Sample records for vertical closed orbit

  1. Orbits Close to Asteroid 4769 Castalia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Scheeres; S. J. Ostro; R. S. Hudson; R. A. Werner

    1996-01-01

    We use a radar-derived physical model of 4769 Castalia (1989 PB) to investigate close orbit dynamics around that kilometer-sized, uniformly rotating asteroid. Our methods of analysis provide a basis for systematic studies of particle dynamics close to any uniformly rotating asteroid.We establish that a Jacobi integral exists for particles orbiting this asteroid, examine the attendant zero-velocity surfaces, find families of

  2. Closed Orbit Distortion and the Beam-Beam Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.; Eden, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kozanecki, W.; /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC; Tennyson, J.L.; Ziemann, V.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  3. Analytic closed orbit analysis for RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics); Tepikian, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Analytic closed orbit analysis is performed to evaluate the tolerance of quadrupole misalignment and dipole errors (b{sub 0},a{sub 0}) in the RHIC insertion. Sensitivity coefficients of these errors are tabulated for different {beta}{sup 0} values. Using these sensitivity tables, we found that the power supplies ripple of 10{sup {minus}4} can cause closed orbit motion of 0.05 mm at the IP in comparison with the rms beam size of 0.3 mm. It is desirable to have the power supply ripple less than 10{sup {minus}5}. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  5. Numerical determination of three-dimensional periodic orbits generated from vertical self-resonant satellite orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Robin; V. V. Markellos

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which ‘vertical’ branches consisting of symmetric, three-dimensional periodic orbits bifurcate from families of plane orbits at ‘veertical self-resonant’ orbits is discussed, with emphasis on the relationship between symmetry properties and multiplicity, and methods for the numerical determination of such branches are described. As examples, eight new families of all symmetry classes which branch vertically from the familyf

  6. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-02-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to {open_quotes}kicks.{close_quotes}

  7. Dynamics of Orbits Close to Asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.; DeJong, E. M.; Suzuki, S.

    1998-01-01

    We use a radar-derived physical model of 4179 Toutatis to investigate close-orbit dynamics around that irregularly shaped, non-principal-axis rotator. The orbital dynamics about this body are markedly different than the dynamics about uniformly rotating asteroids. The results of this paper have a wider application to orbit dynamics about bodies in a non-principal-axis rotation state.

  8. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Dynamics of Orbits Close to Asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Scheeres; S. J. Ostro; R. S. Hudson; E. M. DeJong; S. Suzuki

    1998-01-01

    We use a radar-derived physical model of 4179 Toutatis (975870) to investigate close-orbit dynamics around that irregularly shaped, non-principal-axis rotator. The orbital dynamics about this body are markedly different than the dynamics about uniformly rotating asteroids. The results of this paper are generally applicable to orbit dynamics about bodies in a non-principal-axis rotation state. The radar results support the hypothesis

  11. Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up of the elevons and underside of the port wing. On the aft fuselage in the approximate center rift of the image is the T-0 umbilical panels. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Close up detail of the underside of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up detail of the underside of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view is from underneath the aft section looking forward. It is a close-up view of the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles showing the wear patterns from the heat of reentry, consequential replacement of worn and damaged tiles. The wear and replacement patters are unique to each Orbiter which can serve as their particular "fingerprint". - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Spin tune dependence on closed orbit in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn, V.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    Polarized proton beams are accelerated in RHIC to 250 GeV energy with the help of Siberian Snakes. The pair of Siberian Snakes in each RHIC ring holds the design spin tune at 1/2 to avoid polarization loss during acceleration. However, in the presence of closed orbit errors, the actual spin tune can be shifted away from the exact 1/2 value. It leads to a corresponding shift of locations of higher-order ('snake') resonances and limits the available betatron tune space. The largest closed orbit effect on the spin tune comes from the horizontal orbit angle between the two snakes. During RHIC Run in 2009 dedicated measurements with polarized proton beams were taken to verify the dependence of the spin tune on the local orbits at the Snakes. The experimental results are presented along with the comparison with analytical predictions.

  14. Close up view under the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view under the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The view is under the port wing looking forward toward the main fuselage showing a detail of the landing gear and landing gear door. This view also shows the patterns of worn and replaced High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Closed orbit distortion from parasitic collisions in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    The dipole force on the beams caused by the parasitic collisions (PCs) induces closed orbit distortions in the interaction region (IR): ``typical`` bunches (those far away from the ion-clearing gap), collide center-on-center with a small horizontal crossing angle; ``pacman`` bunches (those close to the gap) not only collide at an angle, but their centers are displaced as well; and the orbit separation between the beams at the PCs is different from nominal. We evaluate these effects as a function of horizontal tune in first-order approximation. This analysis yields one set of constraints that are absolutely necessary, although far from sufficient, for reliable operation. We conclude that the crossing angle and orbit displacements are small except for tune values very close to the integer (above or below), and that fractional tunes {approx_gt} 0.35 are favored.

  16. Magnetic field, closed orbit, and energy measurement in the Bevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Crebbin, K.C.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides the information necessary for a better evaluation of particle energy in the Bevatron. Previously, the nominal magnetic field value and radius were used to calculate the value for the kinetic energy of the particle. This value was good to a few percent. Today, more and more experimenters would like to know the energy to a more precise value. To this end, corrections to the measured magnetic field values and the radial closed orbit are provided.

  17. Nonadiabatic resonant dynamic tides and orbital evolution in close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, B.; van Hoolst, T.; Smeyers, P.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation is devoted to the effects of nonadiabatic resonant dynamic tides generated in a uniformly rotating stellar component of a close binary. The companion is considered to move in a fixed Keplerian orbit, and the effects of the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are neglected. Semi-analytical solutions for the linear, nonadiabatic resonant dynamic tides are derived by means of a two-time variable expansion procedure. The solution at the lowest order of approximation consists of the resonantly excited oscillation mode and displays a phase shift with respect to the tide-generating potential. Expressions are established for the secular variations of the semi-major axis, the orbital eccentricity, and the star's angular velocity of rotation caused by the phase shift. The orders of magnitude of these secular variations are considerably larger than those derived earlier by {{Zahn}} (\\cite{Zahn1977}) for the limiting case of dynamic tides with small frequencies. For a 5 M_sun ZAMS star, an orbital eccentricity e = 0.5, and orbital periods in the range from 2 to 5 days, numerous resonances of dynamic tides with second-degree lower-order g+-modes are seen to induce secular variations of the semi-major axis, the orbital eccentricity, and the star's angular velocity of rotation with time scales shorter than the star's nuclear life time.

  18. Orbit Determination of Hayabusa during Close Proximity Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kominato, Takashi; Matsuoka, Masatoshi; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Makoto

    In September 2005, Hayabusa (MUSES-C) spacecraft successfully had a rendezvous with asteroid 25143 Itokawa. After the arrival, Hayabusa made detailed observations of the asteroid during its rendezvous period (about three months). As the results of various kinds of scientific analysis, a variety of physical parameters of Itokawa (e.g. size, volume, mass, and density) were derived. As to the orbit determination of Hayabusa spacecraft, during the cruise phase, the radiometric (2-way X-band range and Doppler) data were used for analysis. On the other hand, during the approach phase or rendezvous phase, we could obtain the optical data by means of star tracker or optical navigation camera, thus both the radiometric and the optical data were used for orbit determination. The present paper will report on the results of the orbit determination of Hayabusa during the close proximity phase. We will also mention about the mass estimation of Itokawa in this period. The data used in this analysis are 2-way X-band Doppler data and the position data, which were calculated from optical navigation camera's data. As well as the large orbital maneuvers and the gravitational acceleration of Itokawa, the effect of solar radiation pressure, and the effect of attitude control are also taken into account for the calculation. As to the gravity model of Itokawa, a spherical-harmonics gravity model or a polyhedron gravity model are used depending on the situation.

  19. Gravitational interaction of planetesimals moving in close orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.

    The orbital evolution of two gravitationally interacting objects (material-points) moving around the Sun is studied. These studies are based mainly on the results of numerical integration of the plane three-body problem. The following types of orbital evolution were considered: motion about triangular libration points on tadpole and horseshoe synod/c orbits (types M and N), the case of close approaches of the objects (type A), and chaotic variations of the orbital elements during which close approaches of the objects are impossible (type C). In the case of initially circular orbits with an initial angle fi_o=60 deg between the directions to the objects from the Sun vertex and 10^{-9} < mu < 2*10^{-4}, the maximum values of epsilon_o=(a_2-a_1)/a_1 that correspond to types N, M, A, and C were found to be equal to alpha=(1.63-l.64)mu^{1/2}, beta=(0.77-0.81)mu^{1/3}, gamma=(2.l-2.45)mu^{1/3}, and delta=(l.45-1.64)mu^{2/7}, respectively, where a_1 and a_2 are the initial values of the semimajor axes and mu is the ratio of the sum of the masses of the objects to the mass of the Sun. The values of alpha, beta, and delta are generally smaller for other values of fi_o. When epsilon_o=0, the smallest values of fi_o that correspond to types N and M are near 0.4 and 4*mu^{1/3} radian. The maximum eccentricities at mu_1orbital evolution of two, three, and one hundred gravitating objects (material points) moving around the Sun in initially eccentrical orbits, is studied numerically, mainly by the method of action spheres. It is demonstrated that in the case of three identical objects, maximum eccentricities can exceed those for two like objects by a factor of several tens. Typical variations in eccentricities of heliocentric orbits of objects while they are moving in a sphere of action are examined to reveal the dependence of their mean variations on the starting data, i.e., masses, eccentricities, and semimajor axes. The results of these examinations and analytical studies provide a basis for treating cases, where, in the course of the evolution of a disk comprising many small objects and that comprising a lesser number of more massive objects, the increments of average eccentricities are the same. The obtained results suggest that, due to their gravitational interaction, some bodies initially located beyond Neptune's orbit can migrate to this orbit.

  20. An index for closed orbits in Beltrami fields

    E-print Network

    John Etnyre; Robert Ghrist

    2001-01-10

    We consider the class of Beltrami fields (eigenfields of the curl operator) on three-dimensional Riemannian solid tori: such vector fields arise as steady incompressible inviscid fluids and plasmas. Using techniques from contact geometry, we construct an integer-valued index for detecting closed orbits in the flow which are topologically inessential (they have winding number zero with respect to the solid torus). This index is independent of the Riemannian structure, and is computable entirely from a C^1 approximation to the vector field on any meridional disc of the solid torus.

  1. Equilibrium, stability, and orbital evolution of close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new analytic study of the equilibrium and stability properties of close binary systems containing polytropic components. Our method is based on the use of ellipsoidal trial functions in an energy variational principle. We consider both synchronized and nonsynchronized systems, constructing the compressible generalizations of the classical Darwin and Darwin-Riemann configurations. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of binary models where the stellar masses, radii, spins, entropies, and polytropic indices are all allowed to vary over wide ranges and independently for each component. We find that both secular and dynamical instabilities can develop before a Roche limit or contact is reached along a sequence of models with decreasing binary separation. High incompressibility always makes a given binary system more susceptible to these instabilities, but the dependence on the mass ratio is more complicated. As simple applications, we construct models of double degenerate systems and of low-mass main-sequence star binaries. We also discuss the orbital evoltuion of close binary systems under the combined influence of fluid viscosity and secular angular momentum losses from processes like gravitational radiation. We show that the existence of global fluid instabilities can have a profound effect on the terminal evolution of coalescing binaries. The validity of our analytic solutions is examined by means of detailed comparisons with the results of recent numerical fluid calculations in three dimensions.

  2. Comparison of horizontal and vertical launch into orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Boltz

    1987-01-01

    The analysis method used in the present comparative study of the approximate motion and heating of a transatmospheric vehicle employing either horizontal or vertical launch into LEO is based on Chapman's (1959) Z-function transformation of the equations of motion with the assumption of an exponential atmosphere. These equations, which have been modified to include the effects of thrusting with mass

  3. Weighted SVD algorithm for close-orbit correction and 10 Hz feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu C.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    Measurements of the beam position along an accelerator are typically treated equally using standard SVD-based orbit correction algorithms so distributing the residual errors, modulo the local beta function, equally at the measurement locations. However, sometimes a more stable orbit at select locations is desirable. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for weighting the beam position measurements to achieve a more stable local orbit. The results of its application to close-orbit correction and 10 Hz orbit feedback are presented.

  4. Synchrotron radiation at close distances to the orbital ring

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, J.S.; Westerveld, W.B.; Peace, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    The variation in the power radiated by electrons in a circular orbit through an aperture was investigated numerically as a function of the distance along a tangent to the orbital ring. For electron energies above 0.1 GeV, the power radiated into a rectangular aperture, placed at a distance greater than the radius of curvature of the orbit, does not differ by more than 4 parts in 10/sup 6/ from the power radiated into a similarly sized rectangular aperture (subtending the same solid angle) placed at a large distance from the orbital ring. Our conclusion is that, within the limits considered, synchrotron radiation can be calculated accurately for practical radiometric calibrations.

  5. Asynchronous rotation in close binary systems with circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, G. M. H. J.; Zwaan, C.

    1989-02-01

    The origin of asynchronism observed in some binary systems in which the components rotate much more rapidly or much more slowly than the orbital rate was investigated using Pylyser's (1988) evolutionary models of stars of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 solar masses. Under the assumption of rigid-body rotation, the evolution of the angular rotation velocity from the main sequence up to the red-giant branch is derived; the orbital circularity of these systems is explained by strong tidal interaction, either during the early premain-sequence phase, or, for systems containing a white dwarf, during the red-giant phase of its progenitor. It is argued that, at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS), the binary components rotate much faster than the orbital rate. During the evolution off the ZAMS, the angular rotation rate of the components decreases, mainly because of the increase of the moment of inertia, and, possibly, because of magnetic braking.

  6. The formation of retrograde planetary orbits by close stellar encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, M. J.; Boley, A. C.; Ford, E. B.

    2011-02-01

    We consider the growing number of observations of the RossiterMcLaughlin effect in transiting planets, which seem to suggest that ~30% of transiting planets are in highly inclined or retrograde orbits. We consider the dense cluster environment in which stars are born and investigate whether perturbations from passing stars can drive planetary systems into retrograde configurations. We find that fly-bys can result in significantly more inclination excitation than might naively be expected from impulse approximations, leading to several percent of stellar systems possessing planets in retrograde orbits.

  7. Correlation to Predict the Maximum Heat Flux of a Vertical Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niti Kammuang-Lue; Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai; Pradit Terdtoon; D. Joseph Mook

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of various parameters on the maximum heat flux of a vertical closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) and the inside phenomena that cause maximum heat flux to occur. A correlation to predict the maximum heat flux using the obtained results was also established. Quantitative and qualitative experiments were conducted and

  8. Orbit determination of close binary systems using lucky imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rica, F. M.; Barrena, R.; Vázquez, G.; Henríquez, J. A.; Hernández, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present relative positions of visual binaries observed in 2009 with the FastCam 'lucky-imaging' camera mounted on the 1.5-m Carlos Sánchez Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide. We obtained 424 CCD observations (averaged in 198 mean relative positions) of 157 binaries with angular separations in the range 0.14-15.40 arcsec, with a median separation of 0.51 arcsec. For a given system, each CCD image represents the sum of the best 10-25 per cent images from 1000-5000 short-exposure frames. Derived internal errors were 7 mas in ? and 1?2 (9 mas) in ?. When comparing to systems with very well known orbits, we find that the rms deviation in ? residuals is 23 mas, while the rms deviation in ? residuals is 0?73/?. We confirmed 18 Hipparcos binaries and we report new companions to BVD 36 A and J 621 B. For binaries with preliminary orbital parameters, the relative radial velocity was estimated as well. We also present four new revised orbits computed for LDS 873, BU 627 A-BC, BU 628 and HO 197 AB. This work discusses the first results on visual binaries using the FastCam lucky-imaging camera.

  9. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  10. STS-101 Atlantis after the orbiter is lifted to a vertical position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the orbiter Atlantis hangs suspended vertically from an overhead crane. Shown is the underside of the orbiter. The black-outlined rectangles near the wings are the location of the main landing gear doors. At the lower end, the two squares centered between the red corners are two of the connection points for the external tank. Another connection is at the top of the underside, between the two red areas shown. The 82-foot high orbiter is easily accommodated inside the 525-foot-tall, 518-foot-wide VAB. Atlantis will be mated with its external tank and solid rocket boosters before being transported to Launch Pad 39A. Atlantis will fly on mission STS-101 to the International Space Station, where its crew of seven will prepare the Station for the arrival of the next pressurized module Zvezda. Atlantis is expected to launch no earlier than April 17, 2000.

  11. Importance of closely spaced vertical sampling in delineating chemical and microbiological gradients in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in groundwater studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in ground-water studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.

  12. Early excitation of spin-orbit misalignments in close-in planetary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: cspaldin@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Continued observational characterization of transiting planets that reside in close proximity to their host stars has shown that a substantial fraction of such objects possess orbits that are inclined with respect to the spin axes of their stars. Mounting evidence for the wide-spread nature of this phenomenon has challenged the conventional notion that large-scale orbital transport occurs during the early epochs of planet formation and is accomplished via planet-disk interactions. However, recent work has shown that the excitation of spin-orbit misalignment between protoplanetary nebulae and their host stars can naturally arise from gravitational perturbations in multi-stellar systems as well as magnetic disk-star coupling. In this work, we examine these processes in tandem. We begin with a thorough exploration of the gravitationally facilitated acquisition of spin-orbit misalignment and analytically show that the entire possible range of misalignments can be trivially reproduced. Moreover, we demonstrate that the observable spin-orbit misalignment only depends on the primordial disk-binary orbit inclination. Subsequently, we augment our treatment by accounting for magnetic torques and show that more exotic dynamical evolution is possible, provided favorable conditions for magnetic tilting. Cumulatively, our results suggest that observed spin-orbit misalignments are fully consistent with disk-driven migration as a dominant mechanism for the origin of close-in planets.

  13. Effects and Correction of Closed Orbit Magnet Errors in the SNS Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, S.C.; Holmes, J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the effect and correction of three types of orbit errors in SNS: quadrupole displacement errors, dipole displacement errors, and dipole field errors. Using the ORBIT beam dynamics code, we focus on orbit deflection of a standard pencil beam and on beam losses in a high intensity injection simulation. We study the correction of these orbit errors using the proposed system of 88 (44 horizontal and 44 vertical) ring beam position monitors (BPMs) and 52 (24 horizontal and 28 vertical) dipole corrector magnets. Correction is carried out numerically by adjusting the kick strengths of the dipole corrector magnets to minimize the sum of the squares of the BPM signals for the pencil beam. In addition to using the exact BPM signals as input to the correction algorithm, we also consider the effect of random BPM signal errors. For all three types of error and for perturbations of individual magnets, the correction algorithm always chooses the three-bump method to localize the orbit displacement to the region between the magnet and its adjacent correctors. The values of the BPM signals resulting from specified settings of the dipole corrector kick strengths can be used to set up the orbit response matrix, which can then be applied to the correction in the limit that the signals from the separate errors add linearly. When high intensity calculations are carried out to study beam losses, it is seen that the SNS orbit correction system, even with BPM uncertainties, is sufficient to correct losses to less than 10-4 in nearly all cases, even those for which uncorrected losses constitute a large portion of the beam.

  14. Comparison of vertical-takeoff and horizontal-takeoff single-stage-to-orbit ascent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai N.

    1991-10-01

    A study was conducted to examine the ascent performance capability of the vertical-takeoff and horizontal-takeoff single-stage-to-orbit launchers. Both launchers, powered by Space Shuttle Main Engine rockets, were assumed to have a gross liftoff weight of 1,000,000 lb. The horizontal-takeoff launcher was assumed to be capable to take off from a conventional runway on its own power. The optimal ascent profile was designed to honor the dynamic pressure (900 psf), the axial load (3 g), and the normal load (1.25 g) constraints. Results of the study indicate that the vertical-takeoff performance with a burnout weight of 137,568 lb is not a strong function of the vehicle lift or wing area. The wing is required only for the reentry performance such as heating control, crossrange, and landing maneuvers. The horizontal-takeoff launcher has a burnout weight of 138,309 lb, but it will not have any payload capability if the ascent load is supported entirely by the vehicle landing gear at launch. Therefore, in order to make the horizontal-takeoff mode feasible, an undercarriage such as a trolley or a simple truss structure with wheels is required to alleviate the ascent load and, as a result, to reduce the landing gear weight. The horizontal-takeoff launcher, however, offers advantages over the winged vertical-takeoff launcher such as simpler launch preparedness and operation and a better launch abort capability.

  15. AN INDEX FOR CLOSED ORBITS IN BELTRAMI FIELDS JOHN ETNYRE AND ROBERT GHRIST

    E-print Network

    Ghrist, Robert W.

    AN INDEX FOR CLOSED ORBITS IN BELTRAMI FIELDS JOHN ETNYRE AND ROBERT GHRIST Abstract. We consider the class of Beltrami fields (eigenfields of the curl operator) on three-dimensional Riemannian solid tori.15.K, 02.40.Y, 05.45.a 1. Introduction and summary Consider the class of Beltrami fields -- the volume

  16. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Structure of the closed-shell orbital theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hirao; H. Nakatsuji

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to the closed-shell orbital theory is presented with the formalism of the cluster expansion of the wavefunction. The four independent excitation operators are used to represent the general determinantal wavefunction and also to discuss the stability of the Hartree–Fock solution. This leads to a new concept called the ’’stability dilemma,’’ which is the key not only in

  17. Measurement Variability of Vertical Scanning Interferometry Tool Used for Orbiter Window Defect Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sufficiently measure orbiter window defects to allow for window recertification has been an ongoing challenge for the orbiter vehicle program. The recent Columbia accident has forced even tighter constraints on the criteria that must be met in order to recertify windows for flight. As a result, new techniques are being investigated to improve the reliability, accuracy and resolution of the defect detection process. The methodology devised in this work, which is based on the utilization of a vertical scanning interferometric (VSI) tool, shows great promise for meeting the ever increasing requirements for defect detection. This methodology has the potential of a 10-100 fold greater resolution of the true defect depth than can be obtained from the currently employed micrometer based methodology. An added benefit is that it also produces a digital elevation map of the defect, thereby providing information about the defect morphology which can be utilized to ascertain the type of debris that induced the damage. However, in order to successfully implement such a tool, a greater understanding of the resolution capability and measurement repeatability must be obtained. This work focused on assessing the variability of the VSI-based measurement methodology and revealed that the VSI measurement tool was more repeatable and more precise than the current micrometer based approach, even in situations where operator variation could affect the measurement. The analysis also showed that the VSI technique was relatively insensitive to the hardware and software settings employed, making the technique extremely robust and desirable

  18. Use of the Amplatzer ASD Occluder for Closing a Persistent Left Vertical Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Zanchetta, Mario, E-mail: emodinacit@ulss15.pd.it; Zennaro, Marco; Zecchel, Roberto; Mancuso, Daniela; Pedon, Luigi [Ospedale Civile, Dipartimento di Malattie Cardiovascolari (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    We report the case of a very large anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung to both the left-sided vertical vein and the left atrium, associated with mild rheumatic mitral valve stenosis, in which the atrial septum was intact and the remaining venous system, including the coronary sinus, was otherwise normal (a variant of Lutembacher's syndrome). In order to abolish the left-to-right shunting, a transcatheter approach to close this venous structure was successfully attempted using an Amplatzer ASD Occluder device. The technical aspects and the alternative options of performing a procedure with a device for a purpose outside the scope of its approved label are discussed.

  19. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chung; D. Barr; G. Decker; J. Galayda; F. Lenkszus; A. Lumpkin; A. J. Votaw

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a dedicated third-generation synchrotron light source with a nominal energy of 7 GeV and a circumference of 1104 m. The closed-orbit feedback system for the APS storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the

  20. Photoabsorption to Stark Rydberg States of Heavy Noble Gas Atoms: Testing Limits of Closed Orbit Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heric Flores-Rueda; Matthew L. Keeler; David Wright; Thomas J. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    The selective dramatic effects of a dc electric field on the photoabsorption spectrum of Rydberg states and the associated recurrence strengths and closed orbits are studied in heavy noble gas atoms. Using collinear atom-laser beam spectroscopy, complex scaled-energy photoabsorption spectra are mapped experimentally in high resolution for pi and sigma transitions from the ns[3\\/2] and ns[1\\/2] metastable states, formed by

  1. USING ORBITAL EFFECTS TO BREAK THE CLOSE/WIDE DEGENERACY IN BINARY-LENS MICROLENSING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J. Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)] [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Damey, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Notre Damey, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand)] [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)] [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Chote, P.; Harris, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand)] [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan)] [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

    2013-02-10

    Microlensing can provide an important tool to study binaries, especially those composed of faint or dark objects. However, accurate analysis of binary-lens light curves is often hampered by the well-known degeneracy between close (s < 1) and wide (s > 1) binaries, which can be very severe due to an intrinsic symmetry in the lens equation. Here, s is the normalized projected binary separation. In this paper, we propose a method that can resolve the close/wide degeneracy using the effect of a lens orbital motion on lensing light curves. The method is based on the fact that the orbital effect tends to be important for close binaries while it is negligible for wide binaries. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to an actually observed binary-lens event MOA-2011-BLG-040/OGLE-2011-BLG-0001, which suffers from severe close/wide degeneracy. From this, we are able to uniquely specify that the lens is composed of K- and M-type dwarfs located {approx}3.5 kpc from the Earth.

  2. Using Orbital Effects to Break the Close/wide Degeneracy in Binary-lens Microlensing Events

    E-print Network

    Shin, I -G; Udalski, A; Choi, J -Y; Han, C; Gould, A; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szyma?ski, M K; Kubiak, M; Soszy?ski, I; Pietrzy?ski, G; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Koz?owski, S; Skowron, J; Wyrzykowski, ?

    2012-01-01

    Microlensing can provide an important tool to study binaries, especially those composed of faint or dark objects. However, accurate analysis of binary-lens light curves is often hampered by the well-known degeneracy between close (s1) binaries, which can be very severe due to an intrinsic symmetry in the lens equation. Here s is the normalized projected binary separation. In this paper, we propose a method that can resolve the close/wide degeneracy using the effect of a lens orbital motion on lensing light curves. The method is based on the fact that the orbital effect tends to be important for close binaries while it is negligible for wide binaries. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to an actually observed binary-lens event MOA-2011-BLG-040/OGLE-2011-BLG-0001, which suffers from severe close/wide degeneracy. From this, we are able to uniquely specify that the lens is composed of two M-type stars located at ~2.9 kpc from the Earth.

  3. Using Orbital Effects to Break the Close/Wide Degeneracy in Binary-lens Microlensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, I.-G.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Choi, J. Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Chote, P.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Harris, P.; Itow, Y.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C. M.; MOA Collaboration; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszy?ski, I.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Koz?owski, S.; Skowron, J.; Wyrzykowski, ?.; OGLE Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Microlensing can provide an important tool to study binaries, especially those composed of faint or dark objects. However, accurate analysis of binary-lens light curves is often hampered by the well-known degeneracy between close (s < 1) and wide (s > 1) binaries, which can be very severe due to an intrinsic symmetry in the lens equation. Here, s is the normalized projected binary separation. In this paper, we propose a method that can resolve the close/wide degeneracy using the effect of a lens orbital motion on lensing light curves. The method is based on the fact that the orbital effect tends to be important for close binaries while it is negligible for wide binaries. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to an actually observed binary-lens event MOA-2011-BLG-040/OGLE-2011-BLG-0001, which suffers from severe close/wide degeneracy. From this, we are able to uniquely specify that the lens is composed of K- and M-type dwarfs located ~3.5 kpc from the Earth.

  4. Strategic optimization of large-scale vertical closed-loop shallow geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht-Méndez, J.; de Paly, M.; Beck, M.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vertical closed-loop geothermal systems or ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems with multiple vertical borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) are attractive technologies that provide heating and cooling to large facilities such as hotels, schools, big office buildings or district heating systems. Currently, the worldwide number of installed systems shows a recurrent increase. By running arrays of multiple BHEs, the energy demand of a given facility is fulfilled by exchanging heat with the ground. Due to practical and technical reasons, square arrays of the BHEs are commonly used and the total energy extraction from the subsurface is accomplished by an equal operation of each BHE. Moreover, standard designing practices disregard the presence of groundwater flow. We present a simulation-optimization approach that is able to regulate the individual operation of multiple BHEs, depending on the given hydro-geothermal conditions. The developed approach optimizes the overall performance of the geothermal system while mitigating the environmental impact. As an example, a synthetic case with a geothermal system using 25 BHEs for supplying a seasonal heating energy demand is defined. The optimization approach is evaluated for finding optimal energy extractions for 15 scenarios with different specific constant groundwater flow velocities. Ground temperature development is simulated using the optimal energy extractions and contrasted against standard application. It is demonstrated that optimized systems always level the ground temperature distribution and generate smaller subsurface temperature changes than non-optimized ones. Mean underground temperature changes within the studied BHE field are between 13% and 24% smaller when the optimized system is used. By applying the optimized energy extraction patterns, the temperature of the heat carrier fluid in the BHE, which controls the overall performance of the system, can also be raised by more than 1 °C.

  5. Spacecraft formation-keeping using a closed-form orbit propagator and optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T. S.; Lee, J. G.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, a simple method for modeling the relative orbital motion of multiple spacecraft and their formation-keeping control strategy is presented. Power series and trigonometric functions are used to express the relative orbital motion between the member spacecraft. Their coefficients are obtained using least square regression such that the difference between the exact numerically integrated position vector and the approximate vector obtained from the closed-form propagator is minimized. Then, this closed-form orbit propagator and optimization technique is used to plan a series of impulsive maneuvers which maintain the formation configuration within a specified limit. As an example, formation-keeping of four spacecraft is investigated. The motion projected onto the local horizontal plane (along- and cross-track plane) is a circle with the leader satellite located at its center and follower satellites positioned circumferentially. The radial distance between the leader and the followers, and the relative phase angles between the followers are controlled. Results from the nonlinear simulation are presented.

  6. Heat exchanger sizing for vertical closed-loop ground-source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cane, R.L.D.; Clemes, S.B.; Morrison, A. [Caneta Research, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A building energy simulation program has been used in conjunction with a ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm to develop general guidelines on how to size vertical ground heat exchangers for closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems in large buildings. The analysis considered three commercial building types of varying size with different internal loads and heat pump efficiencies. Each building variation was simulated in seven cities, three in the United States and four in Canada. The ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm has been previously validated against actual system data. The analysis results showed a strong correlation between heat exchanger length required and annual energy rejected to the ground, if the building was cooling-dominated, or annual energy extracted from the ground, if the building was heating-dominated. The resulting sizing guidelines recommend hour-by-hour energy analysis to determine the energy extracted from and rejected to the building water loop. Using this information the designer will have available easy-to-use, accurate sizing guidelines that should result in more economical installations than those based on previous ``rule of thumb`` guidelines.

  7. Heat exchanger sizing for vertical closed-loop ground-source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cane, R.L.D.; Clemes, S.B.; Morrison, A. [Caneta Research, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A building energy simulation program has been used in conjunction with a ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm to develop general guidelines on how to size vertical ground heat exchangers for closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems in large buildings. The analysis considered three commercial building types of varying size with different internal loads and heat pump efficiencies. Each building variation was simulated in seven cities, three in the US and four in Canada. The ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm has been previously validated against actual system data. The analysis results showed a strong correlation between heat exchanger length required and annual energy rejected to the ground, if the building was cooling-dominated, or annual energy extracted from the ground, if the building was heating-dominated. The resulting sizing guidelines recommend hour-by-hour energy analysis to determine the energy extracted from and rejected to the building water loop. Using this information the designer will have available easy-to-use, accurate sizing guidelines that should result in more economical installations than those based on previous ``rule of thumb`` guidelines.

  8. Closed-orbit theory of spatial density oscillations in finite fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Roccia, Jérôme; Brack, Matthias

    2008-05-23

    We investigate the particle and kinetic-energy densities for N noninteracting fermions confined in a local potential. Using Gutzwiller's semiclassical Green function, we describe the oscillating parts of the densities in terms of closed nonperiodic classical orbits. We derive universal relations between the oscillating parts of the densities for potentials with spherical symmetry in arbitrary dimensions and a "local virial theorem" valid also for arbitrary nonintegrable potentials. We give simple analytical formulas for the density oscillations in a one-dimensional potential. PMID:18518516

  9. Secular orbital evolution of planetary systems and the dearth of close-in planets around fast rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, A. F.; Shkolnik, E. L.

    2014-09-01

    Recent analyses of Kepler space telescope data reveal that transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than 2-3 d are generally observed around late-type stars with rotation periods longer than ˜5-10 d. We investigate different explanations for this phenomenon and favour an interpretation based on secular perturbations in multiplanet systems on non-resonant orbits. In those systems, the orbital eccentricity of the innermost planet can reach values close to unity through a process of chaotic diffusion of its orbital elements in the phase space. When the eccentricity of the innermost orbit becomes so high that the periastron gets closer than ˜0.05 au, tides shrink and circularize the orbit producing a close-in planet on a time-scale ?50 Myr. The probability of high eccentricity excitation and subsequent circularization is estimated and is found to increase with the age of the system. Thus, we are able to explain the observed statistical correlation between stellar rotation and minimum orbital period of the innermost planet by using the stellar rotation period as a proxy of its age through gyrochronology. Moreover, our model is consistent with the entire observed distributions of the rotation and orbital periods Porb for 3 ? Porb ? 15 d.

  10. The Origin and Nature of Neptune-like Planets Orbiting Close to Solar Type Stars

    E-print Network

    Adrián Brunini; Rodolfo G. Cionco

    2005-11-01

    The sample of known exoplanets is strongly biased to masses larger than the ones of the giant gaseous planets of the solar system. Recently, the discovery of two extrasolar planets of considerably lower masses around the nearby stars GJ 436 and $\\rho$ Cancri was reported. They are like our outermost icy giants, Uranus and Neptune, but in contrast, these new planets are orbiting at only some hundredth of the Earth-Sun distance from their host stars, raising several new questions about their origin and constitution. Here we report numerical simulations of planetary accretion that show, for the first time through N-body integrations that the formation of compact systems of Neptune-like planets close to the hosts stars could be a common by-product of planetary formation. We found a regime of planetary accretion, in which orbital migration accumulates protoplanets in a narrow region around the inner edge of the nebula, where they collide each other giving rise to Neptune-like planets. Our results suggest that, if a protoplanetary solar environment is common in the galaxy, the discovery of a vast population of this sort of 'hot cores' should be expected in the near future.

  11. Orbital circularization of close binary stars on the pre-main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullin, Kh. F.; Khaliullina, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    The numerical computations of the circularization of close binary systems at the pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stage of evolution (reported by Zahn and Bouchet in their now well-known paper) are repeated for an extended stellar mass interval of M= 0.1-2.7 M?, based on modern evolutionary pre-MS stellar models and on the modified Zahn theory. The new results mostly corroborate those obtained by Zahn and Bouchet in the mass interval M= 0.5-1.25 M? covered by their work. To compare the theoretically expected results with observations, a catalogue is compiled of 70 eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits and bona fide photometric elements and masses. The pre-MS lifetimes of all these systems are computed as fractions of the circularization time-scale tPMS/tcirc in terms of the Zahn theory and assuming the conservation of angular momentum L. All systems of this catalogue fill almost uniformly the entire domain of the eobs-tPMS/tcirc diagram independently of tPMS/tcirc[i.e. the (tPMS/tcirc)cr= 4 threshold does not separate circular and eccentric systems in this diagram]. This result shows that the computations of the orbital circularization at the pre-MS stage based on the concept of the conservation of L have nothing to do with the actually observed distribution of the eccentricities of close binary systems. The results obtained lead us to the following conclusions. (i) Binaries appear to cross the Hayashi phase in a more detached state than we observe them on the MS, and therefore they are unaffected by tidal circularization at this stage. (ii) Binaries must lose an appreciable fraction of their angular momentum while evolving from the Hayashi phase to the zero-age main sequence. This loss may be a result of the dynamic interaction with the parent disc and other components of the multiple system.

  12. WASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter in a polar orbit and close to tidal disruption

    E-print Network

    Delrez, L; Almenara, J -M; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Van Grootel, V; West, R G

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary nature has been statistically validated by the PASTIS software. The planet has a mass of $1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064}$ $M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a radius of 1.865 $\\pm$ 0.044 $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and transits every $1.2749255_{-0.0000025}^{+0.0000020}$ days an active F6-type main-sequence star ($V$=10.4, $1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080}$ $M_{\\odot}$, 1.458 $\\pm$ 0.030 $R_{\\odot}$, $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$ = 6460 $\\pm$ 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only $\\sim$1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation ($\\sim$$7.1\\:10^{9}$ erg $\\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST telescope,...

  13. Asteroseismology in action: a test of spin-orbit synchronism in the close binary system Feige 48

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. van Grootel; S. Charpinet; G. Fontaine; P. Brassard

    2008-01-01

    Aims: In this paper, we provide a test of spin-orbit synchronism in the close binary system Feige 48. This system is made of a rapidly pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) star with an unseen companion, most likely a white dwarf. The presence of nonradial oscillations offers the opportunity to infer the inner profile and period of rotation of the primary star

  14. Many-orbital cluster expansion for the exchange-repulsion energy in the interaction of closed-shell systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Bulski; Grzegorz Chatasifiski; Bogumi? Jeziorski

    1979-01-01

    The energy of exchange repulsion between two closed-shell systems described by determinantal wave functions has been represented as a sum of contributions arising from the interaction of two, three and four orbitals at a time. These contributions have been calculated for the interaction of two neon atoms. It has been found that in the van der Waals minimum region the

  15. Closed Form Solutions for Unsteady Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid over an Oscillating Vertical Plate

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter ?, phase angle ?? and time ?. Numerical values of skin friction ?0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions. PMID:24551033

  16. Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid over an oscillating vertical plate.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter ?, phase angle ?? and time ?. Numerical values of skin friction ? 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions. PMID:24551033

  17. Close encounters of a rotating star with planets in parabolic orbits of varying inclination and the formation of hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we extend the theory of close encounters of a giant planet on a parabolic orbit with a central star developed in our previous work (Ivanov and Papaloizou in MNRAS 347:437, 2004; MNRAS 376:682, 2007) to include the effects of tides induced on the central star. Stellar rotation and orbits with arbitrary inclination to the stellar rotation axis are considered. We obtain results both from an analytic treatment that incorporates first order corrections to normal mode frequencies arising from stellar rotation and numerical treatments that are in satisfactory agreement over the parameter space of interest. These results are applied to the initial phase of the tidal circularisation problem. We find that both tides induced in the star and planet can lead to a significant decrease of the orbital semi-major axis for orbits having periastron distances smaller than 5-6 stellar radii with tides in the star being much stronger for retrograde orbits compared to prograde orbits. Assuming that combined action of dynamic and quasi-static tides could lead to the total circularisation of orbits this corresponds to observed periods up to 4-5 days. We use the simple Skumanich law to characterise the rotational history of the star supposing that the star has its rotational period equal to one month at the age of 5 Gyr. The strength of tidal interactions is characterised by circularisation time scale, t ev , which is defined as a typical time scale of evolution of the planet's semi-major axis due to tides. This is considered as a function of orbital period P obs , which the planet obtains after the process of tidal circularisation has been completed. We find that the ratio of the initial circularisation time scales corresponding to prograde and retrograde orbits, respectively, is of order 1.5-2 for a planet of one Jupiter mass having P obs ~ 4 days. The ratio grows with the mass of the planet, being of order five for a five Jupiter mass planet with the same P orb . Note, however, this result might change for more realistic stellar rotation histories. Thus, the effect of stellar rotation may provide a bias in the formation of planetary systems having planets on close orbits around their host stars, as a consequence of planet-planet scattering, which favours systems with retrograde orbits. The results reported in the paper may also be applied to the problem of tidal capture of stars in young stellar clusters.

  18. The orbit of the close spectroscopic binary epsilon Lupi and the intrinsic variability of its early B-type components

    E-print Network

    K. Uytterhoeven; P. Harmanec; J. H. Telting; C. Aerts

    2005-07-15

    We subjected 106 new high-resolution spectra of the double-lined spectroscopic close binary epsilon Lupi, obtained in a time-span of 17 days from two different observatories, to a detailed study of orbital and intrinsic variations. We derived accurate values of the orbital parameters. We refined the sidereal orbital period to 4.55970 days and the eccentricity to e=0.277. By adding old radial velocities, we discovered the presence of apsidal motion with a period of the rotation of apses of about 430 years. Such a value agrees with theoretical expectations. Additional data is needed to confirm and refine this value. Our dataset did not allow us to derive the orbit of the third body, which is known to orbit the close system in approximately 64 years. We present the secondary of epsilon Lupi as a new beta Cephei variable, while the primary is a beta Cephei suspect. A first detailed analysis of line-profile variations of both primary and secondary led to detection of one pulsation frequency near 10.36 c/d in the variability of the secondary, while no clear periodicity was found in the primary, although low-amplitude periodicities are still suspected. The limited accuracy and extent of our dataset did not allow any further analysis, such as mode-identification.

  19. Power Maximization of a Closed-orbit Kite Generator System Mariam Ahmed*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's state vector v Normalized tether radial velocity w|| Normalized crosswind velocity J0 Normalized mean the kite to fly around a lying-eight orbit with high crosswind speed. This develops a large pulling force

  20. Contribution to the linear theory of dynamic tides and orbital evolution in close binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Willems

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation, we mainly investigate resonances of dynamic tides with free oscillation modes in components of close binaries and we examine the effects of such resonances on the dynamic evolution of these systems. When the forcing frequency of a dynamic tide is close to an eigenfrequency of a free oscillation mode of the tidally distorted star, the oscillation mode

  1. Orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries and constraints on the nature of the unseen companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Vu?kovi?, M.; Tillich, A.; Müller, S.; Edelmann, H.; Classen, L.; McLeod, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The project Massive Unseen Companions to Hot Faint Underluminous Stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS) aims at finding hot subdwarf stars (sdBs) with massive compact companions such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or stellar-mass black holes. In a supplementary programme we obtained time-resolved spectroscopy of known hot subdwarf binary candidates. Here we present orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries with orbital periods ranging from ~0.1 d to 10 d, which allow us to derive lower limits on the masses of their companions. Additionally, a dedicated photometric follow-up campaign was conducted to obtain light curves of the reflection-effect binary HS 2043+0615. We are able to constrain the most likely nature of the companions in all cases but one, making use of information derived from photometry and spectroscopy. Four sdBs have white dwarf companions, while another three are orbited by low-mass main sequence stars of spectral type M. Radial velocities are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A95

  2. On the stability of extrasolar planetary systems and other closely orbiting pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2015-02-01

    This paper considers the stability of tidal equilibria for planetary systems in which stellar rotation provides a significant contribution to the angular momentum budget. We begin by applying classic stability considerations for two bodies to planetary systems - where one mass is much smaller than the other. The application of these stability criteria to a subset of the Kepler sample indicates that the majority of the systems are not in a stable equilibrium state. Motivated by this finding, we generalize the stability calculation to include the quadrupole moment for the host star. In general, a stable equilibrium requires that the total system angular momentum exceeds a minimum value (denoted here as LX) and that the orbital angular momentum of the planet exceeds a minimum fraction of the total. Most, but not all, of the observed planetary systems in the sample have enough total angular momentum to allow an equilibrium state. Even with the generalizations of this paper, however, most systems have too little orbital angular momentum (relative to the total) and are not in an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we consider the time evolution of these planetary systems; the results constrain the tidal quality factor of the stars and suggest that 106 ? Q* ? 107.

  3. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  4. Tidal forces and stability of circular and near-circular orbits of massive close-in planets: the CoRoT example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, M.; Carone, L.

    2013-09-01

    The ensemble of CoRoT planets is studied with regard to tidal interactions and orbital decay. Four simple principles are formulated for a first order estimate of orbital stability under tidal forces: i) present orbit within the virtual synchronous orbit with regard to stellar rotation, ii) the Doodson constant, iii) the property factor and iv) the critical orbit radius depending on remaining stellar life time and the dissipation Q*/k2*. Tidal forces are driving the planetary rotation synchronous with the orbital revolution within a few hundred million years if the planetary orbit is within 0.1 AU. From the 22 studied CoRoT planets, 15 are massive close-in hot Jupiters. Three of them are around G-stars and another three are around F-stars within 0.033 AU and 0.044 AU, respectively. Those will reach the Roche zone of their stars within the remaining stellar life time for Q*/k2*?107. Scenarios of extremely small Q*/k2* are considered unrealistic because the planets would migrate into the stellar Roche zones in extremely short time scales and would spin up strongly the stellar rotation. A special class of fast rotating old sun-like stars is, to our knowledge, not observed. Tidal forces may drive the stellar rotation and the planetary orbit into double synchronous rotation. This state may eventually be achieved but is considered as unstable. The slow-down of the stellar rotation by magnetic braking (strong with G-stars, weak with F-stars) will drive the synchronous orbit outward and out of the double synchronous state which leaves the planetary orbit within the synchronous orbit.

  5. Low Earth orbit satellite navigation errors and vertical total electron content in single-frequency GPS tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miquel Garcia-Fernàndez; Oliver Montenbruck

    2006-01-01

    In the context of space applications, the GPS system is presently a well-established and accepted tracking system. To meet the basic navigation requirements, most satellites in a low Earth orbit are equipped with single-frequency GPS receivers that measure the coarse acquisition code as well as the L1 phase. However, the resulting kinematic navigation solutions exhibit systematic position errors caused by

  6. 'Night' scene of the STS-5 Columbia in orbit over the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    'Night' scene of the STS-5 Columbia in orbit over the earth's glowing horizon. The aft section of the cargo bay contains two closed protective shields for satellites which were deployed on the flight. The nearest shield hoses the Satellite Business System's (SBS-3) satellite. The vertical stabilizer, illuminated by the sun, is flanked by two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods.

  7. A Fixed-Base-Simulator Study of the Ability of a Pilot to Establish Close Orbits Around the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Riley, Donald R.

    1961-01-01

    A study was made on a six-degree-of-freedom fixed-base simulator of the ability of human pilots to modify ballistic trajectories of a 5 space vehicle approaching the moon to establish a circular orbit about 50 miles above the lunar surface. The unmodified ballistic trajectories had miss distances from the lunar surface of from 40 to 80 miles, and a velocity range of from 8,200 to 8,700 feet per second at closest approach. The pilot was given control of the thrust (along the vehicle longitudinal axis) and torques about all three body axes. The information display given to the pilot was a hodograph of the vehicle rate of descent and circumferential velocity, an altimeter, and vehicle attitude and rate meters.

  8. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  9. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV: I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    E-print Network

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Sasunov, Yu L; Lammer, H; Kislyakova, K G; Erkaev, N V

    2015-01-01

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study the effects of intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (so-called Hot Jupiter) on the atmospheric material escape and formation of planetary inner magnetosphere in a comprehensive way, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion presented in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on selfconsistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to investigation of the role of specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free- and restricted- flow) are formed. Comparative study of different processes, such as XUV heating, material ionization and recombination, H3+ cooling, adiabatic and Lyman-alpha cooling, Lyman-alpha reabsorption is perf...

  10. Jeff = 1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state close to the cubic limit in Ca4IrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, S.; Cao, G.-X.; Okamoto, S.; Kim, J. W.; Cooper, V. R.; Gai, Z.; Sales, B. C.; Lumsden, M. D.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2014-03-01

    The Jeff = 1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state is manifested in systems with large cubic crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling that are comparable to the on-site Coulomb interaction, U. 5d transition metal oxides host parameters in this regime and recently strong evidence for this state in Sr2IrO4, and additional iridates, has been presented. All the candidates, however, have distorted octahedra, such as the elongation along the c-axis in Sr2IrO4, and consequently a non-cubic local crystal field environment. Consequently the materials form a mixed Jeff = 1/2,3/2 ground state. The lack of a material with an unmixed Jeff = 1/2 has impacted the development and testing of robust models of this novel insulating and magnetic state. We present neutron diffraction, resonant x-ray scattering and DFT calculations that not only reveal Ca4IrO6 is a new candidate Jeff = 1/2 material with long-range magnetic order, but furthermore resides close to the required cubic limit. Both our experimental and theoretical investigation indicate Ca4IrO6 is uniquely positioned to act as a canonical system to investigate of the Jeff = 1/2 state. This research was supported by the Scientific User Facilities Division and the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Status of Digital Orbit Feedback for SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, Robert

    2003-05-30

    The present global orbit feedback system for SPEAR can adjust the electron beam position with a cycle time of 5 s. In addition, 50 Hz analog local servos stabilize the vertical photon beam position at monitors situated in the ten SSRL beamlines. The global and local systems will soon be merged into a single unified system operating from a dedicated DSP board. The goal is to acquire orbits, process the data, and correct beam position in a 1-2 ms interval to achieve a 30-50 Hz closed-loop bandwidth.

  12. Effects of vertical girder realignment in the Argonne APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-14

    The effects of vertical girder misalignments on the vertical orbit of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are studied. Partial sector-realignment is prioritized in terms of the closed-orbit distortions due to misalignments of the corresponding girders in the sectors. A virtual girder-displacement (VGD) method is developed that allows the effects of a girder realignment to be tested prior to physically moving the girder. The method can also be used to anticipate the corrector strengths needed to restore the beam orbit after a realignment. Simulation results are compared to experimental results and found to reproduce the latter quite closely. Predicted corrector strengths are also found to be close to the actual local corrector strengths after a proof-of-principle two-sector realignment was performed.

  13. Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Rabbel; T. Beilecke; T. Bohlen; D. Fischer; A. Frank; J. Hasenclever; G. Borm; J. Kück; K. Bram; G. Druivenga; E. Lüschen; H. Gebrande; J. Pujol; S. Smithson

    2004-01-01

    The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6-8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced

  14. Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Rabbel; T. Beilecke; T. Bohlen; D. Fischer; A. Frank; J. Hasenclever; G. Borm; J. Kück; K. Bram; G. Druivenga; E. Lüschen; H. Gebrande; J. Pujol; S. Smithson

    2004-01-01

    The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6–8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced

  15. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kutcher, H.R.

    1984-05-15

    A Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine is disclosed which includes a vertically extending rotor tube mounted on a support structure with two or three rotor blades of troposkein configuration on the rotor tube for rotating the tube in response to wind energy and thereby drive a generator to produce electrical power. The turbine includes an erection hinge which permits assembly of the rotor tube and blades at close to ground level followed by upward hinging of the rotor assembly to a vertical position. It also includes a system for automatically lubricating the top bearing upon erection and a system for visually tensioning the guy cables.

  16. Gravity and Orbits: Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of three Science Objects in the Gravity and Orbits SciPack. It provides an understanding of how gravitational forces influence the motion of an object in orbit. When a force acts toward a single center, an object's forward motion and its motion toward that center can combine to create a curved path around the center. Gravity governs the motion of all objects in the solar system. The Sun's gravitational pull holds the Earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them. Learning Outcomes:? Describe the conditions that would lead an object into orbital motion in terms of the effects of gravitational force.? Explain how an object orbits a planet in terms of trajectories and free fall.? Identify gravity as the force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the Sun and the moons in their orbits around the planets.

  17. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  18. Observable properties of orbits in exact bumpy spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Li Chao; Mandel, Ilya [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    We explore the properties of test-particle orbits in bumpy spacetimes--stationary, reflection-symmetric, asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein equations that have a non-Kerr (anomalous) higher-order multipole-moment structure but can be tuned arbitrarily close to the Kerr metric. Future detectors should observe gravitational waves generated during inspirals of compact objects into supermassive central bodies. If the central body deviates from the Kerr metric, this will manifest itself in the emitted waves. Here, we explore some of the features of orbits in non-Kerr spacetimes that might lead to observable signatures. As a basis for this analysis, we use a family of exact solutions proposed by Manko and Novikov which deviate from the Kerr metric in the quadrupole and higher moments, but we also compare our results to other work in the literature. We examine isolating integrals of the orbits and find that the majority of geodesic orbits have an approximate fourth constant of the motion (in addition to the energy, angular momentum, and rest mass) and the resulting orbits are triperiodic to high precision. We also find that this fourth integral can be lost for certain orbits in some oblately deformed Manko-Novikov spacetimes, leading to ergodic motion. However, compact objects will probably not end up on these chaotic orbits in nature. We compute the location of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and find that the behavior of an orbit in the approach to the ISCO can be qualitatively different depending on whether the location of the ISCO is determined by the onset of an instability in the radial or vertical direction. Finally, we compute periapsis and orbital-plane precessions for nearly circular and nearly equatorial orbits in both the strong and weak field, and discuss weak-field precessions for eccentric equatorial orbits.

  19. Test aspect of single stage to orbit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubatz, William A.; Nowlan, Daniel R.; Maras, Mathew G.; Copper, John A.; Coleman, Kate A.

    1995-03-01

    The McDonnell Douglas Delta Clipper Team recently completed the initial flight testing of a one third scale version of an operational single stage to orbit vehicle. The Delta Clipper Experimental, DC-X, is a 14 m tall, totally reusable, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fueled test vehicle powered by four P&W RL-lOAS rocket engines. It has totally autonomous on board flight control and mission control systems; flight test mission requirements are simply added through software to the mission controller. The DC X is designed to explore and validate the low speed flight qualities of a vertical take-off and vertical landing spacecraft and its flight characteristics closely duplicate those predicted for the full scale DC-1 vehicle. The DC-1 vehicle would be capable of routinely flying people and/or cargo to and from space and would have a lift capacity for carrying 12 metric tons to low earth orbit.

  20. Lifetime of objects in geostationary transfer orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Janin

    1991-01-01

    Objects in Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) result from the launch of satellites in geostationary orbit. There are close to 200 GTO, most of them third stage rockets used for transferring satellites from low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit. By crossing the low Earth orbit region at high speed more than twice a day, they represent a hazard for low Earth

  1. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  2. Jeff=1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state close to the cubic limit in Ca4IrO6

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Stuart A [ORNL] [ORNL; Cao, Guixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Jong-Woo [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Mandrus, D. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The J_eff=1/2 state is manifested in systems with large cubic crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling that are comparable to the on-site Coulomb interaction, U. 5d transition metal oxides host parameters in this regime and strong evidence for this state in Sr2IrO4, and additional iridates, has been presented. All the candidates, however, deviate from the cubic crystal field required to provide an unmixed canonical J_eff=1/2 state, impacting the development of a robust model of this novel insulating and magnetic state. We present experimental and theoretical results that not only show Ca4IrO6 hosts the state, but furthermore uniquely resides in the limit required for a canonical unmixed J_eff=1/2 state.

  3. Jeff=1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state close to the cubic limit in Ca4IrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, S.; Cao, G.-X.; Okamoto, S.; Kim, J. W.; Cooper, V. R.; Gai, Z.; Sales, B. C.; Lumsden, M. D.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2014-02-01

    The Jeff=1/2 state is manifested in systems with large cubic crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling that are comparable to the on-site Coulomb interaction, U. 5d transition-metal oxides host parameters in this regime and strong evidence for this state in Sr2IrO4, and additional iridates, has been presented. All the candidates, however, deviate from the cubic crystal field required to provide an unmixed canonical Jeff=1/2 state, impacting the development of a robust model of this novel insulating and magnetic state. We present experimental and theoretical results that not only show Ca4IrO6 hosts the state, but furthermore uniquely resides in the limit required for a canonical unmixed Jeff=1/2 state.

  4. Model Calibration and Optics Correction Using Orbit Response Matrix in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab; Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Kopp, S.E.; McAteer, M.J.; /Texas U.

    2012-05-01

    We have calibrated the lattice model and measured the beta and dispersion functions in Fermilab's fast-ramping Booster synchrotron using the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) method. We used the calibrated model to implement ramped coupling, dispersion, and beta-beating corrections throughout the acceleration cycle, reducing horizontal beta beating from its initial magnitude of {approx}30% to {approx}10%, and essentially eliminating vertical beta-beating and transverse coupling.

  5. An orbit fit program for localizing errors in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2011-11-01

    Many errors in an accelerator are evidenced as transverse kicks to the beam which distort the beam trajectory. Therefore, the information of the errors are imprinted in the distorted orbits, which are different from what would be predicted by the optics model. In this note, we introduce an algorithm for fitting the orbit based on an on-line optics model. By comparing the measured and fitted orbits, we first present results validating the algorithm. We then apply the algorithm and localize the location of the elusive source of vertical diurnal variations observed in RHIC. The difference of two trajectories (linear accelerator) or closed orbits (storage ring) should match exactly a betatron oscillation, which is predictable by the optics model, in an ideal machine. However, in the presence of errors, the measured trajectory deviates from prediction since the model is imperfect. Comparison of measurement to model can be used to detect such errors. To do so the initial conditions (phase space parameters at any point) must be determined which can be done by comparing the difference orbit to prediction using only a few beam position monitors (BPMs). The fitted orbit can be propagated along the beam line based on the optics model. Measurement and model will agree up to the point of an error. The error source can be better localized by additionally fitting the difference orbit using downstream BPMs and back-propagating the solution. If one dominating error source exist in the machine, the fitted orbit will deviate from the difference orbit at the same point.

  6. Vertical Farm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

  7. Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

    1996-01-01

    Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

  8. Closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2013-04-01

    Closed head injuries vary from the very minor to the catastrophic. It is often difficult to differentiate the severity at initial presentation. Serial assessment is very valuable. Awareness of facial injuries is aided by familiarity with facial bone anatomy and the clinical presentation of orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular fracture. Functional injury such as concussion may coexist with other injuries. This article will discuss closed head trauma and outline specific injuries to the face, brain, skull, and its surroundings. PMID:23522509

  9. Orbital mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A. Chobotov

    1991-01-01

    The present work on the 'applied', or engineering-related aspects of orbital mechanics gives attention to the geographic and azimuth-elevation coordinate systems, as well as their transformations; the orbital parameters of a satellite; the universal approach to a body's position and velocity as a function of time, and geodetic and geocentric altitudes; and such issues in orbital maneuvering as the general

  10. Kepler-36: A Pair of Planets with Neighboring Orbits and Dissimilar Densities

    E-print Network

    Deck, Katherine M.

    In the solar system, the planets’ compositions vary with orbital distance, with rocky planets in close orbits and lower-density gas giants in wider orbits. The detection of close-in giant planets around other stars was the ...

  11. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Arrives at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  12. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  13. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  14. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters were vertically mated.

  15. Results of wind tunnel tests at Mach 5 on the .004 scale model 2A configuration space shuttle to determine proximity effects and orbiter control effectiveness during orbiter/external tank abort separation (IAG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garton, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results from tests in the NASA/MSFC Trisonic Wind Tunnel on 0.004-Scale Orbiter and External Tank Force Models in Close Proximity (RTLS Abort Separation Conditions) are presented. The primary test objectives were to obtain data concerning proximity effects on the aerodynamic forces and moments experienced by Vehicle 2A Configuration Shuttle Orbiter and External Tank during an abort separation (Return to Launch Site) at a Mach number of 5. Additionally, data on orbiter control effectiveness during such an abort was obtained. Proximity effects were investigated for relative angles of incidence from minus 5 deg to plus 10 deg of the orbiter FRL with respect to the external tank centerline over a range of vertical and longitudinal displacements from the mated position to 2.5 tank diameters below and 3 tank diameters aft of the mated position.

  16. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; /Daresbury; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  17. Earth Co-orbital Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, P.; Connors, M.; Chodas, P.; Veillet, C.; Mikkola, S.; Innanen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The recent discovery of asteroid 2002 AA29 by the LINEAR survey and the realization of its co-orbital relationship with Earth lead us to consider the characteristics of Earth Co-orbital Objects (ECOs) in general. An object with semimajor axis between 0.99 and 1.01 AU is in 1:1 resonance with the Earth. To be co-orbital in the sense of moving along the Earth's orbit, an object must further have its other orbital parameters similar to those of the Earth. Clarification is needed as to what range of orbital parameters can be regarded as similar enough to permit classification as an ECO. ECOs would be expected to librate on tadpole or horseshoe orbits, be relatively easy to access with spacecraft, and to sometimes exhibit quasisatellite behavior. 2002 AA29 is on a horseshoe orbit and was discovered in a general asteroid survey while near Earth at one end of the horseshoe orbit. Searches for Earth Trojan asteroids, which would be members of the ECO class on tadpole orbits near a triangular Lagrange Point, have not yet been successful. While 2002 AA29 has an orbit even less eccentric than Earth's, it has an inclination of about 10 degrees. 2000 PH5 and 2001 GO2 are on horseshoe orbits and interact gravitationally with Earth to 'bounce' when they approach the Earth from either side. With eccentricities of .23 and .17 respectively, they do not have decidedly Earth-like orbits despite inclinations less that 5 degrees. When in quasi-satellite mode, a body exhibits a looping motion relative to Earth in some ways resembling a satellite orbit. Several resonant bodies including 3753 Cruithne exhibit this behavior at times, but ECOs remain close to Earth while doing it. We suggest that directed searches be used to discover ECOs and characterize this class of objects. Orbital simulations suggest the best target spaces, which are only partially covered by present general searches.

  18. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  19. Orbital Decompression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat a variety of eye related diseases. The orbit (eye socket) is a space within your skull that ... has then effectively enlarged the space of the orbit which in turn “decompresses” the entire eye. At the end of the surgery, there is ...

  20. From Newton{close_quote}s moon to Einstein{close_quote}s moon

    SciTech Connect

    Nordtvedt, K.

    1996-05-01

    Continuing the lunar orbit{close_quote}s 300-year role as gravity{close_quote}s testing ground, laser ranging to the Moon precisely confirms the foundations and structure of general relativity. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Orbital abscess from an odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Ju-Rok; Jang, Keum-Soo; Moon, Yeon-Sung; Park, Sun-Won

    2007-01-01

    An orbital abscess is a rare but serious complication of an odontogenic infection, which can lead to loss of vision or worse. This paper presents a case of orbital abscess secondary to an infection from the upper molar teeth, which extended to the retobulbar and posterosuperior region of the orbit, close to the superior orbital fissure. The infection spreaded to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa and then to the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure. This paper reviews the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, route of spread, value of serial CT scanning, treatment and possible complications. PMID:17178478

  2. The origin of Pluto's peculiar orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renu Malhotra

    1993-01-01

    THE origin of Pluto's unusual orbit---the most eccentric and inclined of all the planets---remains a mystery. The orbits of Pluto and Neptune overlap, but close approaches of these two planets are prevented by the existence of a resonance condition1: Pluto's orbital period is exactly 3\\/2 that of Neptune, which ensures that the conjunctions always occur near Pluto's aphelion. Long-term orbit

  3. A survey of orbits of co-orbitals of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Stacey, Greg; Brasser, Ramon; Wiegert, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Many asteroids with a semimajor axis close to that of Mars have been discovered in the last several years. Potentially some of these could be in 1:1 resonance with Mars, much as are the classic Trojan asteroids with Jupiter, and its lesser-known horseshoe companions with Earth. In the 1990s, two Trojan companions of Mars, 5261 Eureka and 1998 VF 31, were discovered, librating about the L 5 Lagrange point, 60° behind Mars in its orbit. Although several other potential Mars Trojans have been identified, our orbital calculations show only one other known asteroid, 1999 UJ 7, to be a Trojan, associated with the L 4 Lagrange point, 60° ahead of Mars in its orbit. We further find that asteroid 36017 (1999 ND 43) is a horseshoe librator, alternating with periods of Trojan motion. This asteroid makes repeated close approaches to Earth and has a chaotic orbit whose behavior can be confidently predicted for less than 3000 years. We identify two objects, 2001 HW 15 and 2000 TG 2, within the resonant region capable of undergoing what we designate "circulation transition", in which objects can pass between circulation outside the orbit of Mars and circulation inside it, or vice versa. The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars appears to play an important role in circulation transition and in horseshoe motion. Based on the orbits and on spectroscopic data, the Trojan asteroids of Mars may be primordial bodies, while some co-orbital bodies may be in a temporary state of motion.

  4. Radar For Measuring Vertical Cloud Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Li, Fuk K.; Durden, Stephen L.; Wilson, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed radar system views clouds from above and measures their vertical structures with resolution of 500 m. Two versions of system; initial developmental version to be flown aboard aircraft and final version flown aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around Earth at altitude of 400 km.

  5. Autonomous orbital navigation using Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simple method of determining the six elements of elliptic satellite orbits has been developed for use aboard manned and unmanned spacecraft orbiting the earth, moon, or any planet. The system requires the use of a horizon sensor or other device for determining the local vertical, a precision clock or timing device, and Apollo-type navigation equipment including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a digital computer, and a coupling data unit. The three elements defining the in-plane motion are obtained from simultaneous measurements of central angle traversed around the planet and elapsed flight time using a linearization of Kepler's equation about a reference orbit. It is shown how Kalman filter theory may also be used to determine the in-plane orbital elements. The three elements defining the orbit orientation are obtained from position angles in celestial coordinates derived from the IMU with the spacecraft vertically oriented after alignment of the IMU to a known inertial coordinate frame.

  6. Orbital Dynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the mechanics of orbital dynamics and Newton's first law of motion. This three minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

  7. Vertical dynamics Spiral structure

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 7;Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy Outline Vertical dynamics van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Structure of galaxy disks #12;Outline Vertical dynamics

  8. Closing Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    24 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows billowing clouds of dust rising from a storm southeast of Hellas Planitia. The dust storm in this case obscured the Mars Orbiter Camera's view of the martian surface.

    Location near: 62.2oS, 259.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  9. Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant Vertical Skew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S. MAXWELL; CLIFTON M. SCHOR

    Vertical phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomi- tant) vertical phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of vertical skew takes into account both eye and head position.

  10. Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant Vertical Skew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S MAXWELL; CLIFTON M SCHOR

    1997-01-01

    Vertical phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomitant) vertical phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of vertical skew takes into account both eye and head position. In

  11. Introduction to Network Science 13 Closeness Centrality

    E-print Network

    Safro, Ilya

    Introduction to Network Science 13 Closeness Centrality · i-j path is infinity for different Distance Centrality large for peripheral vertices #12;Introduction to Network Science 14 Closeness Centrality http://geuz.org/gmsh/ #12;Introduction to Network Science 15 Closeness and Degree

  12. Configuration interaction singles natural orbitals: an orbital basis for an efficient and size intensive multireference description of electronic excited states.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinan; Hohenstein, Edward G; Levine, Benjamin G

    2015-01-14

    Multireference quantum chemical methods, such as the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, have long been the state of the art for computing regions of potential energy surfaces (PESs) where complex, multiconfigurational wavefunctions are required, such as near conical intersections. Herein, we present a computationally efficient alternative to the widely used CASSCF method based on a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) expansion built from the state-averaged natural orbitals of configuration interaction singles calculations (CISNOs). This CISNO-CASCI approach is shown to predict vertical excitation energies of molecules with closed-shell ground states similar to those predicted by state averaged (SA)-CASSCF in many cases and to provide an excellent reference for a perturbative treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Absolute energies computed at the CISNO-CASCI level are found to be variationally superior, on average, to other CASCI methods. Unlike SA-CASSCF, CISNO-CASCI provides vertical excitation energies which are both size intensive and size consistent, thus suggesting that CISNO-CASCI would be preferable to SA-CASSCF for the study of systems with multiple excitable centers. The fact that SA-CASSCF and some other CASCI methods do not provide a size intensive/consistent description of excited states is attributed to changes in the orbitals that occur upon introduction of non-interacting subsystems. Finally, CISNO-CASCI is found to provide a suitable description of the PES surrounding a biradicaloid conical intersection in ethylene. PMID:25591333

  13. Configuration interaction singles natural orbitals: An orbital basis for an efficient and size intensive multireference description of electronic excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yinan; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Levine, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Multireference quantum chemical methods, such as the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, have long been the state of the art for computing regions of potential energy surfaces (PESs) where complex, multiconfigurational wavefunctions are required, such as near conical intersections. Herein, we present a computationally efficient alternative to the widely used CASSCF method based on a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) expansion built from the state-averaged natural orbitals of configuration interaction singles calculations (CISNOs). This CISNO-CASCI approach is shown to predict vertical excitation energies of molecules with closed-shell ground states similar to those predicted by state averaged (SA)-CASSCF in many cases and to provide an excellent reference for a perturbative treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Absolute energies computed at the CISNO-CASCI level are found to be variationally superior, on average, to other CASCI methods. Unlike SA-CASSCF, CISNO-CASCI provides vertical excitation energies which are both size intensive and size consistent, thus suggesting that CISNO-CASCI would be preferable to SA-CASSCF for the study of systems with multiple excitable centers. The fact that SA-CASSCF and some other CASCI methods do not provide a size intensive/consistent description of excited states is attributed to changes in the orbitals that occur upon introduction of non-interacting subsystems. Finally, CISNO-CASCI is found to provide a suitable description of the PES surrounding a biradicaloid conical intersection in ethylene.

  14. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (compiler); Su, S. Y. (compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  15. Closing in on Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    "A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

  16. Closing remarks

    PubMed Central

    Daykin, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Closing remarks to Human genetics - uncertainties and the financial implications ahead. A Discussion held at the Royal Society on 25 and 26 September 1996, and organized and edited by R. M. Anderson.

  17. Elliptical Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    Although not inquiry, this activity is important for students to understand what an ellipse is and what a focus is, and to break misconceptions about Earth's orbit being highly elliptical. This is the perfect place to check to see if students have the mis

  18. Orbital Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Joel B.

    Three computer programs are presented that allow the high school student to explore and understand the physical forces involved in orbital flight at a greater depth than is usually possible. For each program, introductory material is given including the physics and mathematics involved. This is followed by the computer program in BASIC language.…

  19. Vertical Map Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joanne M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

  20. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  1. Orbiting Hotel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-10-19

    It is the year 2025 and a large company, Z-Tech, wants to put a hotel in space having it orbit around one of the planets in our solar system. Our 9th grade class has been given a very important job. We have to search for the perfect location for the hotel. Our job is to report back to the company with the planet that is the best place for an orbiting hotel. The Task: You are to write a report recommending which planet should be chosen. Your report should include pictures of the planet you recommended. Here are the questions you should answer in order to report back to Z-Tech with your recommendation. * Which planet will be the ...

  2. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), overhead cranes move above the orbiter Atlantis in order to lift it to vertical. When vertical, the orbiter will be placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  3. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Transported Via Road at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In this view looking northwest over the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is seen heading South on Rideout Road near the Redstone Arsenal Fire Station as it is being transported to MSFC's building 4755 for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at MSFC's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  4. Orbital Analysis for Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    For recently discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO) two body computations can be used to determine the minimum distance between the object's orbit and that of the Earth. Determinations can then be made for potential near-term threats to the Earth. This preliminary orbit analysis must be followed with planetary perturbation computations of the object's future motion to predict actual close Earth approaches.

  5. Orbit lifetime prediction and safety considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Lafontaine; R. Mamen

    1984-01-01

    Many space missions involving the employment of man-made satellites require orbits relatively close to the earth's surface. The satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) slowly lose energy, and eventually decay in the lower atmosphere. Normally, a complete breakup of the spacecraft, accompanied by ablation and vaporization, precludes ground impact. Up until now, direct satellite impacts have not been found responsible

  6. Orbital evolution of some Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Nataliya; Babenko, Yuri; Churyumov, Klim

    2002-11-01

    In this work we investigated the dynamical evolution of Centaurs objects 2060 (Chiron), 5145 (Pholus), 7066 (Nessus), 8405 (Asbolus), 10199 (Chariklo), 10370 (Hylonome), and Scattered-Disk object 15874. We have carried out orbital integration of test particles with initial orbits similar to those of these objects. Calculations were produced for +/-600kyr-10Myr starting at epoch and using the implicit single sequence Everhart methods. 12 variational orbits for each of selected Centaurs also have been numerically integrated for +/-200 kyr toward the past and the future. The most probable paths were traced up to +/-1 Myr. The character of orbital elements changes and peculiarities of close approaches to giant planets are discussed.

  7. Pioneer probe mission with orbiter option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A spacecraft is described which is based on Pioneer 10 and 11, and existing propulsion technology; it can transport and release a probe for entry into Jupiter's atmosphere, and subsequently maneuver to place the spacecraft in orbit about Jupiter. Orbital operations last 3 years and include maneuvers to provide multiple close satellite encounters which allow the orbit to be significantly changed to explore different parts of the magnetosphere. A mission summary, a guide to related documents, and background information about Jupiter are presented along with mission analysis over the complete mission profile. Other topics discussed include the launch, interplanetary flight, probe release and orbit deflection, probe entry, orbit selection, orbit insertion, periapsis raising, spacecraft description, and the effects of Jupiter's radiation belt on both orbiter and the probe.

  8. Opening a closed Hamiltonian map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Horita, Takehiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2003-03-01

    A closed Hamiltonian map is opened by introducing an interaction with the outside of the system. The resulting open Hamiltonian system possesses an exit with escaping orbits through it. For such a system equipped with two or three exits, the exit basin structure of the escaping orbits is observed to have a fractal boundary and a boundary shared by the three basins, i.e., a Wada basin boundary. In the small size limit of the exits, a complete fractalization of the phase space, where the predictability of the future state is almost lost, is also observed.

  9. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  10. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  11. ACM99 SPECIAL ISSUE Asteroid Close Encounters with Earth

    E-print Network

    Milani, Andrea

    ACM99 SPECIAL ISSUE Asteroid Close Encounters with Earth: Risk Assessment Andrea Milani, Steven R. Chesley \\Lambda and Giovanni B. Valsecchi y Abstract When an asteroid with an orbit close to the Earth. The first approach could change the orbital period in such a way that the asteroid is injected into a reso

  12. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lytle

    1984-01-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic

  13. Shapes of d Orbitals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shapes of d Orbitals shows the d orbitals in an axis set. Running the mouse over an orbital reveals the "name" of that orbital. This is good practice for helping students link the name of an orbital to the orientation.Shapes of d Orbitals has a link to D Orbitals in an Octahedral Ligand Field. Here the user may click on the name of any one of the d orbitals to obtain a larger 3-dimensional image. The images are rotatable and scalable. Orbital phase is shown by the different colors.

  14. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  15. Orbital resonances in exoplanetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2014-12-01

    At present, more than 700 exoplanetary systems are known to have been discovered. They incorporate more than 130 multiplanet systems, i.e. those hosting two or more planets. The orbital resonance and near-resonance phenomena are ubiquitous in them. We present a statistical and dynamical analysis of the resonance structure of the multiplanet systems and planetary systems of binary stars. We have built distributions of the orbital period ratios, separately considering the cases of inner and outer location of the massive perturber. The histograms reveal apparent peaks close to the first order orbital resonances 2/1 and 3/2 in both cases; this confirms previous findings. We have performed analytical modelling of the histograms, and obtained exact positions of the peaks. Moreover, we have built the "period ratio – eccentricity" diagrams, with collision curves superimposed, so that to find anomalous systems.

  16. Closeup view of the reinforced carboncarbon nose of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Note the clear protective shield around the nose cap, and the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead and orbiter structure in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control Module. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic concept has seen some application, this technology has not been as systematically developed and applied as VSP. Vertical electromagnetic profiling provides distinct and complementary data due to sensing different physical parameters than seismic profiling. Certain of the advantages of VEMP are presented. 28 references, 7 figures.

  18. Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  19. A vertical microfluidic probe.

    PubMed

    Kaigala, G V; Lovchik, R D; Drechsler, U; Delamarche, E

    2011-05-01

    Performing localized chemical events on surfaces is critical for numerous applications. We earlier invented the microfluidic probe (MFP), which circumvented the need to process samples in closed microchannels by hydrodynamically confining liquids that performed chemistries on surfaces (Juncker et al. Nat. Mater. 2005, 4, 622-628). Here we present a new and versatile probe, the vertical MFP (vMFP), which operates in the scanning mode while overcoming earlier challenges that limited the practical implementation of the MFP technology. The key component of the vMFP is the head, a microfluidic device (?1 cm(2) in area) consisting of glass and Si and having microfluidic features fabricated in-plane in the Si layer. The base configuration of the head has two micrometer-size channels that inject/aspirate liquids and terminate at the apex which is ?1 mm(2). In scanning mode, the head is oriented vertically with the apex parallel to the surface with typical spacing of 1-30 ?m. Such length scales and using flow rates from nanoliters/second to microliters/second allow chemical events to be performed on surfaces with tens of picoliter quantities of reagents. Before scanning, the head is clipped on a holder for leak-free, low dead volume interface assembly, providing a simple world-to-chip interface. Surfaces are scanned by mounting the holder on a computer-controlled stage having ?0.1 ?m resolution in positioning. We present detailed steps to fabricate vMFP heads having channels with dimensions from 1 ?m × 1 ?m to 50 ?m × 50 ?m for liquid localization over areas of 10-10,000 ?m(2). Additionally, advanced design strategies are described to achieve high yield in fabrication and to support a broad range of applications. These include particulate filters, redundant aperture architectures, inclined flow-paths that service apertures, and multiple channels to enable symmetric flow confinement. We also present a method to characterize flow confinement and estimate the distance between the head and the surface by monitoring the evolution of a solution of fluorescently labeled antibody on an activated glass surface. This flow characterization reveals regimes of operation suitable for different surface topographies. We further integrate the dispensing of immersion liquid to the vMFP head for processing surfaces for extended periods of time (?60 min). The versatility of the vMFP is exemplified by patterning fluorescently labeled proteins, inactivation of cells using sodium hypochlorite, and staining living NIH fibroblasts with Cellomics. These applications are enabled by the compact design of the head, which provides easy access to the surface, simplifies alignment, and enables processing surfaces having dimensions from the micrometer to the centimeter scale and with large topographical variations. We therefore believe that ease-of-operation, reconfigurability, and conservative use of chemicals by the vMFP will lead to its widespread use by microtechnologists and the chemical and biomedical communities. PMID:21476506

  20. Orbital evolution. [of large natural satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The orbital evolution of a large satellite is governed primarily by tidal interactions between the satellite and the planet it orbits. Tides raised on a planet by a satellite transfer energy and angular momentum to the satellite orbit; this changes the semimajor axes of satellite orbits, increasing the size of those orbits where the satellite mean motion is smaller than the planetary angular velocity, and decreasing those where the opposite is true. Substantial changes caused by such tides for satellites of the terrestrial planets may explain the absence of satellites about Mercury and Venus. For Jovian and Saturnian satellites, such tides probably are only important in bringing about some of the observed orbital resonances. Tides raised on satellites generally cause decreasing orbital eccentricities, indicating why close satellites always have nearly circular orbits. Different processes of orbital evolution dominate for small bodies; their effects probably are critical in positioning material in the primordial dust cloud so that satellite coagulation may occur. A qualitative description is given of the orbital results of gas drag, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and electromagnetic forces.

  1. DCI Closed: A Fast and Memory Efficient Algorithm to Mine Frequent Closed Itemsets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Lucchese; Salvatore Orlando; Raffaele Perego

    2004-01-01

    One of the main problems raising up in the frequent closeditemsetsminingproblemistheduplicatedetection. In this paper we propose a general technique for promptly detecting and discarding duplicate closed itemsets, with- out the need of keeping in the main memory the whole set of closed patterns. Our approach can be exploited with substantial perfor- mance benefits by any algorithm that adopts a vertical

  2. Vertical neck lifting.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Talei, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The authors' vertical neck lifting procedure is an extended deep plane facelift, which elevates the skin and SMAS-platysma complex as a composite unit. The goal is to redrape cervicomental laxity vertically onto the face rather than laterally and postauricularly. The authors consider this an extended technique because it lengthens the deep plane flap from the angle of the mandible into the neck to release the cervical retaining ligaments that limit platysmal redraping. This technique does not routinely use midline platysmal surgery because it counteracts the extent of vertical redraping. A majority of aging face patients are good candidates for this procedure in isolation, but indications for combining vertical neck lifting with submental surgery are elucidated. PMID:24745389

  3. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food you can ... staples. This creates a long vertical tube or banana-shaped stomach. The surgery does not involve cutting ...

  4. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  5. LISA Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoleri, Angelo; Kemble, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The LISA formation is composed of 3 spacecraft in an equilateral triangle formation. The baseline formation has a 5million km radius and lies in a heliocentric orbit 20deg away from the Earth. Earth's gravity induces a perturbation on the nominal Keplerian motion of the formation, generating a change in the relative ranges and thus a Doppler that can be very harmful for the scientific goals of the mission. Zero station keeping options are preferred, so alternative passive solutions have to be found. This paper presents results obtained by optimising the formation design, particularly the orientation of the eccentricity vectors. Formation design optimisation proves to be an effective strategy, succeeding in keeping the relative range rate between any two spacecraft below 13m/s. Another possible source of perturbation arises from the self-acceleration induced on the formation by the imperfect mass distribution on each spacecraft. The effect of this perturbing acceleration on the motion of the formation has been studied, and the formation design has been re-optimised assuming several levels of perturbation. This approach has shown the result that such effect can be even beneficial on the formation stability, provided that the acceleration doesn't exceed 1e-8m/s2. The transfer to the optimal stability formation has then been optimised, assuming a launch window throughout the year. Mission ?v to a specific target is quite sensitive to the launch date: trailing formations are most effectively reached if the launch occurs at Earth's apohelion (summer), while the opposite applies to leading formations. A strategy where leading and trailing formations are alternatively targeted according to the launch date has proved to be the most effective in keeping the ?v as low as possible.

  6. Koopmans's theorem in the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock method. II. The second canonical set for orbitals and orbital energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ernest R.; Plakhutin, Boris N.

    2010-05-01

    A treatment of the validity of Koopmans's theorem (KT) in the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) method can be separated into two essentially different cases. The first of them involves the one-electron processes X ?Xj± in which the spin state of an ion Xj± having a hole or an extra electron in the closed, open or virtual orbital ?j is correctly described by a one-determinant wave function. This case was analyzed using different methods by Plakhutin et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 204110 (2006)] and by Plakhutin and Davidson [J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 12386 (2009)]. In the present work we analyze more complex processes where the state of an ion cannot be described by a single determinant. An example of such processes is the removal of an alpha electron from the closed shell of a high-spin half-filled open-shell system X. For this case we give a slightly generalized formulation of KT in both the "frozen" orbital approximation (i.e., within the canonical ROHF method) and the limited configuration interaction approach for ionized systems. We also show that a simultaneous treatment of KT for all one-electron ionization processes possible leads to the necessity of introducing in the canonical ROHF method two different sets of orbitals and two respective sets of orbital energies. The theory developed is compared with the previous formulations of KT in the restricted (ROHF) and unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods, and in the unrestricted density functional theory. The practical applicability of the theory is verified by comparing the KT estimates of the vertical ionization potentials in molecules O2 and NO2 with the respective experimental data.

  7. Pair Correlations in Closed-Shell Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Krauss; A. W. Weiss

    1964-01-01

    Pair function equations have been derived exactly for a restricted class of trial functions containing only closed-orbital pair correlations. In a matrix representation, it is shown that they reduce to a homogeneous pseudo-eigenvalue equation. The results are equally applicable to any set of unitarily transformed set of Hartree—Fock orbitals. Comparisons are made with the Sinanog?lu scheme, and computational problems are

  8. Detail view of the lower portion of the vertical stabilizer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the lower portion of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery. The section below the rudder, often referred to as the "stinger", is used to house the orbiter drag chute assembly. The system consisted of a mortar deployed pilot chute, the main drag chute, a controller assembly and an attach/jettison mechanism. This system was a modification to the original design of the Orbiter Discovery to safely reduce the roll to stop distance without adversely affecting the vehicle handling qualities. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Real-time orbit feedback at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.

    1998-06-18

    A real-time orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to meet the stringent orbit stability requirements. The system reduces global orbit motion below 30Hz by a factor of four to below 5{micro}m rms horizontally and 2{micro}m rms vertically. This paper focuses on dynamic orbit stability and describes the all-digital orbit feedback system that has been implemented at the APS. Implementation of the global orbit feedback system is described and its latest performance is presented. Ultimately, the system will provide local feedback at each x-ray source point using installed photon BPMs to measure x-ray beam position and angle directly. Technical challenges associated with local feedback and with dynamics of the associated corrector magnets are described. The unique diagnostic capabilities provided by the APS system are discussed with reference to their use in identifying sources of the underlying orbit motion.

  10. Navigational area of the cranio-orbital foramen and its significance in orbital surgery.

    PubMed

    Celik, Servet; Kazak, Zuhal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen

    2014-12-01

    The cranio-orbital foramen (COF) is located on the lateral wall of the orbit. It is a potential source of hemorrhage during deep lateral orbital dissection, since it functions as an anastomosis between the lacrimal artery and the middle meningeal artery. The aim of this study was to guide and facilitate the surgical procedures in the orbit, so as to determine a navigational area and the precise location of the COF and to standardize certain anatomical marks. The navigational area of the COF and topographical features were studied in 75 craniums with presented COF. 33 bilateral main COFs, 41 (18 on the right, 23 on the left) unilateral main COFs at the main cranium and 19 accessory COFs were studied for their navigational features on the orbit. The distances between the COF and the fronto-zygomatic suture, supraorbital notch, lateral angle of the superior orbital fissure (SOF) and Whitnall's tubercle were measured. The mean distance of the COF from the fronto-zygomatic suture, supraorbital notch, lateral angle of the SOF and Whitnall's tubercle was 26.3, 37.3, 92 and 27.1 mm, respectively. For the navigational area signs of the COF, areas of the orbit that form the transversal and vertical lines are generated on the reference points. Whilst the upper outer area of the orbit contains a potential bleeding risk, the bottom section of the outer column is identified as safe for the surgical operations of the lateral orbital wall. The fronto-zygomatic suture and Whitnall's tubercle are recommended as the most reliable navigational landmarks for identifying the COF. Hence, the transversal and vertical orientation of the COF should be mastered by the surgeons reconstructing the anterior base of the skull and the orbit. PMID:24744137

  11. Mars Orbiter Most Likely Lost

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    In an embarrassing setback to NASA, the Mars Climate Orbiter is believed lost. In the early hours of September 23, the orbiter fired its main engine to go in orbit around Mars and passed behind the planet, losing radio contact as planned. However, due to what was most likely a navigation error, the spacecraft did not resume contact and may have flown too close to the atmosphere and broken apart or burned up. The relatively inexpensive ($125 million) Climate Orbiter was launched in December 1998 to become the first interplanetary weather satellite, studying Martian weather for one Mars year (about two Earth years). It was also to serve as a relay station for five years, relaying information to and from the Mars Polar Lander, due to land on December 3, 1999. NASA, however, insists that the Polar Lander's mission can be accomplished independently and "the science return of that mission won't be affected." The sites listed provide information about Mars Climate Orbiter and its possible loss.

  12. Multi-Body Orbit Architectures for Lunar South Pole Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, D. J.; Ozimek, M. T.; Howell, K. C.; Folta, D. C.

    2006-01-01

    A potential ground station at the lunar south pole has prompted studies of orbit architectures that ensure adequate coverage. Constant communications can be achieved with two spacecraft in different combinations of Earth-Moon libration point orbits. Halo and vertical families, as well as other orbits near L1 and L2 are considered. The investigation includes detailed results using nine different orbits with periods ranging from 7 to 16 days. Natural solutions are generated in a full ephemeris model, including solar perturbations. A preliminary station-keeping analysis is also completed.

  13. Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators

    SciTech Connect

    Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2008-10-01

    To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

  14. Vertical Fluxes of Potential Vorticity and the Structure of the Thermocline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID P. M ARSHALL

    2000-01-01

    A new framework for understanding the vertical structure of ocean gyres is developed based on vertical fluxes of potential vorticity. The key ingredient is an integral constraint that in a steady state prohibits a net flux of potential vorticity through any closed contour of Bernoulli potential or density. Applied to an ocean gyre, the vertical fluxes of potential vorticity associated

  15. Viking satellite orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Hildebrand; E. J. Christensen; D. H. Boggs; G. H. Born; H. Hokikian; J. F. Jordan; W. B. Howard

    1977-01-01

    During the summer of 1976, the two Viking spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter-lander combination, were inserted into orbit about Mars. The paper describes the experiences of the Viking Satellite Orbit Determination Team in determining Mars centered ephemerides of the orbiters and positions of the landers from the two-way Doppler and range data, and synthesizes the different phases of the

  16. Rock-Around Orbits

    E-print Network

    Bourgeois, Scott K.

    2010-07-14

    with larger orbits far above the Earth's surface, e.g. a Geostationary Orbit. Camera systems mounted on satellites can provide an eff ective way to observe these objects. Using a satellite with a speci c orbit relative to the RSO's orbit, one can passively...

  17. Longterm analytical orbit decay and reentry prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Klinkrad

    1986-01-01

    An analytical approach to the prediction of close-Earth satellite orbits of moderate eccentricities is outlined. Based on the method of general averaging and on the principle of separation of perturbations, known results for the averaged time rates of change of the mean orbital elements due to J2, J3, and J4 are superimposed with results of the averaged air drag perturbation

  18. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  19. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  20. On the Stability of Circular Orbits in Galactic Dynamics: Newtonian Thin Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The study of off-equatorial orbits in razor-thin disks is still in its beginnings. Contrary to what was presented in the literature in recent publications, the vertical stability criterion for equatorial circular orbits cannot be based on the vertical epicyclic frequency, because of the discontinuity in the gravitational field on the equatorial plane. We present a rigorous criterion for the vertical stability of circular orbits in systems composed by a razor-thin disk surrounded by a smooth axially symmetric distribution of matter, the latter representing additional structures such as thick disk, bulge and (dark matter) halo. This criterion is satisfied once the mass surface density of the thin disk is positive. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nearly equatorial orbits are presented. In particular, the analysis of nearly equatorial orbits allows us to construct an approximate analytical third integral of motion in this region of phase-space, which describes the shape of these orbits in the meridional plane.

  1. Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

    2012-05-01

    Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

  2. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  3. Interactive Molecular Orbitals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The majority of Introductory Chemistry texts provide students with an adequate introduction to the visual aspects of the molecular orbital model for homonuclear diatomic molecules. The treatment of heteronuclear diatomic and polyatomic molecules is less uniform. Heteronuclear diatomics, when mentioned, are invariably treated as being derived from homonuclear diatomics. While the atomic orbital energy level differences in heteronuclear diatomics is sometimes pictured, the consequences of those differences for the resultant molecular orbitals are rarely discussed. The discussion of polyatomic molecular orbitals in these texts is limited to showing that parallel p-orbitals produce delocalized pi molecular orbitals. The molecules typically mentioned in this context are benzene, nitrate ion and carbonate ion. However, It is rarely pointed out that the six p-orbitals in benzene would form 6 pi molecular orbitals, and that only one of these orbitals would look like the picture in the text.These interactive modules are designed to clarify this subject.

  4. Asymptotic behavior of atomic Hartree-Fock orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, George S.; Smith, Darwin W.; Silverstone, Harris J.

    1980-10-01

    The restricted Hartree-Fock equations are solved at large r for closed shell atomic states. Except for states containing only s orbitals, the Hartree-Fock orbitals obey the formula, ?i(r)˜kiYlimi(?,?) r?-?-1 exp(-?r), where -1/2?2=?ho, the highest occupied orbital energy, where ?= (nuclear charge - number of electrons +1-?)/?, where ?+1=0 for the highest occupied orbital, where ?=? li-lho ? if li?lho, where ?=2 if li=lho?0 and i?ho, where ?=2lmin+1 if li=lho, and where lmin is the smallest nonzero l value of the occupied Hartree-Fock orbitals.

  5. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  6. Orbit correction in a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Edmonds, C. S.; Kirkman, I. W.; Jones, J. K.; Muratori, B. D.; Garland, J. M.; Berg, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, the large natural chromaticity of the machine results in a betatron tune that varies by several integers over the momentum range. Orbit correction is complicated by the consequent variation of the phase advance between lattice elements. Here we investigate how the correction of multiple closed orbit harmonics allows correction of both the closed orbit distortion and the accelerated orbit distortion over the momentum range.

  7. Orbital dynamics in galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Loren

    In the favored vacuum energy + cold dark matter (ACDM) cosmology, galaxies form through a hierarchical merging process. Mergers between comparable-mass sys tems are qualitatively different from the ongoing accretion of small objects by much larger ones, in that they can radically transform the nature of the merging objects, e.g. through violent relaxation of the stars and dark matter, triggered starbursts, and quasar activity. This thesis covers two phenomena unique to major galaxy mergers: the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and triple systems, and the transformation of the stellar orbit structure through violent relaxation, triggered gas inflow, and star formation. In a major merger, the SMBHs can spiral in and form a bound binary in less than a Hubble time. If the binary lifetime exceeds the typical time between mergers, then triple black hole (BH) systems may form. We study the statistics of close triple-SMBH encounters in galactic nuclei by computing a series of three-body orbits with physically-motivated initial conditions appropriate for giant elliptical galaxies. Our simulations include a smooth background potential consisting of a stellar bulge plus a dark matter halo, drag forces due to gravitational radiation and dynamical friction on the stars and dark matter, and a simple model of the time evolution of the inner density profile under heating and mass ejection by the SMBHs. We find that the binary pair coalesces as a result of repeated close encounters in ~85% of our runs. In about 40% of the runs the lightest BH is left wandering through the galactic halo or escapes the galaxy altogether. The triple systems typically scour out cores with mass deficits ~1-2 times their total mass. The high coalescence rate and prevalence of very high-eccentricity orbits could provide interesting signals for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Our study of remnant orbit structure involved 42 disk-disk mergers at various gas fractions, and 10 re-mergers of the 40% gas remnants. All simulations were run using a version of GADGET-2 [173] that included subresolution models of radiative cooling, star formation, and supernova and AGN feedback. The potential was frozen at the last snapshot of each simulation and the orbits of ~50,000 randomly chosen stars were integrated for ~100 dynamical times, and classified based on their Fourier spectra using the algorithm of [30]. The 40% gas remnants were found to be dominated by minor-axis tube orbits in their inner regions, whereas box orbits were the dominant orbit family in the inner parts of the dissipationless disk-disk and remnant-remnant systems. The phase space available to minor-axis tube orbits in even the 5% gas remnants was much larger than that in the dissipationless remnants, but the 5% gas remnants are not fast rotators because these orbits tend to be isotropically distributed at low gas fractions. Some of the remnants show significant minor axis rotation, due to large orientation twists in their outer parts (in the 40% gas remnants) and asymmetrically rotating major-axis tube orbits throughout the remnants (in the re-mergers).

  8. Orbital Decay in LMC X-4

    E-print Network

    Alan M. Levine; Saul A. Rappaport; Goce Zojcheski

    2000-05-04

    We report on the results of observations of the binary X-ray pulsar LMC X-4 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Our analysis of the Doppler delays of the 13.5-s X-ray pulsations yields the most accurate determination of the LMC X-4 orbital parameters available to date. The epoch of orbital phase zero for the 1.4 day orbit is determined with an uncertainty of about 20 s, and is combined with 5 earlier determinations of the epoch of phase zero to obtain the first high significance measurement of the rate of change in the orbital period. We find that the orbital decay timescale is close to 1,000,000 years. We present data on one of three strong X-ray flares as well as energy-dependent pulse profiles for both non-flaring and flaring time intervals. The pulse profiles during the non-flaring time intervals are typically strikingly different from the flare profiles, but at other times can be similar. We reconsider the orbital decay of LMC X-4 in the context of tidal evolution. We find that, while the orbital decay is most likely driven by tidal interactions, the asynchronism between the orbit and the rotation of the companion star is probably maintained by the evolutionary expansion of the companion star, and that the evidence favors the companion star being in a late stage of its life on the main sequence.

  9. Simulation studies of alternate longitudinal control systems for the space shuttle orbiter in the landing regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.; Sarrafian, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Simulations of the space shuttle orbiter in the landing task were conducted by the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility using the Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the total in-flight simulator (TIFS) variable-stability aircraft. Several new control systems designed to improve the orbiter longitudinal response characteristics were investigated. These systems improved the flightpath response by increasing the amount of pitch-rate overshoot. Reduction in the overall time delay was also investigated. During these evaluations, different preferences were noted for the baseline or the new systems depending on the pilot background. The trained astronauts were quite proficient with the baseline system and found the new systems to be less desirable than the baseline. On the other hand, the pilots without extensive flight training with the orbiter had a strong preference for the new systems. This paper presents the results of the VMS and TIFS simulations. A hypothesis is presented regarding the control strategies of the two pilot groups and how this influenced their control systems preferences. Interpretations of these control strategies are made in terms of open-loop aircraft response characteristics as well as pilot-vehicle closed-loop characteristics.

  10. Terrestrial planet formation surrounding close binary stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa V. Quintana; Jack J. Lissauer

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary\\/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around both components of some young close binary star systems. Additionally, it has been shown that if planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for

  11. Studies of Shuttle orbiter arrestment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1993-01-01

    Scale model studies of the Shuttle Orbiter Arrestment System (AS) were completed with a 1/27.5-scale model at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of these studies was to determine the proper configuration for a net arrestment system to bring the orbiter to a safe stop with minimal damage in the event of a runway overrun. Tests were conducted for runway on-centerline and off-centerline engagements at simulated speeds up to approximately 100 knots (full scale). The results of these tests defined the interaction of the net and the orbiter, the dynamics of off-centerline engagements, and the maximum number of vertical net straps that may become entangled with the nose gear. In addition to these tests, a test program with a 1/8-scale model was conducted by the arrestment system contractor, and the results are presented in the appendix.

  12. Majorana states and magnetic orbital motion in planar hybrid nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osca, Javier; Serra, Llorenç

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana phase boundaries in planar 2D hybrid (semiconductor-superconductor) nanowires are modified by orbital effects due to off plane magnetic components. We show that Majorana zero modes survive sizable vertical field tiltings, uncovering a remarkable phase diagram. Analytical expressions of the phase boundaries are given for the strong orbital limit. These phase boundaries can be fulfilled with attainable setups, such as an InAs nanowire of 150 nm in transverse width.

  13. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KSC employees accompany the orbiter Atlantis as it is moved aboard an orbiter transporter to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). In the background are OPF bays 1 and 2. In the VAB it will be lifted to vertical and placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  14. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  15. Tuberculoma of orbit.

    PubMed

    Mehra, K S; Pattanayak, S P; Saroj, G

    1992-01-01

    An interesting case of tuberculoma of the orbit, involving the whole of the eyeball with other orbital cavity structures, is being presented. This is very rarely seen in clinical practice. PMID:1302233

  16. Orbital Mechanics Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. C.; Jankowski, S. C.; Hughes, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    Orbital Mechanics Analysis Program provides engineers with simple tool for analysis or synthesis of any orbital maneuvering function involving vehicle and target. Program useful in such applications as proximity operations and rendezvous maneuvers.

  17. CLOSED ORBITS AND UNIFORM S-INSTABILITY IN INVARIANT THEORY

    E-print Network

    . In addition, we extend fundamental results of Kempf and Hesselink regarding optimal destabilizing parabolic of a reductive group G acting on an affine variety V . Secondly, we extend fundamental results of Kempf

  18. Magnetically controlled mass loss from extrasolar planets in close orbits

    E-print Network

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    We consider the role magnetic fields play in guiding and controlling mass-loss via evaporative outflows from exoplanets that experience UV irradiation. First we present analytic results that account for planetary and stellar magnetic fields, along with mass-loss from both the star and planet. We then conduct series of numerical simulations for gas giant planets, and vary the planetary field strength, background stellar field strength, UV heating flux, and planet mass. These simulations show that the flow is magnetically controlled for moderate field strengths and even the highest UV fluxes, i.e., planetary surface fields $B_P\\gtrsim 0.3$ gauss and fluxes $F_{UV}\\sim10^{6}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We thus conclude that outflows from all hot Jupiters with moderate surface fields are magnetically controlled. The inclusion of magnetic fields highly suppresses outflow from the night-side of the planet. Only the magnetic field lines near the pole are open and allow outflow to occur. The fraction of open field lines depends s...

  19. Vertical ionospheric sounding measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Utlaut; T. N. Gautier

    1964-01-01

    This report presents data on the ionospheric perturbations resulting from the five 1962 high-altitude nuclear detonations, Star Fish, Check Mate, Blue Gill, King Fish, and Tight Rope, as obtained with sweep-frequency vertical-incidence ionosondes operated at the Islands of Maui, Tern (French Frigate Shoals), Midway, Wake (Star Fish only), Canton, Tutuila (American Samoa), and Tongatapu. The ionosondes at Midway and Tongataupu

  20. SEASAT B orbit synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

  1. Everything in OrbitEverything in Orbit Orbital VelocityOrbital Velocity

    E-print Network

    Herrick, Robert R.

    , it would crash into the Sunenergy, it would crash into the Sun #12;Application: satellitesApplication: satellites We can put satellites in any orbit around the Earth, but inertia We can put satellites in any gravitational force to keep it in orbit That means closer satellites must orbit the Earth That means closer

  2. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  3. Orbital evolution around irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A.; Marzari, F.; Farinella, P.

    1999-11-01

    The new profiles of the space missions aimed at asteroids and comets, moving from fly-bys to rendezvous and orbiting, call for new spaceflight dynamics tools capable of propagating orbits in an accurate way around these small irregular objects. Moreover, interesting celestial mechanics and planetary science problems, requiring the same sophisticated tools, have been raised by the first images of asteroids (Ida/Dactyl, Gaspra and Mathilde) taken by the Galileo and NEAR probes, and by the discovery that several near-Earth asteroids are probably binary. We have now developed two independent codes which can integrate numerically the orbits of test particles around irregularly shaped primary bodies. One is based on a representation of the central body in terms of "mascons" (discrete spherical masses), while the other one models the central body as a polyhedron with a variable number of triangular faces. To check the reliability and performances of these two codes we have performed a series of tests and compared their results. First we have used the two algorithms to calculate the gravitational potential around non-spherical bodies, and have checked that the results are similar to each other and to those of other, more common, approaches; the polyhedron model appears to be somewhat more accurate in representing the potential very close to the body's surface. Then we have run a series of orbit propagation tests, integrating several different trajectories of a test particle around a sample ellipsoid. Again the two codes give results in fair agreement with each other. By comparing these numerical results to those predicted by classical perturbation formulae, we have noted that when the orbit of the test particle gets close to the surface of the primary, the analytical approximations break down and the corresponding predictions do not match the results of the numerical integrations. This is confirmed by the fact that the agreement gets better and better for orbits farther away from the primary. Finally, we have found that in terms of CPU time requirements, the performances of the two codes are quite similar, and that the optimal choice probably depends on the specific problem under study.

  4. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  5. Homoclinic orbits and critical points of barrier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannarsa, Piermarco; Cheng, Wei

    2015-06-01

    We interpret the close link between the critical points of Mather's barrier functions and minimal homoclinic orbits with respect to the Aubry sets on {{T}}n . We also prove a critical point theorem for barrier functions and the existence of such homoclinic orbits on {{T}}2 as an application.

  6. Precise Orbit Determination and Cal\\/Val for GOCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henno Boomkamp; John Dow; Michiel Otten

    In its position as IGS analysis centre, the ESOC navigation Office has extensive expertise in the processing of GPS data for precise orbit determination purposes. On-going developments in this area include the gradual implementation of real-time processing, and the possible incorporation of GPS data from low Earth orbiting satellites in IGS product generation. From this position, and its close interaction

  7. Development of the orbit feedback system for the VSX ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Satoh; K. Harada; H. Takaki; T. Koseki; N. Nakamura; Y. Kamiya; K. Hanawa

    2001-01-01

    An orbit feedback system will be installed in the VSX ring to stabilize the photon beam. The new COD correction method, the eigenvector method with constraints, is adopted for calculation of the steering-magnet currents. A computer simulation shows that the new method can tightly fix the beam positions at insertion devices, correcting the whole closed orbit globally with almost the

  8. Secular Orbital Evolution of Compact Planet Systems

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Ke; Matsumura, Soko

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that at least some close-in exoplanets maintain eccentric orbits despite tidal circularization timescales that are typically shorter than stellar ages. We explore gravitational interactions with a distant planetary companion as a possible cause of these non-zero eccentricities. For simplicity, we focus on the evolution of a planar two-planet system subject to slow eccentricity damping and provide an intuitive interpretation of the resulting long-term orbital evolution. We show that dissipation shifts the two normal eigenmode frequencies and eccentricity ratios of the standard secular theory slightly, and that each mode decays at its own rate. Tidal damping of the eccentricities drives orbits to transition between periods of pericenter circulation and libration, and the planetary system settles into a locked state where the pericenters are nearly aligned or antialigned. Once in the locked state, the eccentricities of the two orbits decrease very slowly due to tides rather than at...

  9. Spinning compact binary dynamics and chameleon orbits

    E-print Network

    László Árpád Gergely; Zoltán Keresztes

    2014-12-20

    We analyse the conservative evolution of spinning compact binaries to second post-Newtonian (2PN) order accuracy, with leading order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. As a main result we derive a closed system of first order differential equations in a compact form, for a set of dimensionless variables encompassing both orbital elements and spin angles. These evolutions are constrained by conservation laws holding at 2PN order. As required by the generic theory of constrained dynamical systems we perform a consistency check and prove that the constraints are preserved by the evolution. We apply the formalism to show the existence of chameleon orbits, whose local, orbital parameters evolve from elliptic (in the Newtonian sense) near pericenter, towards hyperbolic at large distances. This behavior is consistent with the picture that General Relativity predicts stronger gravity at short distances than Newtonian theory does.

  10. Rock-Around Orbits 

    E-print Network

    Bourgeois, Scott K.

    2010-07-14

    me to be a better engineer and to persist because there is always an answer. I would also like to thank the sta at the Spacecraft Technology Center for their help and support. I have learned that patience is not only a good virtue to have as a person... of Minimum Distance from Spacecraft to Circular Target Orbit 16 10 Minimum Distance between RAO and GEO Orbits for One RAO Orbital Period (Example 1) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 11 Compatible Orbits for Elliptical Target Orbit (Example 2...

  11. OTV orbital tanking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, D. A.; Merino, F.

    1979-01-01

    Orbital transfer of cryogenic propellants could benefit spacecraft and Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) missions in the 1980s by supplying main propulsion, attitude control, or other fluid systems. The Space Shuttle can operate as a tanker when equipped with cryogenic propellant storage and orbital transfer systems. The key technologies are multilayer insulation, capillary propellant acquisition, zero-g gaging, orbital chilldown, and possibly large flight weight dewars. The technologies and operations could be realistically demonstrated using a Centaur that has been integrated with the Shuttle. Orbital refueling capability can enhance the usefulness of the whole Shuttle program

  12. Orbit correction in an orbit separated cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plostinar, C.; Rees, G. H.

    2014-04-01

    The orbit separated proton cyclotron (OSC) described in [1] differs in concept from that of a separated orbit cyclotron (SOC) [2]. Synchronous acceleration in an OSC is based on harmonic number jumps and orbit length adjustments via reverse bending. Four-turn acceleration in the OSC enables it to have four times fewer cryogenic-cavity systems than in a superconducting linac of the same high beam power and energy range. Initial OSC studies identified a progressive distortion of the spiral beam orbits by the off-axis, transverse deflecting fields in its accelerating cavities. Compensation of the effects of these fields involves the repeated use of a cavity field map, in a 3-D linac tracking code, to determine the modified arc bends required for the OSC ring. Subsequent tracking studies confirm the compensation scheme and show low emittance growth in acceleration.

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

  14. Jupiter orbiter lifetime: The hazard of Galilean satellite collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter present a long-term collision hazard to an uncontrolled orbiting spacecraft that repeatedly enters the spatial region occupied by the satellites. Satellite close encounters and the likelihood of collision over a wide range of initial orbit conditions were analyzed. The effect of orbit inclination was of key interest. The scope of the analysis was restricted to orbital dynamic considerations alone, i.e. the question of biological contamination given the event of collision was not considered. A quarantine or orbiter lifetime of 50 years was assumed. This time period begins at spacecraft shutdown following completion of the mission objectives. A numerical approach was adopted wherein each initial orbit is propagated for 50 years, and satellite closest encounter distances recorded on every revolution. The computer program includes approximations of the three major perturbation effects on the long-term motion of the orbiter: (1) Jupiter oblateness, (2) solar gravity, and (3) satellite gravity.

  15. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

  16. Optimization of the Helical Orbits in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To avoid multiple head-on collisions the proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron move along separate helical orbits created by 7 horizontal and 8 vertical electrostatic separators. Still the residual long-range beam-beam interactions can adversely affect particle motion at all stages from injection to collision. With increased intensity of the beams it became necessary to modify the orbits in order to mitigate the beam-beam effect on both antiprotons and protons. This report summarizes the work done on optimization of the Tevatron helical orbits, outlines the applied criteria and presents the achieved results.

  17. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Performance in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Obeid, Rima; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Verticality is essential in our life, especially for postural stability. Subjective vertical as well as postural stability depends on different sensorial information: visual, vestibular and somesthesic. They help to build the spatial referentials and create a central representation of verticality. Children are more visuo-dependant than adults; however, we did not find any study focusing on how children develop their sense of verticality. Methods We studied two groups of subjects: 10 children (from 6 to 8 years) and 12 young adults. We recorded postural stability with a Techno Concept plateform and perception of subjective visual vertical in the following conditions: while adjusting the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation, while fixating the vertical bar, and with eyes closed. Results Children are more instable than adults in terms of postural parameters, and also while performing a double task, especially when no visual references are present. They also present a higher variability and lower accuracy than adults in reporting their perception of true vertical reference. Discussion Children might have limited attentional resources, and focus their attention on the more demanding task, corresponding to the U-shaped non-linear model. PMID:24236146

  18. Vertical Motion Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

  19. 48The Grail and LRO Spacecraft Encounters in Lunar Orbit On May 31, 2012 the Grail `Ebb'

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    ' of light as it passes by. Note: Explore the encounter by using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System orbit48The Grail and LRO Spacecraft Encounters in Lunar Orbit On May 31, 2012 the Grail `Ebb' spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnissance Orbiter (LRO) will come very close to each other in their orbits around the moon

  20. Orbital Resonance and Solar Cycles

    E-print Network

    P. A. Semi

    2009-03-29

    We present an analysis of planetary moves, encoded in DE406 ephemerides. We show resonance cycles between most planets in Solar System, of differing quality. The most precise resonance - between Earth and Venus, which not only stabilizes orbits of both planets, locks planet Venus rotation in tidal locking, but also affects the Sun: This resonance group (E+V) also influences Sunspot cycles - the position of syzygy between Earth and Venus, when the barycenter of the resonance group most closely approaches the Sun and stops for some time, relative to Jupiter planet, well matches the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, not only for the last 400 years of measured Sunspot cycles, but also in 1000 years of historical record of "severe winters". We show, how cycles in angular momentum of Earth and Venus planets match with the Sunspot cycle and how the main cycle in angular momentum of the whole Solar system (854-year cycle of Jupiter/Saturn) matches with climatologic data, assumed to show connection with Solar output power and insolation. We show the possible connections between E+V events and Solar global p-Mode frequency changes. We futher show angular momentum tables and charts for individual planets, as encoded in DE405 and DE406 ephemerides. We show, that inner planets orbit on heliocentric trajectories whereas outer planets orbit on barycentric trajectories.

  1. Statistics of close approaches between asteroids and planets - Project Spaceguard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milani, A.; Carpino, M.; Marzari, F.

    1990-01-01

    A data base of close approaches to the major planets has been generated via numerical integrations for a large number of planet-crossing asteroid orbits over the course of 200,000 yr; these data are then applied to such statistical theories as those of Kessler (1981) and Wetherill (1967). Attention is given to the orbits of the Toro-class asteroids, which violate the assumption of a lack of mean motion resonance locking between target planet and asteroid. A modified form of the Kessler theory is proposed which can address the problem of approaches between orbits that are either nearly coplanar or nearly tangent. A correlation analysis is used to test the assumption that the orbital elements of a planet-crossing orbit change solely due to close approaches.

  2. Vertical wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, D.P.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes a wind driven turbine of the vertical axis type comprising: (a) a support base; (b) a generally vertical column rotatably mounted to the support base; (c) upper and lower support means respectively mounted on the column for rotation therewith; wind driven blades connected between the upper and lower support means for rotation about the column and each blade being individually rotatable about a blade axis extending longitudinally through the blade to vary a blade angle of attach thereof relative to wind velocity during rotation about the column; and (e) control means for variably adjusting angles of attack of each blade to incident wind, the control means including a connecting rod means having drive means for rotating each blade about the associated blade axis in response to radial movement of the connecting rod means and control shaft pivotally mounted within the column and having a first shaft portion connected to the connecting rod means and a second shaft portion radially offset from the first shaft portion and pivotally connected to radially displace the first portion and thereby the connecting rod means to vary the blade angles of attack during rotation about the column.

  3. Attitude maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft in a circular orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeyoung Lee; N. Harris McClamroch; Melvin Leok

    2006-01-01

    A global model is presented that can be used to study attitude maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft in a circular orbit about a large central body. The model includes gravity gradient effects that arise from the non-uniform gravity field and characterizes the spacecraft attitude with respect to the uniformly rotating local vertical local horizontal coordinate frame. An accurate computational approach

  4. Attitude Maneuvers of a Rigid Spacecraft in a Circular Orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeyoung Lee; Melvin Leok; N. Harris McClamroch

    2005-01-01

    A global model is presented that can be used to study attitude maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft in a circular orbit about a large central body. The model includes gravity gradient effects that arise from the non-uniform gravity field and characterizes the spacecraft attitude with respect to the uniformly rotating local vertical local horizontal coordinate frame. An accurate computational approach

  5. Planet-C: Venus Climate Orbiter mission of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Nakamura; Takeshi Imamura; Munetaka Ueno; Naomoto Iwagami; Takehiko Satoh; Shigeto Watanabe; Makoto Taguchi; Yukihiro Takahashi; Makoto Suzuki; Takumi Abe; George L. Hashimoto; Takeshi Sakanoi; Shoichi Okano; Yasumasa Kasaba; Jun Yoshida; Manabu Yamada; Nobuaki Ishii; Takahiro Yamada; Kazunori Uemizu; Tetsuya Fukuhara; Koh-Ichiro Oyama

    2007-01-01

    The Venus Climate Orbiter mission (PLANET-C), one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four cameras at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, detecting lightning with a high-speed imager, and observing the vertical structure of the atmosphere with radio science

  6. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffy, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Acuna, M.; Allen, M.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Farrell, W.; Burchell, M. J.; Burger, M.; Chin, G.; Coates, A. J.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Gerlach, B.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Im, Eastwood; Jennings, D.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  7. Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings

    E-print Network

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings Ali Reza The Fibonacci cube #n is obtained from the n­cube Qn by removing all the vertices that contain two consecutive 1 of orbits of each size, are determined for the Fibonacci cubes and the Lucas cubes under the action

  8. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  9. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery on the starboard side looking forward. This view is of the attach surface for the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System (OMS/RCS) Pod. The OMS/RCS pods are removed for processing and reconditioning at another facility. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ?y=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  11. The vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Burns, J. A.; Durisen, R. H.; Hamill, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    An explanation for the vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings compatible with observational data is presented. The model of the rings as being many particles thick is shown to be possible, with random particle motions preventing the complete flattening of the system and a gaussian distribution of particle density with vertical displacement. The model prediction of a maximum ring thickness of tens of meters, however, is in conflict with observations of ring thickness of at least 0.8 km at ring-plane passage. It is shown that perturbations to ring particle orbits caused by the sun and Saturn's large satellites may produce long- and short-period coherent vertical ring displacements and a nonlinear displacement of the ring plane from the equatorial plane with radial distance, leading to an apparent edge-on thickness of a few hundred meters.

  12. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  13. Orbital motion effects in astrometric microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2014-04-01

    We investigate lens orbital motion in astrometric microlensing and its detectability. In microlensing events, the light centroid shift in the source trajectory (the astrometric trajectory) falls off much more slowly than the light amplification as the source distance from the lens position increases. As a result, perturbations developed with time such as lens orbital motion can make considerable deviations in astrometric trajectories. The rotation of the source trajectory due to lens orbital motion produces a more detectable astrometric deviation because the astrometric cross-section is much larger than the photometric one. Among binary microlensing events with detectable astrometric trajectories, those with stellar-mass black holes have most likely detectable astrometric signatures of orbital motion. Detecting lens orbital motion in their astrometric trajectories helps to discover further secondary components around the primary even without any photometric binarity signature as well as resolve close/wide degeneracy. For these binary microlensing events, we evaluate the efficiency of detecting orbital motion in astrometric trajectories and photometric light curves by performing Monte Carlo simulation. We conclude that astrometric efficiency is 87.3 per cent whereas the photometric efficiency is 48.2 per cent.

  14. Orbital Evolution of Jupiter-Family Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. S.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the evolution for periods of at least 5-10 Myr of 2500 Jupiter-crossing objects (JCOs) under the gravitational influence of all planets, except for Mercury and Pluto (without dissipative factors). In the first series we considered N=2000 orbits near the orbits of 30 real Jupiter-family comets with period less than 10 yr, and in the second series we took 500 orbits close to the orbit of Comet 10P Tempel 2. We calculated the probabilities of collisions of objects with the terrestrial planets, using orbital elements obtained with a step equal to 500 yr and then summarized the results for all time intervals and all bodies, obtaining the total probability P(sub sigma) of collisions with a planet and the total time interval T(sub sigma) during which perihelion distance of bodies was less than a semimajor axis of the planet. The values of P = 10(exp 6)P(sub sigma)/N and T = T(sub sigma)/1000 yr are presented in Table together with the ratio r of the total time interval when orbits were of Apollo type (at e less than 0.999) to that of Amor type.

  15. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  16. Dynamics of geckos running vertically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Autumn; S. T. Hsieh; D. M. Dudek; J. Chen; C. Chitaphan; R. J. Full

    2006-01-01

    Geckos with adhesive toe pads rapidly climb even smooth vertical surfaces. We challenged geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii) to climb up a smooth vertical track that contained a force platform. Geckos climbed vertically at up to 77·cm·s -1 with a stride frequency of 15·Hz using a trotting gait. During each step, whole body fore-aft, lateral and normal forces all decreased to zero

  17. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.?METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.?RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.?CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.?? PMID:9497470

  18. Two phase pressure drop in inclined and vertical pipes

    E-print Network

    Griffith, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method of calculating the pressure drop in inclined and vertical oil-gas wells is proposed. The data used to establish the method is from a variety of sources but is largely from air and water flowing in systems close ...

  19. Hydrogen atom in a magnetic field: Ghost orbits, catastrophes, and uniform semiclassical approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Main, J.; Wunner, G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Applying closed-orbit theory to the recurrence spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, one can interpret most, but not all, structures semiclassically in terms of closed classical orbits. In particular, conventional closed-orbit theory fails near bifurcations of orbits where semiclassical amplitudes exhibit unphysical divergences. Here we analyze the role of ghost orbits living in complex phase space. The ghosts can explain resonance structures in the spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field at positions where no real orbits exist. For three different types of catastrophes, viz. fold, cusp, and butterfly catastrophes, we construct uniform semiclassical approximations and demonstrate that these solutions are completely determined by classical parameters of the real orbits and complex ghosts. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Closed loop electrostatic levitation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    An electrostatic levitation system is described, which can closely control the position of objects of appreciable size. A plurality of electrodes surround the desired position of an electrostatically charged object, the position of the objects is monitored, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied to hold the object at a desired position. In one system, the object is suspended above a plate-like electrode which has a concave upper face to urge the object toward the vertical axis of the curved plate. An upper electrode that is also curved can be positioned above the object, to assure curvature of the field at any height above the lower plate. In another system, four spherical electrodes are positioned at the points of a tetrahedron, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied in accordance with the object position as detected by two sensors.

  1. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  2. Viking Orbiter stereophotogrammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benesh

    1978-01-01

    Orbit characteristics of the two Viking Orbiter spacecraft made possible the acquisition of high-resolution imagery of the Martian surface, resulting in many excellent convergent stereopairs. Evaluation of these stereopairs presented a few unconventional problems because the routine relative orientation was not feasible, mainly due to a lack of good passpoints and to the technical peculiarities of TV vidicon imaging techniques.

  3. From surface to orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andras Bela Olah

    2011-01-01

    Space travel is highly expensive and has significant limitations. Among all space activities the process of travelling from the surface to orbit requires the greatest amount of energy, materials and cost. Basically even today, more than 61 years after the first artificial satellite was set to orbit, these difficulties have been the greatest barriers of the dawn of the real

  4. Orbits R Us!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site introduces the principle of geosynchronous orbits and geostationary weather satellites in non-technical terms. Several animations show how they work. The GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) satellite programs at NASA and NOAA are briefly explained.

  5. Orbital Shape Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of orbital shapes for instructional purposes, emphasizing that differences between polar, contour, and three-dimensional plots must be made clear to students or misconceptions will occur. Also presents three-dimensional contour surfaces for the seven 4f atomic orbitals of hydrogen and discusses their computer generation. (JN)

  6. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Analyzing Shuttle Orbiter Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    LRBET4 program best-estimated-of-trajectory (BET) calculation for post-flight trajectory analysis of Shuttle orbiter. Produces estimated measurements for comparing predicted and actual trajectory of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Kalman filter and smoothing filter applied to input data to estimate state vector, reduce noise, and produce BET. LRBET4 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  8. Cassini orbit determination performance during the first eight orbits of the Saturn satellite tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Meek, M. C.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Roundhill, I. M.; Stauch, J.

    2005-01-01

    From June 2004 through July 2005, the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft has executed nine successful close-targeted encounters by three major satellites of the Saturnian system. Current results show that orbit determination has met design requirements for targeting encounters, Hugens descent, and predicting science instrument pointing for targetd satellite encounters. This paper compares actual target dispersion against, the predicte tour covariance analyses.

  9. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Accelerometer Experiment Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Zurek, R. W.; Blanchard, R. C.; Tolson, R. H.; Murphy, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, designed for aerobraking, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 400 orbits. MRO periapsis precessed from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis was brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) August 30, 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers established the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 400 plus aerobraking orbits provided a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (greater than 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extended vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both near the surface and in the upper atmosphere. Thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may both be critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: winter polar warming, planetary scale gravity waves, latitudinal, seasonal, and diurnal variations, and variations from perihelion to aphelion. This will validate and constrain both upper atmospheric circulation models used to understand the nature of high-altitude variability and transport processes, and engineering models used to plan future missions.

  10. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.

  11. Orbital Debris Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

    2014-01-01

    Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

  12. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  13. Orbitals from local RDMFT: Are they Kohn-Sham or Natural Orbitals?

    E-print Network

    Theophilou, Iris; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I; Rubio, Angel; Helbig, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an approximation was introduced in reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT), called local-RDMFT, where functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are minimized under the additional condition that the optimal orbitals satisfy a single electron Schr\\"odinger equation with a local potential. In the present work, we assess the impact of this additional condition on the optimal orbitals. In particular we compare orbitals obtained by local-RDMFT with those obtained with the full minimization (without the extra condition) by comparing them with the exact NOs and orbitals from a density functional calculation using the local density approximation (LDA). We find that the orbitals from local-RMDFT are very close to LDA orbitals, contrary to those of the full minimization that resemble the exact NOs. Since local RDMFT preserves the good quality of the description of strong static correlation, this finding opens the way to a mixed density/density matrix scheme, where Kohn-Sham orbitals o...

  14. Trajectories in Close Proximity to Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft motion in close proximity to irregularly shaped, rotating bodies such as asteroids presents a unique dynamical environment as compared to most space missions. There are several fundamental novelties in this environment that spacecraft must deal with. These include the possibility of orbital instabilities that can act over very short time spans (on the order of hours for some systems), possible non-uniform rotation of the central gravity field, divergence of traditional gravity field representations when close to the asteroid surface, dominance of perturbing forces, an extremely large asteroid model parameter space that must be prepared for in the absence of reliable information, and the possibility of employing new and novel trajectory control techniques such as hovering and repeated landings on the asteroid surface. An overview of how these novelties impact the space of feasible close proximity operations and how different asteroid model properties will affect their implementation is given. In so doing, four fundamental types of close proximity operations will be defined. Listed in order of increasing technical difficulty these are: (1) close, stable orbits; (2) low-altitude flyovers; (3) landing trajectories; and (4) hovering trajectories. The feasibility and difficulty of implementing these operations will vary as a function of the asteroid shape, size, density, and rotation properties, and as a function of the spacecraft navigation capability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The dominating higher order vertical modes of the internal seiche in a small lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE D. LAZERTE

    1980-01-01

    The internal seiche structure of a small, shallow lake (Frains Lake, Michigan) is shown to be dominated by the higher order vertical modes. The resonalit frequencies and the vertical velocity profiles of each mode were predicted from observed temperature profiles. The oh- served resonant frequencies and observed phase shifts in the velocity profiles of each mode corresponded closely to those

  16. B-52 Flight Mission Symbology - Close up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A close-up view of some of the mission markings that tell the story of the NASA B-52 mothership's colorful history. These particular markings denote some of the experiments the bomber conducted to develop parachute recovery systems for the solid rocket boosters used by the Space Shuttle. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet.. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  17. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity, and (2) presence of abundant microfossils yields close ties to geochronology. A tantalizing possibility that stratigraphy may yield a record of orbital signals unrelated to climate has turned up in magnetic studies of our Cretaceous core. Magnetic secular variations here carry a strong 39 ka periodicity, corresponding to the theoretical obliquity period of that time - Does the obliquity cycle perhaps have some direct influence on the magnetic field?

  18. Latitude and longitude vertical disparities.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Phillipson, Graeme P; Glennerster, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term "vertical disparity" are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparities. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparities expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position-gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment-can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  19. Functions and Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

  20. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  1. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Douglas; Abelson, Robert; Johannesen, Jennie; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William; Newlin, Laura

    NASA's Juno mission will launch in 2011 and explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions and its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. The science mission is concluded with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction due to impact into an icy body.

  2. SECULAR ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Matsumura, Soko, E-mail: dphamil@umd.edu, E-mail: soko@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Recent observations have shown that at least some close-in exoplanets maintain eccentric orbits despite tidal circularization timescales that are typically much shorter than stellar ages. We explore gravitational interactions with a more distant planetary companion as a possible cause of these unexpected non-zero eccentricities. For simplicity, we focus on the evolution of a planar two-planet system subject to slow eccentricity damping and provide an intuitive interpretation of the resulting long-term orbital evolution. We show that dissipation shifts the two normal eigenmode frequencies and eccentricity ratios of the standard secular theory slightly, and we confirm that each mode decays at its own rate. Tidal damping of the eccentricities drives orbits to transition relatively quickly between periods of pericenter circulation and libration, and the planetary system settles into a locked state in which the pericenters are nearly aligned or nearly anti-aligned. Once in the locked state, the eccentricities of the two orbits decrease very slowly because of tides rather than at the much more rapid single-planet rate, and thus eccentric orbits, even for close-in planets, can often survive much longer than the age of the system. Assuming that an observed close-in planet on an elliptical orbit is apsidally locked to a more distant, and perhaps unseen companion, we provide a constraint on the mass, semi-major axis, and eccentricity of the companion. We find that the observed two-planet system HAT-P-13 might be in just such an apsidally locked state, with parameters that obey our constraint reasonably well. We also survey close-in single planets, some with and some without an indication of an outer companion. None of the dozen systems that we investigate provides compelling evidence for unseen companions. Instead, we suspect that (1) orbits are in fact circular, (2) tidal damping rates are much slower than we have assumed, or (3) a recent event has excited these eccentricities. Our method should prove useful for interpreting the results of both current and future planet searches.

  3. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  4. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  5. OL- ORBITAL LIFETIME PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, L. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital Lifetime (OL) program analyzes the long-term motion of Earth-orbiting spacecraft at altitudes of up to 2500 kilometers. It models perturbations to the orbit caused by solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, and gravitational effects due to the sun, the moon, and Earth oblateness. OL can be used to predict the orbital lifetime and decay rate of a satellite. The atmospheric density models used in OL are the U.S. Standard Atmosphere for altitudes below 90 km and the Jacchia model for altitudes above 90 km. The Jacchia model requires solar flux and geomagnetic index for the date of orbit. An input file containing these values for 1984 to 1998 is supplied with the OL package. The solar radiation pressure calculations in OL will predict the amount of time a spacecraft is subjected to the Earth's shadow. Input to OL includes spacecraft physical characteristics, initial orbit parameters, and launch date/time. OL calculates time histories of the orbital elements, total lifetime, and decay rates. A spacecraft is considered 'down' at an altitude of 64 km. OL also generates a file of plot data which can be input to a user-supplied graphics program for lifetime plots of altitude against time. OL is written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive or batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer operating under VMS. This program was developed in 1985.

  6. Visualization of atom's orbits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungwhan

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques have been used to obtain views of internal shapes of single atoms or columns of atoms. This review article focuses on the visualization of internal atomic structures such as the configurations of electron orbits confined to atoms. This is accomplished by applying visualization techniques to the reported images of atoms or molecules as well as static and dynamic ions in a plasma. It was found that the photon and electron energies provide macroscopic and microscopic views of the orbit structures of atoms, respectively. The laser-imaged atoms showed a rugged orbit structure, containing alternating dark and bright orbits believed to be the pathways for an externally supplied laser energy and internally excited electron energy, respectively. By contrast, the atoms taken by the electron microscopy provided a structure of fine electron orbits, systematically formed in increasing order of grayscale representing the energy state of an orbit. This structure was identical to those of the plasma ions. The visualized electronic structures played a critical role in clarifying vague postulates made in the Bohr model. Main features proposed in the atomic model are the dynamic orbits absorbing an externally supplied electromagnetic energy, electron emission from them while accompanying light radiation, and frequency of electron waves not light. The light-accompanying electrons and ionic speckles induced by laser light signify that light is composed of electrons and ions. PMID:24749452

  7. Real-time Sub-cm Differential Orbit Determination of two Low-Earth Orbiters with GPS Bias Fixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sien-Chong; Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.

    2006-01-01

    An effective technique for real-time differential orbit determination with GPS bias fixing is formulated. With this technique, only real-time GPS orbits and clocks are needed (available from the NASA Global Differential GPS System with 10-20 cm accuracy). The onboard, realtime orbital states of user satellites (few meters in accuracy) are used for orbit initialization and integration. An extended Kalman filter is constructed for the estimation of the differential orbit between the two satellites as well as a reference orbit, together with their associating dynamics parameters. Due to close proximity of the two satellites and of similar body shapes, the differential dynamics are highly common and can be tightly constrained which, in turn, strengthens the orbit estimation. Without explicit differencing of GPS data, double-differenced phase biases are formed by a transformation matrix. Integer-valued fixing of these biases are then performed which greatly strengthens the orbit estimation. A 9-day demonstration between GRACE orbits with baselines of approx.200 km indicates that approx.80% of the double-differenced phase biases can successfully be fixed and the differential orbit can be determined to approx.7 mm as compared to the results of onboard K-band ranging.

  8. Orbital Evolution and Chaos Among the Inner Moons of Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark

    2006-07-01

    Uranus has a family of thirteen satellites orbiting interior to the innermost classical moon, Miranda. Nine of these comprise the Portia group, a closely-packed dynamical system that has recently been found to show significant orbital variations over time scales of 1-2 decades. This result supports inferences that the system is chaotic, with collisions expected over time scales of less than one million years. No analogous orbital system has been seen elsewhere in the Solar System. With these new results, it becomes much more important to understand the orbital history of the inner moons of Uranus. The HST archive contains numerous detections of these moons, from WFPC2, NICMOS and ACS, that have never been used for orbital determinations. Many observations fill a gap between 1994 and 2003, during which the orbits have never been measured. This is a proposal to use all the available data from the HST archive to derive the orbital variations of the larger moons in the Portia group from 1994 to 2005. This investigation will provide unique new information about the time scales over which the variations occur and the nature of the hypothesized chaos. For example, this study will enable us to test the prediction that the two adjacent moons Cressida and Desdemona have closely coupled variations, and it may reveal whether the surprisingly large orbital deviations of Belinda are related to its resonance with the nearby, but much smaller moon Perdita.

  9. Propulsion evaluation for orbit-on-demand vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. A.; Naftel, J. C.; Turriziani, R. V.

    1985-07-01

    Future earth-to-orbit vehicles may be required to reach orbit within hours or even minutes of a decision. A study has been conducted to consider vehicles with such a capability. In Phase I of the study, 11 vehicles were designed to deploy 5000 lb to a polar orbit. Changes in the designs were examined parametrically for increased on-orbit maneuvers, increased payload, and other mission variations. Based on the results, two concepts were selected for Phase II design work: a vertical-takeoff, two-stage system and a horizontal-takeoff, two-stage system with an airbreathing subsonic first stage. The results of several propulsion evaluations are presented, including liftoff thrust-to-weight effects, dual-fuel propulsion for a horizontal-takeoff concept, and the effect of using fluorine.

  10. Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual notation point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous notation point missions (ISEE-3, SOHO, ACE and MAP) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard marine and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using onboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN, missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.

  11. A Multirate Störmer Algorithm for Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazier, K. R.; Newman, W. I.; Sharp, P. W.

    2013-04-01

    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Störmer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and hi , i = 1, ..., Np , where hi Lt H and Np is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize hi is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method. This work has been conducted in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  13. orbit.ps

    E-print Network

    consist of an arbitrary number of troughs are found numerically. The bifurca- ... Key words: water wave, Boussinesq system, traveling wave, homoclinic orbit,. multi-pulsed solution ... But to the best of my knowledge, there is no result regarding.

  14. Imaging in orbital trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken Y.; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C.; Tao, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

  15. Tethered orbital refueling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.; Rudolph, L. Kevin; Kiefel, Erlinda R.; Abbott, Peter W.; Grossrode, Pat

    1986-01-01

    One of the major applications of the space station will be to act as a refueling depot for cryogenic-fueled space-based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), Earth-storable fueled orbit maneuvering vehicles, and refurbishable satellite spacecraft using hydrazine. One alternative for fuel storage at the space station is a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF), separated from the space station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient force that settles the stored fuels. The technical feasibility was examined with the primary focus on the refueling of LO2/LH2 orbital transfer vehicles. Also examined was the tethered facility on the space station. It was compared to a zero-gravity facility. A tethered refueling facility should be considered as a viable alternative to a zero-gravity facility if the zero-gravity fluid transfer technology, such as the propellant management device and no vent fill, proves to be difficult to develop with the required performance.

  16. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

  17. Report on orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The success of space endeavors depends upon a space environment sufficiently free of debris to enable the safe and dependable operation of spacecraft. An environment overly cluttered with debris would threaten the ability to utilize space for a wide variety of scientific, technological, military, and commercial purposes. Man made space debris (orbital debris) differs from natural meteoroids because it remains in earth orbit during its lifetime and is not transient through the space around the Earth. The orbital debris environment is considered. The space environment is described along with sources of orbital debris. The current national space policy is examined, along with ways to minimize debris generation and ways to survive the debris environment. International efforts, legal issues and commercial regulations are also examined.

  18. PPPL Lorentz orbit code

    SciTech Connect

    Felt, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Cohen, S.A.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Manos, D.; Zweben, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A code that integrates the Lorentz force equation has been developed to trace a single charged particle's trajectory under the influence of toroidally symmetric magnetic fields found in tokamaks. This code is used primarily to design and estimate the efficiency of charged fusion product probes, which detect escaping energetic ions such as the 1 MeV tritons, 3 MeV protons, 15 MeV protons, and 3.5 MeV alphas created in TFTR. This interactive code has also been used as a teaching tool to illustrate classes of orbits such as trapped and passing, as well as subtle orbital motions, e.g., precession of banana orbits in tokamaks, or orbits in dipole magnetic field configuration. This paper describes the code as well as recent modifications which (1) include Shafranov shifts of the magnetic surfaces, (2) use more realistic current density profiles, and (3) allow modeling of the detector and limiters.

  19. Mars parking orbit selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Braun, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    For a Mars mission, the selection of a parking orbit is greatly influenced by the precession caused by the oblateness of the planet. This affects the departure condition for earth return, and therefore, the mass required in LEO for a Mars mission. In this investigation, minimum LEO mass penalties were observed for parking orbits characterized by having near-equatorial inclinations, high eccentricities, and requiring a three-dimensional departure burn. However, because near-equatorial inclination orbits have poor planetary coverage characteristics, they are not desirable from a science viewpoint. To enhance these science requirements along with landing-site accessibility, a penalty in initial LEO mass is required. This study shows that this initial LEO mass penalty is reduced for orbits characterized with low to moderate eccentricities, nonequatorial inclinations, and a tangential periapsis arrival and departure burn.

  20. Indian Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is the first interplanetary mission of India launched by Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) on 5 November 2013. It departed from Earth's orbit on Dec. 1, 2013, on its 300-days journey to Mars. MOM will reach Mars on Sept. 24, 2014. The orbit of MOM around Mars is highly elliptical with periapsis ~370 km and apoapsis ~80000 km, inclination 151 degree, and orbital period 3.15 sols. The spacecraft mass is 1350 kg, with dry mass of 500 kg and science payload mass of 14 kg. The spacecraft carries five science payloads, namely: Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Colour Camera (MCC), Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA), TIR Imaging Spectrometer (TIS). This paper will present the details of the instruments, observation plan, and expected science.

  1. Altimetry, Orbits and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.

  2. Collision risk management in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, A. B.; Peterson, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic method has been developed for managing long-term collision risk posed to operational satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Long-term collision risk reduction is achieved by proper selection of local collision probability thresholds that trigger actions to reduce risk. Such actions can be requests for more accurate orbital data, special sensor tasking, or collision avoidance maneuvers. The cost of collision risk reduction is measured by the frequency of actions taken to reduce the collision risk. This action frequency is dependent on the accuracy of the orbital data and the frequency of close approaches. A case study was performed for a set of satellites. The analysis used position error models for two-line element sets. A conjunction simulation was used to process approximately three years of archived orbital data, including publicly available two-line element sets, in order to generate conjunction statistics. From these results, a graphical representation called a ?-plot was generated. This plot permits the selection of thresholds as a function of total risk reduction and tolerable action frequency. Results of the study indicate that collision risk management in geosynchronous orbit can be very costly using data of insufficiently high accuracy, because data errors induce high action frequency for even modest amounts of collision risk reduction.

  3. Verification of the naval oceanic vertical aerosol model during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K. L.; Deleeuw, G.; Gathman, S. G.; Jensen, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The value of Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) is illustrated for estimating the non-uniform and non-logarithmic extinction profiles, based on a severe test involving conditions close to and beyond the limits of applicability of NOVAM. A more comprehensive evaluation of NOVAM from the FIRE data is presented, which includes a clear-air case. For further evaluation more data are required on the vertical structure of the extinction in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), preferably for different meteorological conditions and in different geographic areas (e.g., ASTEX).

  4. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  5. Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

  6. Orbital maneuvers around irregular shaped bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, Flaviane; Rocco, E. M.; Almeida Prado, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the solar system there are many small bodies called asteroids. The large majority of these bodies are located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. The Near- Earth Objects, or NEOs, are objects with perihelion below 1.3AU, which include comets and asteroids. The NEOs are considered to have orbits passing close to the Earth’s orbit and, in the case of asteroids, are called Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Among the NEAs there are bodies considered potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), whose minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth is 0.05AU and that have absolute magnitude (H) of 22, which would mean an asteroid of at least 110-240 meters, depending on its albedo. One of the major characteristic of the asteroids is the irregular shape, causing the dynamics of orbits around these bodies to be different from a spherical shaped one. The fact that an object is not spherical generates a perturbation on the gravitational field. The disturbing force can be determined considering the shape of the specific body. A satellite orbiting this body would suffer the effects of this perturbation, but knowing the disturbing force, it’s possible to correct and control the orbit according to the desired mission. The polyhedron method is a traditional way to model an asteroid by dividing the object into smaller parts. The data used on this work are composed by a combination of triangular faces. The total disturbing force is a sum of the force on each piece of the model. Therefore, after the simulations are obtained, it’s possible to apply the desired corrections of the perturbation using continuous low thrust in closed loop, making it possible to perform maneuvers near these bodies. One of the important applications of the study shown above is in the ASTER mission, that is under study by INPE and several other Brazilian academic institutions, which goal is to send a spacecraft to an asteroid and then to remain in orbit around it.

  7. Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

    1997-01-01

    Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

  8. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial{times}7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter Digital Outer Mold Line Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Wilson, Brad; Pavek, Mike; Berger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiters Discovery and Endeavor have been digitally scanned to produce post-flight configuration outer mold line surfaces. Very detailed scans of the windward side of these vehicles provide resolution of the detailed tile step and gap geometry, as well as the reinforced carbon carbon nose cap and leading edges. Lower resolution scans of the upper surface provide definition of the crew cabin windows, wing upper surfaces, payload bay doors, orbital maneuvering system pods and the vertical tail. The process for acquisition of these digital scans as well as post-processing of the very large data set will be described.

  10. The Characteristics of Critical Inclination of Satellite Orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Joo Yi; Kyu-Hong Choi

    1993-01-01

    The orbit characteristics and perturbation effects of an artificial satellite with critical inclination have been studied. The critical inclination problem in artificial satellite theory is treated as Ideal Resonance Problem(IRP). The KITSAT-1 satellite launched by Arian 42P at Guiana in August 11, 1992 has orbital inclination close to the critical value cos-1(1\\/51\\/2). In that case, there is a singularity in

  11. Mars Geoscience Orbiter and Lunar Geoscience Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuldner, W. V.; Kaskiewicz, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using the AE/DE Earth orbiting spacecraft design for the LGO and/or MGO missions was determined. Configurations were developed and subsystems analysis was carried out to optimize the suitability of the spacecraft to the missions. The primary conclusion is that the basic AE/DE spacecraft can readily be applied to the LGO mission with relatively minor, low risk modifications. The MGO mission poses a somewhat more complex problem, primarily due to the overall maneuvering hydrazine budget and power requirements of the sensors and their desired duty cycle. These considerations dictate a modification (scaling up) of the structure to support mission requirements.

  12. Notes to Saturn satellites Ijiraq and Kiviuq mutual close encounters

    E-print Network

    A. E. Rosaev

    2006-02-01

    The problem of origin of outer irregular satellites of large planets is considered. The capture way of their origin most probable, however there is not detail theory. There are a number of irregular satellites, discovered in recent time. It gives an ability to investigate the statistics of orbital interaction and try to reconstruct real collision history of these objects We restrict this consideration by pair of orbits with close elements: Kiviuq and Ijiraq and determine period of close encounters between this satellites. It may be considered as a first step on road to the construction of theory of origin of the abundant class of irregular satellites.

  13. A 55-mm object inside a 40-mm orbit.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Anne M; Whipple, Katherine M; Lim, Lee Hooi; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2013-10-01

    A 43-year-old man was struck in the left orbit with his board while surfing and sustained a 3-cm laceration above his left eyebrow. The laceration was sutured closed primarily at a local emergency room. When he presented to UCSD oculoplastics for suture removal, he complained of diplopia with upgaze and was found to have hypoglobus on clinical exam. An orbital CT demonstrated a hyperintense linear signal within the orbit. The patient underwent surgical exploration. A 55-mm-length piece of fiberglass from the patient's surfboard was removed from his orbit. This case demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion for retained orbital foreign bodies, regardless of the size of the object inflicting the injury. PMID:23875613

  14. Seated at the pilots station, astronaut Scott J. Horowitz uses a mirror to monitor the vertical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Seated at the pilots station, astronaut Scott J. Horowitz uses a mirror to monitor the vertical stabilizer and the aft cargo bay area during the entry phase of the flight. Horowitz, pilot, joined four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for 16 days of scientific research in Earth-orbit.

  15. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  16. Gravity and Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-21

    The Gravity and Orbits SciPack explores concepts related to Earth's universal gravitation and how gravity affects the universe around us. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to universal gravitation including variables that influence the amount of gravitational force and how gravity governs the motion of the solar system.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Gravity and Orbits: Universal Gravitation? Identify gravity as an attractive force associated with all objects, including less intuitive examples (such as soda cans and pencils).? Recognize some examples of phenomena that are the result of Earth's gravity and objects and structures in the universe in general.? Reject the idea that Earth's gravity is an effect of air pushing down toward the surface.? Recognize that gravitational force does not require air (or any other substance) as a medium to act.? Describe gravitational force as a mutual attraction, rather than as one object pulling on another.Gravity and Orbits: Gravitational Force? Identify variables that affect the strength of the gravitational force acting between any two objects.? Provide a quantitative description of the relationship between the mass of two object and the gravitational force between them.? Provide a qualitative description of the relationship between the mass of two objects and the gravitational force between them.? Provide a quantitative description of the relationship between distance and gravitational force. ? Provide a qualitative description of the inverse square relationship.? Recognize the effect of air resistance on object falling near Earth's surface, and thus be able to explain why two objects with different masses, at the same distance from Earth's surface, will have equal accelerations if air resistance is ignored. Gravity and Orbits: Orbits? Describe the conditions that would lead an object into orbital motion in terms of the effects of gravitational force.? Explain how an object orbits a planet in terms of trajectories and free fall.? Identify gravity as the force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the Sun and the moons in their orbits around the planets.

  17. GOCE Precise Science Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Heike; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Heinze, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs

    GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), as the first ESA (European Space Agency) Earth Explorer Core Mission, is dedicated for gravity field recovery of unprece-dented accuracy using data from the gradiometer, its primary science instrument. Data from the secondary instrument, the 12-channel dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, is used for precise orbit determination of the satellite. These orbits are used to accu-rately geolocate the gradiometer observations and to provide complementary information for the long-wavelength part of the gravity field. A precise science orbit (PSO) product is provided by the GOCE High-Level Processing Facility (HPF) with a precision of about 2 cm and a 1-week latency. The reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit determination strategies for the PSO product are presented together with results of about one year of data. The focus is on the improvement achieved by the use of empirically derived azimuth-and elevation-dependent variations of the phase center of the GOCE GPS antenna. The orbits are validated with satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements.

  18. Sedna Orbit Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These four panels show the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' which lies in the farthest reaches of our solar system. Each panel, moving counterclockwise from the upper left, successively zooms out to place Sedna in context. The first panel shows the orbits of the inner planets, including Earth, and the asteroid belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter. In the second panel, Sedna is shown well outside the orbits of the outer planets and the more distant Kuiper Belt objects. Sedna's full orbit is illustrated in the third panel along with the object's current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. The final panel zooms out much farther, showing that even this large elliptical orbit falls inside what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  19. Orbits For Sixteen Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Z.; Novakovic, B.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361-2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB, WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB, WDS 08017-0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277-0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 =STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  20. Anticipation, Orbital Stability, and Energy Conservation in Discrete Harmonic Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F. [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7 (Canada); Dubois, Daniel M. [Centre for Hyperincursion and Anticipation in Ordered Systems, CHAOS asbl, Institute of Mathematics, B37, University of Liege, Grande Traverse 12, B-4000 LIEGE 1 (Belgium)

    2004-08-19

    We make a systematic analysis of the dual incursive model of the discrete harmonic oscillator. We derive its closed form solution, and identify its natural frequency of oscillation. We study its orbital stability, and the conservation of its total energy. We finally propose a superposed model that conserves energy with absolute precision, and exhibits a high degree of orbital stability. Within the conjecture that spacetime is discrete, the above results lead to the conclusion that discretization must be accompanied by anticipation, in order to guarantee orbital stability and energy conservation.

  1. Orbital evolution of the PSR1257+12 planetary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection of orbital perturbation effects in the PSR1257+12 timing data would provide irrefutable confirmation that planets are indeed orbiting the pulsar. Here we give an overview of how perturbation effects are expected to affect the orbital elements of the two planets over the next few years. In particular, we give a simple calculation of resonant perturbations, including the nonlinear effects which could be important if sin i less than about 0.1. We also present a new analysis of the effects of close encounters between the two planets and we discuss their detectability.

  2. A dynamics and control algorithm for low Earth orbit precision formation flying satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Jesse Koovik

    An innovative dynamics and control algorithm is developed for a dual-nanosatellite formation flying mission. The principal function of this algorithm is to use regular GPS state measurements to determine the controlled satellite's tracking error from a set of reference trajectories in the local-vertical/local-horizontal reference frame. A linear state-feedback control law---designed using a linear quadratic regulator method---calculates the optimal thrusts necessary to correct this error and communicates the thrust directions to the attitude control system and the thrust durations to the propulsion system. The control system is developed to minimize the conflicting metrics of tracking error and DeltaV requirements. To reconfigure the formation, an optimization algorithm is designed using the analytical solution to the state-space equation and the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire state transition matrix to solve for dual-thrust reconfiguration maneuvers. The resulting trajectories require low DeltaV, use finite-time thrusts and are accurate in a fully nonlinear orbital environment. This algorithm will be used to control the CanX-4&5 formation flying demonstration mission. In addition, an iterative method which numerically generates quasi periodic trajectories for a satellite formation is presented. This novel technique utilizes a shooting approach to the Newton method to close the relative deputy trajectory over a specific number of orbits, then fits the actual perturbed motion of the deputy with a Fourier series to enforce periodicity. This process is applied to two well-known satellite formations: a projected circular orbit and a J2-invariant formation. Compared to conventional formations, these resulting quasi-periodic trajectories require a dramatically lower control effort to maintain and could therefore be used to extend DeltaV-limited formation flying missions. Finally, an analytical study of the stability of the formation flying algorithm is conducted. To facilitate the proof, the control algorithm is converted into a discrete-time linear time-varying system. Stability of the system is determined via discrete Floquet theory. This analysis is applied to the CanX-4&5 control laws for tracking along-track orbits, projected circular orbits, and quasi J2-invariant formations.

  3. Orbit maintenance for low altitude near-circular lunar orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of low altitude near-circular lunar orbits is a key design issue for some missions in the proposed Space Exploration Initiative. The lunar gravity field strongly perturbs low altitude orbits, so an effective orbit maintenance strategy is needed. This strategy must contend with the long term orbit evolution due to the zonal gravity field. Two possible orbit control scenarios are passive control using a frozen orbit and active orbit control using maneuvers. A maneuver strategy can be designed which optimizes the propellant required for long term orbit sustenance. The long term requirements dominate the total propellant required for orbit control. Additional propellant may be required to offset the impact of medium period gravity field effects. Careful selection of maneuver times and directions, however, can eliminate any medium period penalty.

  4. CPG: closed pseudonymous groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reed S. Abbott; Timothy W. Van Der Horst; Kent E. Seamons

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of Closed Pseudonymous Groups (CPG), a pseudonymous communi- cation system for a closed user community (e.g., a class of students, team of employees, residents of a neighborhood). In CPG, each legitimate user is known by a pseudonym that, while unlinkable to a true identity, enables service providers to link users' behavior and blacklist

  5. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  6. Closing Panel Question & Answer

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    N E X T #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN STUDIES"Unsecure"World Question and Answer Inuit Rights and Responsibilities in the Changing North Question & Answer Environmental to translate science into public policy. 1 #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN

  7. Vertically-stacked multi-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M

    2005-08-22

    A vertically-stacked multi-ring resonator (VMR), which is a sequence of ring resonators stacked on top of each other, is investigated. The light in the VMR propagates horizontally in the plane of rings and at the same time propagates vertically between the adjacent rings due to evanescent coupling. If fabricated, the VMR may be advantageous compared to the conventional planar arrangement of coupled rings due to its dramatic compactness and more flexible transmission characteristics. In this paper, the uniform VMR, which consists of N rings coupled to the input and output waveguides, is studied. The uniform VMR is a 3D version of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW). Closed analytical expressions for the transmission amplitudes and eigenvalues are obtained by solving coupled wave equations. In the approximation considered, it is shown that, in contrast to the conventional planar ring CROW, a VMR can possess eigenmodes even when interring coupling as well as coupling between rings and waveguides is strong. For the isolated VMR, the eigenvalues of the propagation constant are shown to change linearly with the interring coupling coefficient. The resonance transmission near the VMR eigenvalues is investigated. The dispersion relation of a VMR with an infinite number of rings is found. For weak coupling, the VMR dispersion relation is similar to that of a planar ring CROW (leading, however, to a much smaller group velocity), while for stronger coupling, a VMR does not possess bandgaps. PMID:19498649

  8. One parameter fixed point theory and gradient flows of closed 1-forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schuetz

    2001-01-01

    We use the one parameter fixed point theory of Geoghegan and Nicas to get information about the closed orbit structure of transverse gradient flows of closed 1-forms on a closed manifold M. We define a noncommutative zeta function in an object related to the first Hochschild homology group of the Novikov ring associated to the 1-form and relate it to

  9. CLOSE APPROACHES OF ASTEROID 1999 AN 10 : RESONANT AND NONRESONANT RETURNS

    E-print Network

    Milani, Andrea

    CLOSE APPROACHES OF ASTEROID 1999 AN 10 : RESONANT AND NON­RESONANT RETURNS Andrea Milani, Steven R to the orbit of the asteroid 1999 AN 10 twice per year, but whether or not this asteroid can have a close there are some with a close approach in 2027. The period of the asteroid may be perturbed in such a way

  10. Elliptical vs Circular Orbit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Urschel

    Find the contrast between a highly exaggerated earth elliptical orbit and circular orbit depicted in .mov format. It should be mentioned to students that in reality the earth's elliptical orbit around the sun would hardly be noticeable if viewed from this distance. Taken alone, the video could unfortunately perpetuate the misconception that earth sun distance is responsible for the seasons. Still, the video is useful for pointing out that the earth's speed around the sun is not constant, with the earth moving fastest in January and slowest in July. This phenomenon helps explain why summer is longer in the Northern Hemisphere and for the analemma. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

  11. Spiral Orbit Tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Kingsbury, Edward; Jansen, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) bridges the gap between full-scale life testing and typically unrealistic accelerated life testing of ball-bearing lubricants in conjunction with bearing ball and race materials. The SOT operates under realistic conditions and quickly produces results, thereby providing information that can guide the selection of lubricant, ball, and race materials early in a design process. The SOT is based upon a simplified, retainerless thrust bearing comprising one ball between flat races (see figure). The SOT measures lubricant consumption and degradation rates and friction coefficients in boundary lubricated rolling and pivoting contacts. The ball is pressed between the lower and upper races with a controlled force and the lower plate is rotated. The combination of load and rotation causes the ball to move in a nearly circular orbit that is, more precisely, an opening spiral. The spiral s pitch is directly related to the friction coefficient. At the end of the orbit, the ball contacts the guide plate, restoring the orbit to its original radius. The orbit is repeatable throughout the entire test. A force transducer, mounted in-line with the guide plate, measures the force between the ball and the guide plate, which directly relates to the friction coefficient. The SOT, shown in the figure, can operate in under ultra-high vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) or in a variety of gases at atmospheric pressure. The load force can be adjusted between 45 and 450 N. By varying the load force and ball diameter, mean Hertzian stresses between 0.5 and 5.0 GPa can be obtained. The ball s orbital speed range is between 1 and 100 rpm.

  12. Co-orbital Oligarchy

    E-print Network

    Benjamin F. Collins; Re'em Sari

    2009-01-13

    We present a systematic examination of the changes in semi-major axis caused by the mutual interactions of a group of massive bodies orbiting a central star in the presence of eccentricity dissipation. For parameters relevant to the oligarchic stage of planet formation, dynamical friction keeps the typical eccentricities small and prevents orbit crossing. Interactions at impact parameters greater than several Hill radii cause the protoplanets to repel each other; if the impact parameter is instead much less than the Hill radius, the protoplanets shift slightly in semi-major axis but remain otherwise unperturbed. If the orbits of two or more protoplanets are separated by less than a Hill radius, they are each pushed towards an equilibrium spacing between their neighbors and can exist as a stable co-orbital system. In the shear-dominated oligarchic phase of planet formation we show that the feeding zones contain several oligarchs instead of only one. Growth of the protoplanets in the oligarchic phase drives the disk to an equilibrium configuration that depends on the mass ratio of protoplanets to planetesimals, $\\Sigma/\\sigma$. Early in the oligarchic phase, when $\\Sigma/\\sigma$ is low, the spacing between rows of co-orbital oligarchs are about 5 Hill radii wide, rather than the 10 Hill radii cited in the literature. It is likely that at the end of oligarchy the average number of co-orbital oligarchs is greater than unity. In the outer solar system this raises the disk mass required to form the ice giants. In the inner solar system this lowers the mass of the final oligarchs and requires more giant impacts than previously estimated. This result provides additional evidence that Mars is not an untouched leftover from the oligarchic phase, but must be composed of several oligarchs assembled through giant impacts.

  13. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  14. Discovering Habitable Earths, Hot Jupiters, and Other Close Planets with Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-01

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, RE . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of "repeating" lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  15. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  16. Trajectories and Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Materials presented here outline some basic concepts associated with space flight. Users can read about orbits and the difference between an orbit and a trajectory, escape velocities for Earth and some planets, launch velocities and transit times for interplanetary flights, and the effects of time dilation for astronauts travelling at near-light speeds. This is part of the famous Rand corporation study that was commissioned by Congress in 1958 after the Soviet Union stunned the world by launching Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite.

  17. Circular and noncircular nearly horizon-skimming orbits in Kerr spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Barausse, Enrico; Hughes, Scott A.; Rezzolla, Luciano [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies and INFN, Via Beirut 2, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics and MIT Kavli Institute, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Potsdam (Germany) and Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We have performed a detailed analysis of orbital motion in the vicinity of a nearly extremal Kerr black hole. For very rapidly rotating black holes--spin parameter a{identical_to}J/M>0.9524M--we have found a class of very strong-field eccentric orbits whose orbital angular momentum L{sub z} increases with the orbit's inclination with respect to the equatorial plane, while keeping latus rectum and eccentricity fixed. This behavior is in contrast with Newtonian intuition, and is in fact opposite to the normal behavior of black hole orbits. Such behavior was noted previously for circular orbits; since it only applies to orbits very close to the black hole, they were named 'nearly horizon-skimming orbits'. Our current analysis generalizes this result, mapping out the full generic (inclined and eccentric) family of nearly horizon-skimming orbits. The earlier work on circular orbits reported that, under gravitational radiation emission, nearly horizon-skimming orbits exhibit unusual inspiral, tending to evolve to smaller orbit inclination, toward prograde equatorial configuration. Normal orbits, by contrast, always demonstrate slowly growing orbit inclination--orbits evolve toward the retrograde equatorial configuration. Using up-to-date Teukolsky-based fluxes, we have concluded that the earlier result was incorrect - all circular orbits, including nearly horizon-skimming ones, exhibit growing orbit inclination under radiative backreaction. Using kludge fluxes based on a Post-Newtonian expansion corrected with fits to circular and to equatorial Teukolsky-based fluxes, we argue that the inclination grows also for eccentric nearly horizon-skimming orbits. We also find that the inclination change is, in any case, very small. As such, we conclude that these orbits are not likely to have a clear and peculiar imprint on the gravitational waveforms expected to be measured by the space-based detector LISA.

  18. Lessons Learned from Natural Space Debris in Heliocentric Orbit: An Analogue for Hazardous Debris in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin; Lai, Hairong; Delzanno, Gian Luca

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from interactions between solar wind and clouds of nanometer-scale charged dust released in interplanetary collisions. These charged dust clouds are then accelerated by the solar wind and moving away from the Sun at near solar wind speed and detected by spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. The dynamics of the debris in heliocentric orbit is analogous to that mankind has placed into Earth orbit. There are lessons here that are worth exploring. The IFE formation hypothesis was supported by the discovery of co-orbiting materials associated with asteroid 2201 Oljato: IFE rate peaked when Oljato was close and IFE occurrence clustered in the longitudes near which the orbit of Oljato intersects the orbital plane of Venus. A followed up study with Venus Express observations suggested that the co-orbiting materials dissipated in 30 years. An important aspect of this evolution is that at collisional speeds of 20 km/s, a small body can destroy one 106 times more massive. This destruction of large debris by small debris could also be important in the evolution of the terrestrial debris. At 1AU, based on ACE and Wind observations, IFEs have a significant cluster in the longitude range between 195° and 225°. Thus we use the same IFE technique to identify the ‘parent’ Near-Earth Objects of co-orbiting materials which should be responsible for those IFEs. There are more than 5000 JPL documented NEOs whose ecliptic plane crossings are near to or inside the Earth’s orbit and whose orbital periods are less than five years. By comparing their trajectories, we find that the asteroid 138175 is a good candidate for the ‘parent’ body. This asteroid orbits the Sun in a 5.24° inclined elliptical orbit with a period of 367.96 days. Its descending node is at about 206°, where the IFE occurrence rate peaks. We also find that there is a spread of the IFE rate around the descending node, indicating that the co-orbiting materials have significant dispersion about the asteroid’s orbit. In summary, orbiting debris in orbits intersecting at high speeds can destroy itself quite efficiently, but with a long timescale. In deep space, this process is a step on the path between the asteroidal source population and the creation of solar system dust. This may be true for Earth-orbiting debris as well.

  19. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

  20. A Third Exoplanetary System with Misaligned Orbital and Stellar Spin Axes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnosn, John A.; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gazak, J. Zachary

    2009-01-01

    We presented evidence that the WASP-14 exoplanetary system has misaligned orbital and stellar-rotational axes, with an angle of 33.1 plus or minus 7.4 degrees between their sky projections. At the time of this publication, WASP-14 was the third system known to have a significant spin-orbit misalignment, and all three systems had super- Jupiter planets and eccentric orbits. Therefore we hypothesized that the migration and subsequent orbital evolution of massive, eccentric exoplanets is somehow different from that of less massive close-in Jupiters, the majority of which have well-aligned orbits.

  1. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansík, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper; Jørgensen, Poul

    2011-05-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree-Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may be encountered. These disappear when the exponent is larger than one. For a small penalty, the occupied orbitals are more local than the virtual ones. When the penalty is increased, the locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals becomes similar. In fact, when increasing the cardinal number for Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets, it is seen that for larger penalties, the virtual orbitals become more local than the occupied ones. We also show that the local virtual HF orbitals are significantly more local than the redundant projected atomic orbitals, which often have been used to span the virtual orbital space in local correlated wave function calculations. Our local molecular orbitals thus appear to be a good candidate for local correlation methods.

  2. Interplanetary orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Rourke; N. Jerath; C. H. Acton; W. G. Breckenridge; J. K. Campbell; C. S. Christensen; A. J. Donegan; H. M. Koble; N. A. Mottinger; G. C. Rinker

    1979-01-01

    A general description of the Viking interplanetary orbit determination activity extending from launch to Mars encounter is given. The emphasis is on the technical fundamentals of the problem, basic strategies and data types used, quantitative results, and specific conclusions derived from the inflight experience. Special attention is given to the use of the spacecraft-based optical measurements and their first application

  3. Theory of Orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dino Boccaletti; Giuseppe Pucacco

    1996-01-01

    This textbook treats Celestial Mechanics as well as Stellar Dynamics from the common point of view of orbit theory making use of the concepts and techniques from modern geometric mechanics. It starts with elementary Newtonian Mechanics and ends with the dynamics of chaotic motions. The book is meant for students in astronomy and physics alike. Prerequisite is a physicist's knowledge

  4. Europa Orbiter Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.

    2001-01-01

    The Europa Orbiter mission is planned as the next stage of Europa exploration. Its primary goals are to search for definitive evidence of a subsurface ocean, to characterize the ice crust and ice/water interface, and to prepare for future surface/sub-surface missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Orbital Forces: Teacher Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity demonstates orbital motions and forces using a tennis ball swung by a ribbon (this activity should be done outside). The Teacher Page contains background information, tennis ball preparation instructions, and wrap up information. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Planetary Properties series.

  6. Orbital Forces: Student Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity teaches students about orbital motions and forces using a tennis ball swung by a ribbon. Students answer the question "What happens when you let the ball go?" Background information, activity procedures, and key words are provided. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Planetary Properties series.

  7. ICESat Precision Orbit Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rim; S. Yoon; C. E. Webb; Y. Kim; B. E. Schutz

    2003-01-01

    Following the successful launch of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) on January 13, 2003, 00:45 UTC, the GPS receiver on ICESat was turned on successfully on Jan. 17, 2003. High quality GPS data were collected since then to support Precision Orbit Determination (POD) activities. ICESat carries Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to measure ice-sheet topography and associated

  8. Lunar Orbit Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L.

    2012-12-01

    Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

  9. Measuring the Moon's Orbit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarton, E. Jay

    1980-01-01

    Described is a project which measured the parameters of the moon's orbit and the moon's size with various equipment, photographs, and calculations. The goals for this project included: completion within a 6-8 week period, reliance on existing equipment and data obtained, and provision for hands-on experience to advanced high school students.…

  10. Sleeping with an Elephant: Asteroids that Share a Planet's Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Brasser, Ramon; Mikkola, Seppo; Stacey, Greg; Innanen, Kimmo

    2005-08-01

    Under special circumstances, relatively small asteroids are able to safely share the orbit of a much larger planet. The best known examples of such "co-orbital" bodies are the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter, over 1700 of which are known to travel either 60 degrees ahead of or behind this giant planet in its orbit. The stability of such configurations might be thought to depend on the asteroid giving the planet a wide berth. In reality, co-orbital asteroids may approach their planet relatively closely, to within a few times its Hill sphere (which is five times the distance to the Moon in the case of the Earth). For many co-orbital bodies such approaches occur rarely or not at all, but recently examples of co-orbital states that become trapped near their planet have been found. Such "quasi-satellites" may remain near their much larger partner for thousands of years, though in actuality they are not true satellites and continue to orbit the Sun. Here we discuss the behaviour of some recently discovered co-orbital asteroids with emphasis on 2004 GU9, recently found to have a long-lived quasi-satellite state relative to the Earth.

  11. Single and dual burn maneuvers for low earth orbit maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Andrew A.

    1994-12-01

    Optimal control theory suggests maintaining an orbital altitude band for Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satellites using periodic thrusting than forced Keplerian motion, i.e. a trajectory obtained by thrust-drag cancellation. Designing guidance algorithm for orbit maintenance is complicated by the nonlinearities associated with orbital motion. An algorithm developed previously using thrusters firing significantly off the direction of motion successfully maintains an orbital band, but is very inefficient. This thesis develops two different control strategies based on the osculating orbital parameters. taking a conservative approach to keeping within altitude limitations. Thrust is in the local horizontal plane along the direction of flight. Single and dual burn maneuvers are considered for various bandwidths and thruster sizes. The dual burn strategy is somewhat close to a Hohmann transfer. The specified orbital band is generally maintained, with some cases slightly exceeding the upper limit. Propellant consumptions for both maneuvers is significantly better than previous methods. This thesis shows that forward firing thrusters can be used with osculating orbital parameters to obtain efficiencies within forced Keplerian motion values.

  12. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  13. CO-ORBITAL OLIGARCHY

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Benjamin F.; Sari, Re'em [California Institute of Technology, MC 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: bfc@tapir.caltech.edu

    2009-04-15

    We present a systematic examination of the changes in semimajor axis of a protoplanet as it interacts with other protoplanets in the presence of eccentricity dissipation. For parameters relevant to the oligarchic stage of planet formation, dynamical friction keeps the typical eccentricities small and prevents orbit crossing. Interactions at impact parameters greater than several Hill radii cause the protoplanets to repel each other; if the impact parameter is instead much less than the Hill radius, the protoplanets shift slightly in semimajor axis but remain otherwise unperturbed. If the orbits of two or more protoplanets are separated by less than a Hill radius, they are each pushed toward an equilibrium spacing between their neighbors and can exist as a stable co-orbital system. In the shear-dominated oligarchic phase of planet formation, we show that the feeding zones contain several oligarchs instead of only one. Growth of the protoplanets in the oligarchic phase drives the disk to an equilibrium configuration that depends on the mass ratio of protoplanets to planetesimals, {sigma}/{sigma}. Early in the oligarchic phase, when {sigma}/{sigma} is low, the spacing between rows of co-orbital oligarchs are about 5 Hill radii wide, rather than the 10 Hill radii cited in the literature. It is likely that at the end of oligarchy, the average number of co-orbital oligarchs is greater than unity. In the outer solar system, this raises the disk mass required to form the ice giants. In the inner solar system, this lowers the mass of the final oligarchs and requires more giant impacts than previously estimated. This result provides additional evidence that Mars is not an untouched leftover from the oligarchic phase, but must be composed of several oligarchs assembled through giant impacts.

  14. Closed Freyd- and ? -categories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Power; Hayo Thielecke

    We give two classes of sound and complete models for the computational ?-calculus, or ?c-calculus. For the first, we generalise the notion of cartesian closed category to that of closed Freyd-category. For the\\u000a second, we generalise simple indexed categories. The former gives a direct semantics for the computational ?-calculus. The\\u000a latter corresponds to an idealisation of stack-based intermediate languages used

  15. Integrable approximation of J 2-perturbed relative orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M.; Gurfil, P.

    2012-11-01

    Most existing satellite relative motion theories utilize mean elements, and therefore cannot be used for calculating long-term bounded perturbed relative orbits. The goal of the current paper is to find an integrable approximation for the relative motion problem under the J 2 perturbation, which is adequate for long-term prediction of bounded relative orbits with arbitrary inclinations. To that end, a radial intermediary Hamiltonian is utilized. The intermediary Hamiltonian retains the original structure of the full J 2 Hamiltonian, excluding the latitude dependence. This formalism provides integrability via separation, a fact that is utilized for finding periodic relative orbits in a local-vertical local-horizontal frame and determine an initialization scheme that yields long-term boundedness of the relative distance. Numerical experiments show that the intermediary-based computation of orbits provides long-term bounded orbits in the full J 2 problem for various inclinations. In addition, a test case is shown in which the radial intermediary-based initial conditions of the chief and deputy satellites yield bounded relative distance in a high-precision orbit propagator.

  16. Forbidden tangential orbit transfers between intersecting Keplerian orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Rowland E.

    1990-01-01

    The classical problem of tangential impulse transfer between coplanar Keplerian orbits is addressed. A completely analytic solution which does not rely on sequential calculation is obtained and this solution is used to demonstrate that certain initially chosen angles can produce singularities in the parameters of the transfer orbit. A necessary and sufficient condition for such singularities is that the initial and final orbits intersect.

  17. Orbital Motions in Binary Protostellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L. F.

    2004-08-01

    Using high-resolution ( ˜ 0to z @. hss ''1), multi-epoch Very Large Array observations, we have detected orbital motions in several low-luminosity protobinary systems in the Taurus and ? Ophiuchus molecular complexes. The masses obtained from Kepler's third law are of the order of 0.5 to 2 M?, as expected for such low-mass protostars. The relatively large bolometric luminosities of these young systems corroborates the notion that protostars obtain most of their luminosity from accretion and not from nuclear reactions. In addition, in one of the sources studied (a multiple system in Taurus), a low-mass young star has shown a drastic change in its orbit after a close approach with another component of the system, presumed to be a double star. The large proper motion achieved by this low mass protostar (20 km s-1), suggests an ejection from the system.

  18. Europa planetary protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore Jupiter and its near environment starting in 2016. Planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. In particular Juno's polar orbit, which enables scientific investigations of parts of Jupiter's environment never before visited, also greatly assist avoiding close flybys of Europa and the other Galilean satellites. The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  19. Close up view of the center console on the flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the center console on the flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery showing the console's instrumentation and controls. The commanders station is located to the left in this view and the pilot's station is to the right in the view. The handle and lever located on the right side of the center console and towards its front is one of a pair, the commander has one on the left of his seat in his station, of Speed Brake/Thrust Controllers. These are dual purpose controllers. During ascent the controller can be use to throttle the main engines and during entry the controllers can be used to control aerodynamic drag by opening or closing the orbiter's speed brake. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Lunar Exploration Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henselowsky, Carsten; Jaumann, Ralf; Kummer, Uwe; Claasen, Friedhelm

    Phase 0 investigations for the German Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO) mission were carried out during 2007 leading to a sophisticated mission concept currently in phase A to be further detailed. Following an announcement of opportunity, also in 2007, the German Space Agency (DLR) received several proposals for the instrumentation of the LEO mission from the national science community. A board of peers recommended 12 instruments for a further consideration in phase A. Overall premise for the accomplishment of LEO is that the mission will provide high quality scientific output in the fields of geology, geochemistry and geophysics and add value in the context of already operational and foreseeable upcoming lunar missions. Composed of three satellites, a main orbiter and a pair of sub-satellites, the Lunar Exploration Orbiter will investigate the moon in all its facets, including its interior constitution and development by gravity field analysis, its surface in a multifold of aspects, ranging from topography to mineralogy, as well as its direct surrounding in aspects as radiation and dust. To accomplish this challenging mission objective, with respect to the envisaged high spatial and spectral resolution of the global surface mapping and the accuracy of the determination of the gravity field, the mission concept stipulates a mean altitude of 50 km. Due to the request for global coverage, low altitude and the quantity of instruments LEO is designed for a nominal operational lifetime of four years. Necessary mission lifetime and altitude combined with the capricious lunar gravity field yields a less propellant demanding frozen orbit with an inclination of 85° which is envisaged for the first part of the operational period. The LEO main orbiter will change its inclination to polar orbit after three years of operation to complete global coverage during the last nominal year of operation. The two sub-satellites will remain in the stable, initial 50 km orbit. Remaining propellant will be used to deal with uncertainties according to the considered lunar frozen orbits or for an extension of the nominal lifetime and/or scenario. The LEO main orbiter will carry the mapping payloads that will provide global coverage of the moon surface and the environmental examination instruments: Three imaging spectrometers covering a wide spectral range from 200 nm up to 14 µm, will provide data for geochemical investigations, a camera for highest resolution stereo imaging will establish a three-dimensional topographic map and a specialized camera for event detection will identify lunar transient events, a microwave and a radar instrument will investigate the lunar subsurface, environmental instruments shall measure the lunar radiation and particle (dust) environment. The two - almost identical - subsatellites together form an instrument to determine the lunar gravity field with unprecedented high accuracy, by conducting range and range-rate measurements. Moreover each sub-satellite is determined to carry also a magnetometer and a sensor measuring the pressure of radiation to assist gravity field measurements. As mentioned above, first and foremost LEO is a scientific driven mission. Over and above the scientific ambition LEO shall be Germany's contribution to future lunar exploration in an international context by providing a global scientific roadmap of the Moon with highest precision. LEO is planed to be launched in 2012 timeframe.

  1. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES IN

    E-print Network

    VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES: Stenobrachius leucopsarus and Diaphus theta. which performed diel vertical migrations of300 m vertical extent; andProtomyctophum thompsoni andS. nannochir. which exhibited only slight diel variation in vertical

  2. Analysis of orbital heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buna, T.

    1974-01-01

    Graphical representation of orbital heat balance in form of polar diagrams is obtained from integral expressions of orbital heat transfer whereby quantities of heat are represented as areas swept by ""thermal radii.''

  3. Vertical axis wind turbine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Walters; J. B. Fanucci; P. W. Hill; P. G. Migliore

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research accomplished in evaluating an innovative concept for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is described. The concept is that of using straight blades composed of circulation controlled airfoil sections. The theoretical analysis was developed to determine the unsteady lift and moment characteristics of multiple-blade cross-flow wind turbines. To determine the drag data needed as input to the

  4. Vertical Dynamics of Marine Risers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Apiazu; V. N. Nguyen

    1984-01-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values

  5. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  6. Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. Toward the right of the view and in front of te seat is the commander's Rotational Hand Controller. The pilot station has an identical controller. These control the acceleration in the roll pitch and yaw directions via the reaction control system and/or the orbiter maneuvering system while outside of Earth's atmosphere or via the orbiter's aerosurfaces wile in Earth's atmosphere when the atmospheric density permits the surfaces to be effective. There are a number of switches on the controller, most notably a trigger switch which is a push-to-talk switch for voice communication and a large button on top of the controller which is a switch to engage the backup flight system. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bond, J B; Wesley, R E; Reynolds, V H; Elliott, J H; Glick, A D

    1986-11-01

    Although orbital extension from ocular melanoma occurs frequently in advanced cases, orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma has been reported but eight times previously. We have reported two such cases. One of the patients had three previous primary melanomas; the other had metastasis to the cauda equina. Both patients died when orbital involvement developed years after the initial lesions. Ours are the first cases to include CT and MRI findings in metastatic orbital melanoma. PMID:3775474

  8. Martian satellite orbits and ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Lainey, V.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the general characteristics of the orbits of the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. We provide a concise review of the various descriptions of the orbits by both analytical theories and direct numerical integrations of their equations of motion. After summarizing the observational data used to determine the orbits, we discuss the results of our latest orbits obtained from a least squares fit to the data.

  9. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  10. Optimal Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    An electrostatically charged spacecraft accelerates as it moves through the Earth's magnetic field due to the induced Lorentz force, providing a new means of propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvers. The feasibility of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits is investigated in this paper. Assuming the Earth's magnetic field as a tilted dipole corotating with Earth, a nonlinear dynamical model that characterizes the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in the vicinity of arbitrary elliptic orbits is developed. To establish a predetermined formation configuration at given terminal time, pseudospectral method is used to solve the optimal open-loop trajectories of hybrid control inputs consisted of Lorentz acceleration and thruster-generated control acceleration. A nontilted dipole model is also introduced to analyze the effect of dipole tilt angle via comparisons with the tilted one. Meanwhile, to guarantee finite-time convergence and system robustness against external perturbations, a continuous fast nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is designed and the closed-loop system stability is proved by Lyapunov theory. Numerical simulations substantiate the validity of proposed open-loop and closed-loop control schemes, and the results indicate that an almost propellantless formation establishment can be achieved by choosing appropriate objective function in the pseudospectral method. Furthermore, compared to the nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller, the closed-loop controller presents superior convergence rate with only a bit more control effort. And the proposed controller can be applied in other Lorentz-augmented relative orbital control problems.

  11. Warner Prize Lecture: A New View on Planetary Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the discovery of exoplanets, astronomers fine tuned theories of planet formation to explain detailed properties of the solar system. Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke strong mutual gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with sizes between Earth and Neptune and closely-spaced orbits. These systems represent another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. I will describe how transit timing observations by Kepler are characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets and providing precise (but complex) constraints on planetary masses, densities and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. I will discuss early efforts to translate these observations into new constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets.

  12. Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Structure from ICESat/GLAS and MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Chiu, Christine; Davis, Anthony; Wiscombe, Warren

    2007-01-01

    To accurately model radiative fluxes at the surface and within the atmosphere, we need to know both vertical and horizontal structures of cloudiness. While MODIS provides accurate information on cloud horizontal structure, it has limited ability to estimate cloud vertical structure. ICESat/GLAS on the other hand, provides the vertical distribution and internal structure of clouds as deep as the laser beam can penetrate and return a signal. Having different orbits, MODIS and GLAS provide few collocated measurements; hence a statistical approach is needed to learn about 3D cloud structures from the two instruments. In the presentation, we show the results of the statistical analysis of vertical and horizontal structure of cloudiness using GLAS and MODIS cloud top(s) data acquired in October-November 2003. We revisit the (H1, C1) plot, previously used for analyzing cloud liquid water data, and illustrate cloud structure for single and multiple-layer clouds.

  13. Circular-Orbit Maintenance Strategies for Primitive Body Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark S.; Broschart, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    For missions to smaller primitive bodies, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is a significant perturbation to Keplerian dynamics. For most orbits, SRP drives large oscillations in orbit eccentricity, which leads to large perturbations from the irregular gravity field at periapsis. Ultimately, chaotic motion results that often escapes or impacts that body. This paper presents an orbit maintenance strategy to keep the orbit eccentricity small, thus avoiding the destabilizing secondary interaction with the gravity field. An estimate of the frequency and magnitude of the required maneuvers as a function of the orbit and body parameters is derived from the analytic perturbation equations.

  14. An Orbit Plan toward AKATSUKI Venus Reencounter and Orbit Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Campagnola, Stefano; Hirose, Chikako; Ishii, Nobuaki

    2012-01-01

    On December 7, 2010, AKATSUKI, the Japanese Venus explorer reached its destination and tried to inject itself into Venus orbit. However, due to a malfunction of the propulsion system, the maneuver was interrupted and AKATSUKI again escaped out from the Venus into an interplanetary orbit. Telemetry data from AKATSUKI suggests the possibility to perform orbit maneuvers to reencounter the Venus and retry Venus orbit injection. Reported in this paper is an orbit plan investigated under this situation. The latest results reflecting the maneuvers conducted in the autumn 2011 is introduced as well.

  15. Lymphoproliferative Disease of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Emmy Y; Yuen, Hunter K; Cheuk, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative diseases of the orbit account for majority of orbital tumors. The pathologies range from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to specific IgG4-related inflammation to malignant lymphomas. This review summarizes current concepts regarding pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, and treatment strategies of major orbital lymphoproliferative diseases based on updated and relevant bibliography. PMID:26065355

  16. Orbit Mechanics About Planetary Satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Paskowitzyand; D. J. Scheeresz

    This paper explores orbit mechanics in the Hill 3-body problem, concentrating on spacecraft motion about Jupiter's moon Europa. Orbits about Europa are of particular interest due to the proposed NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Mission (JIMO). Using an averaging approach with first order corrections, we develop an approximate theory of motion valid over a wide range of initial conditions. Using

  17. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  18. A statistical study of close binary systems: testing evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, I. C.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2003-08-01

    The evolution of stars in close binary systems differs from that of their single counterparts essentially in two main aspects: (i) the rotation of each component is directly affected by tidal interactions, which determine the evolution of orbital parameters and rotations of the system, and (ii) the evolutionary tracks of the stars run in considerably different ways when the mass transfer process begins, which occurs when the primary evolves sufficiently and reaches its Roche limit. The present work brings a confrontation between observational data, including orbital parameters, rotation and age, and theoretical predictions obtained from detailed models of binary systems evolution. For this study we have selected a sample of binary systems, mostly with a F-, G- or K-type primary component, with orbital parameters and rotational velocity available in the literature. For the theoretical predictions we have used stellar evolutionary models by Claret 1998 (A&AS 131, 395) and Schaller et al. 1992 (A&AS 96, 269) combined with models of binary orbital parameters evolution by Zahn 1977 (A&A 57, 383) and Zahn 1978 (A&A 67, 162). The preliminary results point for a good agreement between the observed orbital eccentricity, orbital and rotational periods and the predicted values as a function of stellar age. In addition, we present an analysis of the relationship between Vrot/Vk (where Vrot and Vk are, respectively, the rotational and keplerian velocities) and the stellar fractional radius, to rediscuss the synchronization process between rotation and orbital motions.

  19. Mercury orbiter transport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A data base and comparative performance analyses of alternative flight mode options for delivering a range of payload masses to Mercury orbit are provided. Launch opportunities over the period 1980-2000 are considered. Extensive data trades are developed for the ballistic flight mode option utilizing one or more swingbys of Venus. Advanced transport options studied include solar electric propulsion and solar sailing. Results show the significant performance tradeoffs among such key parameters as trip time, payload mass, propulsion system mass, orbit size, launch year sensitivity and relative cost-effectiveness. Handbook-type presentation formats, particularly in the case of ballistic mode data, provide planetary program planners with an easily used source of reference information essential in the preliminary steps of mission selection and planning.

  20. Three orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.

  1. Orbital rhabdomyosarcomas: A review

    PubMed Central

    Jurdy, Lama; Merks, Johanus H.M.; Pieters, Bradly R.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kloos, Roel J.H.M.; Strackee, Simone D.; Saeed, Peerooz

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor and is one of the few life-threatening diseases that present first to the ophthalmologist. It is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of the head and neck in childhood with 10% of all cases occurring in the orbit. RMS has been reported from birth to the seventh decade, with the majority of cases presenting in early childhood. Survival has changed drastically over the years, from 30% in the 1960’s to 90% presently, with the advent of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to provide a general overview of primary orbital RMS derived from a literature search of material published over the last 10 years, as well as to present two representative cases of patients that have been managed at our institute. PMID:24227982

  2. The distributions of positions of Minimal Orbit Intersection Distances among Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar?eta, Dušan; Šegan, Stevo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the positions of the Minimal Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) among three subgroups of the Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This includes 683 Atens, 4185 Apollos and 3538 Amors which makes over 15 millions combinations of the pairs of orbits. The results which are obtained in this analysis show very interesting distributions of positions of the MOIDs and circumstances of close approaches of the asteroids and emphasize influence of different orbital elements on these distributions.

  3. A Proposal of an Orbital-Dependent Correlation Energy Functional for Energy-Band Calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiko Higuchi; Hiroshi Yasuhara

    2003-01-01

    An explicitly orbital-dependent correlation energy functional is proposed, which is to be used in combination with the orbital-dependent exchange energy functional in energy-band calculations. It bears a close resemblance to the second-order direct and exchange perturbation terms calculated with Kohn Sham orbitals and Kohn Sham energies except that one of the two Coulomb interactions entering each term is replaced by

  4. Orbit correction in a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Edmonds, C. S.; Kirkman, I. W.; Jones, J. K.; Muratori, B. D.; Garland, J. M.; Berg, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    In a linear non-scaling FFAG the large natural chromaticity of the machine results in a betatron tune that varies by several integers over the momentum range. Orbit correction is complicated by the consequent variation of the phase advance between lattice elements. Here we investigate how the correction of multiple closed orbit harmonics allows correction of both the COD and the accelerated orbit distortion over the momentum range.

  5. The Orbit of Charon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Tholen; Mark W. Buie

    1997-01-01

    The orbit of Charon has been determined from 60 images of the Pluto–Charon system acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera between 1992 May 21 and 1993 August 18. The semimajor axis was found to be 19,636 ± 8 km, in good agreement with an older determination upon which mutual-event-based radius computations have relied, but significantly

  6. Orbital Debris Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)

  7. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onffroy, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

  8. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  9. The orbital dynamics and long-term stability of planetary systems

    E-print Network

    Deck, Katherine Michele

    2014-01-01

    A large population of low-mass exoplanets with short orbital periods has been discovered using the transit method. At least 40% of these planets are actually part of compact systems with more than one planet. The closeness ...

  10. EO1 Advanced Land Imager on-orbit radiometric calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Mendenhall; D. E. Lencioni

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the first Earth Observing Mission (EO-1), under NASA's New Millennium Program. On-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of this instrument relies primarily on solar calibration and involves pointing the ALI at the Sun with the aperture cover closed; deploying a Spectralon diffuser over the secondary mirror; and exercising a variable area subaperture

  11. Nilpotent orbits in bad characteristic and the Springer correspondence

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ting, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p, g the Lie algebra of G and g* the dual vector space of g. This thesis is concerned with nilpotent orbits in g and g* ...

  12. Closing the Health Gap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and ABC Radio Networks are working together to help African-Americans gain access to the best possible information regarding health issues. HHS reports that life expectancies for African-Americans lag five years behind expectancies for White Americans. The new Website Closing the Health Gap has links to information on health conditions such as diabetes and cancer as well as consumer health resources that relate to African-Americans' particular needs. Each page offers links, publications, and any news related to the subject, all in an effort to close "the health gap."

  13. Closed loop mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Marc; Jouvet, Philippe; Jaber, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a sophisticated technique with very narrow therapeutic ranges i.e. highly efficient and able to keep alive the most severe patients, but with considerable side effects and unwanted complications if not properly and timely used. Computerized protocols, closed loop systems, decision support, all terms which need to be defined, may help making mechanical ventilation safer and more efficient. The present paper will provide a short overview on technical and engineering considerations regarding closed loop controlled ventilation as well as tangible clinical evidences supporting the previous statement. PMID:23564277

  14. Quasi-satellite Orbits in the Context of Coorbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav; Artemyev, A.; Neishtadt, A.; Zelenyi, L.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The investigations on long-term evolution of asteroid’s orbits are crucial to understanding the route through which the present configuration of the Solar system came to be. The so-called coorbiting asteroids (which share their orbits with major planets) attract the special attention in this connection: are they the primordial remnants of the building blocks of the corresponding major planet or are they the "migrants" from the other parts of the Solar system? The most well known examples of co-orbits in natural objects are provided by Trojan groups of asteroids and by asteroids moving in horseshoe orbits. These asteroids are precluded from having relatively close encounters with their host planets. However, there exists another class of coorbiting objects in which the opposite is true: they remain very near to the host planet eternally or, at least, for long enough time. Since typically they never enter the planet’s Hill sphere, they cannot be considered as satellites in the usual sense of the word. In order to emphasize this specific they are called quasi-satellites (QS). We explore the properties of QS-orbits under the scope of the restricted spatial circular three-body problem. Via double numerical averaging, we construct evolutionary equations which describe the long-term behaviour of the orbital elements of an asteroid. Special attention is paid at possible transitions between the motion in a QS-orbit and that in another type of orbit available in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. To illustrate the typical rates of the orbital elements's secular evolution, the dynamics of the near-Earth asteroid 2004GU9 was studied. This asteroid will keep describing a QS-orbit for the next several hundreds of years. This work was supported by the grant of the Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium Program 22: "Fundamental problems of research and exploration of the Solar system".

  15. Magnetism, orbital ordering and lattice distortion in perovskite transition-metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Terakura

    2007-01-01

    Magnetism of matters has two basic ingredients. While exchange and correlation are responsible to the stability of magnetic moment, magnetic ordering is controlled by orbital hybridization, which depends on the atomic arrangement and the mode of orbital occupation. Transition-metal oxides serve as an important playground where unique properties and phenomena can be observed as results of close correlation among magnetism,

  16. A quantitative analysis of the Eutherian orbit: correlations with masticatory apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip G. Cox

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian orbit, or eye-socket, is a highly plastic region of the skull. It comprises between seven and nine bones, all of which vary widely in their contribution to this region among the different mammalian orders and families. It is hypothesised that the structure of the mammalian orbit is principally influenced by the forces generated by the jaw-closing musculature. In

  17. Natural bond orbitals in multiconfigurational expansions: Local treatment of electron correlation in molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Nemukhin; F. Weinhold

    1992-01-01

    We describe a localized treatment of electron correlation in terms of complete active-space wave functions derived from natural bond orbitals, closely related to the localized transferable units of molecular structure. We find that in many cases the procedure leads to solutions which retain the essentially localized character of their ‘‘parent’’ orbitals. Such localized solutions lead to an extremely selective treatment

  18. Shape of the Moon from the Orbiter Determination of its Gravitational Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Goudas; Z. Kopal

    1966-01-01

    AN analysis of the perturbations of the American Orbiter 1, revolving since August 14 in a 200 min orbit close to the Moon, has led to a satisfactory determination of the principal characteristics of the lunar gravitational field1, and it is of interest to compare these with previous predictions based on plausible physical assumptions. In a previous investigation2 one of

  19. A Concept of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Xiaojun; Tang, Yihua

    2002-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) has a capability of delivering a wide rang of payload to earth orbit with greater reliability, lower cost, more flexibility and operability than any of today's launch vehicles. It is the goal of future space transportation systems. Past experience on single stage to orbit (SSTO) RLVs, such as NASA's NASP project, which aims at developing an rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) airplane and X-33, which aims at developing a rocket RLV, indicates that SSTO RLV can not be realized in the next few years based on the state-of-the-art technologies. This paper presents a concept of all rocket two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle. The TSTO RLV comprises an orbiter and a booster stage. The orbiter is mounted on the top of the booster stage. The TSTO RLV takes off vertically. At the altitude about 50km the booster stage is separated from the orbiter, returns and lands by parachutes and airbags, or lands horizontally by means of its own propulsion system. The orbiter continues its ascent flight and delivers the payload into LEO orbit. After completing orbit mission, the orbiter will reenter into the atmosphere, automatically fly to the ground base and finally horizontally land on the runway. TSTO RLV has less technology difficulties and risk than SSTO, and maybe the practical approach to the RLV in the near future.

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a generalized orbital compass model

    E-print Network

    Lukasz Cincio; Jacek Dziarmaga; Andrzej M. Oles

    2010-09-10

    We introduce a generalized two-dimensional orbital compass model, which interpolates continuously from the classical Ising model to the orbital compass model with frustrated quantum interactions, and investigate it using the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). The results demonstrate that increasing frustration of exchange interactions triggers a second order quantum phase transition to a degenerate symmetry broken state which minimizes one of the interactions in the orbital compass model. Using boson expansion within the spin-wave theory we unravel the physical mechanism of the symmetry breaking transition as promoted by weak quantum fluctuations and explain why this transition occurs only surprisingly close to the maximally frustrated interactions of the orbital compass model. The spin waves remain gapful at the critical point, and both the boson expansion and MERA do not find any algebraically decaying spin-spin correlations in the critical ground state.

  1. Cometary orbital evolution in the outer planetary region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manara, Allesandro; Valsecchi, G. B.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical integrations of fictitious objects are carried out in order to elucidate the dynamical behavior of potential short-period comets when they move in orbits at distances from the Sun comparable to those of Uranus and Neptune. As in the case of observed short-period comets, close encounters with the planets play a major role for the orbital evolution, and this is especially true for encounters with initial orbits nearly tangent to that of the planet. A comparison with integrations in which the planetary masses are larger by a factor 10 shows that, in the latter case, the orbital evolution is greatly accelerated, but the dynamical paths in phase space followed by the comets are altered.

  2. A MULTIRATE STOeRMER ALGORITHM FOR CLOSE ENCOUNTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Grazier, K. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Newman, W. I. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sharp, P. W., E-mail: kevin_grazier@yahoo.com, E-mail: win@ucla.edu, E-mail: sharp@math.auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2013-04-15

    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Stoermer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and h{sub i} , i = 1, ..., N{sub p} , where h{sub i} << H and N{sub p} is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize h{sub i} is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method.

  3. Simple control laws for low-thrust orbit transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods are presented by which to determine both a thrust direction and when to apply thrust to effect specified changes in any of the orbit elements except for true anomaly, which is assumed free. The central body is assumed to be a point mass, and the initial and final orbits are assumed closed. Thrust, when on, is of a constant value, and specific impulse is constant. The thrust profiles derived from the two methods are not propellant-optimal, but are based firstly on the optimal thrust directions and location on the osculating orbit for changing each of the orbit elements and secondly on the desired changes in the orbit elements. Two examples of transfers are presented, one in semimajor axis and inclination, and one in semimajor axis and eccentricity. The latter compares favourably with a propellant-optimized transfer between the same orbits. The control laws have few input parameters, but can still capture the complexity of a wide variety of orbit transfers.

  4. PSEUDO-NEWTONIAN POTENTIALS FOR NEARLY PARABOLIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Wegg, Christopher, E-mail: wegg@tapir.caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We describe a pseudo-Newtonian potential which, to within 1% error at all angular momenta, reproduces the precession due to general relativity of particles whose specific orbital energy is small compared to c{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild metric. For bound orbits, the constraint of low energy is equivalent to requiring the apoapsis of a particle to be large compared to the Schwarzschild radius. Such low-energy orbits are ubiquitous close to supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, but the potential is relevant in any context containing particles on low-energy orbits. Like the more complex post-Newtonian expressions, the potential correctly reproduces the precession in the far field, but also correctly reproduces the position and magnitude of the logarithmic divergence in precession for low angular momentum orbits. An additional advantage lies in its simplicity, both in computation and implementation. We also provide two simpler, but less accurate potentials, for cases where orbits always remain at large angular momenta, or when the extra accuracy is not needed. In all of the presented cases, the accuracy in precession in low-energy orbits exceeds that of the well-known potential of Paczynski and Wiita, which has {approx}30% error in the precession at all angular momenta.

  5. Magnetic field error in twin depolarized interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes induced by vertical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hui; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Dengwei; Shu, Xiaowu; Liu, Cheng; Che, Shuangliang

    2015-01-01

    We put forward a theory that the magnetic field vertical to the sensing coil plane may induce a nonreciprocal phase error (NPE) in twin depolarized interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (TD-IFOGs). A related mathematical model is established. The simulation analysis and experimental result show that the magnetic field error induced by a vertical magnetic field in a TD-IFOG is relatively stable. The error arising from the bending of the fiber is closely related with the radius of an optical fiber coil, fiber's diameter, fiber's length, the strength of the vertical magnetic field and so on. And as for a manufactured TD-IFOG, the vertical magnetic error is proportional to the magnitude of the vertical magnetic field.

  6. Review: The Closing Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Two views of prominent biologists are presented side-by-side. Focal point is Barry Commoner's book, The Closing Circle, with a subsequent review by Paul Ehrlich. Growth of population, increases in affluence, and increased pollution from products of technology are considered. (BL)

  7. Closed Captioning: Students' Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasenforth, Donald L.

    A study investigated the attitudes of adult university students of English as a Second Language (ESL) toward use of closed captioned television (CCTV) as an instructional tool. Students at the intermediate (n=51) and advanced (n=55) levels of ESL study in classes using CCTV were administered a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of the…

  8. Alien Visitations Close Encounters

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Alien Visitations #12;#12;Close Encounters · I: Visual sighting of aerial object (UFO) · II are indeed unidentified. ·Most are Venus. ·Almost certainly none are alien spacecraft Picture from Robert do aliens think? #12;How to Serve Man #12;#12;

  9. Trust in Close Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Rempel; John G. Holmes; Mark P. Zanna

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical model describing interpersonal trust in close relationships is presented. Three dimensions of trust are identified, based on the type of attributions drawn about a partner's motives. These dimensions are also characterized by a developmental progression in the relationship. The validity of this theoretical perspective was examined through evidence obtained from a survey of a heterogeneous sample of established

  10. Closing the Loop Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

  11. Antitrust Case Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    The Justice Department's antitrust investigation of private-college collaboration on student financial aid (the Overlap Group) has closed, with charges against the Massachusetts Institute of Technology dropped and announcement of a new system by which institutions may share information. Institutions are skeptical about the practicality of the new…

  12. Counter-orbiting Planets Were Flipped Over by a Coplanar Outer Object

    E-print Network

    Li, Gongjie; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Some massive exoplanets with close-in orbits, so-called hot Jupiters, are observed to orbit in exactly the opposite direction to the spin of their host star. True (not projected) ~180 degree misalignment cannot be well explained with previously proposed physical processes. Here we present a mechanism that can naturally lead to these counter-orbiting systems. The gravitational influence of an outer eccentric object in a coplanar orbit increases the initial eccentricity of the planet to high values. The planet's orbit then suddenly flips by ~180 degree, rolling over its major axis. The ~180 degree flip criterion and timescale are given by simple analytic expressions that depend on the initial orbital parameters. With tidal dissipation, this mechanism naturally leads to the observed counter-orbiting systems. This mechanism also enhances the tidal disruption/collision rates in coplanar eccentric triple systems.

  13. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  14. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  15. A solution of the variational equations for elliptic orbits in rotating coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    For elliptic reference orbits, formulas are given for the perturbation state transition matrix of the two-body problem. The formulas relate perturbations expressed in a local vertical rotating coordinate system and are valid for motion in the linear neighborhood of reference orbits with e in the range of 0 to 1. The elements of the state transition matrix are expressed in terms of natural parameters (horizontal and radial velocity, radius, eccentricity, true anomaly, etc.) at the initial and final points. In addition to the general form, a simplified version, valid for small eccentricity orbits, is given.

  16. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  17. Towards a New Vertical Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is responsible for maintaining and improving the National Spatial Reference System. This paper particularly focuses on developments leading to a new vertical datum to replace the existing North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). This new model will be developed from a combination of satellite, airborne, and terrestrial gravity data to define a gravimetric geoid height model. In particular, the aerogravity data collected as a part o the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project are intended to help achieve the goal of a cm-level accurate geoid model to serve as the new vertical datum. The different data sources have been melded into a single gravity field model consistent across the entire spectrum to about 2 km resolution. A previous comparison developed a localized model over just the southern Texas region, where the Geoid Slope Validation Study for 2011 (GSVS 11) demonstrated that it was possible to achieve the desired accuracy. This new model was developed using methodology consistent at regional to national scales following techniques used to make USGG2009 and USGG2012, but now incorporating aerogravity. This new model proves out the basic concepts behind GRAV-D in that the aeorgravity bridge the spectral gap between satellite and terrestrial data and provide the requisite improvements to the derived gravimetric geoid height model - all without artificially targeting a solution to a specific test area. Additional comparisons were made to tidal bench mark data observed by GPS in combination with ocean topography models to validate the behavior of the model in the coastal regions.

  18. The Orbital Workshop Trash Disposal Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is a close-up photograph of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trash disposal airlock located on the floor of the lower level of the OWS. It provided a means of passing trash from the pressurized habitable area into the unpressurized waste tank. The crewman opened a valve which brought the airlock to the same pressure as that within the workshop. He then opened the lid, placed the bagged trash inside, closed the lid and locked it. By turning the valve handle, he reduced the pressure within the airlock until it reached the vacuum of the waste tank. The crewman then operated an ejector handle that caused a scissors-type mechanism to push the bagged trash from the airlock into the tank.

  19. Unique Non-Keplerian Orbit Vantage Locations for Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.

  20. High-frequency vertical current observations in stratified seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Hans

    2009-05-01

    Although large-scale tidal and inertial motions dominate the kinetic energy and vertical current shear in shelf seas and ocean, short-scale internal waves at higher frequencies close to the local buoyancy frequency are of some interest for studying internal wave breaking and associated diapycnal mixing. Such waves near the upper limit of the inertio-gravity wave band are thought to have relatively short O (10 2-10 3 m) horizontal scales and to show mainly up- and downward motions, which contrasts with generally low aspect ratio large-scale ocean currents. Here, short-term vertical current ( w) observations using moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) are presented from a shelf sea, above a continental slope and from the open ocean. The observed w, with amplitudes between 0.015 and 0.05 m s -1, all span a considerable part of the water column, which is not a small vertical scale O(water depth) or O (100-500 m, the maximum range of observations), with either 0 or ? phase change. This implies that they actually represent internal waves of low vertical modes 1 or 2. Maximum amplitudes are found in layers of largest stratification, some in the main pycnocline bordering the frictional bottom boundary layer, suggesting a tidal source. These 'pycnocline-w' compose a regular train of (solitary) internal waves and linearly decrease to small values near surface and bottom.

  1. Continental seismic events observed by the MPL vertical DIFAR array

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); D`Spain, G. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States). Marine Physical Lab.

    1993-11-01

    The vertical DIFAR array, an underwater acoustic sensor system, deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) was in place over the continental shelf off of Southern California and recorded the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test and nearly a score of after-shocks of the Landers/Big Bear earthquakes. Data from this array raise the possibility that detection thresholds for continental events may be significantly lower for arrays over the continental shelf than for arrays in the deep ocean basins. Offshore stations could be used to fill gaps in land-based seismic networks for monitoring the NPT and a CTBT, especially for monitoring non-cooperating nations with large coastlines. This preliminary report provides an analysis of the HUNTERS TROPHY observation as well as one of the Landers aftershocks. The analysis suggests detection thresholds for vertical hydrophone arrays below mb 3.0 at ranges between 3 and 4 degrees, and below mb 4.4 out to 6 degrees. This report also describes two signal processing techniques that enhance the detection potential of short vertical arrays. These methods are deterministic null steering to suppress horizontally propagating ambient ocean noise, and matched field processing for vertically-incident acoustic fields. The latter technique is ideally suited for acoustic fields derived from incident seismic waves, and may be viewed as a {open_quotes}synthetic aperture{close_quotes} approach to increase the effective aperture of the array.

  2. Errors related to solar pressure radiation estimation in DORIS data processing (geocenter time series and precise orbit determination)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line

    Recent DORIS studies showed that errors related to solar pressure radiation models can affect the precision of geodetic products such as geocenter motion variation or vertical position of high-latitude tracking stations. In particular, in the case of the SPOT-2 and TOPEX satellites, large erroneous signals present at 118-day or at annual period can be removed in the TZ- geocenter time series by fixing a unique empirical multiplier to these SRP models. Such a coefficient is usually close to 1.0 (within 10%) and can be derived from daily single-satellite orbit computations. It is very stable with time, with a few exceptions related to change in on-board receiver software or measurement mode. We have used this approach to reprocess the entire DORIS data set (1993.0 to 2008.0), computing daily and then weekly free-network multisatellite solutions. We will show here that this approach is also valid for the other satellites of the DORIS constellation and should be considered for submission to the future ITRF2008. Significant improvement was detected in the derived Z-geocenter time series as well as in the scale of the Terrestrial reference frame (realization of the unit of length) derived from DORIS weekly solutions. Finally, we will investigate the impact of this improved processing strategy on the DORIS satellite orbits, in terms of daily overlaps (radial, cross-track and along-track) as well of orbit centering, which is currently of critical importance for altimetric missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason and ENVISAT.

  3. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  4. Weather Satellite and Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive, online module, students learn about satellite orbits (geostationary and polar), remote-sensing satellite instruments (radiometers and sounders), satellite images, and the math and physics behind satellite technology. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  5. The Earth's Orbit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    These eleven activities relate to the results of the motion and position of the Earth in its orbit, investigating both the causes and the effects of changing seasons. It starts simply by trying to quantify the observation that it is colder in the winter and ends by measuring the tilt of the Earth. This is chapter two of the online book Eyes on the Sky, Feet on the Ground, containing explorations into astronomy as a classroom tool for learning how to theorize, experiment, and analyze data. The activities are fully illustrated and contain detailed, step-by-step instructions as well as suggested discussion topics.

  6. Orbit Determination for Mars Global Surveyor During Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Pavlis, D. E.; Chinn, D. S.; Luthcke, S. B.; Neumann, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft reached a low-altitude circular orbit on February 4, 1999, after the termination of the second phase of aerobraking. The MGS spacecraft carries the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) whose primary goal is to derive a global, geodetically referenced 0.2 deg x 0.2 deg topographic grid of Mars with a vertical accuracy of better than 30 meters. During the interim science orbits in the' Hiatus mission phase (October - November 1997), and the Science Phasing Orbits (March - April, 1998, and June - July 1998) 208 passes of altimeter data were collected by the MOLA instrument. On March 1, 1999 the first ten orbits of MOLA altimeter data from the near-circular orbit were successfully returned from MGS by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Data will be collected from MOLA throughout the Mapping phase of the MCS mission, or for at least one Mars year (687 days). Whereas the interim orbits of Hiatus and SPO were highly eccentric, and altimeter data were only collected near periapsis when the spacecraft was below 785 km, the Mapping orbit of MGS is near circular, and altimeter data will be collected continuously at a rate of 10 Hz. The proper analysis of the altimeter data requires that the orbit of the MGS spacecraft be known to an accuracy comparable to that of the quality of the altimeter data. The altimeter has an ultimate precision of 30 cm on mostly flat surfaces, so ideally the orbits of the MGS spacecraft should be known to this level. This is a stringent requirement, and more realistic goals of orbit error for MGS are ten to thirty meters. In this paper we will discuss the force and measurement modelling required to achieve this objective. Issues in force modelling include the proper modelling of the gravity field of Mars, and the modelling of non-conservatives forces, including the development of a 'macro-model', in a similar fashion to TOPEX/POSEIDON and TDRSS. During Cruise and Aerobraking, the high gain antenna (HGA) was stowed on the +X face of the spacecraft. On March 29, 1999 the HGA will be deployed on a meter long boom which will remain Earth-pointing while the instrument panel (including the MOLA instrument) remains pointed at nadir. The tracking data must be corrected for the regular motion of the high gain antenna with respect to the center of mass, and the success of the MGS determination during Mapping will depend on correctly accounting for this offset in the measurement model.

  7. LSST: Comprehensive NEO detection, characterization, and orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne

    2014-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has Solar System mapping as one of its four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. We will describe detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from Cerro Pachon in Chile, the LSST site, which shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, simulations also show that LSST can reach the completeness of 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by optimizing observing cadence andextending the survey lifetime to 12 years. In addition to detecting and determining orbits for these PHAs, LSST will also provide valuable data on their physical characteristics through accurate color and variability measurements, which can be used to determine approximate taxonomical types, better size estimates by constraining albedos, rotation periods, and shape characteristics; thus constraining PHA properties relevant for risk mitigation strategies.

  8. Triple Difference Approach to Low Earth Orbiter Precision Orbit Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay-Hyoun Kwon; Dorota A. Grejner-Brzezinska; Jae-Hong Yom; Lee-Dong Cheon

    2003-01-01

    A precise kinematic orbit determination (P-KOD) procedure for Low Earth Orbiter(LEO) using the GPS ion-free triple differenced carrier phases is presented. Because the triple differenced observables provide only relative information, the first epoch's positions of the orbit should be held fixed. Then, both forward and backward filtering was executed to mitigate the effect of biases of the first epoch's position.

  9. Orbiting chains and rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Two very different, highly flexible, space structures proposed during the last decade which involve analytical solution of certain partial differential equations are discussed. The first structure is an array, or hanging chain of aluminum beads which would serve as a convenient communicator if, under the influence of the Earth's gravity gradient, it assumes a local vertical orientation as it circles the Earth. Two passive schemes have been proposed for damping the rigid modes: twist the wire at the ends to provide non-zero moment of inertia about the vertical, thereby inducing relative motion of the two tips during rigid pitch or roll, and thus exercising a damper; and introduce weak lossy springs between the end sections and the main section; thereby providing linear coupling between the springs and all the in-plane (pitch) modes. The second structure is a complete ring of satellites cabled together at synchronous altitude. By a slight increase in altitude, the cable is in tension. This configuration is, however, unstable, and an active feedback control scheme is required to stabilize it. A possible scheme involves local cable length adjustment based on measurement of local altitude and shape variations and their rates.

  10. Closing the pseudogap quietly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, James

    2015-03-01

    The physical properties of hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors are heavily influenced by an energy gap known as the pseudogap whose origin remains a mystery second only to that of superconductivity itself. A key question is whether or not the pseudogap closes at a temperature T*. The absence of a specific heat anomaly, together with persistent entropy losses up to 300K, have long suggested that the pseudogap does not vanish at T*. However, amid a growing body of evidence from other techniques pointing to the contrary we revisit this question. Here we investigate if, by adding a temperature dependence to the pseudogap energy and quasiparticle lifetime in the resonating-valence-bond spin-liquid model of Yang Rice and Zhang, we can close the pseudogap quietly in the specific heat.

  11. Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings

    E-print Network

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings Ali Reza The Fibonacci cube n is obtained from the n-cube Qn by removing all the vertices that contain two consecutive 1s size, are determined for the Fibonacci cubes and the Lucas cubes under the action of the automorphism

  12. Paul SWATSCHINA: Orbitintegration for low Earth orbiters using data of the gravity mission CHAMP

    E-print Network

    Schuh, Harald

    Paul SWATSCHINA: Orbitintegration for low Earth orbiters using data of the gravity for the precise determination of the earth's gravity field and its variation over time. Further aims of the mission are the monitoring of the earth's magnetic field and the determination of vertical

  13. Comparing the roughness of the Moon from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) to asteroids and planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Barnouin-Jha; M. T. Zuber; D. E. Smith; G. A. Neumann; E. Mazarico; M. H. Torrence; J. Oberst; J. W. Head; P. G. Lucey; M. S. Robinson; T. C. Duxbury

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) is a unique instrument that measures the topography of Moon at vertical resolutions of 10 cm and horizontal resolutions of 25 m over 1000s of km. These data are used to compute the fractal roughness of the surface of the Moon at horizontal scales that overlap similar altimetry collected at the asteroids 25143 Itokawa

  14. The Orbital Structure of Triaxial Galaxies with Figure Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Alex T.; Valluri, Monica; Merritt, David

    2011-02-01

    We survey the properties of all orbit families in the rotating frame of a family of realistic triaxial potentials with central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In such galaxies, most regular box orbits (vital for maintaining triaxiality) are associated with resonances which occupy two-dimensional surfaces in configuration space. For slow figure rotation all orbit families are largely stable. At intermediate pattern speeds a significant fraction of the resonant box orbits as well as inner long-axis tubes are destabilized by the "envelope doubling" that arises from the Coriolis forces and are driven into the destabilizing center. Thus, for pattern rotation periods 2 × 108 yr <~ Tp <~ 5 × 109 yr, the two orbit families that are most important for maintaining triaxiality are highly chaotic. As pattern speed increases there is also a sharp decrease in the overall fraction of prograde short-axis tubes and a corresponding increase in the retrograde variety. At the highest pattern speeds (close to that of triaxial bars), box-like orbits undergo a sudden transition to a new family of stable retrograde loop-like orbits, which resemble orbits in three-dimensional bars, and circulate about the short axis. Our analysis implies that triaxial systems (with central cusps and SMBHs) could either be very rapidly rotating like fast bars or slowly rotating like triaxial elliptical galaxies or dark matter halos found in N-body simulations. Collisionless triaxial systems that remain in stable dynamical equilibrium are unlikely to have intermediate pattern speeds which produce a high level of stochasticity in both the box and inner long-axis tube orbit families.

  15. Space Station: Orbiter berthing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapar, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Kilby, M.

    1992-01-01

    The berthing/docking maneuver is important for the construction and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Berthing has a direct effect on the SSF assembly build up and SSF/Orbiter operations. The dynamics associated with the berthing activities potentially large impacts on the elements ans systems (both the Orbiter and SSF) throughout the assembly sequence. These dynamics will play a major role in the development of operational requirements that need to be identified and validated in order to assure total safety and maneuver execution during the SSF construction. The berthing/docking task will consider those assembly flights where the SSF has the control authority for the combined stack (currently MB-5) and beyond. The purpose of this task is to analyze the effects of berthing dynamics and their impacts on the maneuver and operational requirements. The task objectives are the following: (1) to develop the necessary analytical tool(s) and skills that will enable the verification and certification of berthing/docking for each assembly flight; (2) to perform detailed analyses of the berthing/docking maneuvers during the SSF assembly buildup in order to verify the viability of such maneuvers; and (3) to develop the operational requirements that affect such maneuvers and establish the operational boundaries and envelops for berthing/docking during assembly and mature operations. Various topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: analysis tools and capabilities; analysis results; and ongoing work.

  16. Observations of orbital debris and satellites in Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

    There are many accidental optically tracked artificial objects during observations at Astronom-ical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra, Slovak Republic (AGO). Those objects are usually orbital debris or satellites. A tool to identify such a type of objects was necessary to create. Our software is called SatEph and is used to identify tracked artificial objects and to compute their orbital elements. SatEph is based on analytic propagation model SGP4 and TLE data. Program is still under development and in the near future it will be a part of software for automated search telescope for small near Earth asteroids at AGO. We present orbital debris observation simulation for the new optical searching system. Unlike other aster-oids searching systems (Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, Spacewatch etc.) our system should be capable to detect small asteroids in close vicinity of the Earth (smaller then Lunar distance) with high angular speed. The limiting magnitude of observable objects is about +16 magnitude and the pixel scale is 4,6 arcsec/px. This allows us to detect man made objects as well. We studied how many satellites and orbital debris with known orbital elements are able to track per given observing night. We also studied frequency detection of tracked object during one night. The searching system field of view will be 4.4 x 4.4 square degrees and the system will search more then 2000 square degrees per night. Exposure time for every single CCD shot is set to 30 seconds. We found out, there is possible to track from 250 to 450 objects (mostly with geosynchronous orbits) per one night in dependence on given day of the year. More then 200 objects have at least 3 astrometric positions per one night, which can be useful for orbit determination process. The tracked objects are mostly satellites and rocket bodies, which have different orbits, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Data of orbital debris astrometric positions will be offered for national space agencies and used for our own orbit determination. Those data could be useful for orbital elements updating of catalogue, or non catalogue artificial objects.

  17. Levy Flights of Binary Orbits due to Impulsive Encounters

    E-print Network

    Benjamin F. Collins; Re'em Sari

    2008-10-08

    We examine the evolution of an almost circular Keplerian orbit interacting with unbound perturbers. We calculate the change in eccentricity and angular momentum that results from a single encounter, assuming the timescale for the interaction is shorter than the orbital period. The orbital perturbations are incorporated into a Boltzmann equation that allows for eccentricity dissipation. We present an analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation that describes the distribution of orbital eccentricity and relative inclination as a function of time. The eccentricity and inclination of the binary do not evolve according to a normal random walk but perform a Levy flight. The slope of the mass spectrum of perturbers dictates whether close gravitational scatterings are more important than distant tidal ones. When close scatterings are important, the mass spectrum sets the slope of the eccentricity and inclination distribution functions. We use this general framework to understand the eccentricities of several Kuiper belt systems: Pluto, 2003 EL 61, and Eris. We use the model of Tholen et al (2007) to separate the non-Keplerian components of the orbits of Pluto's outer moons Nix and Hydra from the motion excited by interactions with other Kuiper belt objects. Our distribution is consistent with the observations of Nix, Hydra, and the satellites of 2003 EL 61 and Eris. We address applications of this work to objects outside of the solar system, such as extrasolar planets around their stars and millisecond pulsars.

  18. Vertical variation of vertical hydraulic conductivity in channel sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Song, J.; Cheng, C.; Wang, D.; Lackey, S.; Burbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of streambed is of great importance in the analysis of stream-aquifer interactions. We used two methods to estimate the Kv in three rivers of Nebraska. The first method was in-situ permeameter test in river channels. We investigated streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) in two depths, one incumbent to the other, immediately beneath the channel surface. Our results demonstrated that streambed Kv in the upper sediment layer was much higher than that in the sediment just beneath the upper layer at each test location. We speculate that hyporheic processes can result in a larger streambed Kv in the upper part of channel sediments. Specifically, water exchange through upwelling and downwelling zones can lead to bigger pore spaces and a more unconsolidated structure of sediments in the upper layer. The upward movement of gas produced by redox processes can loosen sediments and further enlarge pore spaces in the upper layers. Bio- activity in the upper part of the streambed can also expand pore space and thus increase hydraulic conductivity. In-situ permeameter tests penetrated the sediment to depth as much as 90 cm. We then used Geoprobe direct- push technique to generate electrical conductivity log and collect sequences of sediment cores from larger depths. Permeameter tests were conducted on these cores to determine Kv. Our results suggest that Kv values have a decrease tendency with the depth for sediments in these rivers.

  19. Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Pecorella, I; Toth, J; Lukats, O

    2012-08-01

    Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma or peripheral neurinoma, is an unusual orbital benign tumour that may pose diagnostic challenges. Awareness of the clinical features that may be associated with the tumour and prompt surgical excision with histopathologic examination enable correct diagnosis. The authors describe a progressively increasing inferolateral orbital mass in a 32-year-old patient that was demonstrated to be an orbital ancient schwannoma. PMID:23316621

  20. Orbital myositis: Diagnosis and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta M. S. Costa; Oana M. Dumitrascu; Lynn K. Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Orbital myositis is an inflammatory process that primarily involves the extraocular muscles and most commonly affects young\\u000a adults in the third decade of life, with a female predilection. Clinical characteristics of orbital myositis include orbital\\u000a and periorbital pain, ocular movement impairment, diplopia, proptosis, swollen eyelids, and conjunctival hyperemia. The most\\u000a common presentation is acute and unilateral, which initially responds to

  1. Orbits in Space: Lagrangian points

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

    Authored and curated by David P. Stern, these pages explore orbits and the "Lagrangian points", where objects will orbit the sun with the same period as the earth. This has applications for solar monitoring spacecraft. The three sections derive the equilibrium properties of Lagrangian points: the calculations only involve algebra and trig, but are rather lengthy. This is a nice introduction to these rather complex theories of orbits in space. Translations to French and (in part) Spanish are also provided.

  2. Increased Ocular Pulse Amplitude Associated with Unilateral Dysgenesis of the Orbital Roof

    PubMed Central

    Vira, Ami Shah; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Roberts, Cynthia J.; Katz, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Two patients (one with neurofibromatosis type 1) presented with unilateral ocular pulsation. Methods A CT scan of the orbits revealed extensive dysgenesis of the orbital roof with herniation of the frontal lobe into the orbit in both cases. PASCAL dynamic contour tonometry was performed. Results The ipsilateral ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) was greater than the contralateral side, and the ocular pulse waveform morphology more closely approximated the known intracranial waveform in these patients. Conclusions We hypothesize that the greater OPA was due to stronger transmission of the intracranial pressure waveform amplitude and morphology in the absence of the orbital roof.

  3. Track and capture of the orbiter with the space station remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bains, E. M.; Price, C. R.; Walter, L. M.

    1987-01-01

    Results of the first study using the real-time, man-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) for track and capture of the Space Shuttle Orbiter with the space station manipulator are presented. The objectives include evaluation of the operational coordination required between the orbiter pilot and the space station manipulator operator, evaluation of the locations and required number of closed-circuit television cameras, and evaluation of the orbiter grapple fixture clearance geometry. The SES is a premium quality real-time facility with full fidelity orbiter and space station crew workstations and cockpits.

  4. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  5. Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  6. Vertical dynamics of marine risers

    SciTech Connect

    Apiazu, W.R.; Nguyen, V.N.

    1984-05-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values under all operating modes including hangoff, by increasing compliance at the riser vessel interface. Finally, recommendations for the design of heave compensation equipment intended to limit the dynamic force amplitude on riser-load systems hanging in deeper waters and harsher environments are presented.

  7. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  8. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  9. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten times as long* as the latter. The filter correction step also furnishes a statistically rigorous *prediction error* which appears in the likelihood ratios for scoring the association of one report or observation to another. Thus, the new filter can be used to support multi-target tracking within a general multiple hypothesis tracking framework. Additionally, the new distribution admits a distance metric which extends the classical Mahalanobis distance (chi^2 statistic). This metric provides a test for statistical significance and facilitates single-frame data association methods with the potential to easily extend the covariance-based track association algorithm of Hill, Sabol, and Alfriend. The filtering, data fusion, and association methods using the new class of orbital state PDFs are shown to be mathematically tractable and operationally viable.

  10. Pilocytic Astrocytoma Presenting as an Orbital Encephalocele: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bruzek, Amy; Shepherd, Daniel; Van Gompel, Jamie; Jentoft, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 29-year-old male who presented with new-onset seizures. He was subsequently found to have an orbital encephalocele containing a focus of pilocytic astrocytoma. We believe that this is the first report of a pilocytic astrocytoma located within the orbit that did not originate from the optic pathway. It is also the first case of a pilocytic astrocytoma completely contained within an encephalocele. This case suggests a close pathological examination of encephaloceles for underlying diseases.

  11. Approach and landing simulator for Space Shuttle Orbiter touchdown conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Dalton, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This study describes a computer simulation that provides an accurate calculation of the touchdown conditions. The program is small enough to operate on a personal computer. The program simulates the Orbiter trajectory from an altitude of 10,000 ft to the earth's surface. It assumes the Orbiter files close to its reference altitude profile, with negligible crosswind effects. Flight data have proven both assumption to be valid. By incorporating these assumptions with the Shuttle guidance logic, a quick approximation can be made of the touchdown speed and downrange distance to an accuracy within 400 ft of the mainframe prediction.

  12. A Jupiter Orbiter mother/daughter spacecraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a tandem launch of a mother/daughter spacecraft pair with a single launch vehicle for a 1981 Mariner Jupiter Orbiter mission is described. The mother is a close derivative of the three-axis stabilized Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977 spacecraft with the addition of a Viking-type propulsion module for orbit capture; it concentrates on the planetology and satellite science objectives. The daughter is a small, simple spin-stabilized spacecraft taking advantage of the mother's transit and delivery capabilities; it obtains in-situ measurements of the surrounding planetary environment. A conceptual design of the daughter spacecraft is presented.

  13. Shuttle orbiter - IUS/DSP satellite interface contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Strange, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a contamination analysis on the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite during launch and deployment by the Space Transportation System (STS) are presented. Predicted contaminant deposition was also included on critical DSP surfaces during the period soon after launch when the DSP is in the shuttle orbiter bay with the doors closed, the bay doors open, and during initial deployment. Additionally, a six sided box was placed at the spacecraft position to obtain directional contaminant flux information for a general payload while in the bay and during deployment. The analysis included contamination sources from the shuttle orbiter, IUS and cradle, the DSP sensor and the DSP support package.

  14. Gauge Orbit Types for Theories with Classical Compact Gauge Group

    E-print Network

    Alexander Hertsch; Gerd Rudolph; Matthias Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    We determine the orbit types of the action of the group of local gauge transformations on the space of connections in a principal bundle with structure group O(n), SO(n) or $Sp(n)$ over a closed, simply connected manifold of dimension 4. Complemented with earlier results on U(n) and SU(n) this completes the classification of the orbit types for all classical compact gauge groups over such space-time manifolds. On the way we derive the classification of principal bundles with structure group SO(n) over these manifolds and the Howe subgroups of SO(n).

  15. TOPEX orbital radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Barth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.

  16. Orbital magnetic ratchet effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budkin, G. V.; Golub, L. E.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic ratchets—two-dimensional systems with superimposed noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic gratings—are considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that excitation by radiation results in a directed motion of two-dimensional carriers due to the pure orbital effect of the periodic magnetic field. Magnetic ratchets based on various two-dimensional systems such as topological insulators, graphene, and semiconductor heterostructures are investigated. The mechanisms of the electric current generation caused by both radiation-induced heating of carriers and by acceleration in the radiation electric field in the presence of a space-oscillating Lorentz force are studied in detail. The electric currents sensitive to the linear polarization plane orientation as well as to the radiation helicity are calculated. It is demonstrated that the frequency dependence of the magnetic ratchet currents is determined by the dominant elastic-scattering mechanism of two-dimensional carriers and differs for the systems with linear and parabolic energy dispersions.

  17. Hypervelocity orbital intercept guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    1988-04-01

    Terminal guidance of a hypervelocity exo-atmospheric orbital interceptor with free end-time is examined. The pursuer is constrained to lateral thrusting with the evader modeled as an ICBM in its final boost phase. Proportional navigation, optimal control using certainty equivalence, dual control, and control with optimum thrust spacing are all examined. Also, a new approach called certainty control is developed for this problem. This algorithm constrains the final state to a function of projected estimate error to reduce control energy expenditure. All methods model the trajectories using splines and employ eight state Extended Kalman Filters with line-of-sight and range updates. The relative effectiveness of these control strategies is illustrated by applying them to various intercept problems.

  18. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  19. Skylab Orbiter Workshop Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This cutaway illustration shows the characteristics and basic elements of the Skylab Orbiter Workshop (OWS). The OWS was divided into two major compartments. The lower level provided crew accommodations for sleeping, food preparation and consumption, hygiene, waste processing and disposal, and performance of certain experiments. The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment. The compartment below the crew quarters was a container for liquid and solid waste and trash accumulated throughout the mission. A solar array, consisting of two wings covered on one side with solar cells, was mounted outside the workshop to generate electrical power to augment the power generated by another solar array mounted on the solar observatory. Thrusters were provided at one end of the workshop for short-term control of the attitude of the space station.

  20. The future role of relay satellites for orbital telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Enrico; Letschnik, Jürgen; Wilde, Markus; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Artigas, Jordi

    2012-10-01

    Orbital robotics focuses on a variety of applications, as e.g. inspection and repair activities, spacecraft construction or orbit corrections. On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) activities have to be closely monitored by operators on ground. A direct contact to the spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limiting the operational time of the robotic application. Therefore, geostationary satellites are desirable to relay the OOS signals and extend the servicing time window. A geostationary satellite in the communication chain not only introduces additional boundary conditions to the mission but also increases the time delay in the system. The latter is not very critical if the servicer satellite is operating autonomously. However, if the servicer is operating in a supervised control regime with a human in the loop, the increased time delay will have an impact on the operator's task performance. This paper describes the challenges, which have to be met when utilizing a relay satellite for orbital telerobotics. It shows a series of ground experiments that were undertaken with a relay satellite in the communication chain to simulate the end-to-end system. This case study proves that complex robotic applications in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are controllable by human operators on ground.

  1. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  2. Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster

    E-print Network

    Euaggelos E. Zotos

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.

  3. Polar Air Quality and Climate from a Molniya Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, N.; McConnell, J. C.; Mullins, M.; Chesser, H.; Solheim, B.; Kaminski, J.; Strong, K.; Jones, D.; Drummond, J.; Martin, R.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, W. F.; Giroux, J. G.; Soucy, M. A.; Buijs, H. L.; Moreau, L. M.; Buttner, G.; Rahnama, P.; Rowlands, N.; Hackett, J.; Bell, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Arctic is a region of rapid climate change with warming temperatures and depleting summer ice which may be exacerbated by transport of soot and other anthropogenic material from mid-latitudes. It is also the source of winter storms delivering cold air to lower latitudes. Currently data is available for these areas from polar orbiting satellites, but only intermittently at a given location as the satellites pass overhead. Data from geostationary satellites, useful at lower latitudes, is not available for the Arctic because viewing angles to high latitude locations from geostationary orbit are poor. We are proposing the use of a satellite in a Molniya orbit for the acquisition of data for high latitudes which is a quasi-stationary orbit close to apogee. This talk will describe a proposal to the Canadian Space Agency for a mission aimed at the acquisition of air quality and climate data in boreal polar regions and mid-latitudes. Molniya orbits (named after the Russian communications satellite series that first used them) are highly elliptical orbits with an inclination of approximately 63°. At this inclination, the Earth oblateness perturbation does not cause any change to the orbit's argument of perigee. Further, if the orbit semi-major axis is chosen appropriately, the orbit can be timed to have a period of half a day (typical Molniya orbits have an apogee altitude of about 39750 km and a perigee altitude of about 600 km). The result of these two constraints is that the satellite is at apogee over the same high latitude location on the Earth every two orbits. At the alternate apogees, it is over a location at the same latitude but 180° away in longitude. Either location provides viewing coverage of the entire Earth above 60°N, and reasonable viewing down to 50°N. Further, because the satellite is travelling slowly at apogee, the viewing geometry is maintained for approximately 2/3 of the orbit (8 hr out of every 12). The suite of instruments we are baselining all have heritage in previous Canadian flight programs such as SciSat and include a high spectral resolution infrared sounder, a multiwavelength camera, an imaging spectrometer and an auroral imager. The first three instruments will provide information on a wide range of air quality indicator species including aerosols as well as clouds, and will provide temperature, pressure and wind estimates useful for weather predictions and climate studies. The auroral imager will allow examination of an interesting question related to solar-climate interactions in the middle atmosphere through the medium of the aurora.

  4. Vertical transport by small scale stratospheric turbulence: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, E. M.

    1981-02-01

    This paper reviews the estimates to date of the vertical 'effective diffusion coefficient' for stratospheric small scale turbulence transport, KB. These estimates range (in order of magnitude) from 1.0 sq. meter/s to 0.01 sq. meter/s, that is to say from a value which would make turbulence a dominant factor in stratospheric transport to a value which would make it totally insignificant. Such a large range implies much ignorance in this subject. The various techniques are closely examined and the unanswered experimental questions are exhibited. The conclusion is reached that more experimental work needs to be done before one has a reliable estimate for KB.

  5. On the efficiency of semi-closed blast inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, B. E.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2010-08-01

    Numerical efficiency analysis of those blast inhibitors (BI) consisting of a vertical cylinder open at the top is presented and compared with the existing data from other authors. It was proven computationally that such low-height “semi-closed” BI do not provide blast wave suppression according to the minimum practical requirements (overpressure and pressure impulse reduction at several times) and, if one wishes to compare, other existing criteria (Bowen injury diagrams and similar guidelines adopted in different countries).

  6. SIRTF in high earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Brooks, Walter F.; Manning, Larry A.; Eisenhardt, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The goals, requirements and operation of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed. Emphasis is upon an analysis of the options of high and low earth orbits for the mission. The consensus was that the high earth orbit offers significant scientific and engineering advantages for SIRTF.

  7. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Robinson; E. Bowman-Cisneros; S. M. Brylow; E. Eliason; H. Hiesinger; B. L. Jolliff; A. S. McEwen; M. C. Malin; D. Roberts; P. C. Thomas; E. Turtle

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is designed to address two of the prime LRO measurement requirements. 1) Assess meter and smaller-scale features to facilitate safety analysis for potential lunar landing sites near polar resources, and elsewhere on the Moon. 2) Acquire multi-temporal synoptic imaging of the poles every orbit to characterize the polar illumination environment (100 m scale), identifying

  8. Orbit propagation in Minkowskian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Javier; Peláez, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    The geometry of hyperbolic orbits suggests that Minkowskian geometry, and not Euclidean, may provide the most adequate description of the motion. This idea is explored in order to derive a new regularized formulation for propagating arbitrarily perturbed hyperbolic orbits. The mathematical foundations underlying Minkowski space-time {M} are exploited to describe hyperbolic orbits. Hypercomplex numbers are introduced to define the rotations, vectors, and metrics in the problem: the evolution of the eccentricity vector is described on the Minkowski plane {R}_1^2 in terms of hyperbolic numbers, and the orbital plane is described on the inertial reference using quaternions. A set of eight orbital elements is introduced, namely a time-element, the components of the eccentricity vector in {R}_1^2 , the semimajor axis, and the components of the quaternion defining the orbital plane. The resulting formulation provides a deep insight into the geometry of hyperbolic orbits. The performance of the formulation in long-term propagations is studied. The orbits of four hyperbolic comets are integrated and the accuracy of the solution is compared to other regularized formulations. The resulting formulation improves the stability of the integration process and it is not affected by the perihelion passage. It provides a level of accuracy that may not be reached by the compared formulations, at the cost of increasing the computational time.

  9. Orbital evolution around irregular bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rossi; F. Marzari; P. Farinella

    1999-01-01

    The new profiles of the space missions aimed at asteroids and comets, moving from fly-bys to rendezvous and orbiting, call for new spaceflight dynamics tools capable of propagating orbits in an accurate way around these small irregular objects. Moreover, interesting celestial mechanics and planetary science problems, requiring the same sophisticated tools, have been raised by the first images of asteroids

  10. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  11. What is a MISR orbit?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... on a sun-synchronous orbit. It revolves once around the planet in 98.88 minutes and thus completes about 14.5 revolutions per day. In ... the Terra platform is over the illuminated (day) side of the planet, i.e., during one half of the complete orbit or a bit less. Of course, ...

  12. Orbit determination in satellite geodesy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Beutler; T. Schildknecht; U. Hugentobler; W. Gurtner

    2003-01-01

    For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of six so-called Keplerian elements of the orbit of a minor planet or a comet based on a short series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth's surface. With the advent of the space age the problem changed considerably

  13. Safety in earth orbit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety aspects are studied of the space shuttle orbiter, the shuttle payloads, and space stations in earth orbital operations. The tasks generated safety requirements, guidelines, recommendations, and conceptual safety devices. The tasks studied were: hazardous payloads, docking, onboard survivability tumbling spacecraft, and escape and rescue operations.

  14. Interacting Binaries with Eccentric Orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy F. Sepinsky; B. Willems; V. Kalogera

    2006-01-01

    The Roche model has served for a long time as a fundamental tool to study the interactions and observational characteristics of the components of gravitational two-body systems. More often than not, applications of this model are built on the assumption that the orbit of the system is circular and that the system components are rotating synchronously with the orbital motion.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  16. Closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging results are proof that we are on the right track. We attempted to select recent publications that will present these current achievements in the quest for the artificial pancreas and that will inspire others to continue to progress this field of research. PMID:21323809

  17. Thermosyphon boiling in vertical channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bar-Cohen; H. Schweitzer

    1983-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling heat transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of

  18. Atmospheric structure from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter accelerometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G.; Bougher, S.; Theriot, M.; Zurek, R.; Blanchard, R.; Tolson, R.; Murphy, J.

    Designed for aerobraking, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that will safely use the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 500 orbits. MRO periapsis precesses from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis is brought dramatically from ˜40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) mid September 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers will establish the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 500 plus aerobraking orbits provides a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extends vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may be equally critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO will help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: polar vortices, winter polar warming, dust storms, planetary scale gravity waves, and gravitational tides associated with topography; this will validate and constrain both upper atmospheric circulation models used to understand the nature of high-altitude variability and transport processes, and engineering models used to plan future missions.

  19. Planets in Spin-Orbit Misalignment and the Search for Stellar Companions

    E-print Network

    Addison, Brett C; Wright, Duncan J; Salter, Graeme; Bayliss, Daniel; Zhou, George

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars was one of the most unexpected results of early exoplanetary science. Astronomers have since found that a significant fraction of these 'Hot Jupiters' move on orbits substantially misaligned with the rotation axis of their host star. We recently reported the measurement of the spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b by using data from the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Contemporary models of planetary formation produce planets on nearly coplanar orbits with respect to their host star's equator. We discuss the mechanisms which could drive planets into spin-orbit misalignment. The most commonly proposed being the Kozai mechanism, which requires the presence of a distant, massive companion to the star-planet system. We therefore describe a volume-limited direct-imaging survey of Hot Jupiter systems with measured spin-orbit angles, to search for the presence of stellar companions and test the Kozai hypothesis.

  20. Floating orbital molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Perlt, Eva; Brüssel, Marc; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-04-21

    We introduce an alternative ab initio molecular dynamics simulation as a unification of Hartree-Fock molecular dynamics and the floating orbital approach. The general scheme of the floating orbital molecular dynamics method is presented. Moreover, a simple but sophisticated guess for the orbital centers is provided to reduce the number of electronic structure optimization steps at each molecular dynamics step. The conservation of total energy and angular momentum is investigated in order to validate the floating orbital molecular dynamics approach with and without application of the initial guess. Finally, a water monomer and a water dimer are simulated, and the influence of the orbital floating on certain properties like the dipole moment is investigated. PMID:24600690

  1. Optical astronomy from orbiting observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, P. M.; Whitman, W. R.

    In order to avoid the factors affecting ground-based observations which degrade resolution and limit reach (atmospheric extinction, seeing, and light pollution), astronomical telescopes were moved into earth orbit. This move also solved the problem of atmospheric absorption of radiation shorter than 0.3 microns. The success of the first series of orbiting observatories, the Orbiting Astronomical Observatories (OAO) established the satellites as one of a new generation of tools for exploring the universe. The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), launched in a geosynchronous orbit (1978), provided a guest observer facility serving the international community. In 1980, nearly 30% of the observational papers published in the Astrophysical Journal dealt with satellite data, and nearly one out of three of those papers used results from the IUE. The Space Telescope (ST), the newest orbiting observatory, is currently scheduled for launch in January, 1985. A detailed description of the OAOs, the IUE, and the ST are given, along with their scientific objectives and performances.

  2. A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

  3. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo. It generates high frequency acoustic waves around 1kHz. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections and currently being processed for imaging the subsurface structure.

  4. Extremely low vertical-emittance beam in accelerator-test facility at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Akemoto, M.; Anderson, S.; Aoki, T.; Araki, S.; Bane, K.L.F.; Blum, P.; Corlett, J.; Dobashi, K.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Fukuda, M.; Guo, Z.; Hasegawa, K.; Hayano, H.; Higo, T.; Higurashi, A.; Honda, Y.; Iimura, T.; Imai, T.; Jobe, K.; Kamada, S.; Karataev, P.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kim, E.; Kobuki, T.; Kotseroglou, T.; Kurihara, Y.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, R.; Kuroda, S.; Lee, T.; Luo, X.; McCormick, D.J.; McKee, B.; Mimashi, T.; Minty, M.; Muto, T.; Naito, Takashi; Naumenko, G.; Nelson, J.; Nguyen, M.N.; Oide, K.; Okugi, T.; Omori, T.; Oshima, T.; Pei, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; Qin, Q.; Raubenheimer, T.; Ross, M.; Sakai, H.; Sakai, I.; Schmidt, F.; Slaton, T.; Smith, H.; Smith, S.; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Takano, M.; Takeda, Seishi; Terunuma, N.; Toge, N.; Turner, J.; Urakawa, J.; Vogel, V.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, F.; ATF Collaboration

    2002-05-13

    Electron beams with the lowest, normalized transverse emittance recorded so far were produced and confirmed in single-bunch-mode operation of the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK. We established a tuning method of the damping rings which achieves a small vertical dispersion and small x-y orbit coupling. The vertical emittance was less than 1 percent of the horizontal emittance. At the zero-intensity limit, the vertical normalized emittance was less than 2.8 x 10{sup -8} rad m at beam energy 1.3 GeV. At high intensity, strong effects of intrabeam scattering were observed, which had been expected in view of the extremely high particle density due to the small transverse emittance.

  5. The Relationship Closeness Inventory: Assessing the Closeness of Interpersonal Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Berscheid; Mark Snyder; Allen M. Omoto

    1989-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), which draws on the conceptualization of closeness as high interdependence between two people's activities proposed by Kelley et al. (1983). The current \\

  6. Precision of jaw-closing movements for different jaw gaps.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Daniel; Becker, Georg; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Fingerhut, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    Jaw-closing movements are basic components of physiological motor actions precisely achieving intercuspation without significant interference. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, despite an imperfect intercuspal position, the precision of jaw-closing movements fluctuates within the range of physiological closing movements indispensable for meeting intercuspation without significant interference. For 35 healthy subjects, condylar and incisal point positions for fast and slow jaw-closing, interrupted at different jaw gaps by the use of frontal occlusal plateaus, were compared with uninterrupted physiological jaw closing, with identical jaw gaps, using a telemetric system for measuring jaw position. Examiner-guided centric relation served as a clinically relevant reference position. For jaw gaps ?4 mm, no significant horizontal or vertical displacement differences were observed for the incisal or condylar points among physiological, fast, and slow jaw-closing. However, the jaw positions under these three closing conditions differed significantly from guided centric relation for nearly all experimental jaw gaps. The findings provide evidence of stringent neuromuscular control of jaw-closing movements in the vicinity of intercuspation. These results might be of clinical relevance to occlusal intervention with different objectives. PMID:24215119

  7. One-Parameter Fixed-Point Theory and Gradient Flows of Closed 1Forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schütz

    2002-01-01

    We use the one-parameter fixed-point theory of Geoghegan and Nicas to get information about the closed orbit structure of transverse gradient flows of closed 1-forms on a closed manifold M. We define a noncommutative zeta function in an object related to the first Hochschild homology group of the Novikov ring associated to the 1-form and relate it to the torsion

  8. [Architectural analysis of vertical dimension].

    PubMed

    Danguy, M; Danguy, C

    2003-09-01

    Laude and the Lille orthodontic department describe the trigeminal nerve as the main architect of the face. Using the points where it emerges into the cranium, the authors propose an analysis, which they base on four concepts: --the stability of the pterygoid base, --the interaction between two activities, prehensile and masticatory, of the oral cavity, --the cranio-mandibular entity, --the importance of the paired fifth cranial nerve. This study deals with vertical dimension of both alveolar and basal bone, as well as global, ramal, and maxillary growth directions, which they conceptualize as three parallel, convergent, or divergent lines. This analysis can be carried out quickly and easily because it requires only four simple measurements. PMID:15301369

  9. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper will describe the current NASA implementation of the LEO-T network of antenna systems, the customers now being supported, and the services NASA can now offer with this new breed of autonomous ground stations. In addition, the paper will define the technical capabilities of the system and the cost effectiveness of using the systems including the capital costs of installation.

  10. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007–2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  11. Extrasolar Trojan Planets close to Habitable Zones

    E-print Network

    R. Dvorak; E. Pilat-Lohinger; R. Schwarz; F. Freistetter

    2004-08-04

    We investigate the stability regions of hypothetical terrestrial planets around the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in some specific extrasolar planetary systems. The problem of their stability can be treated in the framework of the restricted three body problem where the host star and a massive Jupiter-like planet are the primary bodies and the terrestrial planet is regarded as being massless. From these theoretical investigations one cannot determine the extension of the stable zones around the equilibrium points. Using numerical experiments we determined their largeness for three test systems chosen from the table of the know extrasolar planets, where a giant planet is moving close to the so-called habitable zone around the host star in low eccentric orbits. The results show the dependence of the size and structure of this region, which shrinks significantly with the eccentricity of the known gas giant.

  12. Relativistic Studies of Close Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    G. J. Mathews; P. Marronetti; J. R. Wilson

    1997-10-21

    We discuss (3+1) dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of close neutron star binary systems. The relativistic field equations are solved at each time slice with a spatial 3-metric chosen to be conformally flat. Against this solution the hydrodynamic variables and gravitational radiation are allowed to respond. We have studied four physical processes which occur as the stars approach merger. These include: 1) the relaxation to a hydrodynamic state of almost no spin; 2) relativistically driven compression, heating, and neutrino emission; 3) collapse to two black holes; and 4) orbit inspiral occurring at a lower frequency than previously expected. We give a brief account of the physical origin of these effects and an explanation of why they do not appear in models based upon, 1PN hydrodynamics, a weak field multipole expansion, a tidal analysis, or a rigidly corotating velocity field. The implication of these results for gravity wave detectors is also discussed.

  13. GPS orbit processing in support of low earth orbiter precise orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Romero; H. Boomkamp; J. Dow; C. Garcia

    2003-01-01

    There are currently an increasing number of LEO missions incorporating dual frequency GPS receivers for Satellite to Satellite Tracking. The majority of LEO precise orbit determination (POD) strategies rely on high quality GPS orbits and clocks such as those supplied by the IGS Final product. The availability of these products may not satisfy operational requirements due to their ten day

  14. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.; Hou, Hong Q.; Geib, Kent M.; Hammons, B. E.

    1998-04-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. We report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising form the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  15. PPKBZ9 Two Orbit Propagators Based on an Analytical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, Juan F.; Gavín, Ángel; López, Luis M.; López, Rosario

    2011-10-01

    In the context of general perturbation theories, we analyze the motion of an artificial satellite around an Earth-like planet perturbed by the first eight zonal harmonic coefficients. By means of two Lie transforms and the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method we produce a closed-form second-order analytical theory. Except for the critical inclination, this theory is valid for small eccentricities and inclinations. Two orbit propagators are derived from the analytical theory. The first, PPKBZ9, is completely analytical whereas the second, PPKBZ9, is based on numerical methods that compute the transformation of the variables. Prediction accuracy given by the orbit propagator programs is investigated by using data of different types of Earth and Mars orbiters. PPKBZ9 can also be used by means of a friendly Web Interface in Web Site.

  16. Full orbit calculation for lost alpha particle measurement on ITERa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, D.; Isobe, M.; Nishiura, M.; Sato, Y.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.

    2008-10-01

    An orbit following calculation code with full gyromotion under the ITER magnetic field configuration has been developed to investigate escaping alpha particle orbits in ITER and to determine the geometrical arrangement for alpha particle detection. The code contained the full geometrical information of the first wall panels. It was carefully investigated whether an alpha particle escaping from the plasma through the last closed flux surface does not touch or intersect the first wall boundary before reaching the detection point. Candidates of blanket module modification have been studied to achieve effective measurement geometry for escaping alpha particle detection. The calculations showed that direct orbit loss and banana diffusion can be detected with a probe head recessed from the first wall surface.

  17. Full orbit calculation for lost alpha particle measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Funaki, D.; Isobe, M.; Nishiura, M.; Sato, Y.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M. [Department of Quantum Energy Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    An orbit following calculation code with full gyromotion under the ITER magnetic field configuration has been developed to investigate escaping alpha particle orbits in ITER and to determine the geometrical arrangement for alpha particle detection. The code contained the full geometrical information of the first wall panels. It was carefully investigated whether an alpha particle escaping from the plasma through the last closed flux surface does not touch or intersect the first wall boundary before reaching the detection point. Candidates of blanket module modification have been studied to achieve effective measurement geometry for escaping alpha particle detection. The calculations showed that direct orbit loss and banana diffusion can be detected with a probe head recessed from the first wall surface.

  18. Submesoscale impacts on horizontal and vertical transport in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yisen; Bracco, Annalisa

    2013-10-01

    Impacts of submesoscale processes on transport are investigated numerically in an energetic mesoscale flow with an ocean model run at two horizontal resolutions, 1 and 5 km. The focus is the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, where the Loop Current eddies are surrounded by smaller vortices. By increasing the horizontal resolution, the number and strength of submesoscale eddies and vorticity filaments within the mixed layer increase dramatically and with them the vertical velocities. Inside the coherent eddies and at their peripheries, increased vertical velocities for increasing resolution are associated to near-inertial motions and they are not limited to the mixed layer, but are found at all depths. Horizontal velocities, on the contrary, are similar. Lagrangian isobaric tracers are deployed close to the surface and at 100 m, and three-dimensional, neutrally buoyant particles are released close to the surface, at the base of the mixed layer and at 100 m. The modeled horizontal dispersion curves for each deployment depth are independent of the kind of particles and of horizontal resolution. Close to the ocean surface, however, convergence zones, generated by submesoscale ageostrophic motions and resolved at 1 km resolution, influence the details of the tracer distributions. Vertical dispersion increases by several folds for increasing resolution at all depths explored, with the largest differences found close to the surface. Therefore, submesoscales processes play a fundamental role in driving vertical transport in eddy-dominated flows, both within and below the mixed layer, for times comparable to the Eulerian time scale.

  19. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Ashwill; T. M. Leonard

    1986-01-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a buildable blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and

  20. The vertical structure of Titan's upper atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger V. Yelle; N. Borggren; V. de la Haye; W. T. Kasprzak; H. B. Niemann; I. Müller-Wodarg; J WAITEJR

    2006-01-01

    Data acquired by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) on the Cassini spacecraft during its close encounter with Titan on 26 October 2004 reveal the structure of its upper atmosphere. Altitude profiles of N2, CH4, and H2, inferred from INMS measurements, determine the temperature, vertical mixing rate, and escape flux from the upper atmosphere. The mean atmospheric temperature in the

  1. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, T.D.; Leonard, T.M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a ''buildable'' blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  2. Far-region electromagnetic radiation with a vertical magnetic dipole in sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunliang Long; Hongyan Jiang; Bernhard Rembold

    2001-01-01

    Great attention has been paid to conveniently calculating the electromagnetic (EM) field due to a vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) buried in stratified media. It is quite difficult because this topic involves the computation of Sommerfeld (1949) type integrals (SI). In this paper closed-form expressions for the far field of a VMD embedded below the sea surface are obtained easily by

  3. The Lunar Orbiter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Luna and Zond series of unmanned U.S.S.R. spacecraft were designed to investigate the moon and its vicinity. Sixteen Luna spacecraft and, six Zond spacecraft have obtained lunar data. These series have included flyby, lunar-orbiting, and soft-landing missions. A variety of experiments were carried out by these spacecraft including studies of magnetism, X-ray and gamma emissions, gravitational anomalies, and chemical composition. Soil samples, near- and farside photography (both color and black and white), and earth-cloud photography were also acquired. Luna 17 and 23, carried automatic roving vehicles (Lunokhod 1 and 2) that traversed portions of the lunar surface. Lunokhod 1 roamed in Mare Imbrium near Sinus Iridum, and Lunokhod 2 roamed in the Crater Le Monnier at the eastern edge of Mare Serenitatis. The Luna 16, 20, and 24 missions soft-landed on the lunar surface, scooped up lunar material, and returned these samples to earth. The photographic samples received are in the form of paper prints. Some publications containing photographs are described.

  4. Orbiter Camera Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Components for an orbiting camera payload system (OCPS) include the large format camera (LFC), a gas supply assembly, and ground test, handling, and calibration hardware. The LFC, a high resolution large format photogrammetric camera for use in the cargo bay of the space transport system, is also adaptable to use on an RB-57 aircraft or on a free flyer satellite. Carrying 4000 feet of film, the LFC is usable over the visible to near IR, at V/h rates of from 11 to 41 milliradians per second, overlap of 10, 60, 70 or 80 percent and exposure times of from 4 to 32 milliseconds. With a 12 inch focal length it produces a 9 by 18 inch format (long dimension in line of flight) with full format low contrast resolution of 88 lines per millimeter (AWAR), full format distortion of less than 14 microns and a complement of 45 Reseau marks and 12 fiducial marks. Weight of the OCPS as supplied, fully loaded is 944 pounds and power dissipation is 273 watts average when in operation, 95 watts in standby. The LFC contains an internal exposure sensor, or will respond to external command. It is able to photograph starfields for inflight calibration upon command.

  5. Orbiter Camera Payload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Components for an orbiting camera payload system (OCPS) include the large format camera (LFC), a gas supply assembly, and ground test, handling, and calibration hardware. The LFC, a high resolution large format photogrammetric camera for use in the cargo bay of the space transport system, is also adaptable to use on an RB-57 aircraft or on a free flyer satellite. Carrying 4000 feet of film, the LFC is usable over the visible to near IR, at V/h rates of from 11 to 41 milliradians per second, overlap of 10, 60, 70 or 80 percent and exposure times of from 4 to 32 milliseconds. With a 12 inch focal length it produces a 9 by 18 inch format (long dimension in line of flight) with full format low contrast resolution of 88 lines per millimeter (AWAR), full format distortion of less than 14 microns and a complement of 45 Reseau marks and 12 fiducial marks. Weight of the OCPS as supplied, fully loaded is 944 pounds and power dissipation is 273 watts average when in operation, 95 watts in standby. The LFC contains an internal exposure sensor, or will respond to external command. It is able to photograph starfields for inflight calibration upon command.

  6. Vertical motion requirements for landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the significance of vertical acceleration cues in the simulation of the visual approach and landing maneuver. Landing performance measures were obtained for four subject pilots operating a visual landing simulation device which provides up to plus or minus 40 feet of vertical motion. Test results indicate that vertical motion cues are utilized in the landing task, and that they are particularly important in the simulation of aircraft with marginal longitudinal handling qualities. To assure vertical motion cues of the desired fidelity in the landing tasks, it appears that a simulator must have excursion capabilities of at least plus or minus 20 feet.

  7. General orbital invariant MP2-F12 theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Hans-Joachim; Adler, Thomas B.; Manby, Frederick R.

    2007-04-01

    A general form of orbital invariant explicitly correlated second-order closed-shell Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12) is derived, and compact working equations are presented. Many-electron integrals are avoided by resolution of the identity (RI) approximations using the complementary auxiliary basis set approach. A hierarchy of well defined levels of approximation is introduced, differing from the exact theory by the neglect of terms involving matrix elements over the Fock operator. The most accurate method is denoted as MP2-F12/3B. This assumes only that Fock matrix elements between occupied orbitals and orbitals outside the auxiliary basis set are negligible. For the chosen ansatz for the first-order wave function this is exact if the auxiliary basis is complete. In the next lower approximation it is assumed that the occupied orbital space is closed under action of the Fock operator [generalized Brillouin condition (GBC)]; this is equivalent to approximation 2B of Klopper and Samson [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6397 (2002)]. Further approximations can be introduced by assuming the extended Brillouin condition (EBC) or by neglecting certain terms involving the exchange operator. A new approximation MP2-F12/3C, which is closely related to the MP2-R12/C method recently proposed by Kedžuch et al. [Int. J. Quantum Chem. 105, 929 (2005)] is described. In the limit of a complete RI basis this method is equivalent to MP2-F12/3B. The effect of the various approximations (GBC, EBC, and exchange) is tested by studying the convergence of the correlation energies with respect to the atomic orbital and auxiliary basis sets for 21molecules. The accuracy of relative energies is demonstrated for 16 chemical reactions. Approximation 3C is found to perform equally well as the computationally more demanding approximation 3B. The reaction energies obtained with smaller basis sets are found to be most accurate if the orbital-variant diagonal Ansatz combined with localized orbitals is used for the first-order wave function. This unexpected result is attributed to geminal basis set superposition errors present in the formally more rigorous orbital invariant methods.

  8. A High Earth, Lunar Resonant Orbit for Lower Cost Space Science Missions

    E-print Network

    Gangestad, Joseph W; Persinger, Randy R; Ricker, George R

    2013-01-01

    NASA astrophysics robotic science missions often require continuous, unobstructed fields-of view (FOV) of the celestial sphere and orbits that provide stable thermal- and attitude-control environments. To date, the more expensive "flagship" missions use the second Earth/Sun Lagrange point (L2) approximately 1.5 million km from the Earth outside the orbit of the Moon or a "drift away" orbit to distances >10 million km. A High Earth Orbit (HEO) offers similar advantages with regard to continuous, unobstructed FOV and a thermally stable environment with minimal station-keeping requirements. The "P/2-HEO," an orbit in 2:1 resonance with the orbit of the Moon, also provides the opportunity for data downlink at orbit perigee distances close to the Earth allowing for lower-cost communications systems. The P/2-HEO oscillates on the order of 12 years and trades orbit eccentricity for orbit inclination. This orbit variability can be selected for optimum spacecraft performance by proper choice of the conditions using a ...

  9. Unraveling the uncertainty and error propagation in the vertical flux Martin curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olli, Kalle

    2015-06-01

    Analyzing the vertical particle flux and particle retention in the upper twilight zone has commonly been accomplished by fitting a power function to the data. Measuring the vertical particle flux in the upper twilight zone, where most of the re-mineralization occurs, is a complex endeavor. Here I use field data and simulations to show how uncertainty in the particle flux measurements propagates into the vertical flux attenuation model parameters. Further, I analyze how the number of sampling depths, and variations in the vertical sampling locations influences the model performance and parameters stability. The arguments provide a simple framework to optimize sampling scheme when vertical flux attenuation profiles are measured in the field, either by using an array of sediment traps or 234Th methodology. A compromise between effort and quality of results is to sample from at least six depths: upper sampling depth as close to the base of the euphotic layer as feasible, the vertical sampling depths slightly aggregated toward the upper aphotic zone where most of the vertical flux attenuation takes place, and extending the lower end of the sampling range to as deep as practicable in the twilight zone.

  10. Space Telescopes and Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Almost 12,000 artificial objects orbiting the Earth are currently in the public catalog of orbital elements maintained by the USAF. Only a small fraction of them are operational satellites. The remainder is satellites whose missions have ended, rocket bodies, and parts and debris from larger parent objects. And the catalog only contains the biggest and brightest of the objects in orbit. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) regime where most of this population concentrates is also a regime of incredible interest to astronomers, since it is where flagship missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope and other Great Observatories operate. I'll review the current state of knowledge of the orbital debris population, how it has grown with time, and how this environment could affect current and future space telescopes. There are mitigation measures which many spacecraft operators have adopted which can control the growth of the debris population. Orbital debris research at the University of Michigan is funded by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  11. Mapping Elliptical Orbits Around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Prado, Antonio; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Cardoso dos Santos, Josué

    Due to specifics scientific purposes space missions has been proposed to explore natural satellites, comets and asteroids sending artificial satellites orbiting around these bodies. The planning of such missions must be taken into account a good choice for the orbits that reduces the cost related to station-keeping and the increasing the duration of the mission. The present research has the objective of using a new concept to map with respect the station-keeping maneuvers to study elliptical orbits around Europa. This concept is based in the integral of the perturbing forces over the time. This value can estimate the total variation of velocity received by the spacecraft from the perturbations forces acting on it. The value of this integral is a characteristic of the perturbations considered and the orbit chosen for the spacecraft. Numerical simulations are made showing the value of this integral for orbits around Europa as a function of the eccentricity and semi-major axis of the orbits. An important application of the present research is in the search for frozen orbits.

  12. Radiation therapy for orbital lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: pzhou@partners.org; Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Li Sigui [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Hua Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation techniques and evaluate outcomes for orbital lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients (and 62 eyes) with orbital lymphoma treated with radiotherapy between 1987 and 2003 were included. The majority had mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (48%) or follicular (30%) lymphoma. Seventeen patients had prior lymphoma at other sites, and 29 had primary orbital lymphoma. Median follow-up was 46 months. Results: The median dose was 30.6 Gy; one-third received <30 Gy. Electrons were used in 9 eyes with disease confined to the conjunctiva or eyelid, and photons in 53 eyes with involvement of intraorbital tissues to cover entire orbit. Local control rate was 98% for all patients and 100% for those with indolent lymphoma. Three of the 26 patients with localized primary lymphoma failed distantly, resulting in a 5-year freedom-from-distant-relapse rate of 89%. The 5-year disease-specific and overall survival rates were 95% and 88%, respectively. Late toxicity was mainly cataract formation in patients who received radiation without lens block. Conclusions A dose of 30 Gy is sufficient for indolent orbital lymphoma. Distant relapse rate in patients with localized orbital lymphoma was lower than that reported for low-grade lymphoma presenting in other sites. Orbital radiotherapy can be used for salvage of recurrent indolent lymphoma.

  13. Orbital metastases: diagnosis and course

    PubMed Central

    Char, D.; Miller, T.; Kroll, S.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—Three issues were investigated in adult outpatients with orbital metastases. One, how accurate are current diagnostic methods? Two, what is the survival associated with orbital metastases? Three, did any clinical factors correlate with prognosis in this patient cohort??METHODS—Retrospective analysis of patients with orbital metastases managed in an ocular oncology unit.?RESULTS—11 of 31 (35%) patients had no known primary malignancy at the time of orbital diagnosis. In eight of 31 (26%) computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging data did not yield the diagnosis of metastases. In 15 of 17 (88%) cases a fine needle aspiration biopsy was diagnostic. Several types of therapy were used. The median survival was 1.3 years.?CONCLUSION—Orbital metastases, even with newer diagnostic techniques can be difficult to diagnose. Management was based on location and extent of both orbital and systemic disease as well as vision. In most cases, orbital symptoms were palliated; however, survival was dismal. No clinical factor correlated with prognosis.?? PMID:9227204

  14. Xerosis - close-up (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Xerosis - close-up: Xerosis refers to abnormally dry skin or membranes, such as those found in the mouth or the conjunctiva of the eye. This picture shows a close-up of xerotic skin. Note the dry and scaly ...

  15. Close-range photogrammetry Definition

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Close-range photogrammetry #12;Definition · What is "close-range"? · Historically, 3D modeling from terrestrial images - note: terrestrial recordings were the earliest form of photogrammetry ­ Aimé Laussedat 1859: "Métrophotographie" from rooftops ­ Albrecht Meydenbauer 1867: architectural "Photogrammetrie

  16. Experimental study of a closed loop vertical ground source heat pump system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Hepbasli; Ozay Akdemir; Ebru Hancioglu

    2003-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs), also known as geothermal heat pumps, are a promising new technology that has been used for the last three years in the Turkish market. The main objective of the present study, which was performed for the first time in Turkey at the university level, is to investigate the performance characteristics of a GSHP system with

  17. More efficient hospitals are closing.

    PubMed

    Cleverly, W O

    1993-04-01

    An examination of factors related to hospital closures reveals a disconcerting trend. Hospitals that closed in 1991 appear to have been more efficient than hospitals that closed in 1990, and hospitals that closed in 1990 appear to have been more efficient than hospitals that closed in 1989. This trend suggests that future hospital closures may pull relatively efficient hospitals out of the healthcare system. The end result may be increases, not decreases, in total healthcare costs. PMID:10145793

  18. Spitzer Orbit Determination During In-orbit Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope was injected into heliocentric orbit on August 25, 2003 to observe and study astrophysical phenomena in the infrared range of frequencies. The initial 60 days was dedicated to Spitzer's "In-Orbit Checkout (IOC)" efforts. During this time high levels of Helium venting were used to cool down the telescope. Attitude control was done using reaction wheels, which in turn were de-saturated using cold gas Nitrogen thrusting. Dense tracking data (nearly continuous) by the Deep Space network (DSN) were used to perform orbit determination and to assess any possible venting imbalance. Only Doppler data were available for navigation. This paper deals with navigation efforts during the IOC phase. It includes Dust Cover Ejection (DCE) monitoring, orbit determination strategy validation and results and assessment of non-gravitational accelerations acting on Spitzer including that due to possible imbalance in Helium venting.

  19. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe [AREVA NC (France)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  20. THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF GAS GIANT PLANETS AROUND GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Villaver, Eva [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de fisica Teorica C-XI, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Livio, Mario, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.e, E-mail: mlivio@stsci.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Recent surveys have revealed a lack of close-in planets around evolved stars more massive than 1.2 M{sub sun}. Such planets are common around solar-mass stars. We have calculated the orbital evolution of planets around stars with a range of initial masses, and have shown how planetary orbits are affected by the evolution of the stars all the way to the tip of the red giant branch. We find that tidal interaction can lead to the engulfment of close-in planets by evolved stars. The engulfment is more efficient for more-massive planets and less-massive stars. These results may explain the observed semimajor axis distribution of planets around evolved stars with masses larger than 1.5 M{sub sun}. Our results also suggest that massive planets may form more efficiently around intermediate-mass stars.

  1. Interaction between subdaily Earth rotation parameters and GPS orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panafidina, Natalia; Seitz, Manuela; Hugentobler, Urs

    2013-04-01

    In processing GPS observations the geodetic parameters like station coordinates and ERPs (Earth rotation parameters) are estimated w.r.t. the celestial reference system realized by the satellite orbits. The interactions/correlations between estimated GPS orbis and other parameters may lead to numerical problems with the solution and introduce systematic errors in the computed values: the well known correlations comprise 1) the correlation between the orbital parameters determining the orientation of the orbital plane in inertial space and the nutation and 2) in the case of estimating ERPs with subdaily resolution the correlation between retrograde diurnal polar motion and nutation (and so the respective orbital elements). In this contribution we study the interaction between the GPS orbits and subdaily model for the ERPs. Existing subdaily ERP model recommended by the IERS comprises ~100 terms in polar motion and ~70 terms in Universal Time at diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periods. We use a long time series of daily normal equation systems (NEQ) obtaine from GPS observations from 1994 till 2007 where the ERPs with 1-hour resolution are transformed into tidal terms and the influence of the tidal terms with different frequencies on the estimated orbital parameters is considered. We found that although there is no algebraic correlation in the NEQ between the individual orbital parameters and the tidal terms, the changes in the amplitudes of tidal terms with periods close to 24 hours can be better accmodated by systematic changes in the orbital parameters than for tidal terms with other periods. Since the variation in Earth rotation with the period of siderial day (23.93h, tide K1) in terrestrial frame has in inertial space the same period as the period of revolution of GPS satellites, the K1 tidal term in polar motion is seen by the satellites as a permanent shift. The tidal terms with close periods (from ~24.13h to ~23.80h) are seen as a slow rotation of the celestial pole with periods of about a year and less. We make an estimate of the systematic changes introduced in the orbital parameters in the case if erroneous tidal model is kept fixed in the processing.

  2. Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The report of an international meeting on the topic of Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions, which was held 9-11 Jul. 1991 at the Johns Hopkins University is presented. The meeting was attended by 22 researchers working on various aspects of orbital and rotational dynamics, paleoclimate data analysis and modeling, solid-Earth deformation studies, and paleomagnetic analyses. The primary objective of the workshop was to arrive at a better understanding of the interactions between the orbital, rotational, and climatic variations of the Earth. This report contains a brief introduction and 14 contributed papers which cover most of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  3. Extrasolar Planet Orbits and Eccentricities

    E-print Network

    Scott Tremaine; Nadia L. Zakamska

    2003-12-01

    The known extrasolar planets exhibit many interesting and surprising features--extremely short-period orbits, high-eccentricity orbits, mean-motion and secular resonances, etc.--and have dramatically expanded our appreciation of the diversity of possible planetary systems. In this review we summarize the orbital properties of extrasolar planets. One of the most remarkable features of extrasolar planets is their high eccentricities, far larger than seen in the solar system. We review theoretical explanations for large eccentricities and point out the successes and shortcomings of existing theories.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Thompson, Paul F.; Jefferson, David C.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Pelletier, Frederic J.; Ryne, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the orbit determination process, results and filter strategies used by the Mars Science Laboratory Navigation Team during cruise from Earth to Mars. The new atmospheric entry guidance system resulted in an orbit determination paradigm shift during final approach when compared to previous Mars lander missions. The evolving orbit determination filter strategies during cruise are presented. Furthermore, results of calibration activities of dynamical models are presented. The atmospheric entry interface trajectory knowledge was significantly better than the original requirements, which enabled the very precise landing in Gale Crater.

  5. The orbital theory of Pleistocene climate : support from a revised chronology of the marine delta18 O record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Imbrie; J. D. Hays; D. G. Martinson; A. McIntyre; A. C. Mix; J. J. Morley; N. G. Pisias; W. L. Prell; N. J. Shackleton

    1984-01-01

    Observations of delta18O in five deep-sea cores provide a basis for developing a geological time scale for the past 780000 years and for evaluating the orbital theory of Pleistocene ice ages. The statistical evidence of a close relationship between the time-varying amplitudes of orbital forcing and the time-varying amplitudes of the isotopic response implies that orbital variations are the main

  6. Theoretical investigation of EM wave generation and radiation in the ULF, ELF, and VLF bands by the electrodynamic orbiting tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic wave generation by an electrodynamic tethered satellite system is important both for the ordinary operation of such systems and for their possible application as orbiting transmitters. The tether's ionospheric circuit closure problem is closely linked with the propagation of charge-carrying electromagnetic wave packets away from the tethered system. Work is reported which represents a step towards a solution to the problem that takes into account the effects of boundaries and of vertical variations in plasma density, collision frequencies, and ion species. The theory of Alfen wave packet generation by an electrodynamic tethered system in an infinite plasma medium is reviewed, and brief summary of previous work on the problem is given. The consequences of the presence of the boundaries and the vertical nonuniformity are then examined. One of the most significant new features to emerge when ion-neutral collisions are taken into account is the coupling of the Alfven waves to the fast magnetosonic wave. This latter wave is important, as it may be confined by vertical variations in the Alfven speed to a sort of leaky ionospheric wave guide, the resonances of which could be of great importance to the signal received on the Earth's surface. The infinite medium solution for this case where the (uniform) geomagnetic field makes an arbitrary angle with the vertical is taken as the incident wave-packet. Even without a full solution, a number of conclusions can be drawn, the most important of which may be that the electromagnetic field associated with the operation of a steady-current tethered system will probably be too weak to detect on the Earth's surface, even for large tethered currents. This is due to the total reflection of the incident wave at the atmospheric boundary and the inability of a steady-current tethered system to excite the ionospheric wave-guide. An outline of the approach to the numerical problem is given. The use of numerical integrations and boundary conditions consistent with a conducting Earth is proposed to obtain the solution for the horizontal electromagnetic field components at the boundary of the ionosphere with the atmospheric cavity.

  7. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  8. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was critical. The detector is kept cool by an electromechanical cryocooler attached to the outside of the device. However, the cryocooler has a limited cooling capacity because of size and weight constraints. To ensure the cryocooler would sufficiently cool the detector, Livermore scientists used SINDA/FLUINT, a commercial program originally developed by NASA, to model the thermal environments that the spectrometer was expected to encounter--during liftoff, in space while en route to Mercury, and in orbit around the planet. Using the data from the model, scientists from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley developed a design that included three closely spaced and highly reflective thermal shields held in place with DuPont KEVLAR{reg_sign} fiber.

  9. Tony Rollins prepares a new tile for the Space Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Tile Fabrication Shop, Tony Rollins, with United Space Alliance, cuts a High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tile on a gun stock contour milling machine. About 70 percent of a Space Shuttle orbiter's external surface is shielded from heat by a network of more than 24,000 tiles formed from a silica fiber compound. HRSI tiles cover the lower surface of the orbiter, areas around the forward windows, upper body flap, the base heat shield, the 'eyeballs' on the front of the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods, and the leading and trailing edges of the vertical stabilizer and the rudder speed brake. They are generally 6 inches square, but may also be as large as 12 inches square in some areas, and 1 to 5 inches thick. More advanced materials such as Flexible Insulation Blankets have replaced tiles on some upper surfaces of the orbiter.

  10. The characterization of a vision-based navigation system for spacecraft proximity operations and on-orbit maintenance

    E-print Network

    Effinger, Robert T

    2013-02-22

    To transport humans into space routinely and safely a spacecraft must be capable of proximity operations (maneuvers close to other spacecraft), and on-orbit maintenance. These operations require an intelligent system that identifies and informs...

  11. On-orbit system identification using active members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Chen, G.-S.; Pham, P.; Wada, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    The capability to perform accurate on-orbit system identification for both open loop (passive) and closed loop (active) structural systems will be required for future NASA missions; especially those missions which require large precision structures. The information is required to accurately establish the dynamic characteristics of the operational structure in order to adjust the structure itself using the concepts of Adaptive Structures and/or the control system. This paper presents the test results of using Active Members in an adaptive structural system to excite a free-free structure to determine both open and closed loop dynamic characteristics.

  12. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.

    1994-01-01

    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  13. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.

    1994-08-01

    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  14. Mab's orbital motion explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K.; de Pater, I.; Showalter, M. R.

    2015-07-01

    We explored the hypothesis that Mab's anomalous orbital motion, as deduced from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data (Showalter, M.R., Lissauer, J.J. [2006]. Science (New York, NY) 311, 973-977), is the result of gravitational interactions with a putative suite of large bodies in the ?-ring. We conducted simulations to compute the gravitational effect of Mab (a recently discovered Uranian moon) on a cloud of test particles. Subsequently, by employing the data extracted from the test particle simulations, we executed random walk simulations to compute the back-reaction of nearby perturbers on Mab. By generating simulated observation metrics, we compared our results to the data retrieved from the HST. Our results indicate that the longitude residual change noted in the HST data (??r,Mab ? 1 deg) is well matched by our simulations. The eccentricity variations (?eMab ?10-3) are however typically two orders of magnitude too small. We present a variety of reasons that could account for this discrepancy. The nominal scenario that we investigated assumes a perturber ring mass (mring) of 1 mMab (Mab's mass) and a perturber ring number density (?n,ring) of 10 perturbers per 3 RHill,Mab (Mab's Hill radius). This effectively translates to a few tens of perturbers with radii of approximately 2-3 km, depending on the albedo assumed. The results obtained also include an interesting litmus test: variations of Mab's inclination on the order of the eccentricity changes should be observable. Our work provides clues for further investigation into the tantalizing prospect that the Mab/?-ring system is undergoing re-accretion after a recent catastrophic disruption.

  15. Risk Mitigation for Managing On-Orbit Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews strategies for managing risk mitigation that occur with anomalies in on-orbit spacecraft. It reviews the risks associated with mission operations, a diagram of the method used to manage undesirable events that occur which is a closed loop fault analysis and until corrective action is successful. It also reviews the fish bone diagram which is used if greater detail is required and aids in eliminating possible failure factors.

  16. Photography of orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.

    1983-02-01

    U.S. Air Force facilities and uses for ground-based close-up photography of objects in space out to GEO are discussed. The telescopes and cameras have been employed to monitor cosmonaut EVAs around Salyut 6 and in an attempt to assess the tile damage on STS-1. Two classified systems, Teal Amber and Teal Blue, in addition to the five DoD ground-based Electrooptical Deep Space Surveillance stations can detect an approximately one foot diameter object in GEO. The initial Cloudcroft, NM facility, contracted in 1957 to use Baker-Nunn telescopes coupled to an IBM 1800 computer, is described. Uses of the detection systems to monitor a possible Soviet development of an ASAT system, such as installation of antisatellite torpedo tubes on the Salyut space station, are indicated.

  17. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  18. An analysis of the Hygiea asteroid family orbital region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    (10) Hygiea is the fourth largest asteroid of the Main Belt, by volume and mass, and it is the largest member of its own family. The Hygiea family is made mostly by low-albedo C-type asteroids, typical of the outer main belt. Recently, it has been suggested that close encounters with this asteroid may have played an important role in the dynamical evolution of members of this family. Numerical simulations of the orbital evolution of family members under the gravitational influence of all planets, several massive asteroids, and non-gravitational forces such as Yarkovsky and YORP may help in setting constraints on the family age and original ejection velocity field. But, such modeling requires good estimations of family membership that includes analysis of the local asteroid taxonomy (if available), geometrical albedos, and influence of the local dynamics, so as to minimize the errors associated with including too many interlopers. In this work we investigated the local dynamics, by obtaining synthetic proper elements and frequencies of asteroids in the Hygiea orbital region, with their errors. We revised the current knowledge on asteroid taxonomy, including SDSS-MOC 4 data, and we take advantage of the availability of WISE and NEOWISE albedo data to i) identify asteroid family members using Hierarchical Clustering Methods (HCM hereafter) in the domain of proper elements (a,e,sin(i)) and in the domains of proper frequencies most appropriate to study diffusion in the local web of secular resonances; and ii) to try to eliminate possible interlopers based on taxonomical and geometrical albedo considerations. Since large families have an associated "halo" of objects with similar SDSS-MOC 4 data that extends far beyond the border of the HCM families, we also devised a new hierarchical clustering method to identify family halos in an extended domain that includes proper elements, principal components PC1,PC2 obtained based on SDSS photometric data, and, for the first time, WISE and NEOWISE geometric albedo. Data on asteroid size distribution, lightcurves and rotations was also revised for the Hygiea family. The Hygiea family is the largest group in its region, with two smaller families in proper element domain and eigthteen families in various frequencies domains identified in this work for the first time. Frequency families tend to extend vertically in the (a,sin(i)) plane and cross not only the Hygiea family, but also the near C-type families of Themis and Veritas, causing a mixture of objects all of relatively low albedo in the Hygiea family area. A few high albedo asteroids, most likely associated with the Eos family, are also present in the region. Finally, the new multi-domains hierarchical clustering method allowed to obtain a good and robust estimate of the membership of the Hygiea family halo, quite separated from other asteroids families halo in the region, and with a very limited (about 3%) presence of likely interlopers.

  19. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  20. LSST: Comprehensive NEO Detection, Characterization, and Orbits

    E-print Network

    Z. Ivezic; J. A. Tyson; M. Juric; J. Kubica; A. Connolly; F. Pierfederici; A. W. Harris; E. Bowell; the LSST Collaboration

    2007-01-17

    (Abridged) The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. Solar System mapping is one of the four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. In a continuous observing campaign of pairs of 15 second exposures of its 3,200 megapixel camera, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be visited about 1000 times. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Equally important, due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. Detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from LSST site at Cerro Pachon, shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, by optimizing sky coverage, the ongoing simulations suggest that the LSST system, with its first light in 2013, can reach the Congressional mandate of cataloging 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by 2020.