffness at different arterial sites can contribute to these inconsistent results. In addition, studies in patient populations with hypertension or atherosclerosis may overestimate the impact of genetic variants on arterial stiffness. Future studies are recommended to standardize current measures of arterial stiffness in different age groups. Studies conducted in normal healthy subjects may also provide better opportunities to find novel genetic variants of arterial stiffness. PMID:25472935

Logan, Jeongok G; Engler, Mary B; Kim, Hyungsuk

2014-12-01

304

Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

2006-01-01

305

Corynebacterium xerosis as a cause of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed Corynebacterium xerosis vertebral osteomyelitis 6 months following a decompressive laminectomy. Prolonged parenteral and subsequent oral therapy for 11 months resulted in apparent cure. This is the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by C. xerosis. Images PMID:2592549

Krish, G; Beaver, W; Sarubbi, F; Verghese, A

1989-01-01

306

Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

1999-01-01

307

Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams  

E-print Network

Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams of the Northwestern USA Biological Sciences Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams to study brook trout invasions in mountainous streams of Idaho and Montana, USA. After studying marked fish

308

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

309

Decay and Disarticulation of Small Vertebrates in Controlled Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the timing and nature of decay and disarticulation in small vertebrates, using an experimental regime that allowed comparison among different environments, and different size classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Decay and disarticulation of freshly killed small vertebrates was documented in freshwater and seawater aquaria as well as outdoor terrestrial settings protected from

Leonard R. Brand; Michael Hussey; John Taylor

310

Shaping the Vertebrate Body Plan by Polarized Embryonic Cell Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized cell movements shape the major features of the vertebrate body plan during development. The head-to-tail body axis of vertebrates is elongated in embryonic stages by ``convergent extension'' tissue movements. During these movements cells intercalate between one another transverse to the elongating body axis to form a narrower, longer array. Recent discoveries show that these polarized cell movements are controlled

Ray Keller

2002-01-01

311

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

312

Effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of vertebral bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: To compare the effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of unfractured vertebral bodies.Methods used: Four cadaveric thoracic spines were used for this experiment, for a total of 40 vertebral bodies. Before testing, each thoracic spine was submitted to bone density testing and a radiographic evaluation to rule out any obvious fractures. Under image intensification, 6 ml

Siros Pheumaticos; Nguyen Lyndon; John Hipp; Jason Stein; Michael Heggeness

2002-01-01

313

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

314

Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

2009-01-01

315

Termination of the vertebral veins: Evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the topographic anatomy of the vertebral vein (VV) in the lower neck and thoracic inlet using CT scans. Enhanced CT scans using 32-MDCT were obtained for 199 consecutive patients. Reconstructed images with 1-mm section thickness/intervals were evaluated by two radiologists examining the drainage point, number, and route of VVs using frame forwarding and the rewind function on the DICOM viewer. The VV was classified into four types as follows: Type A (80.6%), a VV that descended ventral to the subclavian artery (SA) and drained into the upper portion of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV); Type B (5.8%), a VV that descended dorsal to the SA and drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV; Type C (8.3%), a doubled VVs that crossed both sides of the SA and drained into the upper portion of the BCV and formed a common trunk; Type D (5.3%), a VV ventral to the SA that drained into the upper portion of the BCV and another VV dorsal to the SA drained into the upper portion or the lower portion of the BCV. Some variations were observed in regard to the drainage point, number, and route of the VVs. Classification of the VV may be useful for interpreting chest CT scans and in better understanding the embryologic development of the vertebral vein. PMID:20533515

Miyake, H; Kiyosue, H; Tanoue, S; Goto, Y; Mori, H; Fujikura, Y

2010-09-01

316

VACTERL association with a rare vertebral anomaly (butterfly vertebra) in a case of monochorionic twin.  

PubMed

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities (13). We report a rare case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which one of the infants had VACTERL association. Antenatal ultrasound showed bilateral renal dysplasia and cardiac anomaly (ASD) in twin A. Twin A was noted to have the following anomalies: a single umbilical artery, limb anomaly (right hand preaxial polydactyly), vertebral anomalies (T9 and T11 butterfly vertebras, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, anal and urethral atresia. A normal-sized stomach and normal amount of amniotic fluid were observed during the prenatal period with no other anomalies. Twin B (male) was healthy and no cardiac, renal, or congenital anomalies were demonstrated on ultrasound and physical examination. Infant A was also diagnosed as having VACTERL association because he had five of the core anomalies (V, A, C, R, L) of VACTERL association. Butterfly vertebra is an uncommon congenital spinal anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second case VACTERL association with butterfly vertebra in the literature. PMID:25059024

Sandal, G; Aslan, N; Duman, L; Ormeci, A R

2014-01-01

317

Retinal artery occlusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Electrocardiogram Heart monitor for abnormal heart rhythm Duplex Doppler ultrasound of the carotid arteries ... Massage of the eye The clot-busting drug, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) The health care provider should ...

318

Peripheral artery disease - legs  

MedlinePLUS

... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... These symptoms usually appear during walking or exercise, ...

319

Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Rhythms Heart Valve Disorders Infective Endocarditis Pericardial Disease Sports and the Heart Heart Tumors Atherosclerosis Coronary Artery ... sedative, but no general anesthetic, is given. The success of angioplasty varies, depending on the location of ...

320

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

321

The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

2012-01-01

322

Selective arteriography as a means of studying major arteries in the cat  

E-print Network

del Cane. Minerva Medica, Torino, italy, 1959. 7. Crouch, J. E. : Text-Atlas of Cat Anatomy. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. , 1969. 8. Cummings, B. C. : Collateral Circulation of the Canine Pelvic Limb. Small Animal Clinician. , 1, (1961): 260... Hospital Practice. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa. , 1966. 11. DeLaTorre, E. , Mitchell, 0. C. , and Netsky, M. G. : Anatomic and Anqiographic Study of the Vertebral- Basilar Arterial Systems in the Dog. Am. J. Anat. , 110, (1962): 187-) 97...

Smallwood, James Edgar Lee

2012-06-07

323

Peripheral ophthalmic artery aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally speaking, the term “ophthalmic aneurysms” refers to carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, which arise from the internal\\u000a carotid artery (ICA) wall at or around the origin of the ophthalmic artery (OA). In contrast, aneurysms arising from the OA\\u000a stem or its branches, separate from the ICA are called peripheral OA aneurysms (POAAs). POAAs are a rare entity, which clinical\\u000a features and natural

Liang Qiao; Handong Wang; Lei Mao; Suihua Chen; Wei Xie; Qi Wu

2011-01-01

324

Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

Pilepich, M.V. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO); Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

1981-01-01

325

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.  

PubMed

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

2013-01-01

326

Molecular aspects of vertebrate retinal development.  

PubMed

The formation of retina from neural plate has been mapped extensively by anatomical and molecular methods. The major cascades of transcription factor expression have been identified, and deficits resulting from transcription factor knockouts are well characterized. There is extensive cross-regulation, both positive and negative, at the transcriptional level between transcription factors and this is vital in the formation of neural compartments. Many transcription factors are important at both early stages of optic cup formation and later stages of terminal differentiation of retinal cell types. The transcription factor cascades can be regulated by extrinsic factors, and some of the intracellular signaling pathways whereby this is achieved have been identified. Defining the quantitative interactions between regulatory molecules will be the next step in understanding this excellent model of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development. PMID:12428752

Zhang, Samuel Shao-min; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Barnstable, Colin J

2002-01-01

327

Evolutionary attempts at 4 eyes in vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. METHODS: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes in defined as the duplication or one or more structures integral to the refraction or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known optics, histology, and ecology of each of these vertebrate species with attempts at 4 eyes including Anableps anableps, Dialomnus fuscus, Mnierpes macrocephalus, and Bathylychnops exilis. These animals have developed portions of ancillary eyes that have diverged from the primary globe in 3 different patterns. At least 1 specimen of each of those vertebrate species known to have 4 eyes was examined histologically and compared to the animal's ecology and current cladistic relationship. RESULTS: A anabteps has 2 distinct optical systems in each eye: an upper one for aerial vision and a lower system for aquatic vision. These systems feature separate retinae and an asymmetric lens to achieve focus in the aerial and aquatic vision, but only 1 optic nerve per eye. The visual system is split horizontally to function optimally in a "prone" position in the water. D fuscus is a terrestrial feeder and has a vertically (almost perpendicular to the long axis of the fish) divided cornea using pigment and a condensation of collagen as the divider, a single pupil, and a divided retina. The split cornea allows for the fish to remain vertical with 1 cornea in air and 1 cornea in water. M macrocephalus is probably closely related to D fuscus with a similar split cornea. B exilis is a mesopelagic inhabitant living at approximately 200 to 1,000 m and has an ancillary globe that "buds" off the primary globe. This secondary globe is directed inferiorly toward the ocean floor as compared to the primary globe, which is directed 35 degrees superiorly from the horizontal. Adult species of B exilis have 2 additional scleral bodies suspected to be lenses. If so, these structures would be capable of focusing light from the inferior field onto the superior retina, presumably adding to the panoramic inferior visual field. There are other mesopelagic species, including Styleophorus chordatus, Opisthoproctus grimaldii, Scopelarchus gantheri (or guentheri), Dolichopteryx binocularis, Benthalbella infans, and Evermannella indica, that have other unusual ocular mechanisms, such as retinal diverticulae and lens pads capable of reflection, but do not meet the definition of multiple eyes, as defined for purposes of this work. CONCLUSIONS: D fuscus and M macrocephalus are terrestrial feeders requiring aquatic and aerial vision, and hence have a split cornea for this purpose, and they probably use their anterior corneae for terrestrial vision. A anableps swims at the surface with combined aerial and aquatic vision for feeding and protection from predators. B exilis is a mesopelagic feeder requiring a binocular visual field in the horizontal meridian and above, and simultaneously is a bottom scavenger using an ancillary globe and perhaps scleral lenses for recognition of bioluminescent detritus. Although 2 of these models are related (D fuscus and M macrocephalus), these 4 fish represent 3 separate, distinct, and unrelated convergent evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes in vertebrates satisfying the ecological needs of each. The 3 different models are unrelated evolutionarily and are found in 3 separate orders. PMID:11797302

Schwab, I R; Ho, V; Roth, A; Blankenship, T N; Fitzgerald, P G

2001-01-01

328

Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

2004-02-01

329

Cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Iron plays an essential role in cellular metabolism and biological processes. However, due to its intrinsic redox activity, free iron is a potentially toxic molecule in cellular biochemistry. Thus, organisms have developed sophisticated ways to import, sequester, and utilize iron. The transferrin cycle is a well-studied iron uptake pathway that is important for most vertebrate cells. Circulating iron can also be imported into cells by mechanisms that are independent of transferrin. Once imported into erythroid cells, iron is predominantly consumed by the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of heme and iron sulfur clusters. This review focuses on canonical transferrin-mediated and the newly discovered, non-transferrin mediated iron uptake pathways, as well as, mitochondrial iron homeostasis in higher eukaryotes. PMID:22285816

Chen, Caiyong; Paw, Barry H.

2012-01-01

330

Histaminergic mechanisms in the vertebrate visual system.  

PubMed

This paper presents and summarizes our recent results on histamine (HI) in vertebrate visual system. The data include: 1. HI distribution, localization, synthesis, uptake and metabolism in retina, optic nerve, choroid and brain of carp, hen, rabbit, cow, 2. distribution of HI in human eyes, 3. 3H-mepyramine binding in the bovine retina, and HI dependent cAMP generating system in the rabbit eye, 4. effect of light stimulation on HI content in the rabbit retina, optic nerve and brain, 5. diurnal variations of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-methyltransferase activity in the rabbit ocular and brain structures. These results are discussed in terms of possible function(s) of HI in the visual system. PMID:2870485

Nowak, J Z

1985-01-01

331

Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.  

PubMed

When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

2003-03-18

332

Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis.  

PubMed

The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation. PMID:22308397

Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

2012-02-14

333

Current status of arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting  

PubMed Central

For over a decade there has been accumulating evidence that the use of more than a single arterial graft during coronary artery bypass grafting can improve clinical outcomes. However the vast majority of patients in most developed countries still only receive a single arterial conduit even in the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the use of a second internal mammary artery and/or radial artery graft. While in comparison to vein grafts the superior patency of internal mammary artery grafts is well established, there now exists strong and consistent evidence of the superior patency of radial arteries over the longer term. Likewise, there is a rapidly growing body of evidence that the superior patency of both these arteries in comparison to vein grafts translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:23977618

2013-01-01

334

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

Strauss, Richard E.

335

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172­185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

California at Berkeley, University of

336

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

Benton, Michael

337

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION A NEW TROODONTID THEROPOD FROM UKHAA TOLGOD, MONGOLIA MARK A. NORELL1 , PETER J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

Clark, James M.

338

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

Olsen, Paul E.

339

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA Paleontology and Paleoanthropol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; 4Department

Shapiro, Mike

340

Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

2012-01-01

341

Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

Van Veen, John Edward

2012-01-01

342

Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.  

PubMed

This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

Smith, M M; Hall, B K

1990-08-01

343

Fatal avulsion of choroidal or perforating arteries by guidewires. Case reports, ex vivo experiments, potential mechanisms and prevention.  

PubMed

Innovations in endovascular tools have permitted an increasingly broad range of neurovascular lesions to be treated via minimally invasive methods. However, some device modifications may carry additional risks, not immediately apparent to operators. A patient with a symptomatic, partially thrombosed basilar apex aneurysm was allocated balloon-assisted coiling. Attempts were made to place a microwire across the basilar apex through the posterior communicating artery. Overlapping courses of the posterior cerebral and posterior choroidal arteries on the roadmap images were not recognized and a flanged-tip microwire was inadvertently advanced deep into the choroidal artery. Following the wire with a microcatheter led to binding of arterial tissue within the microcatheter. Removing the wire led to an avulsion of the choroidal artery and a severe hemorrhagic complication which proved fatal. Tissue was identified on the tip of the guidewire. Pathology showed layers of vascular tissue within the laser-cut flanges of the distal wire tip. A similar complication, also fatal, occurred during balloon angioplasty of a distal vertebral artery, when an exchange wire was accidently introduced into a perforator from a posterior cerebral artery. Ex vivo catheterization of distal mesenteric arterial branches showed that the wall of small arteries can be entrapped by laser-cut, flanged, but not by smooth guidewire tips. Microwires with a flanged instead of smooth distal tip, when placed into small caliber vessels, may cause hemorrhagic complications from avulsions*. PMID:24976086

Darsaut, Tim E; Costalat, Vincent; Salazkin, Igor; Jamali, Sara; Berthelet, France; Gevry, Guylaine; Roy, Daniel; Raymond, Jean

2014-01-01

344

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

345

Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is becoming possible to infer some general aspects of the early evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity. All jawed vertebrates assemble their antigen-receptor genes through combinatorial recombination of different “diversity” segments into immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. However, the jawless vertebrates employ an analogous, but independently-derived set of immune receptors in order to recognize and bind antigens: the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The means by which this locus generates receptor diversity and achieves antigen specificity is of considerable interest because these mechanisms represent a completely independent strategy for building a large immune repertoire. Therefore, studies of the VLR system are providing insight into the fundamental principles and evolutionary potential of adaptive immune recognition systems. Here we review and synthesize the wealth of data that have been generated towards understanding the evolution of the adaptive immune system in the jawless vertebrates. PMID:20056434

Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

2009-01-01

346

A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.  

PubMed

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

2012-01-01

347

Traumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis.  

PubMed

This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

Karaarslan, Ahmet A; Karaka?l?, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karc?, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Senol

2014-01-01

348

Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karaka?l?, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karc?, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, ?enol

2014-01-01

349

[An ultrasonographic study of the major arteries of the neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

We examined a total of 125 patients, of whom 70 suffered from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The comparison group was composed of 40 patients diagnosed with osteoarthrosis deformans (OD) and 15 with atherosclerosis of the major arteries of the head (MAH). The control group consisted of 40 subjects randomized by sex and age. Studied were the carotid, vertebral arteries and the cerebral blood flow by means of colour duplex scanning on the unit "Vingmed system, 5, Norway, 2002". Patients with RA as compared with those from the control group showed thickening of the vascular wall of the carotid arteries, especially manifested in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and in those suffering from RA with systemic manifestations of the disease. The findings obtained by the duplex scanning in patients with RA as compared with those of the control group and OD patients demonstrated an increased number of stenotic lesions of the carotid and vertebral arteries particularly pronounced in seropositive RA and RA with extraarticular manifestations of the disease. Statistically reliable findings were obtained while studying the deformities of the carotid arteries. Comparing the RA groups revealed significant differences: in the group of patients suffering from RA with the systemic manifestations noted was an increased percentage of the kinking along both the common carotid artery (chi(2) = 1.76; NS) and the interpal carotid artery (chi(2) = 8.44; p = 0.01). The findings obtained in the present study strongly suggest that in RA patients there take place alterations in the IMC in the form of a thickening with disordered differentiation of the intima-medial layers and the lesion of the cardiovascular system, which is characterized by an early development of atherosclerosis. The degree of atherosclerotic alterations is associated with the presence of systemic manifestations of RA, high activity of the inflammatory process, and seropositivity by the rheumatoid factor. PMID:19156028

Churakov, O Iu; Shilkina, N P

2008-01-01

350

Cerebral arterial fenestrations.  

PubMed

Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms "fenestration" or "fenestrated" with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

2014-01-01

351

Blood Flow in Arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

Ku, David N.

352

Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica.  

PubMed Central

A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for any one of these defects. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Solitary hemivertebrae and localized anterior defects of the vertebral bodies causing kyphoscoliosis are sporadic (non-familial) in nature, carrying no risk to subsequent sibs. Images PMID:1100836

Wynne-Davies, R

1975-01-01

353

Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

Lychakov, Dmitri

354

Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.  

PubMed

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M; Briggs, Andrew M; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W

2014-01-01

355

Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health  

PubMed Central

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

2014-01-01

356

Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... Artery Bypass Grafting, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in the News November 18, 2014 ...

357

Complications related to radial artery occlusion, radial artery harvest, and arterial lines.  

PubMed

Recent publications have suggested that there may be an important role for the radial artery regarding long-term perfusion of the hand. The increasing popularity of the radial artery as an access site for cardiac catheterization has also resulted in the recognition of acute and chronic radial artery occlusion, and cardiologists have placed renewed emphasis on preserving the patency of this artery for future interventional procedures. This article reviews the present literature on radial artery harvest and occlusion. Also discussed are the complications associated with radial artery occlusion and treatment options to prevent such complications. PMID:25455360

Chim, Harvey; Bakri, Karim; Moran, Steven L

2015-02-01

358

Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination. PMID:19152784

Barske, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

359

MIM regulates vertebrate neural tube closure  

PubMed Central

Neural tube closure is a critical morphogenetic event that is regulated by dynamic changes in cell shape and behavior. Although previous studies have uncovered a central role for the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway in neural tube closure, the underlying mechanism remains poorly resolved. Here, we show that the missing in metastasis (MIM; Mtss1) protein, previously identified as a Hedgehog response gene and actin and membrane remodeling protein, specifically binds to Daam1 and couples non-canonical Wnt signaling to neural tube closure. MIM binds to a conserved domain within Daam1, and this interaction is positively regulated by Wnt stimulation. Spatial expression of MIM is enriched in the anterior neural plate and neural folds, and depletion of MIM specifically inhibits anterior neural fold closure without affecting convergent extension movements or mesoderm cell fate specification. Particularly, we find that MIM is required for neural fold elevation and apical constriction along with cell polarization and elongation in both the superficial and deep layers of the anterior neural plate. The function of MIM during neural tube closure requires both its membrane-remodeling domain and its actin-binding domain. Finally, we show that the effect of MIM on neural tube closure is not due to modulation of Hedgehog signaling in the Xenopus embryo. Together, our studies define a morphogenetic pathway involving Daam1 and MIM that transduces non-canonical Wnt signaling for the cytoskeletal changes and membrane dynamics required for vertebrate neural tube closure. PMID:21471152

Liu, Wei; Komiya, Yuko; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Khadka, Deepak K.; Runnels, Loren; Habas, Raymond

2011-01-01

360

New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

2014-01-01

361

Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

Mclean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

362

Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

363

All about Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

All About Peripheral Arterial Disease American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

364

Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication  

MedlinePLUS

... that there is a narrowed area in the artery. Blood pressure in your ankles can also be compared ... are lying down. As blood pulses through the arteries, the blood vessels expand, causing changes in the amount of ...

365

Renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. PMID:25439331

Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

2015-02-01

366

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

367

VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

368

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

369

A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate  

E-print Network

instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove: outcrossing; selfing; heterozygosity; mangrove killifish; Kryptolebias marmoratus 1. INTRODUCTION Three). The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus lives in and around red mangrove forests along the eastern

Avise, John

370

[Phylogenetic tree and synteny of DMRT genes family of vertebrates].  

PubMed

Vertebrates contain a family of genes related to the Drosophila doublesex and C. elegans mab-3 genes, which encode transcription factors including a DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Evolution and function of different DMRT genes of vertebrates have not been understood yet,although some DM proteins are involved in sex determination, sexual differentiation and early embryonic development among different phyla. By genomic analysis of zebrafish and rat DMRT genes, all protein sequences of the vertebrate DMRTs were searched from gene databases and aligned. Phylogenetic tree of all these DMRT genes was reconstructed and evaluated by Bootstrap method. These DMRT genes were clustered into seven subfamilies. Results from analysis of gene structure and cluster organization of DMRT genes showed that synteny of DMRT genes of vertebrates were highly conserved among human, mouse, rat, fugu, medaka and zebrafish, with two syntenic groups, DMRT 1 approximately 3 and DMRT 5 approximately 6. PMID:15552045

Guo, Yi-Qing; Cheng, Han-Hua; Gao, Shang; Zhou, Rong-Jia

2004-10-01

371

GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

372

The evolution and elaboration of vertebrate neural crest cells.  

PubMed

Vertebrate neural crest cells are embryonic neuroepithelial cells that undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migrate throughout the embryo and form a wide variety of derivatives, including peripheral neurons and glia, pigment cells, and craniofacial cartilage, bone and teeth. Neural crest cell evolution and elaboration is intimately bound up with vertebrate evolution: the most primitive living vertebrates, lampreys and hagfishes, have most but not all neural crest derivatives. A torrent of recent molecular information has changed our understanding of vertebrate phylogenetic relationships, expanded our understanding of the gene circuitry underlying neural crest development, and given interesting information on the deployment of homologues of these genes in invertebrate relatives such as ascidians and amphioxus. New molecular insights into the evolutionary origin of cartilage, as well as into the nature and evolution of the cells and genes involved in tooth and bone formation, enable tentative hypotheses to be framed for the evolution of skeletal neural crest derivatives. PMID:19121930

Baker, Clare V H

2008-12-01

373

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

374

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

375

A review of anatomical and mechanical factors affecting vertebral body integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

st tr ra ac ct t Background: The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fracture is multifactorial and may be conceptualised using a systems framework. Previous studies have established several correlates of vertebral fracture including reduced vertebral cross-sectional area, weakness in back extensor muscles, reduced bone mineral density, increasing age, worsening kyphosis and recent vertebral fracture. Alterations in these physical characteristics may

Alison M Greig; John D Wark; Nicola L Fazzalari; Kim L Bennell

376

Paraspinal muscle control in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high risk of sustaining subsequent vertebral fractures after an initial fracture cannot be explained solely by low bone\\u000a mass. Extra-osseous factors, such as neuromuscular characteristics may help to explain this clinical dilemma. Elderly women\\u000a with (n = 11) and without (n = 14) osteoporotic vertebral fractures performed rapid shoulder flexion to perturb the trunk while standing on a flat and\\u000a short base. Neuromuscular

Andrew M. Briggs; Alison M. Greig; Kim L. Bennell; Paul W. Hodges

2007-01-01

377

Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

1998-08-01

378

Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted in 179 consecutive patients (48 males, 131 females; mean age: 72.0 ± 8.59 years; range:\\u000a 51–93) with single symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting between September 2004 and September\\u000a 2005 to the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome, Italy. Vertebral fractures usually become manifest due to pain which can be debilitating.\\u000a Treatment depends on the presence or absence

Salvatore Masala; Anna Micaela Ciarrapico; Daniel Konda; Vincenzo Vinicola; Matteo Mammucari; Giovanni Simonetti

2008-01-01

379

Sex-role reversal in vertebrates: behavioural and endocrinological accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-role reversal occurs when females compete more intensely than males for access to mates. In this paper, we survey the occurrence of sex-role reversal in vertebrates: we focus on behavioural aspects of sex-role reversal and we examine possible endocrinological correlates of this phenomenon. The best documented cases among vertebrates of sex-role reversal occur in fish and birds. In nearly all

Marcel Eens; Rianne Pinxten

2000-01-01

380

Evolutionary History of the Vertebrate Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases Family  

PubMed Central

Background The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) family pathway is implicated in diverse cellular processes and pathways essential to most organisms. Its evolution is conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdoms. However, the detailed evolutionary history of the vertebrate MAPK family is largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The MAPK family members were collected from literatures or by searching the genomes of several vertebrates and invertebrates with the known MAPK sequences as queries. We found that vertebrates had significantly more MAPK family members than invertebrates, and the vertebrate MAPK family originated from 3 progenitors, suggesting that a burst of gene duplication events had occurred after the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. Conservation of evolutionary synteny was observed in the vertebrate MAPK subfamilies 4, 6, 7, and 11 to 14. Based on synteny and phylogenetic relationships, MAPK12 appeared to have arisen from a tandem duplication of MAPK11 and the MAPK13-MAPK14 gene unit was from a segmental duplication of the MAPK11-MAPK12 gene unit. Adaptive evolution analyses reveal that purifying selection drove the evolution of MAPK family, implying strong functional constraints of MAPK genes. Intriguingly, however, intron losses were specifically observed in the MAPK4 and MAPK7 genes, but not in their flanking genes, during the evolution from teleosts to amphibians and mammals. The specific occurrence of intron losses in the MAPK4 and MAPK7 subfamilies might be associated with adaptive evolution of the vertebrates by enhancing the gene expression level of both MAPK genes. Conclusions/Significance These results provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate MAPK family. PMID:22046431

Li, Meng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chiyu

2011-01-01

381

Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... run along each side of the neck. These arteries provide blood flow to the brain. Over time, plaque (a ... waxy substance) can build up and harden the arteries, limiting the flow of blood to the brain. Facts About Carotid Artery Stenosis ...

382

Congenital bronchial artery to pulmonary artery fistula presenting as hemoptysis.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old male presented with 2 weeks of hemoptysis. Pulmonary angiography was performed and identified a bronchial artery to pulmonary artery fistula of the right upper lobe. Despite angioembolization, the hemoptysis recurred 1 year later. It was hypothesized that the recurrence occurred due to retrograde filling from the pulmonary arterial side of the abnormality. Right upper lobectomy was performed and resulted in resolution of hemoptysis. We present a case report of a rare, congenital bronchial artery to pulmonary artery fistula. PMID:25555983

VanDerPloeg, Daniel G; Strong, William R; Krohmer, Steven J; O'Connor, William N; Martin, Jeremiah T

2015-01-01

383

A Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly: Double Left Anterior Descending Artery  

PubMed Central

Double left anterior descending coronary artery arising from the left and right coronary arteries is one of the rarest of coronary anomalies. In this report, we present a case of double left anterior descending coronary artery with one originating from the left main stem and the second one originating from the same ostium with the right coronary artery, passing to the left side following an inter-arterial course between aorta and right ventricular outflow tract and spreading to the anterior wall of the left ventricle. The diagnosis was made with multislice computed tomography angiography. To our knowledge, only a few such cases have been published in the literature so far. PMID:23393639

Oncel, Guray; Oncel, Dilek

2012-01-01

384

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

385

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology  

PubMed Central

Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

2008-01-01

386

The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.  

PubMed

Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

2013-10-24

387

Pulmonary artery catheter.  

PubMed

Since its inception, the pulmonary artery catheter has enjoyed widespread use in both medical and surgical critically ill patients. It has also endured criticism and skepticism about its benefit in these patient populations. By providing information such as cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and intracardiac pressures, the pulmonary artery catheter may improve care of the most complex critically ill patients in the intensive care unit and the operating room. With its ability to transduce pressures through multiple ports, one of the primary clinical uses for pulmonary artery catheters is real-time intracardiac pressure monitoring. Correct interpretation of the waveforms is essential to confirming correct placement of the catheter to ensure accurate data are recorded. Major complications related to catheter placement are infrequent, but misinterpretation of monitored data is not uncommon and has led many to question the utility of the pulmonary artery catheter. The evidence to date suggests that the use of the catheter does not change mortality in many critically ill patients and may expose these patients to a higher rate of complications. However, additional clinical trials are needed, particularly in the most complex critically ill patients, who have generally been excluded from many of the research trials performed to date. PMID:25480764

Whitener, Stephanie; Konoske, Ryan; Mark, Jonathan B

2014-12-01

388

Coronary Artery Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... detailed view of a CAA. Transesophageal echocardiography to get pictures of the heart from inside the esophagus rather than through ... scanning, especially electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), to get a good picture of the coronary arteries. Nuclear imaging tests to see if ...

389

Facts About Peripheral Arterial  

E-print Network

of the conditions that raise the risk for developing P.A.D., such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are more in every four African Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 has diabetes. Have high blood pressure. Also called hypertension, high blood pressure raises the risk of developing plaque in the arteries. High blood

Bandettini, Peter A.

390

Facts About Peripheral Arterial  

E-print Network

over the age of 50 with diabetes is likely to have P.A.D. Have high blood pressure. Also called hypertension, high blood pressure raises the risk of developing plaque in the arteries. Have high blood for heart disease: smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and/or high blood cholesterol. #12;What

Bandettini, Peter A.

391

Arterialization, coronariogenesis and arteriogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryonic life, the early vascular system consists of a network of immature endothelial channels called the primary plexus, which irrigates the growing embryo. Conducting vessels (arteries and veins) develop later, following the metabolic demand of the organ primordia. Embryologists described the development of conducting vessels as a process of investment of the primary plexus with undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, which

Borja Fernández

392

Neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple traumatic cervical arterial injuries: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blunt injury to the carotid and vertebral arteries is uncommon and potentially devastating. Neurofibromatosis type 1, or von Recklinghausen’s disease is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting one in 3000 individuals. This genetic disease may affect many organs, including vessels. Case presentation This report describes a very unusual case of multiple traumatic arterial injuries in a 44-year-old Caucasian neurofibromatosis type 1 patient, with delayed diagnosis. The vascular abnormalities observed in neurofibromatosis type 1, probably enhanced the arterial lesions. Medical treatment with antiplatelet therapy combined with endovascular stent-assisted angioplasty allowed a good evolution for the patient. Conclusion Patients with medical history of neurofibromatosis type I are at risk to develop blunt cervical vascular injury. This association has to be known by emergency and intensivist physicians to optimize screening of cerebrovascular injuries and treat early such devastating lesions. PMID:19918515

Chevalier, Stéphanie; Jehan, Claude; Courtheoux, Patrick; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Plaud, Benoit

2009-01-01

393

Retinal Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate systematically the various associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities in different types of retinal artery occlusion (RAO). Design Cohort study. Participants 439 consecutive untreated patients (499 eyes) with RAO, first seen in our clinic from 1973 to 2000. Methods At first visit, all patients had a detailed ophthalmic and medical history, and comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. Visual evaluation was done by recording visual acuity, using the Snellen visual acuity chart, and visual fields with a Goldmann perimeter. Initially they also had carotid Doppler/angiography and echocardiography. The same ophthalmic evaluation was performed at each follow-up visit. Main Outcome Measures Demographic features, associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities and sources of emboli in various types of RAO. Results RAO was classified into various types of central (CRAO) and branch (BRAO) artery occlusion. In both nonarteritic CRAO and BRAO the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular accidents were significantly higher compared to the prevalence of these conditions in the matched US population (all p<0.0001). Smoking prevalence, compared to the US population, was significantly higher for males (p=0.001) with nonarteritic CRAO and for females with BRAO (p=0.02). Ipsilateral internal carotid artery had ?50% stenosis in 31% of nonarteritic CRAO patients and 30% of BRAO, and plaques in 71% of nonarteritic CRAO and 66% of BRAO. Abnormal echocardiogram with embolic source was seen in 52% of nonarteritic CRAO and 42% of BRAO. Neovascular glaucoma developed in only 2.5% of nonarteritic CRAO eyes. Conclusion This study showed that in CRAO as well as BRAO the prevalence of various cardiovascular diseases and smoking was significantly higher compared to the prevalence of these conditions in the matched US population. Embolism is the most common cause of CRAO and BRAO; plaque in the carotid artery is usually the source of embolism and less commonly the aortic and/or mitral valve. The presence of plaques in the carotid artery is generally of much greater importance than the degree of stenosis in the artery. Contrary to the prevalent misconception, there is no cause-and-effect relationship between CRAO and neovascular glaucoma. PMID:19577305

Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Podhajsky, Patricia A.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.

2009-01-01

394

Vertebral cortical bone mass measurement by a new quantitative computer tomography method: Correlations with vertebral trabecular bone measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous studies comparing axial and appendicular skeleton have shown that trabecular bone loss is greater than cortical bone\\u000a loss. However, whether the same difference exists between the trabecular and the cortical compartments of the vertebral body\\u000a remains to be determined. In this study, we used quantitative computer tomography (QCT) to simultaneously measure the cortical\\u000a rim of the vertebral body as

Roberto Pacifici; Reta C. Rupich; Louis V. Avioli

1990-01-01

395

Comparative structure of vertebrate sperm chromatin.  

PubMed

A consistent feature of sperm nuclei is its exceptionally compact state in comparison with somatic nuclei. Here, we have examined the structural organization of sperm chromatin from representatives of three vertebrate lineages, bony fish (Danio rerio), birds (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mammals (Mus musculus) using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although the three sperm nuclei are all highly compact, they differ in morphology and in the complement of compaction-inducing proteins. Whereas zebrafish sperm retain somatic histones and a nucleosomal organization, in the rooster and mouse, histones are largely replaced by small, arginine-rich protamines. In contrast to the mouse, the rooster protamine contains no cysteine residues and lacks the potential stabilizing effects of S-S bonds. Protamine driven chromatin compaction results in a stable, highly condensed chromatin, markedly different from the somatic nucleosome-based beads-on-a-string architecture, but its structure remains poorly understood. When prepared gently for whole mount TEM, the rooster and mouse sperm chromatin reveal striking rod-like units 40-50 nm in width. Also present in the mouse, which has very flattened sperm nuclei, but not rooster, where nuclei take the form of elongated cylinders, are toroidal shaped structures, with an external diameter of about 90 nm. In contrast, similarly prepared zebrafish sperm exhibit nucleosomal chromatin. We also examined the early stages in the binding of salmine (the salmon protamine) to defined sequence DNA. These images suggest an initial side-by-side binding of linear DNA-protamine complexes leading to the nucleation of thin, flexible rods with the potential to bend, allowing the ends to come into contact and fuse to form toroidal structures. We discuss the relationship between these in vitro observations and the rods and toroids seen in nuclei, and suggest an explanation for the apparent absence of these structures in TEM images of fully condensed sperm nuclei. PMID:25264147

Ausió, Juan; González-Romero, Rodrigo; Woodcock, Christopher L

2014-11-01

396

A brief history of vertebrate functional morphology.  

PubMed

The discipline of functional morphology grew out of a comparative anatomical tradition, its transformation into a modern experimental science facilitated largely by technological advances. Early morphologists, such as Cuvier, felt that function was predictable from organismal form, to the extent that animals and plants represented perfect adaptations to their habits. However, anatomy alone could not reveal how organisms actually performed their activities. Recording techniques capable of capturing fast motion were first required to begin to understand animal movement. Muybridge is most famous for his pioneering work in fast photography in the late 19th century, enabling him to "freeze" images of even the fastest horse at a full gallop. In fact, contemporary kinematic analysis grew directly out of the techniques Muybridge developed. Marey made perhaps an even greater contribution to experimental science through his invention of automatic apparati for recording events of animal motion. Over the first half of the 20th century, scientists developed practical methods to record activity patterns from muscles of a living, behaving human or animal. The technique of electromyography, initially used in clinical applications, was co-opted as a tool of organismal biologists in the late 1960s. Comparative anatomy, kinematic analysis and electromyography have for many years been the mainstay of vertebrate functional morphology; however, those interested in animal form and function have recently begun branching out to incorporate approaches from experimental biomechanics and other disciplines (see accompanying symposium papers), and functional morphology now stands at the threshold of becoming a truly integrative, central field in organismal biology. PMID:21708709

Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Gillis, Gary B

2002-04-01

397

Hedgehog signalling via a calcitonin receptor-like receptor can induce arterial differentiation independently of VEGF signalling in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Multiple signalling pathways control the specification of endothelial cells (ECs) to become arteries or veins during vertebrate embryogenesis. Current models propose that a cascade of Hedgehog (Hh), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Notch signalling acts instructively on ECs to control the choice between arterial or venous fate. Differences in the phenotypes induced by Hh, VEGF or Notch inhibition suggest that not all of the effects of Hh on arterial-venous specification, are mediated by VEGF. We establish that full derepression of the Hh pathway in ptc1;ptc2 mutants converts the posterior cardinal vein into a second arterial vessel that manifests intact arterial gene expression, intersegmental vessel sprouting and haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene expression. Importantly, whilst VEGF was thought to be absolutely essential for arterial fates, we find that normal and ectopic arterial differentiation can occur without VEGF signalling in ptc1;ptc2 mutants. Furthermore, Hh is able to bypass VEGF to induce arterial differentiation in ECs via the calcitonin receptor-like receptor, thus revealing a surprising complexity in the interplay between Hh and VEGF signalling during arteriovenous specification. Finally, our experiments establish a dual function of Hedgehog during induction of runx1+ HSCs. PMID:22668851

Wilkinson, Robert N.; Koudijs, Marco J.; Patient, Roger K.; Ingham, Philip W.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Eeden, Fredericus J.M.

2013-01-01

398

Cervical artery dissection--clinical features, risk factors, therapy and outcome in 126 patients.  

PubMed

The highly variable clinical course of cervical artery dissections still poses a major challenge to the treating physician. This study was conducted (1) to describe the differences in clinical and angiographic presentation of patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissections (CAD, VAD), (2) to define the circumstances that are related to bilateral arterial dissections, and (3) to determine factors that predict a poor outcome. Retrospectively and by standardised interview, we studied 126 patients with cervical artery dissections. Preceding traumata, vascular risk factors, presenting local and ischemic symptoms, and patient-outcome were evaluated. Patients with CAD presented more often with a partial Horner's syndrome and had a higher prevalence of fibromuscular dysplasia than patients with VAD. Patients with VAD complained more often of neck pain, more frequently reported a preceding chiropractic manipulation and had a higher incidence of bilateral dissections than patients with CAD. Bilateral VAD was significantly related to a preceding chiropractic manipulation. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables stroke and arterial occlusion were the only independent factors associated with a poor outcome. This study emphasises the potential dangers of chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. Probably owing to the systematic use of forceful neck-rotation to both sides, this treatment was significantly associated with bilateral VAD. Patients with dissection-related cervical artery occlusion had a significantly increased risk of suffering a disabling stroke. PMID:14586598

Dziewas, Rainer; Konrad, Carsten; Dräger, Bianca; Evers, Stefan; Besselmann, Michael; Lüdemann, Peter; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Stögbauer, Florian; Ringelstein, E Bernd

2003-10-01

399

Arterial conduits for hepatic artery revascularisation in adult liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Arterial complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), including hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), are important causes of early graft failure. The use of an arterial conduit is an accepted alternative to the utilisation of native recipient hepatic artery for specific indications. This study aims to determine the efficacy of arterial conduits and the outcome in OLT. We retrospectively reviewed 1,575 cadaveric adult OLTs and identified those in which an arterial conduit was used for hepatic revascularisation. Data on the primary disease, indication for using arterial conduit, type of vascular graft, operative technique and outcome were obtained. Thirty-six (2.3%) patients underwent OLT in which arterial conduits were used for hepatic artery (HA) revascularisation. Six of these were performed on the primary transplant, while the rest (n=30) were performed in patients undergoing re-transplantation, including six who had developed hepatic artery aneurysms. The incidence of arterial conduits was 0.4% (6/1,426 cases) in all primary OLTs and 20.1% (30/149 cases) in all re-transplants. Twenty-nine procedures utilised iliac artery grafts from the same donor as the liver, six used iliac artery grafts from a different donor, and a single patient underwent a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. Two techniques were used: infra-renal aorto-hepatic artery conduit and interposition between the donor and recipient native HAs, or branches of the HAs. The 30-day mortality rate for operations using an arterial conduit was 30.6%. Three conduits thrombosed at 9, 25 and 155 months, respectively, but one liver graft survived without re-transplantation. The arterial conduits had 1- and 5-year patency rates of 88.5% and 80.8%. The 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 66.7% and 44%. We can thus conclude that an arterial conduit is a viable alternative option for hepatic revascularisation in both primary and re-transplantation. Despite a lower patency rate than that of native HA in the primary OLT group, the outcomes of arterial conduit patency and patient survival rates are both acceptable at 1 and 5 years, especially in the much larger re-OLT group. PMID:15107973

Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Imber, Charles; Leelaudomlipi, Surasak; Gunson, Bridget K; Buckels, John A C; Mirza, Darius F; Mayer, A David; Bramhall, Simon R

2004-05-01

400

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

401

Cerebral Vasospasm affects Arterial Critical Closing Pressure  

E-print Network

(Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA), or non-invasively with a Finapres 2300 finger 108 plethysmograph (Ohmeda, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) zeroed at the heart level in all 109 patients. Patients were supine with the head of the bed raised 30... : anterior cerebral artery; AChA: anterior choroidal artery; AComA: 518 anterior communicating artery; BA: basilar artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; IQR: 519 interquartile range; MCA: middle cerebral artery; PCA: posterior cerebral artery; PComA: 520...

Varsos, Georgios V.; Budohoski, Karol P.; Czosnyka, Marek; Kolias, Angelos G.; Nasr, Nathalie; Donnelly, Joseph; Liu, Xiuyun; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Varsos, Vassilis G.; Smielewski, Peter

2014-12-03

402

Development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates.  

PubMed

Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has emerged from studies with the North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). A major advantage of bullfrogs as a comparative model for respiratory rhythm generation is that respiratory output may be measured at all stages of development, both in vivo and in vitro. An emerging view of recent studies in developing bullfrogs is that many of the mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation are very similar to those seen in birds and mammals. The overall conclusion from these studies is that respiratory rhythm generation during development may be highly conserved during evolution. The development of respiratory rhythm generation in mammals may, therefore, reflect the antecedent mechanisms seen in ectothermic vertebrates. The main focus of this brief review is to discuss recent data on the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates, with particular emphasis on the North American bullfrog (R. catesbeiana) as a model. PMID:15914099

Hedrick, Michael S

2005-11-15

403

Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.  

PubMed

To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

2012-08-01

404

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (;)

2005-02-01

405

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rarely identified entity whose exact incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, medium-term evolution, and optimal treatment have not yet been firmly established. This article describes five new cases with additional specific characteristics. Five of 2,241 coronary arteriograms taken between September 1989 and November 1992 showed angiographic signs of coronary dissection. Three of the patients were treated pharmacologically, and two were operated on. All were evaluated angiographically 10-18 months after diagnosis and followed up clinically for > or = 20 months. Three patients exhibited acute myocardial infarction, one showed effort angina and the fifth unstable angina. In four cases, coronary dissection was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, but in the fifth the coronary tree was apparently healthy except for the dissection. Dissection affected the right coronary artery in three cases and the left in two. Angiographic evolution varied among the five and was uncorrelated with treatment. Dissection disappeared in three; it persisted, with total obstruction of the artery in the middle of the dissected segment in one case; and advanced to affect the whole left coronary tree in the fifth. After an 18-month follow-up, none of the five patients experienced symptoms. These cases provide a good illustration of the variability of spontaneous coronary dissection as regards etiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and evolution. Coronary dissection is always caused by hemorrhage in the media of the arterial wall; its variability in evolution and in optimal treatment may be derived from the cause of the hemorrage, which possibly was not the same in all cases. PMID:8039214

Pasalodos Pita, J; Vazquez Gonzalez, N; Perez Alvarez, L; Vazquez Rodriguez, J M; Castro Beiras, A

1994-05-01

406

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

407

Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.  

PubMed

The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

2014-09-01

408

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

409

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

410

Erythropoiesis and red cell function in vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

All vertebrate embryos produce a specific erythroid cell population--primitive erythrocytes--early in development. These cells are characterized by expression of the specific embryonic haemoglobins. Many aspects of primitive erythropoiesis and the physiological function of primitive red cells are still enigmatic. Nevertheless, recent years have seen intensive efforts to characterize in greater detail the molecular events underlying the initiation of erythropoiesis in vertebrate embryos. Several key genes have been identified that are necessary for primitive and the subsequent definitive erythropoiesis, which differs in several aspect from primitive erythropoiesis. This review gives in its first part a short overview dealing with comparative aspects of primitive and early definitive erythropoiesis in higher and lower vertebrates and in the second part we discuss the physiological function of primitive red cells based mainly on results from mammalian and avian embryos. PMID:16281952

Baumann, R; Dragon, S

2005-12-01

411

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.  

PubMed

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

412

Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.  

PubMed

The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

2009-01-01

413

Women and peripheral arterial disease.  

PubMed

Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Americans. Without aggressive management of the disease as well as comorbidities and risk factors, peripheral arterial disease may progress and place patients at risk for amputation of the affected limb. In addition, patients affected by peripheral arterial disease are at increased risk for death from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes. Although traditionally felt to be a disease of Caucasian men, women compose a significant portion of patients with peripheral arterial disease, especially among the elderly. Increased prevalence of asymptomatic disease in women can lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Without the appropriate medical and or surgical intervention, women are at risk of poor procedural outcomes and increased mortality. This review will focus on the differences in peripheral arterial disease based on gender and how these differences can affect the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in women. PMID:19863470

Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R

2009-11-01

414

Chronic and adjustable pulmonary artery banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Banding of the pulmonary artery might be required to prevent pulmonary vascular damage in patients with increased pulmonary artery flow and to retrain the left ventricle in preparation for an arterial switch operation in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Readjustment of the pulmonary artery band might be required in the postoperative period. In this study

Boudewijn P. J. Leeuwenburgh; Paul H. Schoof; Paul Steendijk; Jan Baan; Wolter J. Mooi; Willem A. Helbing

2003-01-01

415

Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

416

Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

417

Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

2014-01-01

418

Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A

2014-01-01

419

Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.  

PubMed

In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

2007-01-01

420

Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

2014-01-01

421

Florida Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate Paleontology UF Master Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Florida Museum of Natural History, this online database allows researchers and others to search the University of Florida Vertebrate Paleontology (UF) Collection. The UF Collection of 209,432 catalogued specimens contains "many unique (i.e. not found in other museums) fossil vertebrates from important sites spanning from the Eocene and Pleistocene epochs." The UF Collection features marine and freshwater fossils as well as "an extraordinary array of extinct land-mammals from the past 20 million years in Florida." The database offers search fields for Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. Other available search fields include Site, Epoch, Formation, County, State, Nature of Specimen, and more.

422

Cyclostome studies in the context of vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

The proceedings in this volume follow from the 15(th) Center for Developmental Biology meeting on "Advances in Cyclostome Research" that we organized. The meeting was held at the CDB RIKEN Kobe Institute on 24 and 25 January 2008 with support from the CDB. Jawless vertebrates have been of interest to embryologists and comparative morphologists for more than a century. While the comparative morphology among lampreys, hagfishes, and gnathostomes has long been recognized in contributing to understanding the origin of jaws and other gnathostome traits, the availability of modern molecular methods has rekindled interest in these topics, and evolutionary developmental biology coupled with paleontology has opened new avenues into the study of gnathostome origins. Within the last decade, because of renewed interest in evolutionary developmental biology, the importance of lampreys and hagfishes to our understanding of vertebrate evolution has undergone resurgence in interest, as evidenced by the sea lamprey genome project currently underway at the National Human Genome Research Institute. As new molecular and imaging techniques become available, both paleontological and neontological questions are being readdressed and are providing new insights and speculation into vertebrate evolution. Thus, we determined the timing was optimal to bring together many of the researchers currently contributing to our understanding of the biology of agnathans. The diversity of speakers at the meeting included evolutionary developmental biologists, phylogenetics and genomics investigators, paleontologists, and endocrinology researchers, because as we move into the 21(st) century, integration among these disciplines has encouraged synergistic activities to develop. The goal of this meeting was to highlight in a single setting the most recent advances in this important basal group of vertebrates to facilitate interactions among the cyclostome community. Secondarily, we also hope that this gathering will enhance the visibility of jawless vertebrates as important models in the vertebrate "evo-devo" community. Several topics for further discussion emerged at this symposium, including: genomic data that have spurred renewed interest in gene duplications and their contribution to our understanding of cyclostome phylogeny and vertebrate evolution; the use of paleontology coupled with modern imaging techniques to clarify vertebrate phylogeny; and the evolution of the neuroendocrine and adaptive immune systems. These were among the topics that led to fruitful discussion. Here we summarize key research topics from the symposium that continue to advance as we move forward in the 21(st) century. PMID:19267629

McCauley, David W; Kuratani, Shigeru

2008-10-01

423

Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma  

PubMed Central

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

424

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

2010-05-01

425

Efficient selection of 3'-terminal exons from vertebrate DNA.  

PubMed Central

Identification of expressed sequences within genomic DNA is a hurdle in the characterization of complex genomes. We developed an exon trapping scheme that provides a positive selection for vertebrate 3'-terminal exons. A copy of the trapped exon sequence is obtained by RT/PCR amplification. The technique detects valid terminal exons without interference from partial exons or non-specific sequences, including simple human repeated sequences. Application to random human cosmids yielded one unique trapped terminal exon per cosmid on average. Because vertebrate terminal exons average 600-700 nucleotides in length, the technique provides transcribed sequences of sufficient length to assist further mapping efforts. Images PMID:8255777

Krizman, D B; Berget, S M

1993-01-01

426

iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology;)

2008-01-01

427

Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

WITSCHI, E

1959-08-14

428

Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (inventors)

1974-01-01

429

Radiative transport in large arteries.  

PubMed

A refined model for the photon energy distribution in a living artery is established by solving the radiative transfer equation in a cylindrical geometry, using the Monte Carlo method. Combining this model with the most recent experimental values for the optical properties of flowing blood and the biomechanics of a blood-filled artery subject to a pulsatile pressure, we find that the optical intensity transmitted through large arteries decreases linearly with increasing arterial distension. This finding provides a solid theoretical foundation for measuring photoplethysmograms. PMID:24466476

Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Theodor, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

2013-12-01

430

Radiative transport in large arteries  

PubMed Central

A refined model for the photon energy distribution in a living artery is established by solving the radiative transfer equation in a cylindrical geometry, using the Monte Carlo method. Combining this model with the most recent experimental values for the optical properties of flowing blood and the biomechanics of a blood-filled artery subject to a pulsatile pressure, we find that the optical intensity transmitted through large arteries decreases linearly with increasing arterial distension. This finding provides a solid theoretical foundation for measuring photoplethysmograms. PMID:24466476

Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Theodor, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

2013-01-01

431

Brainstem ischemic stroke without permanent sequelae during the course of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection – case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a frequent cause of a stroke in young patients. Risk factors which can lead to dissection include neck injury and diseases of the inner wall of the artery. Common symptoms in ICAD are cervical pain and headache, Horner’s syndrome, paralysis of the cranial nerves and subsequently cerebral and retinal ischemia. MR angiography in TOF technique and brain MRI in T1- and T2-weighted images, FLAIR and DWI sequences are the method of choice in patients with ICAD but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography remains the fastest and the most available diagnostic method. Case Report: A 39-year old woman, previously healthy, presented to the Hospital Emergency Department because of increasing neck pain on the right side and difficulty in swallowing. The neurological examination revealed: drooping of the right eyelid with narrow palpebral fissure, dysarthria, anisocoria (narrower pupil on the right side), unilateral hypoesthesia on the left side, weak palatal and pharyngeal reflexes on both sides, paresthesia within the left half of the body. Seven days before, the patient felt a sudden, severe neck pain radiating to the temporal apophysis. CT angiography revealed a defect in contrast filling within the left internal carotid artery and right vertebral artery. MRI of the head with MR angiography showed internal carotid artery dissection on the left side and dissection of the right vertebral artery and no ischemic changes within the brain. Conclusions: CT and MR angiography are methods characterized by high sensitivity in detecting dissection of the cervical arteries. PMID:22802868

Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Bulik-Pasi?ska, Marta; Boroszko, Dariusz; Ostrowska, Monika

2012-01-01

432

How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

433

Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries  

MedlinePLUS

... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Click here ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

434

What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Illustrations: Jill Rhead, MA What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)? What Can Happen When Blockages ... Condition be Like After CABG? WHAT IS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING (CABG)? Coronary artery bypass grafting or " ...

435

Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

436

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully  

E-print Network

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

Long Jr., John H.

437

Distribution of arterial supply to the large intestine in the anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla).  

PubMed

The blood supply in the large intestine of seven specimens of the lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, studied. The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water, injection of colored latex, fixation in formaldehyde, and preservation in ethanol. For our description and analyses, we performed dissections under mesoscopic light and made photo documentation of our observations. The large intestine of T. tetradactyla is irrigated by the caudal mesenteric artery (rectum, left colic fold, descending colon and transverse colon) and cranial mesenteric artery (right colic fold, cecal pouch). We observed that the large intestine in these animals is implied in the abdominal wall without becoming affixed to the wall, or developing adhesions on individual segments. The caudal mesenteric artery feeds the straight collateral branches (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and a few juxtacolic arched branches (first and second order). The straight branches emerge from the arched branches, bifurcate, and embrace the intestinal loop to irrigate it. The presence of anastomoses between the CaMA and the CrMA apparently ensures a relatively stable flow in the event of failure of either. This is very important, as the peritoneum in this species is completely dependent on blood from these two arteries. The model of vascularization and fixation of the large intestine into the abdominal wall of T. tetradactyla is different from that in other vertebrates. PMID:23915161

Mortoza, Amanda Rocha; Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Oliveira, Carina da Costa; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

2013-08-01

438

Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern  

E-print Network

Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern Newark Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, in Philadelphia. This paper is essentially an updated

Olsen, Paul E.

439

Aquatic Vertebrate Assemblages in the Middle Trinity River Basin, with Emphasis on Turtles  

E-print Network

major aquatic vertebrate group, the turtles. I sampled fish and turtles at Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area (WMA) and used ordination analyses to visualize environmental gradients that may influence community structure for these two vertebrate...

Riedle, Jimmy

2014-05-03

440

OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit  

E-print Network

OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate. Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit predators: supporting evidence to a dramatic increase in the population of invertebrate fruit predators. Evidence consistent

Herrera, Carlos M.

441

Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* David Posada, and D. James Harris*  

E-print Network

Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* à David Posada,à and D. James, Vigo, Spain After analyzing the base composition asymmetry of coding regions in vertebrate mitochondria

Posada, David

442

Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains.  

PubMed

Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S

2014-01-01

443

Acute cervical radiculopathy due to vertebral AV fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 28 year old woman with acute, mainly motor, radiculopathy at C5-C6 on the right side secondary to a congenital vertebral arteriovenous fistula. The finding of a bruit at the side of the neck lent weight to the CT and MRI findings. Angiography was diagnostic. The fistula was embolized successfully.

F. Morello; G. Moro; M. Tibaldo; G. Siringo; W. Faggin; A. Franciosi

1992-01-01

444

Kyphoplasty—Minimally invasive vertebral compression fracture repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

•OSTEOPOROSIS is a skeletal disorder that compromises bone strength, predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. An estimated 700,000 spinal fragility fractures, such as vertebral compression fractures, directly related to osteoporosis occur annually.•KYPHOPLASTY, a minimally invasive fracture reduction procedure, has become a treatment option for osteoporotic fractures. A balloon is used in place of the conventional bone tamp

Kelley Erickson; Susan Baker; Jason Smith

2003-01-01

445

The Mosaic Genome of Warm-Blooded Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (>>200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such classes can be separated and used to study

Giorgio Bernardi; Birgitta Olofsson; Jan Filipski; Marino Zerial; Julio Salinas; Gerard Cuny; Michele Meunier-Rotival; Francis Rodier

1985-01-01

446

JANUARY 2011 VOL. 24, NO. 1 The Vertebral Column...  

E-print Network

OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY After 50 Years by Bruce Collette Reflections from an inside outsider after half a century at Natural History. I arrived in NMNH in Octo- ber 1960 after Antonio (with Ollie Flint). I have worked for the Bureau of Commercial Fish- eries, now the National Ma

Mathis, Wayne N.

447

A multidimensional approach for detecting species patterns in Malagasy vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of Madagascar is extraordinarily distinctive, diverse, and endangered. It is therefore urgent that steps be taken to document, describe, interpret, and protect this exceptional biota. As a collaborative group of field and laboratory biologists, we employ a suite of methodological and analytical tools to investigate the vertebrate portion of Madagascar's fauna. Given that species are the fundamental unit of evolution, where micro- and macroevolutionary forces converge to generate biological diversity, a thorough understanding of species distribution and abundance is critical for understanding the evolutionary, ecological, and biogeographic forces that have shaped Malagasy vertebrate diversity. We illustrate the means by which we apply Mayr's “three basic tasks” of the systematist [Mayr, E. (1942) Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA)] to identify, classify, and study the organisms that together constitute Madagascar's vertebrate community. Using field inventory methods, specimen-based studies, and morphological and molecular analyses, we formulate hypotheses of species identity that then serve as the foundation for subsequent studies of biology and history. Our experience, as well as that of other investigators, has shown that much of the vertebrate species diversity in Madagascar is “cryptic” for both biological and practical reasons. Beyond issues of cryptic biological diversity, the resolution of species identity in Madagascar has been hampered because of a lack of vouchered comparative material at the population level. Through our activities, we are attempting to remedy these limitations while simultaneously enhancing research capacity in Madagascar. PMID:15851666

Yoder, Anne D.; Olson, Link E.; Hanley, Carol; Heckman, Kellie L.; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Russell, Amy L.; Ranivo, Julie; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Karanth, K. Praveen; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Goodman, Steven M.

2005-01-01

448

INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into  

E-print Network

, mutants with disrupted notochord development have a loss of muscle pioneers, and muscle pioneer loss of Engrailed-expressing muscle pioneers. In addition, mutant embryos have partial cyclopiaINTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based

Devoto, Stephen H.

449

Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates Michael D. Shapiro* , Michael A. Bell. Pelvic reduction in stickleback fish (family Gasterostei- dae) provides a striking example of parallel at the Pitx1 locus control pelvic reduction in a population of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus

Shapiro, Mike

450

Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE)  

E-print Network

5139 Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) derive from domains forms the peripheral retina, a region that gives rise to several pigmented and nonpigmented, in a mixed genetic background, the progressive appearance of pigmented cells in the neural retina

Tabin, Cliff

451

DNA methylation, epigenetics, and evolution in vertebrates: facts and challenges.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pa