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1

February 1988 Tune Shifts Caused by Horizontal Closed. Orbit  

E-print Network

LS-I06 5. Ohnuma February 1988 Tune Shifts Caused by Horizontal Closed. Orbit Deviations-known that vertical closed orbit deviations in sextupoles effectively create skew auadrupole field which enhances the linear horizontal- vertical coupling of betatron motion. Horizontal orbit deviations, on the other hand

Kemner, Ken

2

Revision of the Closed Orbit Corrector System of the LHC  

E-print Network

The closed orbit corrector system of the LHC has been revisited in accordance with the project progress. The magnet measurement procedures are now well defined. This makes the error on the magnet strength and positioning better known than at the time the orbit correctors were specified. The LHC is in a favourable context in the sense that we have a precise knowledge of the vertical movement of the LEP tunnel and that an efficient code to detect field errors is available. Under these conditions the strength of the closed orbit correctors in the arc and in the dispersion suppressors is sufficient. The demand on closed orbit correctors in the insertions can be somewhat relaxed. The tolerances on the longitudinal positions of the dipoles and quadrupoles are easy to satisfy and do not impose further constraints on the closed orbit corrector system.

Verdier, A

2000-01-01

3

Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The view is a detail of the aft, starboard landing gear and a general view of the Thermal Protection System tiles around the landing-gear housing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

4

Orbits Close to Asteroid 4769 Castalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a radar-derived physical model of 4769 Castalia (1989 PB) to investigate close orbit dynamics around that kilometer-sized, uniformly rotating asteroid. Our methods of analysis provide a basis for systematic studies of particle dynamics close to any uniformly rotating asteroid.We establish that a Jacobi integral exists for particles orbiting this asteroid, examine the attendant zero-velocity surfaces, find families of

D. J. Scheeres; S. J. Ostro; R. S. Hudson; R. A. Werner

1996-01-01

5

Orbits Close to Asteroid 4769 Castalia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a radar-derived physical model of 4769 Castalia (1989 PB) to investigate close orbit dynamics around that kilometer- sized, uniformly rotating asteroid. Our methods of analysis provide a basis for systematic studies of particle dynamics close to any uniformly rotating asteroid. We establish that a Jacobi integral exists for particles orbiting this asteroid, examine the attendant zero-velocity surfaces, find families of periodic orbits, and determine their stability. All synchronous orbits and direct orbits within approx. 3 mean radii of Castalia are unstable and are subject to impact or escape from Castalia. Retrograde orbits are mostly stable and allow particles to orbit close to the asteroid surface. We derive a model which allows us to predict the escape conditions of a particle in orbit about Castalia and the (temporary) capture conditions for a hyperbolic interloper. Orbits within 1.5 km of Castalia are subject to immediate ejection from the system. Hyperbolic orbits with a V(sub infinity) less than 0.4 m/sec can potentially be captured by Castalia if their periapsis radius Is within approx. 2 km. For Castalia this capture region is small, but the results also apply to larger asteroids whose capture regions would also be larger. We determine bounds on ejecta speeds which either ensure ejecta escape or re-impact as functions of location on Castalia's surface. The speeds that ensure escape range from 0.28 to 0.84 m/sec and the speeds that ensure re-impact range from 0 to 0.18 m/sec. Speeds between these two bounds lead either to escape, re-impact, or potentially finite-time stable orbits. We develop a simple criterion which can establish whether a particle could have been ejected from the asteroid in the past and if it will impact the surface in the future.

Scheeres, D. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.; Werner, R. A.

1996-01-01

6

Closed orbit correction of HIMM synchrotron  

E-print Network

The correction of closed orbit has great influence on the operation of synchrotron. The design of correction system is one significant component of lattice design. It is suggested to set BPMs at the peaks of betatron oscillation. The correctors need to be located at the positions where \\b{eta} function is large or the sources of large errors. In the simulation of the closed orbit correction of HIMM synchrotron, one important reason affecting the result of horizontal correction is the longitudinal alignment error of dipole magnet. It is advisable to decrease this kind of alignment error while the deflection angle of dipole magnet is large.

Wang, Geng; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Ruan, Shuang; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

2015-01-01

7

Orbit precession and orbital period shortening in close binary systems  

E-print Network

We describe phenomenologically well-known effects in close binary systems. The uniform precession of an elliptical orbit is described by the adding of an inverse cube to an inverse square of the distance. If the precession is small, then the inverse cube contribution is small as compared to the one of inverse square. At some value of the distance these contributions become equal.

A. V. Serghienko

2010-05-21

8

LBL-31888/SLAC-PUB-5742/ESG-167/UC-414 Beam-Beam Diagnostics from Closed-Orbit Distortion  

E-print Network

LBL-31888/SLAC-PUB-5742/ESG-167/UC-414 Beam-Beam Diagnostics from Closed-Orbit Distortion M. Furman for asymmetric B fac- tories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assum- ing that the closed orbits of the two beams are sep- arated vertically at the interaction point by a lo- cal orbit bump that is nominally

Furman, Miguel

9

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery as it sits at Launch Complex 39 A at Kennedy Space Center being prepared for its launch. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

10

Dynamics of Orbits Close to Asteroid 4179 Toutatis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a radar-derived physical model of 4179 Toutatis to investigate close-orbit dynamics around that irregularly shaped, non-principal-axis rotator. The orbital dynamics about this body are markedly different than the dynamics about uniformly rotating asteroids. The results of this paper have a wider application to orbit dynamics about bodies in a non-principal-axis rotation state.

Scheeres, D. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.; DeJong, E. M.; Suzuki, S.

1998-01-01

11

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

12

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

13

Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs) provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

Brooks, Stephen

2013-08-01

14

Close up detail of the underside of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up detail of the underside of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view is from underneath the aft section looking forward. It is a close-up view of the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles showing the wear patterns from the heat of reentry, consequential replacement of worn and damaged tiles. The wear and replacement patters are unique to each Orbiter which can serve as their particular "fingerprint". - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

15

Influence of quantum defects on recurrence strengths of closed orbits  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally obtained Stark-recurrence spectra taken at low principal quantum numbers show unusual degrees of orbit profile asymmetry. To clearly illustrate the semiclassical mechanisms behind this behavior a numerical experiment is performed where orbit profiles (recurrence strength as a function of scaled energy) are found from computed Stark spectra. These spectra are generated for a wide range of quantum defects assuming a highly simplified excitation and core structure which represents a semiclassical system restricted to s-wave scattering. It is noted that at low quantum numbers, the expected dominant nonhydrogenic feature of recurrence spectra is scattered orbits whose scaled actions are unresolved from existing hydrogenic orbits. The semiclassical orbit profiles obtained from absorption spectra are compared with semiclassical closed-orbit theory. Closed-orbit theory successfully predicts the systematic shifting of recurrence strength as a function of quantum defect. In the limited parameter space investigated it is found that the distribution of recurrence strength is influenced primarily by interference with scattered combinations containing a primitive orbit repetition. The systematic shifting of recurrence strength as a function of quantum defect is attributed to a relative phase shift between the contributing orbits.

Keeler, M. L. [Physics Department, University of Minnesota, Morris, Minnesota 56267 (United States)

2007-11-15

16

The hydrogen atom in an electric field: Closed-orbit theory with bifurcating orbits  

E-print Network

Closed-orbit theory provides a general approach to the semiclassical description of photo-absorption spectra of arbitrary atoms in external fields, the simplest of which is the hydrogen atom in an electric field. Yet, despite its apparent simplicity, a semiclassical quantization of this system by means of closed-orbit theory has not been achieved so far. It is the aim of this paper to close that gap. We first present a detailed analytic study of the closed classical orbits and their bifurcations. We then derive a simple form of the uniform semiclassical approximation for the bifurcations that is suitable for an inclusion into a closed-orbit summation. By means of a generalized version of the semiclassical quantization by harmonic inversion, we succeed in calculating high-quality semiclassical spectra for the hydrogen atom in an electric field.

T. Bartsch; J. Main; G. Wunner

2002-12-20

17

Close up view under the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view under the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The view is under the port wing looking forward toward the main fuselage showing a detail of the landing gear and landing gear door. This view also shows the patterns of worn and replaced High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

18

Single Close Encounters Do Not Make Eccentric Planetary Orbits  

E-print Network

The recent discovery of a planet in an orbit with eccentricity $e = 0.63 \\pm 0.08$ around the Solar-type star 16 Cyg B, together with earlier discoveries of other planets in orbits of significant eccentricity, raises the question of the origin of these orbits, so unlike the nearly circular orbits of our Solar system. In this paper I consider close encounters between two planets, each initially in a nearly circular orbit (but with sufficient eccentricity to permit the encounter). Such encounters are described by a two-body approximation, in which the effect of the attracting star is neglected, and by the approximation that their separation vector follows a nearly parabolic path. A single encounter cannot produce the present state of these systems, in which one planet is in an eccentric orbit and the other has apparently been lost. Even if the requirement that the second planet be lost is dropped, nearly circular orbits cannot scatter into eccentric ones.

J. I. Katz

1996-12-25

19

Stellar orbit evolution in close circumstellar disc encounters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and early evolution of circumstellar discs often occurs within dense, newborn stellar clusters. For the first time, we apply the moving-mesh code AREPO, to circumstellar discs in 3D, focusing on disc-disc interactions that result from stellar flybys. Although a small fraction of stars are expected to undergo close approaches, the outcomes of the most violent encounters might leave an imprint on the discs and host stars that will influence both their orbits and their ability to form planets. We first construct well-behaved 3D models of self-gravitating discs, and then create a suite of numerical experiments of parabolic encounters, exploring the effects of pericentre separation rp, disc orientation and disc-star mass ratio (Md/M*) on the orbital evolution of the host stars. Close encounters (2rp ? disc radius) can truncate discs on very short time-scales. If discs are massive, close encounters facilitate enough orbital angular momentum extraction to induce stellar capture. We find that for realistic primordial disc masses Md ? 0.1M*, non-colliding encounters induce minor orbital changes, which is consistent with analytic calculations of encounters in the linear regime. The same disc masses produce entirely different results for grazing/colliding encounters. In the latter case, rapidly cooling discs lose orbital energy by radiating away the energy excess of the shock-heated gas, thus causing capture of the host stars into a bound orbit. In rare cases, a tight binary with a circumbinary disc forms as a result of this encounter.

Muñoz, D. J.; Kratter, K.; Vogelsberger, M.; Hernquist, L.; Springel, V.

2015-01-01

20

Photoabsorption spectra of the diamagnetic hydrogen atom in the transition regime to chaos: closed orbit theory with bifurcating orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing energy the diamagnetic hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from regular to chaotic classical dynamics, and the closed orbits pass through various cascades of bifurcations. Closed orbit theory allows for the semiclassical calculation of photoabsorption spectra of the diamagnetic hydrogen atom. However, at the bifurcations the closed orbit contributions diverge. The singularities can be removed with the help of

Tomaz Fabcic; Jörg Main; Thomas Bartsch; Günter Wunner

2005-01-01

21

Orbit on demand - Structural analysis finds vertical launchers weigh less  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural considerations arising from favored design concepts for the next generation on-demand launch vehicles are explored. The two emerging concepts are a two stage fully reusable vertical take-off vehicle (V-2) and a horizontal take-off, two stage subsonic boost launch vehicle (H-2-Sub). Both designs have an 1100 n. mi. cross-range capability, with the V-2 orbiter having small wings with winglets for hypersonic trim and the H-2-Sub requiring larger, swept wings. The rockets would be cryogenic, while airbreathing initial boosters would be either turbofans, turbojets and/or ramjets. Dynamic loading is lower in the launch of a V-2. The TPS is a critical factor due to thinner leading edges than on the Shuttle and may require heat-pipe cooling. Airframe structures made of metal matrix composites have passed finite element simulations of projected loads and can now undergo proof-of-concept tests, although whisker-reinforced materials may be superior once long-whisker technology is developed.

Taylor, A. H.; Cruz, C. I.; Jackson, L. R.; Naftel, J. C.; Wurster, K. E.; Cerro, J. A.

1985-01-01

22

Orbital period modulation and magnetic cycles in close binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the observed orbital period modulations in close binaries, and focus on the mechanism proposed by Applegate relating the changes of the stellar internal rotation associated with a magnetic activity cycle with the variation of the gravitational quadrupole moment of the active component; the variation of this quadrupole moment in turn forces the orbital motion of the binary stars to follow the activity level of the active star. We generalize this approach by considering the details of this interaction, and develop some illustrative examples in which the problem can be easily solved in analytical form. Starting from such results, we consider the interplay between rotation and magnetic field generation in the framework of different types of dynamo models, which have been proposed to explain solar and stellar activity. We show how the observed orbital period modulation in active binaries may provide new constraints for discriminating between such models. In particular, we study the case of the prototype active binary RS Canum Venaticorum, and suggest that torsional oscillations - driven by a stellar magnetic dynamo - may account for the observed behaviour of this star. Further possible applications of the relationship between magnetic activity and orbital period modulation, related to the recent discovery of binary systems containing a radio pulsar and a convecting upper main-sequence or a late-type low-mass companion, are discussed.

Lanza, A. F.; Rodono, M.; Rosner, R.

1998-06-01

23

Induced Orbital Paramagnetism and Paratropism in Closed-Shell Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional models of the quantum-mechanical current density induced by a uniform magnetic field in the electron cloud have been obtained for closed-shell systems BeH-, BH, and CH+, characterized by induced orbital paramagnetism, and in planar unsaturated hydrocarbons C4H4 and clamped C8H8, exhibiting ? paramagnetism. It is shown that, even for these paramagnetic systems, the paramagnetic contributions to magnetic susceptibilities and nuclear magnetic shielding, customarily taken into account in perturbation theory approaches, can formally be eliminated via the procedure of continuous transformation of the origin of the current density-paramagnetic zero. The definition of magnetic response properties can therefore be recast as a sum of two formally "diamagnetic" terms for any molecule, including systems showing strong induced orbital paramagnetism. It is shown that the paramagnetism in the compounds studied arises from the nodal topology of the electronic wave function. In particular, paratropic vortices circulate about stagnation lines at the intersection of nodal surfaces of the highest-occupied zero-order molecular orbital and corresponding first-order orbital.

Pelloni, Stefano; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Zanasi, Riccardo

2009-07-01

24

Closed-eye orbital prosthesis: A clinical report.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging prostheses to fabricate is an acceptable orbital prosthesis. Successful reconstruction of the complex missing tissues, the globe, muscle, skin, and bony elements requires time and high levels of practical skill. A good match to the contralateral nondefect side will help mask the underlying defect and give the patient confidence to return to normal, routine life. The contralateral eye opening will commonly dictate the eye opening of such a prosthesis, but because of the expressive nature of the eye and its high levels of mobility, this can be difficult to achieve. This clinical report presents a patient who had an extended orbital exenteration and right maxillectomy to remove a maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. An alternative approach to constructing an orbital prosthesis was undertaken with the eye closed. Compared to the normal method of fabrication, this process was less complex and quicker, made the prosthesis less "staring," camouflaged the defect, and reduced the detection of the prosthesis because of movements in the remaining eye. The patient engaged in his routine daily life, which reinforced his self-esteem, confidence, and reintegration into the community. PMID:25449612

Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watson, Jason; Srinivasan, Dilip

2014-11-20

25

Equilibrium, Stability and Orbital Evolution of Close Binary Systems  

E-print Network

We present a new analytic study of the equilibrium and stability properties of close binary systems containing polytropic components. Our method is based on the use of ellipsoidal trial functions in an energy variational principle. We consider both synchronized and nonsynchronized systems, constructing the compressible generalizations of the classical Darwin and Darwin-Riemann configurations. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of binary models where the stellar masses, radii, spins, entropies, and polytropic indices are all allowed to vary over wide ranges and independently for each component. We find that both secular and dynamical instabilities can develop before a Roche limit or contact is reached along a sequence of models with decreasing binary separation. High incompressibility always makes a given binary system more susceptible to these instabilities, but the dependence on the mass ratio is more complicated. As simple applications, we construct models of double degenerate systems and of low-mass main-sequence-star binaries. We also discuss the orbital evolution of close binary systems under the combined influence of fluid viscosity and secular angular momentum losses from processes like gravitational radiation. We show that the existence of global fluid instabilities can have a profound effect on the terminal evolution of coalescing binaries. The validity of our analytic solutions is examined by means of detailed comparisons with the results of recent numerical fluid calculations in three dimensions.

D. Lai; F. A. Rasio; S. L. Shapiro

1993-07-22

26

Weighted SVD algorithm for close-orbit correction and 10 Hz feedback in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the beam position along an accelerator are typically treated equally using standard SVD-based orbit correction algorithms so distributing the residual errors, modulo the local beta function, equally at the measurement locations. However, sometimes a more stable orbit at select locations is desirable. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for weighting the beam position measurements to achieve a more stable local orbit. The results of its application to close-orbit correction and 10 Hz orbit feedback are presented.

Liu C.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

2012-05-20

27

Orbit Determination of Close Binary Systems using Lucky F. M. Rica1,2*  

E-print Network

Orbit Determination of Close Binary Systems using Lucky Imaging F. M. Rica1,2* , R. Barrena3,4 , G. The stellar mass is determined from orbital information which can be obtained using a set of astrometric measures. To determine the stellar masses accurately, high-quality orbital parameters and trigonometrical

28

Photoabsorption spectra of the diamagnetic hydrogen atom in the transition regime to chaos: Closed orbit theory with bifurcating orbits  

E-print Network

With increasing energy the diamagnetic hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from regular to chaotic classical dynamics, and the closed orbits pass through various cascades of bifurcations. Closed orbit theory allows for the semiclassical calculation of photoabsorption spectra of the diamagnetic hydrogen atom. However, at the bifurcations the closed orbit contributions diverge. The singularities can be removed with the help of uniform semiclassical approximations which are constructed over a wide energy range for different types of codimension one and two catastrophes. Using the uniform approximations and applying the high-resolution harmonic inversion method we calculate fully resolved semiclassical photoabsorption spectra, i.e., individual eigenenergies and transition matrix elements at laboratory magnetic field strengths, and compare them with the results of exact quantum calculations.

T. Fabcic; J. Main; T. Bartsch; G. Wunner

2004-07-13

29

Application of closed-orbit theory to the Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using closed-orbit theory, we study the classical motion and calculate the photoabsorption spectra and recurrence spectra of the Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface. The results show that when the atom-surface distance is close to the critical value dc, the number of the closed orbits is the greatest. For d > dc, with the increase of the distance d, the number of the closed orbits decreases and the absorption spectra are shown to exhibit a damping oscillation. For d < dc, the electron can travel for a very short time before it has returned to the nucleus. At a smaller distance, some of the electronic trajectories can be absorbed onto the metal surface. In order to show the relation between the absorption spectra and the closed orbits, we calculate the Fourier transformed recurrence spectra of the Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface by using the closed-orbit theory. Each resonance peak in the recurrence spectra is associated with one electron closed orbit. The agreement between the semiclassical calculation spectra and the quantum calculation spectra suggests that our analysis is correct. This study provides a different perspective on the dynamical behaviour of the Rydberg atom near a metal surface.

Wang, Dehua; Du, M. L.; Lin, Shenglu

2006-09-01

30

Power Maximization of a Closed-orbit Kite Generator System Mariam Ahmed*  

E-print Network

Power Maximization of a Closed-orbit Kite Generator System Mariam Ahmed* Grenoble Electrical generated power T Orbit's period Kite's roll angle Fc,trc Tether's traction force PM Mean generated power. The third option is to use power kites as renewable energy generators such as the "Kite Wind Generator

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics Vacuum Energy and Closed Orbits in Quantum Graphs  

E-print Network

at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University; both of us gave talksProceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics Vacuum Energy and Closed Orbits in Quantum Graphs S. A, yields a sum over periodic orbits in the graph. (3) Construction of an associated integral kernel

Fulling, Stephen

32

Multiport Well Design for Sampling of Ground Water at Closely Spaced Vertical Intervals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples from the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Tracer experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorcarbon concentrations.

Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

1996-01-01

33

Numerical characterization of heat transfer in closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of numerical analyses has been performed on the characteristics of heat transfer in a closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger (U-loop). A 2-D finite element analysis was conducted to evaluate the temperature distribution over the cross section of the U-loop system involving high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe\\/grout\\/soil to compare the sectional efficiency between the conventional U-loop and a new latticed

Chulho Lee; Hujeong Gil; Hangseok Choi; Shin-Hyung Kang

2010-01-01

34

Numerical simulation for thermal response test performance in closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of numerical analyses was performed in order to evaluate the performance of full-scale closed-loop vertical ground heat exchangers constructed in Wonju, South Korea. The circulating HDPE pipe, borehole and surrounding ground formation were modeled using FLUENT, a finite-volume method (FVM) program, for analyzing the heat transfer process of the ground heat exchanger system. Two user-defined

Jong Min Choi; Chulho Lee; Shin-Hyung Kang; Hangseok Choi

2011-01-01

35

Behavior of nonclassical recurrence amplitudes near closed-orbit bifurcations in atoms  

SciTech Connect

We report an experimental and computational study of the energy dependence of nonclassical paths in atoms near bifurcations. The experiment employs scaled energy spectroscopy to measure the amplitudes of nonclassical orbits in helium singlet and triplet Stark Rydberg states (20close to bifurcations. We have also calculated this behavior for hydrogen. In both cases, the amplitude dependence on energy, just below a bifurcation, is consistent with an exponential function, in accord with theoretical predictions. Five different nonclassical paths have been studied and, in the case of helium but not hydrogen, the effect of interference between real and ghost orbits is found to produce oscillations in the exponential decay with closed orbit type. In the case of hydrogen, the n dependence of the decay exponent has been investigated and a linear relationship is found.

Keeler, M.L.; Flores-Rueda, Heric; Morgan, T. J.; Shaw, J. [Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06457 (United States); Louisiana School of Math, Science and the Arts, 715 College Ave., Natchitoches, Louisiana 71457 (United States)

2004-01-01

36

Vertical structure of the atmosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between December 1978 and February 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft returned some 140 S band and X band radio occultation measurements of the Venus atmosphere. Results from 13 measurements, covering diverse latitudes from near equatorial to polar, are presented in this paper in the form of vertical profiles of temperature. The temperature profiles show a pronounced inversion at the tropopause for latitudes higher than about 50 deg, with the deepest inversions occurring between the latitudes of 60 deg and 70 deg, the latitudes at which the cold collar cloud feature was observed by the Pioneer Venus Vortex instrument. A comparison of the temperature profiles derived from radio occultation measurements with the stratospheric infrared temperature soundings of the Vortex instrument and the in situ measurements of tropospheric temperature and pressure by the North, Sounder, and Day probes indicates excellent agreement.

Kliore, A. J.; Patel, I. R.

1980-01-01

37

Tidal interactions of a Maclaurin spheroid - II. Resonant excitation of modes by a close, misaligned orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model a tidally forced star or giant planet as a Maclaurin spheroid, decomposing the motion into the normal modes found by Bryan. We first describe the general prescription for this decomposition and the computation of the tidal power. Although this formalism is very general, forcing due to a companion on a misaligned, circular orbit is used to illustrate the theory. The tidal power is plotted for a variety of orbital radii, misalignment angles, and spheroid rotation rates. Our calculations are carried out including all modes of degree l ? 4, and the same degree of gravitational forcing. Remarkably, we find that for close orbits (a/R* ? 3) and rotational deformations that are typical of giant planets (e ? 0.4) the l = 4 component of the gravitational potential may significantly enhance the dissipation through resonance with surface gravity modes. There are also a large number of resonances with inertial modes, with the tidal power being locally enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude. For very close orbits (a/R* ? 3), the contribution to the power from the l = 4 modes is roughly the same magnitude as that due to the l = 3 modes.

Braviner, Harry J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

2015-02-01

38

USING ORBITAL EFFECTS TO BREAK THE CLOSE/WIDE DEGENERACY IN BINARY-LENS MICROLENSING EVENTS  

SciTech Connect

Microlensing can provide an important tool to study binaries, especially those composed of faint or dark objects. However, accurate analysis of binary-lens light curves is often hampered by the well-known degeneracy between close (s < 1) and wide (s > 1) binaries, which can be very severe due to an intrinsic symmetry in the lens equation. Here, s is the normalized projected binary separation. In this paper, we propose a method that can resolve the close/wide degeneracy using the effect of a lens orbital motion on lensing light curves. The method is based on the fact that the orbital effect tends to be important for close binaries while it is negligible for wide binaries. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to an actually observed binary-lens event MOA-2011-BLG-040/OGLE-2011-BLG-0001, which suffers from severe close/wide degeneracy. From this, we are able to uniquely specify that the lens is composed of K- and M-type dwarfs located {approx}3.5 kpc from the Earth.

Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J. Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)] [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Damey, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Notre Damey, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand)] [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)] [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Chote, P.; Harris, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand)] [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan)] [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

2013-02-10

39

Heat exchanger sizing for vertical closed-loop ground-source heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

A building energy simulation program has been used in conjunction with a ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm to develop general guidelines on how to size vertical ground heat exchangers for closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems in large buildings. The analysis considered three commercial building types of varying size with different internal loads and heat pump efficiencies. Each building variation was simulated in seven cities, three in the US and four in Canada. The ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm has been previously validated against actual system data. The analysis results showed a strong correlation between heat exchanger length required and annual energy rejected to the ground, if the building was cooling-dominated, or annual energy extracted from the ground, if the building was heating-dominated. The resulting sizing guidelines recommend hour-by-hour energy analysis to determine the energy extracted from and rejected to the building water loop. Using this information the designer will have available easy-to-use, accurate sizing guidelines that should result in more economical installations than those based on previous ``rule of thumb`` guidelines.

Cane, R.L.D.; Clemes, S.B.; Morrison, A. [Caneta Research, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

40

Effect of the electron lenses on the RHIC proton beam closed orbit  

SciTech Connect

We are designing two electron lenses (E-lens) to compensate for the large beam-beam tune spread from proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). They will be installed at RHIC IR10. The transverse fields of the E-lenses bending solenoids and the fringe field of the main solenoids will shift the proton beam. We calculate the transverse kicks that the proton beam receives in the electron lens via Opera. Then, after incorporating the simplified E-lens lattice in the RHIC lattice, we obtain the closed orbit effect with the Simtrack Code.

Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.

2011-02-01

41

Tidal interactions of a Maclaurin spheroid. II: Resonant excitation of modes by a close, misaligned orbit  

E-print Network

We model a tidally forced star or giant planet as a Maclaurin spheroid, decomposing the motion into the normal modes found by Bryan (1889). We first describe the general prescription for this decomposition and the computation of the tidal power. Although this formalism is very general, forcing due to a companion on a misaligned, circular orbit is used to illustrate the theory. The tidal power is plotted for a variety of orbital radii, misalignment angles, and spheroid rotation rates. Our calculations are carried out including all modes of degree $l \\le 4$, and the same degree of gravitational forcing. Remarkably, we find that for close orbits ($a/R_* \\approx 3$) and rotational deformations that are typical of giant planets ($e\\approx 0.4$) the $l=4$ component of the gravitational potential may significantly enhance the dissipation through resonance with surface gravity modes. There are also a large number of resonances with inertial modes, with the tidal power being locally enhanced by up to three orders of m...

Braviner, Harry J

2014-01-01

42

Fermi Orbital Derivatives in Self-Interaction Corrected Density Functional Theory: Applications to Closed Shell Atoms  

E-print Network

A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction (SIC) to the density-functional formalism (Pederson, Ruzsinszky, Perdew) has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Lowdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals (Luken et al) which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested here on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell atoms, where correlation is less important, using the PW92 LDA functional are in very good to excellent agreement with experiment and non-relativistic Quantum-Monte-Carlo (QMC) results.

Pederson, Mark R

2014-01-01

43

The Origin and Nature of Neptune-like Planets Orbiting Close to Solar Type Stars  

E-print Network

The sample of known exoplanets is strongly biased to masses larger than the ones of the giant gaseous planets of the solar system. Recently, the discovery of two extrasolar planets of considerably lower masses around the nearby stars GJ 436 and $\\rho$ Cancri was reported. They are like our outermost icy giants, Uranus and Neptune, but in contrast, these new planets are orbiting at only some hundredth of the Earth-Sun distance from their host stars, raising several new questions about their origin and constitution. Here we report numerical simulations of planetary accretion that show, for the first time through N-body integrations that the formation of compact systems of Neptune-like planets close to the hosts stars could be a common by-product of planetary formation. We found a regime of planetary accretion, in which orbital migration accumulates protoplanets in a narrow region around the inner edge of the nebula, where they collide each other giving rise to Neptune-like planets. Our results suggest that, if a protoplanetary solar environment is common in the galaxy, the discovery of a vast population of this sort of 'hot cores' should be expected in the near future.

Adrián Brunini; Rodolfo G. Cionco

2005-11-01

44

A General Closed-Form Solution for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Antenna Pointing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle into a direct insertion trajectory to the Moon LRO, designed, built, and operated by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. During the mission s nominal life of one year its six instruments and one technology demonstrator will find safe landing site, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment and test new technology. To date, LRO has been operating well within the bounds of its requirements and has been collecting excellent science data images taken from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) of the Apollo landing sites have appeared on cable news networks. A significant amount of information on LRO s science instruments is provided at the LRO mission webpage. LRO s Attitude Control System (ACS), in addition to controlling the orientation of the spacecraft is also responsible for pointing the High Gain Antenna (HGA). A dual-axis (or double-gimbaled) antenna, deployed on a meter-long boom, is required to point at a selected Earth ground station. Due to signal loss over the distance from the Moon to Earth, pointing precision for the antenna system is very tight. Since the HGA has to be deployed in spaceflight, its exact geometry relative to the spacecraft body is uncertain. In addition, thermal distortions and mechanical errors/tolerances must be characterized and removed to realize the greatest gain from the antenna system. These reasons necessitate the need for an in-flight calibration. Once in orbit around the moon, a series of attitude maneuvers was conducted to provide data needed to determine optimal parameters to load onboard, which would account for the environmental and mechanical errors at any antenna orientation. The nominal geometry for the HGA involves an outer gimbal axis that is exactly perpendicular to the inner gimbal axis, and a target direction that is exactly perpendicular to the outer gimbal axis. For this nominal geometry, closed-form solutions of the desired gimbal angles are simple to get for a desired target direction specified in the spacecraft body fame. If the gimbal axes and the antenna boresight are slightly misaligned, the nominal closed-form solution is not sufficiently accurate for computing the gimbal angles needed to point at a target. In this situation, either a general closed-form solution has to be developed for a mechanism with general geometries, or a correction scheme has to be applied to the nominal closed-form solutions. The latter has been adopted for Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) as can be seen in Reference 1, and the former has been used for LRO. The advantage of the general closed-form solution is the use of a small number of parameters for the correction of nominal solutions, especially in the regions near singularities. Singularities here refer to cases when the nominal closed-form solutions have two or more solutions. Algorithm complexity, however, is the disadvantage of the general closed-form solution.

Shah, Neerav; Chen, J. Roger; Hashmall, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

45

Orbit Uncertainty and Close-Approach Analysis Capabilities of the Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System was initially made available in 1996. It has since been used by 450000 people to generate 700000 high-precision solar system ephemerides and database search results relating to the planets, satellites, and a growing list of asteroids, comets and spacecraft. This database is presently in excess of 90000 objects. The system receives about 23000 requests per month via the three automated access methods (telnet, web and e-mail) described at http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.html. Horizons has recently been extended to perform linearized covariance mappings. This allows users to obtain orbital motion uncertainties of those asteroids and comets for which a covariance is available, as a function of time, in multiple coordinate systems such as the plane-of-sky. Also newly available is an on-line close-approach analysis capability. This provides efficient detection of asteroid and comet approaches to planets and the larger asteroids. For asteroids and comets with a computed covariance, approach quantities such as encounter timing uncertainty are computed. This allows convenient assessment of the quality of close-approach knowledge. Detailed Horizons documentation is available at ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/ssd/Horizons_doc.ps

Giorgini, J. D.; Chodas, P. W.; Yeomans, D. K.

2001-12-01

46

Feasibility of a responsive, hybrid propulsion augmented, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit launch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named HYP-SSTO, is presented in this paper. This launch vehicle system concept uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, with a hybrid auxiliary propulsion system which is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. By using a hybrid propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing, this launch system concept has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LOX/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. Because hybrid propulsion systems are relatively simple and inert by their nature, this concept has the potential to support short turnaround times between launches, be economical to develop, and be competitive in terms of overall system life-cycle cost. This paper provides a technical description of the novel, reusable HYP-SSTO launch system concept. Launch capability performance, as well as major design and operational system attributes, are identified and discussed.

Pelaccio, Dennis G.

1996-03-01

47

Closed Form Solutions for Unsteady Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid over an Oscillating Vertical Plate  

PubMed Central

Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter ?, phase angle ?? and time ?. Numerical values of skin friction ?0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions. PMID:24551033

Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

2014-01-01

48

Single stage to orbit vertical takeoff and landing concept technology challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Dynamics has developed a VTOL concept for a single-stage-to-orbit under contract to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. This paper briefly describes the configuration and its basic operations. Two key advanced technolgy areas are then discussed: high-performance rocket propulsion employing a plug nozzle arrangement and integrated health management to facilitate very rapid turnaround between flights, more like an aircraft than today's rockets.

Heald, Daniel A.; Kessler, Thomas L.

1991-10-01

49

Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on Orbits. The first site is offered by Northwestern University and asks: What is an orbit? (1 ). The site answers questions such as What causes an orbit to happen?, What is a satellite?, What travels in an orbit?, and Are there orbits within orbits?. A great starting site for this subject, visitors should come away with a broad and clear description of the topic. The second site, called Orbit Diagrams (2 ) is provided by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The diagrams are "intended to aid in the visualization of the three-dimensional nature of the orbits and how they are orientated with respect to the orbit of the earth." Next, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Astronomy comes the Moon Phases (3 ) interactive Web site. Users are able to animate the moon's orbit in various phases and views as well as learn all the names of the phases. The fourth site is another virtual visualization tool provided by NASA's Near Earth Object Program called Orbits (4 ). The site lets users enter the designation or name of any asteroid or comet and then view the three-dimensional orbit of that object. The next site, maintained by the Conservation, Astronomy, Physics and Soaring Page, is called Satellite Orbits - Gravitational Assist from Planets (5 ). The site contains information on Kepler's Laws, which apply to elliptical orbits involving two bodies, hyperbolic orbits, relative motion, and the gravitational sphere of influence. The sixth site is an educational lesson provided by Dr. Richard L. Bowman of Bridgewater College called Planetary Orbit Exercise (6 ). Students are given information on Keplar's Laws of Planetary Motion, a list of definitions, links to outside sites for additional information, and then several questions to answer. The Planetary Physical Data (7 ) page is part of the larger Smithsonian Center for Earth and Planetary Studies Web site. Visitors will find a list of planets along with various information such as their relative sidereal period of orbit, mean orbital velocity, orbital eccentricity, and much more. The last site related to orbits is an educational activity provided by the Physics Classroom called Circular Motion and Planetary Motion (8 ). Four lessons are presented including Motion Characteristics for Circular Motion, Applications of Circular Motion, Universal Gravitation, and Planetary and Satellite Motion. Each contain clear and well written descriptions along with all the necessary information for successful completion.

Brieske, Joel A.

50

Applicability of orbital data obtained from ISON measurements for prediction and analysis of close encounters on GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amount of data is collected within the framework of the ISON project in the KIAM database. The most part of the data is related to objects in GEO region, both operational and not functional. As of the end of 2009 there were 1467 GEO objects for which orbits were maintained on a routine basis. This number includes 892 spacecraft (including 391 under control), 250 upper stages and apogee kick motors (AKMs), 325 fragments and objects of undetermined type. Several new objects are discovering each month. It must be emphasized, that major part of already known non-operational objects in GEO (almost 66 The paper will present various quantity and quality characteristics of obtained measurements and constructed orbits from the point of view of their applicability for prediction and analysis of close encounters on GEO. It is well known that operators of the GEO spacecraft require high level of orbital data quality for making a decision on the need of an evasion manoeuvre in order to avoid unnecessary consumption of fuel. Usually it means that approaching object's orbit accuracy should be at the level of 2-3 km position error for in-track, better than 1-2 km for radial and 0.5-1 km for cross-track direction. The accuracy of measurements which ISON produce is enough to obtain such level of errors at orbit determination and propagation for the majority of GEO objects except the most complex cases of objects with not predictable area-to-mass variations or performing near-continuous, long duration or very frequent manoeuvres. But due to restricted observation time which optical sensors have to observe each individual GEO object it is not easy to keep this level of accuracy for all of objects all the time. So, it is important to understand whether it is feasible to collect some amount of measurements enough for construction of the initial pretty accurate orbit and then to maintain obtained orbit with less amount of measurements taking into account possible uncertainties (caused by varying acceleration due to solar radiation pressure for non operational spacecraft or by unknown orbital manoeuvres performing by the spacecraft under control). With those data we collected from the ISON network we were able to study this question not just theoretically but also practically for that specific observation network we have. We present examples of orbit determination and orbit accuracy estimation for different ob-jects, both under control and not operational. Also, we present results of analysis of several close encounters we discovered during routine work in KIAM. Statistics of close encounters de-pending of given distances and time perio will be presented for overall GEO population. This statistics represents an objective characteristic for the given objects population which do not depends neither of accuracy of orbits nor relation between real and estimated errors of orbit determination. This work is partially supported with RBFR 09-01-00566 and 09-01-13540 grants.

Agapov, Vladimir; Stepanyants, Victor; Khutorovsky, Zakhary; Molotov, Igor

51

Payload bay doors of orbiter Discovery are ready to be closed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Launch Complex 39B, the open payload bay doors on the orbiter Discovery reveal (bottom) International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-3) and (above it) Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform (HOST), two of the payloads for mission STS-95. The other payloads include the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft and SPACEHAB, a single module containing experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

52

Payload bay doors of orbiter Discovery are ready to be closed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Launch Complex 39B, KSC workers check the payloads for mission STS-95 which were loaded into the orbiter Discovery payload bay before launch. The mission includes the SPACEHAB single module (seen at the top of the bay) with experiments on space flight and the aging process, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-3), the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, and the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

53

Payload bay doors of orbiter Discovery are closed for STS-95 launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Launch Complex 39B, the payload bay doors on the orbiter Discovery, scheduled to launch mission STS-95, are poised for closure. The mission includes the SPACEHAB single module (seen at the top of the bay) with experiments on space flight and the aging process, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-3), the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, and the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

54

Payload bay doors of orbiter Discovery are closed for STS-95 launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Launch Complex 39B, the open payload bay doors on the orbiter Discovery reveal the SPACEHAB single module, one of the payloads for mission STS-95. SPACEHAB contains experiments on space flight and the aging process. Other payloads to be added include the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-3), the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, and the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

55

Random Matrix Theory for Closed Quantum Dots with Weak Spin-Orbit Coupling K. Held,* E. Eisenberg, and B. L. Altshuler  

E-print Network

Random Matrix Theory for Closed Quantum Dots with Weak Spin-Orbit Coupling K. Held,* E. Eisenberg) To lowest order in the coupling strength, the spin-orbit coupling in quantum dots results in a spin- dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. This flux decouples the spin-up and spin-down random matrix theory ensembles

Eisenberg, Eli

56

On the stability of extrasolar planetary systems and other closely orbiting pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the stability of tidal equilibria for planetary systems in which stellar rotation provides a significant contribution to the angular momentum budget. We begin by applying classic stability considerations for two bodies to planetary systems - where one mass is much smaller than the other. The application of these stability criteria to a subset of the Kepler sample indicates that the majority of the systems are not in a stable equilibrium state. Motivated by this finding, we generalize the stability calculation to include the quadrupole moment for the host star. In general, a stable equilibrium requires that the total system angular momentum exceeds a minimum value (denoted here as LX) and that the orbital angular momentum of the planet exceeds a minimum fraction of the total. Most, but not all, of the observed planetary systems in the sample have enough total angular momentum to allow an equilibrium state. Even with the generalizations of this paper, however, most systems have too little orbital angular momentum (relative to the total) and are not in an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we consider the time evolution of these planetary systems; the results constrain the tidal quality factor of the stars and suggest that 106 ? Q* ? 107.

Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

2015-02-01

57

The orbiter Columbia closes a successful STS-90 mission upon landing on KSC's runway 33.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the space center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission include Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

1998-01-01

58

Orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries and constraints on the nature of the unseen companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project Massive Unseen Companions to Hot Faint Underluminous Stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS) aims at finding hot subdwarf stars (sdBs) with massive compact companions such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or stellar-mass black holes. In a supplementary programme we obtained time-resolved spectroscopy of known hot subdwarf binary candidates. Here we present orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries with orbital periods ranging from ~0.1 d to 10 d, which allow us to derive lower limits on the masses of their companions. Additionally, a dedicated photometric follow-up campaign was conducted to obtain light curves of the reflection-effect binary HS 2043+0615. We are able to constrain the most likely nature of the companions in all cases but one, making use of information derived from photometry and spectroscopy. Four sdBs have white dwarf companions, while another three are orbited by low-mass main sequence stars of spectral type M. Radial velocities are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A95

Geier, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Vu?kovi?, M.; Tillich, A.; Müller, S.; Edelmann, H.; Classen, L.; McLeod, A. F.

2014-02-01

59

Characterization of vertical electric fields and associated voltages induced on a overhead power line from close artificially initiated lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were characterized of simultaneous vertical electric fields and voltages induced at both ends of a 448 m overhead power line by artificially initiated lightning return strokes. The lightning discharges struck ground about 20 m from one end of the line. The measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories: those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which are called oscillatory; and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which are called impulsive. Voltage amplitudes range from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages.

Rubinstein, Marcos; Uman, Martin A.; Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

1991-01-01

60

A tether tension control law for tethered subsatellites deployed along local vertical. [space shuttle orbiters - satellite control/towed bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tethered subsatellite deployed along the local vertical is in stable equilibrium. This applies equally to subsatellites deployed in the direction towards the earth from the main spacecraft or away from the earth. Momentary perturbations from this stable equilibrium will result in a swinging motion, which decays very slowly if passive means are relied upon to provide damping. A control law is described which actively damps the swinging motion by employing a reel, or other mechanism, to apply appropriate tension as a function of tetherline length, rate of change of length, and desired length. The same control law is shown to be useful for deployment and retrieval of tethered subsatellites in addition to damping to steady state.

Rupp, C. C.

1975-01-01

61

Photodissociation of alkyl and aryl iodides and effect of fluorination: Analysis of proposed mechanisms and vertical excitations by spin-orbit ab initio study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ab initio study of the vertical electronic excitations in CX3I, C6X5H, and C6X5I (X=H and F) is presented. All-electron basis sets are used and the relativistic effects are accounted for with the relativistic elimination of small components scheme. The structures are optimized with the complete active space self-consistent field approach and the excitation energies are computed with the spin-orbit multiconfiguration quasidegenerate perturbation theory. The n-?* transitions of CX3I, low-lying ?-?* transitions of C6X5H, and low-lying n-?*, ?-?*, and ?-?* transitions of C6X5I are elucidated. For CH3I, energy values of parallel and perpendicular transitions differ from experimental values by 455 and 1156 cm-1, respectively. Effects of fluorination are emphasized, it is found that fluorination increases the gap between 3Q0 and 1Q1 transitions and increase is substantially more in aryl iodides than in alkyl iodides. Electronic factors influencing increased I* quantum yield in the photodissociation on fluorination of alkyl iodides is attributed to increased gap between 3Q0 and 1Q1 transitions reducing curve crossing probability and for aryl iodides there is additional role by phenyl transitions. A correlation diagram illustrating transitions of aryl iodides is presented.

Ajitha, D.; Fedorov, D. G.; Finley, J. P.; Hirao, K.

2002-10-01

62

Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

Senent, Juan

2011-01-01

63

Closed loop performance of a brushless dc motor powered electromechanical actuator for flight control applications. [computerized simulation for Shuttle Orbiter applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.

Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

1980-01-01

64

Atmosphere Expansion and Mass Loss of Close-orbit Giant Exoplanets Heated by Stellar XUV. I. Modeling of Hydrodynamic Escape of Upper Atmospheric Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H_3^ + cooling, adiabatic and Ly? cooling, and Ly? reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ~9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ~9 km s–1, resulting in mass loss rates of ~(4-7) · 1010 g s–1. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Erkaev, N. V.

2014-11-01

65

Numerical modelling the unsteady process of closed rectangular area radiant heating in conjugate formulation with accounting energy distribution along horizontal and vertical enclosure structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modelling of unsteady convective-conductive heat exchange in premises, heated by infrared radiant heater is passed. Heat flux density from infrared radiant heater was calculated accounting energy distribution along horizontal and vertical building envelope. Comparison between zonal method and Lambert's law radiant energy distribution was done.

Nee, A. E.

2014-08-01

66

Orbit design concepts for Jupiter orbiter missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced mission and orbit planning efforts are currently in progress for a Mariner-class Jupiter orbiter. Baseline spacecraft and orbit design criteria are the goals of a NASA effort to define such a mission. Orbit design concepts that have been discovered during the early stages of mission planning are both challenging and exciting. A description is given of several such concepts that may greatly increase the flexibility and scientific return of orbiters designed for close study of the Galilean satellites and exploration of the Jovian system. Some new jargon is introduced in discussions to describe the exploitation of gravity-assist trajectories using the giant satellites for orbit control. Orbit 'pumping' and 'cranking' and 'resonance hopping' are defined and shown to be dynamically feasible means of controlling the orbit and, thus, the scientific return. A candidate encounter sequence is presented for an equatorial tour of the Galilean moons.

Uphoff, C.; Roberts, P. H.; Friedman, L. D.

1974-01-01

67

Gravity and Orbits: Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of three Science Objects in the Gravity and Orbits SciPack. It provides an understanding of how gravitational forces influence the motion of an object in orbit. When a force acts toward a single center, an object's forward motion and its motion toward that center can combine to create a curved path around the center. Gravity governs the motion of all objects in the solar system. The Sun's gravitational pull holds the Earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them. Learning Outcomes:? Describe the conditions that would lead an object into orbital motion in terms of the effects of gravitational force.? Explain how an object orbits a planet in terms of trajectories and free fall.? Identify gravity as the force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the Sun and the moons in their orbits around the planets.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

68

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at the S band indicate dense cloud decks at the 1.5 to 4.7 bar levels in the Venus atmosphere. These cloud decks are at lower altitudes than the clouds detected by Mariner 10 and Pioneer Venus probes, and are uniform in absorption characteristics in the polar regions. The regions close to the polar hot spots have depressed the upper cloud heights and increased polar density; these areas are free of thermal inversions characteristic of the north polar regions away from the hot spots.

Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.; Kliore, A. J.; Mccleese, D. J.; Patel, I. R.

1980-01-01

69

Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6-8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced back to the Earth's surface where it forms a lineament of regional importance, the Franconian line. To determine the seismic properties of the crust in situ, in particular within and around this deep fault zone, was one of the major goals of the VSP. For the measurements a newly developed high-pressure/high-temperature borehole geophone was used that was capable of withstanding temperatures and pressures up to 260°C and 140 MPa, respectively. The velocity-depth profiles and reflection images resulting from the VSP are of high spatial resolution due to a small geophone spacing of 12.5 m and a broad seismic signal spectrum. Compared to the upper part of the borehole, we found more than 10% decrease of the P wave velocity in the deep, fractured metamorphic rock formations. P wave velocity is ˜5.5 km/s at 8.5 km depth compared to 6.0-6.5 km/s at more shallow levels above 7 km. In addition, seismic anisotropy was observed to increase significantly within the deep fracture zone showing more than 10% shear wave splitting and azimuthal variation of S wave polarization. In order to quantify the effect of fractures on the seismic velocity in situ we compared lithologically identical rock units at shallow and large depths: Combining seismic velocity and structural logs, we could determine the elastic tensors for three gneiss sections. The analysis of these tensors showed that we need fracture porosity in the percent range in order to explain seismic velocity and anisotropy observed within the fault zone. The opening of significant pore space around 8 km depth can only be maintained by differential tectonic stress combined with intense macroscopic fracturing. VSP reflection imaging based on PP and PS converted reflected waves showed that the major fault system at the KTB site is wider and more complex than previously known. The so-called SE1 reflection previously found in two- and three-dimensional surface seismic surveys corresponds to the top of an ˜1 km wide fault system. Its lower portion was not illuminated by surface seismic acquisition geometry. VSP imaging shows that the fault zone comprises two major and a number of smaller SE dipping fault planes and several conjugate fracture planes. The previously recognized upper fault plane is not associated with a strong velocity anomaly but indicates the depth below which the dramatic velocity decrease starts. Regarding the complexly faulted crustal section of the KTB site as a whole, we found that fluctuation spectra of rock composition and seismic velocity show similar patterns. We could verify that a significant amount of P wave energy is continuously converted into shear energy by forward scattering and that multipathing plays an important role in signal formation. The media behaves effectively smoothly only at wavelength larger than 150 m. It was shown by moving source profiling that the media is orthorhombic on a regional scale. The tilt of the symmetry axes of anisotropy varies with depth following the dip of the geological structure.

Rabbel, W.; Beilecke, T.; Bohlen, T.; Fischer, D.; Frank, A.; Hasenclever, J.; Borm, G.; Kück, J.; Bram, K.; Druivenga, G.; Lüschen, E.; Gebrande, H.; Pujol, J.; Smithson, S.

2004-09-01

70

Dynamical analyses of the companions orbiting eclipsing binaries II. Z Draconis with four companions close to 6:3:2:1 mean motion resonances  

E-print Network

All available mid-eclipse times of the short-period eclipsing binary Z Draconis are analysed, and multiple cyclic variations are found. Based on the light-travel time model, we find three companions around Z Draconis, and one or more possible short-period companions. The derived orbital periods suggest that the three outer companions and an inner one are in a near 6:3:2:1 mean-motion resonances. The most outer companion has the minimum mass of $\\sim0.7M_{\\bigodot}$, whereas other companions are M dwarfs. We have studied the stabilities of the companions moving on a series of mutually inclined orbits. The results show that no orbital configurations can survive for 200 yr. We speculate that the instability of the system can be attributed to the uncertainties of the short-period companions, which result from the low-precision mid-eclipse times. Thus, secular CCD observations with much higher precision are needed in the future.

Yuan, Jinzhao; Selam, Selim O; Gümü?, Damla

2014-01-01

71

Observable properties of orbits in exact bumpy spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

We explore the properties of test-particle orbits in bumpy spacetimes--stationary, reflection-symmetric, asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein equations that have a non-Kerr (anomalous) higher-order multipole-moment structure but can be tuned arbitrarily close to the Kerr metric. Future detectors should observe gravitational waves generated during inspirals of compact objects into supermassive central bodies. If the central body deviates from the Kerr metric, this will manifest itself in the emitted waves. Here, we explore some of the features of orbits in non-Kerr spacetimes that might lead to observable signatures. As a basis for this analysis, we use a family of exact solutions proposed by Manko and Novikov which deviate from the Kerr metric in the quadrupole and higher moments, but we also compare our results to other work in the literature. We examine isolating integrals of the orbits and find that the majority of geodesic orbits have an approximate fourth constant of the motion (in addition to the energy, angular momentum, and rest mass) and the resulting orbits are triperiodic to high precision. We also find that this fourth integral can be lost for certain orbits in some oblately deformed Manko-Novikov spacetimes, leading to ergodic motion. However, compact objects will probably not end up on these chaotic orbits in nature. We compute the location of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and find that the behavior of an orbit in the approach to the ISCO can be qualitatively different depending on whether the location of the ISCO is determined by the onset of an instability in the radial or vertical direction. Finally, we compute periapsis and orbital-plane precessions for nearly circular and nearly equatorial orbits in both the strong and weak field, and discuss weak-field precessions for eccentric equatorial orbits.

Gair, Jonathan R.; Li Chao; Mandel, Ilya [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2008-01-15

72

Jeff=1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state close to the cubic limit in Ca4IrO6  

SciTech Connect

The J_eff=1/2 state is manifested in systems with large cubic crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling that are comparable to the on-site Coulomb interaction, U. 5d transition metal oxides host parameters in this regime and strong evidence for this state in Sr2IrO4, and additional iridates, has been presented. All the candidates, however, deviate from the cubic crystal field required to provide an unmixed canonical J_eff=1/2 state, impacting the development of a robust model of this novel insulating and magnetic state. We present experimental and theoretical results that not only show Ca4IrO6 hosts the state, but furthermore uniquely resides in the limit required for a canonical unmixed J_eff=1/2 state.

Calder, Stuart A [ORNL] [ORNL; Cao, Guixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Jong-Woo [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Mandrus, D. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

73

An orbit fit program for localizing errors in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Many errors in an accelerator are evidenced as transverse kicks to the beam which distort the beam trajectory. Therefore, the information of the errors are imprinted in the distorted orbits, which are different from what would be predicted by the optics model. In this note, we introduce an algorithm for fitting the orbit based on an on-line optics model. By comparing the measured and fitted orbits, we first present results validating the algorithm. We then apply the algorithm and localize the location of the elusive source of vertical diurnal variations observed in RHIC. The difference of two trajectories (linear accelerator) or closed orbits (storage ring) should match exactly a betatron oscillation, which is predictable by the optics model, in an ideal machine. However, in the presence of errors, the measured trajectory deviates from prediction since the model is imperfect. Comparison of measurement to model can be used to detect such errors. To do so the initial conditions (phase space parameters at any point) must be determined which can be done by comparing the difference orbit to prediction using only a few beam position monitors (BPMs). The fitted orbit can be propagated along the beam line based on the optics model. Measurement and model will agree up to the point of an error. The error source can be better localized by additionally fitting the difference orbit using downstream BPMs and back-propagating the solution. If one dominating error source exist in the machine, the fitted orbit will deviate from the difference orbit at the same point.

Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

2011-11-01

74

Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

1996-01-01

75

Combined high density solar panels and vertical wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined high density solar panels and vertical wind turbines consist of multiple solar panels with closely spaced solar cells on both sides which are supported by an open framework and vertical posts. The adoption of an elevated, rooftop solar panel array, supported by vertical posts makes the basic structure attractive for the inclusion of multiple vertical wind turbines, as

1978-01-01

76

Optimal periodic relative orbit and rectilinear relative orbits with eccentric reference orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of two-body linearized periodic relative orbits with eccentric reference orbits is studied in this paper. The periodic relative orbit in the target-orbital coordinate system can be used in fly-around and formation-flying orbit design. Based on the closed-form solutions to the Tschauner-Hempel equations, the initial condition for periodic relative orbits is obtained. Then the minimum-fuel periodic-orbit condition with a single impulse is analytically derived for given initial position and velocity vectors. When considering the initial coasting time, the impulse position of the global minimum-fuel periodic orbit is proved to be near to the perigee of the target and can be obtained by numerical optimization algorithms. Moreover, the condition for a special periodic orbit, i.e., the rectilinear relative orbit in the target-orbital frame, is obtained. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method, and show the geometry of the periodic relative orbit and the rectilinear relative orbit.

Zhang, Gang; Zhou, Di; Sun, Zhaowei; Cao, Xibin

2013-10-01

77

On triangulated orbit categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the category of orbits of the bounded derived category of a hereditary category under a well-behaved autoequivalence is canonically triangulated. This answers a question by A. Buan, R. Marsh and I. Reiten which appeared in their study with M. Reineke and G. Todorov of the link between tilting theory and cluster algebras (closely related to work by

Bernhard Keller

2005-01-01

78

Dexterous and expedient approach strategies considering non-zero eccentricity orbits and J2 perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently bio-inspired rendezvous strategies have been investigated for applications in space situation awareness. Particularly, closed-loop solutions have been developed for the cases that the target object is in a circular orbit without considering any orbital perturbations. In this paper, the minimum-fuel consumption bio-inspired motions are further studied. The follow cases considering the J2 perturbation, the non-zero eccentricities, and different boundary conditions are analyzed: (1) the target object is at the local vertical local horizontal coordinate origin; (2) the target is moving in the local vertical local horizontal coordinate; (3) the rendezvous object approaches the target object from the R-bar, V-bar, and Z-bar directions, respectively. Fast solutions can be obtained for the rendezvous object to approach the target object with minimum energy consumption.

Remeikas, Charles; Xu, Yunjun; Pham, Khanh; Chen, Genshe; Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan

2014-06-01

79

[Orbital inflammation].  

PubMed

Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. PMID:25455557

Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

2014-12-01

80

Asteroid close encounters with Earth: risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an asteroid with an orbit close to the Earth is observed only over a short arc, there is no way to accurately predict the future close approaches. The first approach could change the orbital period in such a way that the asteroid is injected into a resonance, allowing an even closer approach a few years later. By using both

Andrea Milani; Steven R. Chesley; Giovanni B. Valsecchi

2000-01-01

81

Earth Co-orbital Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of asteroid 2002 AA29 by the LINEAR survey and the realization of its co-orbital relationship with Earth lead us to consider the characteristics of Earth Co-orbital Objects (ECOs) in general. An object with semimajor axis between 0.99 and 1.01 AU is in 1:1 resonance with the Earth. To be co-orbital in the sense of moving along the Earth's orbit, an object must further have its other orbital parameters similar to those of the Earth. Clarification is needed as to what range of orbital parameters can be regarded as similar enough to permit classification as an ECO. ECOs would be expected to librate on tadpole or horseshoe orbits, be relatively easy to access with spacecraft, and to sometimes exhibit quasisatellite behavior. 2002 AA29 is on a horseshoe orbit and was discovered in a general asteroid survey while near Earth at one end of the horseshoe orbit. Searches for Earth Trojan asteroids, which would be members of the ECO class on tadpole orbits near a triangular Lagrange Point, have not yet been successful. While 2002 AA29 has an orbit even less eccentric than Earth's, it has an inclination of about 10 degrees. 2000 PH5 and 2001 GO2 are on horseshoe orbits and interact gravitationally with Earth to 'bounce' when they approach the Earth from either side. With eccentricities of .23 and .17 respectively, they do not have decidedly Earth-like orbits despite inclinations less that 5 degrees. When in quasi-satellite mode, a body exhibits a looping motion relative to Earth in some ways resembling a satellite orbit. Several resonant bodies including 3753 Cruithne exhibit this behavior at times, but ECOs remain close to Earth while doing it. We suggest that directed searches be used to discover ECOs and characterize this class of objects. Orbital simulations suggest the best target spaces, which are only partially covered by present general searches.

Wiegert, P.; Connors, M.; Chodas, P.; Veillet, C.; Mikkola, S.; Innanen, K.

2002-12-01

82

Elliptical Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a textual explanation as well as animated illustration of elliptical orbits with different eccentricities. It also shows how the Sun is at the focus of an ellipse, and some of the math behind elliptical orbits. Beginner, intermediate and advanced versions of the content are available.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

83

The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis  

PubMed Central

Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.

2012-01-01

84

On triangulated orbit categories.  

E-print Network

We show that the category of orbits of the bounded derived category of a hereditary category under a well-behaved autoequivalence is canonically triangulated. This answers a question by A. Buan, R. Marsh and I. Reiten which appeared in their study with M. Reineke and G. Todorov of the link between tilting theory and cluster algebras (closely related to work by Caldero-Chapoton-Schiffler) and a question by H. Asashiba about orbit categories. We observe that the resulting triangulated orbit categories provide many easy examples of triangulated categories with the Calabi-Yau property. These include the category of projective modules over a preprojective algebra of generalized Dynkin type in the sense of Happel-Preiser-Ringel, whose triangulated structure goes back to Auslander-Reiten's work on the representation-theoretic approach to rational singularities.

Bernhard Keller

85

A survey of orbits of co-orbitals of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many asteroids with a semimajor axis close to that of Mars have been discovered in the last several years. Potentially some of these could be in 1:1 resonance with Mars, much as are the classic Trojan asteroids with Jupiter, and its lesser-known horseshoe companions with Earth. In the 1990s, two Trojan companions of Mars, 5261 Eureka and 1998 VF 31, were discovered, librating about the L 5 Lagrange point, 60° behind Mars in its orbit. Although several other potential Mars Trojans have been identified, our orbital calculations show only one other known asteroid, 1999 UJ 7, to be a Trojan, associated with the L 4 Lagrange point, 60° ahead of Mars in its orbit. We further find that asteroid 36017 (1999 ND 43) is a horseshoe librator, alternating with periods of Trojan motion. This asteroid makes repeated close approaches to Earth and has a chaotic orbit whose behavior can be confidently predicted for less than 3000 years. We identify two objects, 2001 HW 15 and 2000 TG 2, within the resonant region capable of undergoing what we designate "circulation transition", in which objects can pass between circulation outside the orbit of Mars and circulation inside it, or vice versa. The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars appears to play an important role in circulation transition and in horseshoe motion. Based on the orbits and on spectroscopic data, the Trojan asteroids of Mars may be primordial bodies, while some co-orbital bodies may be in a temporary state of motion.

Connors, Martin; Stacey, Greg; Brasser, Ramon; Wiegert, Paul

2005-05-01

86

Density matrix method for orbital localization  

PubMed Central

A method is presented for localizing molecular orbitals, based on diagonalizing subunits of the density matrix. First, nonbonding orbitals are found by diagonalizing the monatomic subunits; then, diatomic ? or ? bonding and antibonding orbitals are obtained from the diatomic subunits for all bonded pairs of atoms; finally, the delocalized ?-orbitals for particular chromophores are found by projecting the first set out of the self-consistent field (SCF) Hamiltonian. The results show good general agreement with other localization methods, with advantages in the ability to display group orbitals in complex molecules which most closely resemble the SCF orbitals for simple prototypes. PMID:16592668

Caldwell, Dennis; Redington, Patrick; Eyring, Henry

1979-01-01

87

Orbital shrinking  

E-print Network

Jul 12, 2011 ... ... computational experiments on the tightness and solution speed of this ... variables expressing variable sums within each orbit are introduces and used to ..... limit marks an exceeded time limit of 1800 sec.s, while boldface ...

liberti

88

Orbital Decompression  

MedlinePLUS

... appearance. One of the most common indications is Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the thyroid gland and the eye. If the eye is affected (Grave’s orbitopathy), there is an enlargement of the orbital ...

89

Orbital Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the mechanics of orbital dynamics and Newton's first law of motion. This three minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

90

Orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazard to spacecraft posed by artificial debris in orbit, though still low, is growing and requires international attention, according to a new National Research Council (NRC) report. What's more, the problem needs to be addressed while it is still manageable, the report says. First, the NRC report suggests that spacefaring nations work together make better spacecraft hazard assessments by filling in data gaps on the effects of collisions between orbiting objects and on the amount and sources of debris in orbit. Other steps include making spacecraft designers more aware of protection methods. While removal of existing debris from orbit is technically and economically infeasible, according to the report, international efforts should focus on preventive measures.

91

Closing Window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

24 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows billowing clouds of dust rising from a storm southeast of Hellas Planitia. The dust storm in this case obscured the Mars Orbiter Camera's view of the martian surface.

Location near: 62.2oS, 259.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

92

Arenstorf Orbit JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arenstorf orbits are closed trajectories of the restricted three-body problem. That is, two bodies of masses µ and 1-µ moving in a circular rotation, and a third body of negligible mass moving in the same plane. The computation of these orbits is very sensible to small errors and are a good test for the accuracy of numerical methods for solving Ordinary Differential Equations. This simulation compares the solution of two of these orbits using both a 4th-order fixed step and a 5(4) variable step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The adaptive solver uses an event to find the period of the orbit and stop there. Both the computations of the adaptive solver and the event are done with the step size and the tolerance indicated. The Arenstorf Orbit JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support.

Franciscouembre

2013-08-28

93

W-reps, nilp orbits, orbit method  

E-print Network

W-reps, nilp orbits, orbit method David Vogan Representation theory irr reps nilp orbits irr reps W reps nilp orbits W reps Explaining the arrows Remembrance of things past Weyl group representations, nilpotent orbits, and the orbit method David Vogan Department of Mathematics Massachusetts

Vogan, David

94

New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

2006-01-01

95

Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant Vertical Skew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomi- tant) vertical phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of vertical skew takes into account both eye and head position.

JAMES S. MAXWELL; CLIFTON M. SCHOR

96

Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant Vertical Skew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomitant) vertical phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of vertical skew takes into account both eye and head position. In

JAMES S MAXWELL; CLIFTON M SCHOR

1997-01-01

97

Diplopia following porous polyethylene orbital rim onlay implant.  

PubMed

An 81-year-old man with ocular irritation associated with lower eyelid retraction, horizontal laxity of the lower eyelids, and hypoplastic inferior orbital rims underwent bilateral placement of porous polyethylene orbital rim onlay implants. Two weeks after surgery, he developed vertical binocular diplopia on downgaze. Examination of extraocular motility demonstrated limited infraduction OD. Surgical exploration revealed scarring in the anterior orbit between the inferior rectus pulley and the orbital implant. The orbital implant was found to lie higher than the inferior orbital rim. After surgical lysis of the scar and reduction of the vertical height of the implant, the patient's diplopia resolved. Orbital connective tissues critical to ocular motility may be abnormally superficial in orbital rim hypoplasia. Onlay grafts must be carefully placed so that they do not interfere with these tissues. PMID:12544800

Goldberg, Robert A; Li, Tina G; Demer, Joseph L

2003-01-01

98

Families of Periodic Orbits in the Sun - Jupiter - Trojan Asteroid System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study, numerically, families of simple non-symmetric periodic orbits of the restricted four-body problem where the three primary bodies lie at the apices of an equilateral triangle while a fourth massless body is moving under the Newtonian gravitational attraction of the primaries. More precisely, the primary bodies Sun, Jupiter and a Trojan Asteroid are set in the stable Lagrangian equilateral triangle configuration and as a massless fourth body we consider a spacecraft. The problem admits eight non-collinear equilibrium points. Four of them are close to Asteroid, two are stable and two are unstable. The network of the families of the simple periodic solutions using their characteristic curves in the (x, C) plane is presented. The linear stability of each periodic solution is also studied. Special generating planar horizontal and vertical critical periodic orbits of each family are calculated. We found a large number of various types of orbits and two families which consist of stable (horizontally and vertically) retrograde non-symmetric periodic orbits around Jupiter (the first family) and the Trojan Asteroid (the second one) with obvious practical interest.

Baltagiannis, A. N.; Papadakis, K.

2012-01-01

99

Motion of dust in a planetary magnetosphere - Orbit-averaged equations for oblateness, electromagnetic, and radiation forces with application to Saturn's E ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbital dynamics of micrometer-sized dust grains is explored numerically and analytically, treating the strongest perturbation forces acting on close circumplanetary dust grains: higher-order gravity, radiation pressure, and the electromagnetic force. The appropriate orbit-average equations are derived and applied to the E ring. Arguments are made for the existence of azimuthal and vertical asymmetries in the E ring. New understanding of the dynamics of E ring dust grains is applied to problems of the ring's breadth and height. The possibility for further ground-based and spacecraft observations is considered.

Hamilton, Douglas P.

1993-01-01

100

Achieving Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Engineering Design Challenge activity, learners will use balloons to investigate how a multi-stage rocket, like that used in the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission, can propel a satellite to a specific orbit. Participants will construct a two-stage balloon rocket that will be required to reach a particular location on the balloon track, simulating the proper orbit to be reached by the IBEX satellite. If you need an audio version of this material, the file is compatible with screen reading software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader.

2012-07-17

101

Configuration interaction singles natural orbitals: An orbital basis for an efficient and size intensive multireference description of electronic excited states.  

PubMed

Multireference quantum chemical methods, such as the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, have long been the state of the art for computing regions of potential energy surfaces (PESs) where complex, multiconfigurational wavefunctions are required, such as near conical intersections. Herein, we present a computationally efficient alternative to the widely used CASSCF method based on a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) expansion built from the state-averaged natural orbitals of configuration interaction singles calculations (CISNOs). This CISNO-CASCI approach is shown to predict vertical excitation energies of molecules with closed-shell ground states similar to those predicted by state averaged (SA)-CASSCF in many cases and to provide an excellent reference for a perturbative treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Absolute energies computed at the CISNO-CASCI level are found to be variationally superior, on average, to other CASCI methods. Unlike SA-CASSCF, CISNO-CASCI provides vertical excitation energies which are both size intensive and size consistent, thus suggesting that CISNO-CASCI would be preferable to SA-CASSCF for the study of systems with multiple excitable centers. The fact that SA-CASSCF and some other CASCI methods do not provide a size intensive/consistent description of excited states is attributed to changes in the orbitals that occur upon introduction of non-interacting subsystems. Finally, CISNO-CASCI is found to provide a suitable description of the PES surrounding a biradicaloid conical intersection in ethylene. PMID:25591333

Shu, Yinan; Hohenstein, Edward G; Levine, Benjamin G

2015-01-14

102

Configuration interaction singles natural orbitals: An orbital basis for an efficient and size intensive multireference description of electronic excited states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multireference quantum chemical methods, such as the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, have long been the state of the art for computing regions of potential energy surfaces (PESs) where complex, multiconfigurational wavefunctions are required, such as near conical intersections. Herein, we present a computationally efficient alternative to the widely used CASSCF method based on a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) expansion built from the state-averaged natural orbitals of configuration interaction singles calculations (CISNOs). This CISNO-CASCI approach is shown to predict vertical excitation energies of molecules with closed-shell ground states similar to those predicted by state averaged (SA)-CASSCF in many cases and to provide an excellent reference for a perturbative treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Absolute energies computed at the CISNO-CASCI level are found to be variationally superior, on average, to other CASCI methods. Unlike SA-CASSCF, CISNO-CASCI provides vertical excitation energies which are both size intensive and size consistent, thus suggesting that CISNO-CASCI would be preferable to SA-CASSCF for the study of systems with multiple excitable centers. The fact that SA-CASSCF and some other CASCI methods do not provide a size intensive/consistent description of excited states is attributed to changes in the orbitals that occur upon introduction of non-interacting subsystems. Finally, CISNO-CASCI is found to provide a suitable description of the PES surrounding a biradicaloid conical intersection in ethylene.

Shu, Yinan; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Levine, Benjamin G.

2015-01-01

103

Orbital Elements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coordinates for tracking the International Space Station and the Mir Space Station are available here from NASA's Johnson Space Center Flight Design and Dynamics Division. The Orbital Elements page offers real-time data for use in ground track plotting programs. The site cautions the data are for ground track plotting programs only and "should not be used for precise applications or analysis!"

104

Elliptical Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although not inquiry, this activity is important for students to understand what an ellipse is and what a focus is, and to break misconceptions about Earth's orbit being highly elliptical. This is the perfect place to check to see if students have the mis

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

105

Improved formulas for calculating cyclotron orbit properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using improved techniques, analytical formulas are derived for calculating the orbit period, the radial tune, and the vertical tune as a function of energy for a given magnetic field. As examples, these formulas are applied to fields from two different machines: the three-sector K1200 superconducting cyclotron at this laboratory, and the six-sector 500 MeV cyclotron at the TRIUMF laboratory. A comparison of the results with those from a standard orbit integration program shows that the analytical formulas are, on the average, highly accurate for the orbit period, quite accurate for the radial tune, but only moderately accurate for the vertical tune. Moreover, differences between the theoretical and orbit code results are found to exhibit relatively large fluctuations which are produced by small irregularities in the measured field data.

Gordon, M. M.; Jeon, Dong-O

1991-03-01

106

Orbit Correction for the Newly Developed Polarization-Switching Undulator  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme of undulator magnet arrangements has been proposed and developed as a polarization-switching radiation source, and its test-stand was installed in the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in order to investigate the effects on the beam orbit. The closed orbit distortion (COD) over 200 {mu}m was produced in a vertical direction when we switched the polarization of the radiation from the test-stand. In a horizontal direction, the COD was less than 50{mu}m. The results agreed well with the predictions from the magnetic-field measurement on the bench. In order to suppress the CODs and realize a stable operation of the ring with the polarization-switching, we developed an orbit correction system which consists of an encoder to detect motion of magnets, a pair of beam position monitors (BPMs), signal processing parts, and a pair of steering magnets. We succeeded in suppressing the CODs to the level below 3{mu}m using the system even when we switch the polarization at a maximum frequency of 0.8 Hz.

Obina, Takashi; Honda, Tohru; Shioya, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Kimichika [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shigeru [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Photoscience, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan)

2007-01-19

107

Damping of orbital inclinations by bending waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inclined secondary orbiting in a disk will launch bending waves from resonance sites where the Doppler shifted forcing frequency matches the disk's natural frequency for vertical oscillations. These vertical resonances are of two types: external resonances falling interior and exterior to the perturber's semimajor axis that excite its inclination and coorbiting resonances that fall at the perturber's orbit and damp its inclination. We show that torques from coorbiting resonances dominate the bending wave interaction for a constant density disk. In this case the inclination ultimately decay and an estimate of the characteristic time scale for this process is made.

Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

1994-07-01

108

Vertical axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical wind turbine having vertical blades, each blade being connected intermediate its ends by a hinge to a support arm having a hub that enables the blades to rotate around a vertical axis, a tie wire connected to the blade at positions spaced along the blade from the hinge, said tie wire engaging a spring-loaded pulley disposed inwardly of

P. E. Delgado; B. A. Holmes

1981-01-01

109

Vertical Map Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

Perry, Joanne M.

1982-01-01

110

Orbiting Hotel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is the year 2025 and a large company, Z-Tech, wants to put a hotel in space having it orbit around one of the planets in our solar system. Our 9th grade class has been given a very important job. We have to search for the perfect location for the hotel. Our job is to report back to the company with the planet that is the best place for an orbiting hotel. The Task: You are to write a report recommending which planet should be chosen. Your report should include pictures of the planet you recommended. Here are the questions you should answer in order to report back to Z-Tech with your recommendation. * Which planet will be the ...

Hicken, Mrs.

2009-10-19

111

Theory of satellite orbit-orbit resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the strong mathematical and physical parallels between orbit-orbit and spin-orbit resonances, the dynamics of mutual orbit perturbations between two satellites about a massive planet are examined, exploiting an approach previously adopted in the study of spin-orbit coupling. The satellites are assumed to have arbitrary mass ratio and to move in non-intersecting orbits of arbitrary size and

Leon Blitzer; John D. Anderson

1981-01-01

112

Spin-orbit interaction in Hartree-Fock calculations  

E-print Network

The contribution of the spin-orbit interaction in Hartree-Fock calculations for closed shell nuclei is studied. We obtain explicit expressions for the finite range spin-orbit force. New terms with respect to the traditional spin-orbit expressions are found. The importance of the finite-range is analyzed. Results obtained with spin-orbit terms taken from realistic interactions are presented. The effect of the spin-orbit isospin dependent terms is evaluated.

Ana R. Bautista; Giampaolo Co'; Antonio M. Lallena

2000-01-18

113

Vertical axis wind turbines  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

2011-03-08

114

APPROXIMATING THE PATH OF A CELESTIAL BODY WITH A CIRCULAR ORBIT FROM TWO  

E-print Network

1 APPROXIMATING THE PATH OF A CELESTIAL BODY WITH A CIRCULAR ORBIT FROM TWO CLOSE OBSERVATIONS elliptical orbit. Using ecliptic longitudes from only two close observations, we try to compute a circle that approximates the elliptical orbit. Our calculations result in not one, but two circular orbits. In some cases

Osler, Thomas

115

Orbital evolution of some Centaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigated the dynamical evolution of Centaurs objects 2060 (Chiron), 5145 (Pholus), 7066 (Nessus), 8405 (Asbolus), 10199 (Chariklo), 10370 (Hylonome), and Scattered-Disk object 15874. We have carried out orbital integration of test particles with initial orbits similar to those of these objects. Calculations were produced for +/-600kyr-10Myr starting at epoch and using the implicit single sequence Everhart methods. 12 variational orbits for each of selected Centaurs also have been numerically integrated for +/-200 kyr toward the past and the future. The most probable paths were traced up to +/-1 Myr. The character of orbital elements changes and peculiarities of close approaches to giant planets are discussed.

Kovalenko, Nataliya; Babenko, Yuri; Churyumov, Klim

2002-11-01

116

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an

William F. Ruddiman

2003-01-01

117

Orbit analysis  

SciTech Connect

The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

Michelotti, L.

1995-01-01

118

Goce Satellite Orbit Simulation and Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 2007 year the first Earth Explorer Core mission the Gravity Field and Steady - State Ocean Circulation Mission GOCE as a part of ESA s Living Planet Programme is planned The Earth s gravity field will be measured by the gradiometer put into the satellite board The selected orbit of this satellite is near circular at the mean altitude 250 km Our work contains the research of the simulated orbit of the GOCE satellite For the orbital computations the Cowell numerical integration of the eighth order was used The GOCE satellite orbit description includes the relative comparison of the various forces acting on the satellite For the satellite motion determination the geopotential was described by means of the EGM96 model Additionally the satellite accelerations due to the atmospheric drag the Moon gravity the Sun gravity the planet gravity the solid Earth tides the oceanic tides the direct solar radiation pressure the undirect reflected solar radiation pressure and the relativity were computed Besides the reference satellite orbit i e the orbit closed to the GOCE satellite planned orbit as much as possible the various variants of the satellite orbit were obtained The satellite motion in these orbital variants is affected or not affected by the chosen forces for example by the direct solar radiation pressure and the undirect reflected solar radiation pressure with respect to the satellite motion in the reference orbit To obtain the influence of the chosen forces on the GOCE satellite orbit the comparison between the reference orbit and the

Bobojc, A.; Drozyner, A.

119

MaRS: Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science (MaRS) experiment will employ radio occultation to (I) sound the neutral martian atmosphere to derive vertical density, pressure and temperature profiles as functions of height to resolutions better than 100 m, (II) sound the ionosphere to derive vertical ionospheric electron density profiles and a description of the ionosphere through its diurnal and seasonal variations

M. Pätzold; F. M. Neubauer; L. Carone; A. Hagermann; C. Stanzel; B. Häusler; S. Remus; J. Selle; D. Hagl; D. P. Hinson; R. A. Simpson; G. L. Tyler; S. W. Asmar; W. I. Axford; T. Hagfors; J.-P. Barriot; J.-C. Cerisier; T. Imamura; K.-I. Oyama; P. Janle; G. Kirchengast; V. Dehant

2004-01-01

120

Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: On-orbit measurement performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLAS instrument on NASA's ICESat satellite has made over 904 million measurements of the Earth surface and atmosphere through June 2005. During its first seven operational campaigns it has vertically sampled the Earth's global surface and atmosphere on more than 3600 orbits with vertical resolutions approaching 3 cm. This paper summarizes the on-orbit measurement performance of GLAS to date.

James B. Abshire; Xiaoli Sun; Haris Riris; J. Marcos Sirota; Jan F. McGarry; Steve Palm; Donghui Yi; Peter Liiva

2005-01-01

121

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at the S band indicate dense cloud decks at the 1.5 to 4.7 bar levels in the Venus atmosphere. These cloud decks are at lower altitudes than the clouds detected by Mariner 10 and Pioneer

J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi; A. J. Kliore; D. J. McCleese; I. R. Patel

1980-01-01

122

General view of the "top" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the "top" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

123

General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

124

Orbital and epicyclic frequencies of Maclaurin spheroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytical formulae for the orbital and epicyclic frequencies in orbits around Maclaurin spheroids in Newtonian gravity. The Laplace equation for the gravitational potential implies that the orbital frequency squared is the arithmetic mean of the squares of the epicyclic frequencies, ? _r^2 + ? _z^2 = 2? _o^2. The radial epicyclic frequency has a maximum at radius r=?{2}ae for spheroid ellipticities e>1/?{2}, while for e = 0.834 583 18 it vanishes at the stellar equator (at r = a). For still larger ellipticities the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is separated from the surface of the spheroid by a gap and has radius rms = 1.198 203 ae. The vertical epicyclic frequency is always larger than the orbital one, and always by a factor of ?{2} in the marginally stable orbit. The presence of periastron motion, nodal precession (whose sense is the same as in retrograde orbits in the Kerr metric) and of the ISCO makes the properties of orbital motion around Maclaurin spheroids analogous to those in the Kerr metric. We find that the condition for the existence of circular orbits in test-particle motion is ? _r^2 + ? _z^2 >0, equally for the Maclaurin spheroid and for the Kerr metric.

Klu?niak, W.; Rosi?ska, D.

2013-10-01

125

Orbital evolution modeling of Damocloides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we performed the task of orbital evolution modeling for 93 currently known Damocloids, 1 Gyr backward and forward in time, using the integration package SWIFTER. The package includes seven integration technics. We choosed the SyMBA integrator (Symplectic Massive Body Algorithm), which allows to handle close approaches between test particles and planets. We included the Sun, the eight planets, and Pluto as massive bodies in our simulation. The initial state vectors for test particles and planets were taken from HORIZONS JPL service. The timestep of integration was 7.305 days. The calculations were stopped when the particle reached heliocentric distance 5000 AU. The value is close to the inner boundary of the Oort cloud. It is shown, that dynamical lifetime of the population is about 1-10 myr. We present the Damocloids orbital parameters distributions and discuss the results of the simulation for Damocloids inclinations changes with time. Our results show that the dynamic lifetime of Damocloids population is about 106-107 years. Population of Damocloids retains highly inclined orbits during the integration time into the past and into the future. Thus, the population of Damocloids may indeed represent the dynamical relationship of comets on inclined orbits (Halley-type comets) with a hypothetical spherical Oort Cloud. Some of evolutionary tracks allow transition from retrograde motion to direct and vice versa (e.g.Dioretsa asteroid (20461)). However, for large periods of time, due to close encounters with the giant planets, the simulation results should be considered only statistically.

Guliyev, Rustam; Churyumov, Klim; Kovalenko, Nataliya

126

A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

Carter, J. B.; And Others

1983-01-01

127

Vertical axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical axis wind turbine comprises one or more aerofoil section blades attached to a support structure. The blade has at least one part thereof which is acted on by centrifugal forces as the blade rotates with the support structure and thereby caused to increase its angle of inclination to the vertical axis when the speed of rotation increases beyond

Musgrove

1978-01-01

128

Shapes of d Orbitals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shapes of d Orbitals shows the d orbitals in an axis set. Running the mouse over an orbital reveals the "name" of that orbital. This is good practice for helping students link the name of an orbital to the orientation.Shapes of d Orbitals has a link to D Orbitals in an Octahedral Ligand Field. Here the user may click on the name of any one of the d orbitals to obtain a larger 3-dimensional image. The images are rotatable and scalable. Orbital phase is shown by the different colors.

129

Orbiter/launch system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system includes reusable turbojet propelled booster vehicles releasably connected to a reusable rocket powered orbit vehicle. The coupled orbiter-booster combination takes off horizontally and ascends to staging altitude and speed under booster power with both orbiter and booster wings providing lift. After staging, the booster vehicles fly back to Earth for horizontal landing and the orbiter vehicle continues ascending to orbit.

Jackson, L. R.; Weidner, J. P.; Small, W. J.; Martin, J. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

130

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

131

TIDAL EVOLUTION OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Recent discoveries of several transiting planets with clearly non-zero eccentricities and some large obliquities started changing the simple picture of close-in planets having circular and well-aligned orbits. The two major scenarios that form such close-in planets are planet migration in a disk and planet-planet interactions combined with tidal dissipation. The former scenario can naturally produce a circular and low-obliquity orbit, while the latter implicitly assumes an initially highly eccentric and possibly high-obliquity orbit, which are then circularized and aligned via tidal dissipation. Most of these close-in planets experience orbital decay all the way to the Roche limit as previous studies showed. We investigate the tidal evolution of transiting planets on eccentric orbits, and find that there are two characteristic evolution paths for them, depending on the relative efficiency of tidal dissipation inside the star and the planet. Our study shows that each of these paths may correspond to migration and scattering scenarios. We further point out that the current observations may be consistent with the scattering scenario, where the circularization of an initially eccentric orbit occurs before the orbital decay primarily due to tidal dissipation in the planet, while the alignment of the stellar spin and orbit normal occurs on a similar timescale to the orbital decay largely due to dissipation in the star. We also find that even when the stellar spin-orbit misalignment is observed to be small at present, some systems could have had a highly misaligned orbit in the past, if their evolution is dominated by tidal dissipation in the star. Finally, we also re-examine the recent claim by Levrard et al. that all orbital and spin parameters, including eccentricity and stellar obliquity, evolve on a similar timescale to orbital decay. This counterintuitive result turns out to have been caused by a typo in their numerical code. Solving the correct set of tidal equations, we find that the eccentricity behaves as expected, with orbits usually circularizing rapidly compared to the orbital decay rate.

Matsumura, Soko; Rasio, Frederic A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Peale, Stanton J., E-mail: soko@astro.umd.ed [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2010-12-20

132

Orbital tumors: operative and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

The term "orbital tumors" includes diverse benign or malignant space-occupying lesions of the orbit, often leading to dystopia of the eyeball, motility disturbances, diplopia, visual field defects, and sometimes a complete loss of vision. Removing these tumors in a limited surgical field is challenging. Therefore, the preservation of function is a primary concern. We retrospectively reviewed 671 patients with orbital tumors from October 1999 to June 2014. Diagnosis on referral, presenting symptoms, radiological records, histology of the primary tumor or orbital metastasis, and treatment choice were analyzed. Among the 671 orbital tumors, 40% were accessed anteriorly, 36% via an orbitotomy with temporary osteotomy, and 23.9% underwent an orbital exenteration. As an illustration of the operative strategies with subsequent reconstructions, a distinction was made among the main indication groups: (1) function-preserving therapy for retrobulbar tumors, (2) malignant tumors of the conjunctiva and the eyelids, (3) exenteration of the orbit and subsequent reconstruction, and (4) operative and therapeutic strategy for orbital metastases. Adequate preoperative use of modern imaging techniques and thorough planning of the operation are crucial. Accurate histopathological diagnosis is crucial for planning appropriate therapeutic and surgical interventions. New innovative treatment concepts and surgical techniques arise from the close cooperation of related disciplines such as ophthalmology and neurosurgery. Although an orbital exenteration in patients with eyelid and conjunctival carcinomas can now often be avoided, eye-preserving treatment for locally advanced carcinomas of the conjunctiva and eyelid must be attempted. For extensive orbital malignancies, orbital exenteration is curative. In this context, primary closure of the orbit can improve the patient's quality of life and avoid subsequent complications. Concerning orbital metastasis, early diagnosis can preserve function and fulfil the esthetic demands of the patients. In palliative tumor disease, operative procedures such as orbital decompression or tumor debulking can reduce patient complaints and contribute to improved quality of life. PMID:25397713

Pförtner, R; Mohr, C; Daamen, J; Metz, A

2014-10-01

133

Bound orbits and gravitational theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It can be easily shown that bound orbits around a static source can only exist in four dimensions for any force driven by the Laplace equation. This is true not only for Maxwell’s electromagnetism and Newton’s gravity, but for Einstein’s theory of gravitation as well. In contrast to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and Newton’s gravity, general relativity has a natural and remarkable generalization in higher dimensions in Lovelock gravity. However, it is not Laplace driven and hence admits bound orbits around a static black hole in all even D=2N+2 dimensions, where N is the degree of the Lovelock polynomial action. This is as general a result as Bertrand’s theorem of classical mechanics, in which the existence of closed orbits uniquely singles out the inverse square law for a long-range central force.

Dadhich, Naresh; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Jhingan, Sanjay

2013-12-01

134

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

135

Vertical comb array microactuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical actuator fabricated using a trench-refilled-with-polysilicon (TRiPs) process technology and employing an array of vertical oriented comb electrodes is presented. This actuator structure provides a linear drive to deflection characteristic and a large throw capability which are key features in many sensors, actuators and micromechanisms. The actuation principle and relevant theory is developed, including FastCap simulations for theoretical verification.

Arjun Selvakumar; Khalil Najafi

2003-01-01

136

Mycosis fungoides metastatic to the orbit.  

PubMed

We report a case of mycosis fungoides metastatic to the anterior orbit in an 83-year-old woman. The patient had a history of several years' duration of well-controlled primary mycosis fungoides with localized dermatologic T-cell lymphomas, mainly on the lower extremities. She developed gradual proptosis, hyperophthalmos, and vertical diplopia. Computed tomography demonstrated a solid, extraconal mass in the right lower anterior orbit. Biopsy revealed a gristly, yellowish, infiltrating mass at the level of the inferior orbital septum. Pathologic examination revealed anaplastic T lymphocytes with multiloculated, cerebriform nuclei that matched those of the primary mycosis fungoides skin tumors. Mycosis fungoides rarely spreads to the ocular and periocular structures, and this case was unique in that it presented as a pure orbital lesion with sparing of the overlying lids and adnexal structures. PMID:2025172

Zucker, J L; Doyle, M F

1991-05-01

137

Mars Orbiter Most Likely Lost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an embarrassing setback to NASA, the Mars Climate Orbiter is believed lost. In the early hours of September 23, the orbiter fired its main engine to go in orbit around Mars and passed behind the planet, losing radio contact as planned. However, due to what was most likely a navigation error, the spacecraft did not resume contact and may have flown too close to the atmosphere and broken apart or burned up. The relatively inexpensive ($125 million) Climate Orbiter was launched in December 1998 to become the first interplanetary weather satellite, studying Martian weather for one Mars year (about two Earth years). It was also to serve as a relay station for five years, relaying information to and from the Mars Polar Lander, due to land on December 3, 1999. NASA, however, insists that the Polar Lander's mission can be accomplished independently and "the science return of that mission won't be affected." The sites listed provide information about Mars Climate Orbiter and its possible loss.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

138

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

139

Navigational area of the cranio-orbital foramen and its significance in orbital surgery.  

PubMed

The cranio-orbital foramen (COF) is located on the lateral wall of the orbit. It is a potential source of hemorrhage during deep lateral orbital dissection, since it functions as an anastomosis between the lacrimal artery and the middle meningeal artery. The aim of this study was to guide and facilitate the surgical procedures in the orbit, so as to determine a navigational area and the precise location of the COF and to standardize certain anatomical marks. The navigational area of the COF and topographical features were studied in 75 craniums with presented COF. 33 bilateral main COFs, 41 (18 on the right, 23 on the left) unilateral main COFs at the main cranium and 19 accessory COFs were studied for their navigational features on the orbit. The distances between the COF and the fronto-zygomatic suture, supraorbital notch, lateral angle of the superior orbital fissure (SOF) and Whitnall's tubercle were measured. The mean distance of the COF from the fronto-zygomatic suture, supraorbital notch, lateral angle of the SOF and Whitnall's tubercle was 26.3, 37.3, 92 and 27.1 mm, respectively. For the navigational area signs of the COF, areas of the orbit that form the transversal and vertical lines are generated on the reference points. Whilst the upper outer area of the orbit contains a potential bleeding risk, the bottom section of the outer column is identified as safe for the surgical operations of the lateral orbital wall. The fronto-zygomatic suture and Whitnall's tubercle are recommended as the most reliable navigational landmarks for identifying the COF. Hence, the transversal and vertical orientation of the COF should be mastered by the surgeons reconstructing the anterior base of the skull and the orbit. PMID:24744137

Celik, Servet; Kazak, Zuhal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen

2014-12-01

140

Detail view of the lower portion of the vertical stabilizer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the lower portion of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery. The section below the rudder, often referred to as the "stinger", is used to house the orbiter drag chute assembly. The system consisted of a mortar deployed pilot chute, the main drag chute, a controller assembly and an attach/jettison mechanism. This system was a modification to the original design of the Orbiter Discovery to safely reduce the roll to stop distance without adversely affecting the vehicle handling qualities. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

141

High-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline at the LNLS for the study of charge, orbital and magnetic structures.  

PubMed

A high-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) has been commissioned for the study of crystalline magnetic materials. The beamline optics is based on a Rh-coated vertical-focusing X-ray mirror and a sagittal-focusing double-crystal monochromator. The primary instrument is a six-circle diffractometer equipped with energy and polarization analysers and a closed-cycle He cryostat. The beamline source is a bending magnet of the 1.37 GeV storage ring of the LNLS, delivering approximately 4 x 10(10) photons s(-1) at 8 keV at the sample position. Resonant and non-resonant scattering are the main techniques used to study charge, orbital and magnetic structures. Examples of magnetic scattering in Ho and NiO single crystals, as well as orbital ordering in manganites thin films, are presented. PMID:14551443

Giles, C; Yokaichiya, F; Kycia, S W; Sampaio, L C; Ardiles-Saravia, D C; Franco, M K K; Neuenschwander, R T

2003-11-01

142

Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators  

SciTech Connect

To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

2008-10-01

143

Working With Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers two programs to illustrate how orbits work. The Orbital Elements calculator contains animations to see how the appearance of an orbit depends on the values of the orbital elements which include distance from the Sun, eccentricity, pericenter location and anomaly. This is available in two or three dimensions. The Solar System allows users to watch several planets in our Solar System simultaneously orbit the Sun. An additional object (asteroid or comet) is present and users change the orbital parameters to see what types of orbits are possible for this object.

Douglas Hamilton

144

Vertical axis wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

A vertical wind turbine having vertical blades, each blade being connected intermediate its ends by a hinge to a support arm having a hub that enables the blades to rotate around a vertical axis, a tie wire connected to the blade at positions spaced along the blade from the hinge, said tie wire engaging a spring-loaded pulley disposed inwardly of the blades, the arrangement being such that when the angle of inclination of the blades to the vertical axis alters under the action of centrifugal force the tie wire exerts a force on the pulley opposing the spring force whereby as the turbine speeds up the blades will remain at a predetermined angle of inclination until the force exerted by the wire exceeds the force of the spring. One end of the tie wire can be connected to a position on one blade and connected to another position on another blade so that all of the blades adopt the same angle of inclination to the vertical axis.

Delgado, P.E.; Holmes, B.A.

1981-06-23

145

Orbital fractures: a review  

PubMed Central

This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

2011-01-01

146

Theory of satellite orbit-orbit resonance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of the strong mathematical and physical parallels between orbit-orbit and spin-orbit resonances, the dynamics of mutual orbit perturbations between two satellites about a massive planet are examined, exploiting an approach previously adopted in the study of spin-orbit coupling. Resonances are found to exist when the mean orbital periods are commensurable with respect to some rotating axis, which condition also involves the apsidal and nodal motions of both satellites. In any resonant state the satellites are effectively trapped in separate potential wells, and a single variable is found to describe the simultaneous librations of both satellites. The librations in longitude are 180 deg out-of-phase, with fixed amplitude ratio that depends only on their relative masses and semimajor axes. The theory is applicable to Saturn's resonant pairs Titan-Hyperion and Mimas-Tethys, and in these cases the calculated libration periods are in reasonably good agreement with the observed periods.

Blitzer, L.; Anderson, J. D.

1981-01-01

147

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

Slojkowski, Steven E.

2014-01-01

148

Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

1982-01-01

149

Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

1982-01-01

150

Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.  

PubMed

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

2012-05-01

151

An Orbit And Dispersion Correction Scheme for the PEP II  

SciTech Connect

To achieve optimum luminosity in a storage ring it is vital to control the residual vertical dispersion. In the original PEP storage ring, a scheme to control the residual dispersion function was implemented using the ring orbit as the controlling element. The 'best' orbit not necessarily giving the lowest vertical dispersion. A similar scheme has been implemented in both the on-line control code and in the simulation code LEGO. The method involves finding the response matrices (sensitivity of orbit/dispersion at each Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM) to each orbit corrector) and solving in a least squares sense for minimum orbit, dispersion function or both. The optimum solution is usually a subset of the full least squares solution. A scheme of simultaneously correcting the orbits and dispersion has been implemented in the simulation code and on-line control system for PEP-II. The scheme is based on the eigenvector decomposition method. An important ingredient of the scheme is to choose the optimum eigenvectors that minimize the orbit, dispersion and corrector strength. Simulations indicate this to be a very effective way to control the vertical residual dispersion.

Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Shoaee, H.; White, G.; Yasukawa, L.A.; /SLAC

2011-09-01

152

The properties of close multiple stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reexamination of the properties of close multiple systems is conducted, taking into account recent numerical, analytical, and observational results. The orbital elements of 43 spectroscopic multiple systems are presented in a table. Tables with photometry data of the systems and data describing their properties are also provided. Attention is given to period ratios, mass ratios, orbital coplanarity, stability, lithium abundances and age estimates, and prospects of future observations. Numerical studies indicate that fragmentation produces binary components with mass ratios usually close to 1.0, while fission usually produces mass ratios in the range 0.1-0.5. Using analytical stability criteria, all 27 close multiple systems considered are stable if they are corotating. If they are counter-rotating, four systems are possibly unstable. However, other factors suggest that even these four are probably stable. The solar-type close multiple systems ranged in age from 100 million years to 2,000 million years.

Fekel, F. C., Jr.

1981-01-01

153

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

154

Construction & Therapy Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

Construction & Therapy Vertical Integration Pilot Project Collaboration Partners Department to work with a local population to realize direct construction. Titled Construction & Therapy the studio will be documented and developed as a therapeutic exercise. The production of the welcome building will be delivered

Strathclyde, University of

155

Manned Venus Orbiting Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

Willis, E. A., Jr.

1967-01-01

156

Kramers' Restricted Closed Shell CCSD Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kramers' restricted version of the closed shell coupled cluster singles doubles theory is presented. The theory may be used in conjunction with 2 or 4-component relativistic reference wavefunctions. The intrinsic treatment of the spin-orbit coupling doubles the number of independent quantities (amplitudes and integrals) relative to a spin-independent formalism. The number of operations required to evaluate the equations is four times larger than in the optimal spin-independent closed shell formalism.

Visscher, Lucas; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

157

Orbital dynamics in galaxy mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the favored vacuum energy + cold dark matter (ACDM) cosmology, galaxies form through a hierarchical merging process. Mergers between comparable-mass sys tems are qualitatively different from the ongoing accretion of small objects by much larger ones, in that they can radically transform the nature of the merging objects, e.g. through violent relaxation of the stars and dark matter, triggered starbursts, and quasar activity. This thesis covers two phenomena unique to major galaxy mergers: the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and triple systems, and the transformation of the stellar orbit structure through violent relaxation, triggered gas inflow, and star formation. In a major merger, the SMBHs can spiral in and form a bound binary in less than a Hubble time. If the binary lifetime exceeds the typical time between mergers, then triple black hole (BH) systems may form. We study the statistics of close triple-SMBH encounters in galactic nuclei by computing a series of three-body orbits with physically-motivated initial conditions appropriate for giant elliptical galaxies. Our simulations include a smooth background potential consisting of a stellar bulge plus a dark matter halo, drag forces due to gravitational radiation and dynamical friction on the stars and dark matter, and a simple model of the time evolution of the inner density profile under heating and mass ejection by the SMBHs. We find that the binary pair coalesces as a result of repeated close encounters in ~85% of our runs. In about 40% of the runs the lightest BH is left wandering through the galactic halo or escapes the galaxy altogether. The triple systems typically scour out cores with mass deficits ~1-2 times their total mass. The high coalescence rate and prevalence of very high-eccentricity orbits could provide interesting signals for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Our study of remnant orbit structure involved 42 disk-disk mergers at various gas fractions, and 10 re-mergers of the 40% gas remnants. All simulations were run using a version of GADGET-2 [173] that included subresolution models of radiative cooling, star formation, and supernova and AGN feedback. The potential was frozen at the last snapshot of each simulation and the orbits of ~50,000 randomly chosen stars were integrated for ~100 dynamical times, and classified based on their Fourier spectra using the algorithm of [30]. The 40% gas remnants were found to be dominated by minor-axis tube orbits in their inner regions, whereas box orbits were the dominant orbit family in the inner parts of the dissipationless disk-disk and remnant-remnant systems. The phase space available to minor-axis tube orbits in even the 5% gas remnants was much larger than that in the dissipationless remnants, but the 5% gas remnants are not fast rotators because these orbits tend to be isotropically distributed at low gas fractions. Some of the remnants show significant minor axis rotation, due to large orientation twists in their outer parts (in the 40% gas remnants) and asymmetrically rotating major-axis tube orbits throughout the remnants (in the re-mergers).

Hoffman, Loren

158

Closed-orbit theory for spatial density oscillations  

E-print Network

We briefly review a recently developed semiclassical theory for quantum oscillations in the spatial (particle and kinetic energy) densities of finite fermion systems and present some examples of its results. We then discuss the inclusion of correlations (finite temperatures, pairing correlations) in the semiclassical theory.

Matthias Brack; Jerôme Roccia

2009-11-02

159

Close-Orbiting Exoplanets: Formation, Migration Mechanisms and Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a signal from a putative extra-solar planet around the nearby Sun-like star 51 Peg by Mayor & Queloz and\\u000a the rapid confirmation by Marcy & Butler was the main starting point for the field of extrasolar planets. More than a decade\\u000a later, ‘51 Peg - type planets’ or ‘hot Jupiters’ are frequently discovered and characterised by a

Hugh R. A. Jones; James S. Jenkins; John R. Barnes

160

Linear Optics From Closed Orbits (LOCO): An Introduction  

SciTech Connect

The LOCO code is used to find and correct errors in the linear optics of storage rings. The original FORTRAN code was written to correct the optics of the NSLS X-Ray ring, and was applied soon thereafter to debug problems with the ALS optics. The ideas used in the code were developed from previous work at SLAC. Several years ago, LOCO was rewritten in MATLAB. As described in this newsletter, the MATLAB version includes a user-friendly interface, with many useful fitting and analysis options. LOCO has been used at many accelerators. Presently, a search for LOCO in the text of papers on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website yields 107 papers. A comprehensive survey of applications will not be included here. Details of recent results at a few light sources are included in this newsletter. In the past, the quality of LOCO fitting results varied significantly, depending on the storage ring. In particular, the results were mixed for colliding beam facilities, where there tend to be fewer BPMs that in light sources. Fitting rings with less BPM data to constrain the fit optics parameters often led to unreasonably large fit quadrupole gradient variations. Recently, modifications have been made to the LOCO fitting algorithm which leads to much better results when the BPM data does not tightly constrain the fit parameters. The modifications are described in this newsletter, and an example of results with this new algorithm is included.

Safranek, James; /SLAC

2009-06-18

161

A Closed Form Vectorial Solution to the Relative Orbital Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-explicit solutions for relative Keplerian dynamics are presented for the general case in which the reference trajectory is elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. The non-linear differential equation modeling the motion is solved by means of tensorial and vectorial regularization methods. This regularizing procedure extends the approaches of Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel in the case of Kepler problem in rotating reference frames. The solution generalizes the approximate results obtained from Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire, Lawden and Tschauner-Hempel equations. The approximate solutions derived from the liniarized models are in fact the first linear approximation of the exact solution the authors have found.

Condurache, C.; Martinu?i, V.

2007-05-01

162

Orbit correction in a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, the large natural chromaticity of the machine results in a betatron tune that varies by several integers over the momentum range. Orbit correction is complicated by the consequent variation of the phase advance between lattice elements. Here we investigate how the correction of multiple closed orbit harmonics allows correction of both the closed orbit distortion and the accelerated orbit distortion over the momentum range.

Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Edmonds, C. S.; Kirkman, I. W.; Jones, J. K.; Muratori, B. D.; Garland, J. M.; Berg, J. S.

2014-11-01

163

Lunar orbiting prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

1988-01-01

164

Open field equilibrium current and cross-field passing electrons as an initiator of a closed flux surface in EC-heated toroidal plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the non-inductive initiation of a closed flux surface observed in electron cyclotron (EC) heated toroidal plasmas is presented. First, a pressure-driven equilibrium toroidal current develops under a weak external vertical field so as to counter balance the pressure-ballooning and current-hoop forces. When the self-field from the current almost cancels out the external vertical field, a forward energetic part of electrons in the velocity space begins to make cross-field passing (CFP) orbits. The CFP electrons are generated by the EC heating of bulk electrons and subsequent pitch-angle scattering, which is analyzed using the Fokker-Planck equation. They provide an additional current that closes the field lines. The model is examined for experiments in the small low aspect ratio device of LATE and in the large conventional device of JT-60U with a search for appropriate modes of EC heating. Simultaneous coincidence of the model with these two experiments is obtained in terms of microwave power and driven current. The results predict that initiation of a closed flux surface requires more and more EC power as the plasma major radius increases. In particular, careful injection of high N? EC waves is needed for large devices, both for initiation of a closed flux surface and for subsequent enlargement of the flux surface by the usual EC current drive onto the closed flux area.

Maekawa, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Watanabe, F.; Tanaka, H.

2012-08-01

165

Orbiting Binary Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation demonstrates the path of binary stars' orbit. The user is able to set the masses, orbital separation, orbital eccentricity, the inclination angle to our line of sight, and the angle of the nodes of two orbiting stars. The observed velocities of the two stars, and the Doppler shifted spectral lines are also shown in the upper right box. The site also includes definitions of terms used, instructions on how to use the simulation and a few examples.

Kolena, John

2007-12-11

166

The orbit graph for some finite solvable groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let G be a finite non-abelian solvable group and let ? be the set of all subsets of commuting elements of size two in G. In this paper, we define a graph which is called an orbit graph whose vertices are non-central elements in ?, where two vertices ?1 and ?2 are adjacent in the graph whenever ?1g = ?2, where ?1, ?2 ??, g ?G. In this work, we find the orbit graph for some finite solvable groups where a group acts regularly and by conjugation on a set. Besides, some graph properties are found.

Omer, S. M. S.; Sarmin, N. H.; Erfanian, A.

2014-06-01

167

Studies of Shuttle orbiter arrestment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scale model studies of the Shuttle Orbiter Arrestment System (AS) were completed with a 1/27.5-scale model at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of these studies was to determine the proper configuration for a net arrestment system to bring the orbiter to a safe stop with minimal damage in the event of a runway overrun. Tests were conducted for runway on-centerline and off-centerline engagements at simulated speeds up to approximately 100 knots (full scale). The results of these tests defined the interaction of the net and the orbiter, the dynamics of off-centerline engagements, and the maximum number of vertical net straps that may become entangled with the nose gear. In addition to these tests, a test program with a 1/8-scale model was conducted by the arrestment system contractor, and the results are presented in the appendix.

Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

1993-01-01

168

Hydatid cyst of orbit.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old woman presented with protrusion and diminution of vision of left eye for 3 months. CT scan of orbit revealed an intra-orbital cystic space occupying lesion. Exenteration of the left orbit was done and histopathological examination of the cystic mass proved it to be a case of hydatid cyst. PMID:22480108

Bhaduri, Gautam; Chatterjee, Soumya Swarup; Gayen, Sharmistha; Goswami, Soumik

2011-09-01

169

Five Equivalent d Orbitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

1970-01-01

170

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the mission web site for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which went into orbit around Mars on March 10, 2006. The site provides links to updates and information about the project. The site features links to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter images, animations, and datasets. Science operations commence in November, 2006.

Laboratory, Jet P.; Administration, National A.

171

SEASAT B orbit synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

1976-01-01

172

Bound central orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbits in any central potential are described analytically and new expressions are derived for their periods and precession rates. A simple perturbation theory allows their delineation to any accuracy. Kepler's equation is generalized to such orbits and angle and action variables are given for them. A new property of orbits under inverse fifth power forces is found.

Lynden-Bell, D.

2015-02-01

173

Close supermassive binary black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

Gaskell, C. Martin

2010-01-01

174

Polar Cloud Structure as Derived From the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultation data taken on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at S band (13.06 cm) are used to obtain vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions. Resulting profiles show dense cloud decks at the 1.5- to 4.7-bar level in the Venus atmosphere. The cloud decks are lower in altitude and more

J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi; A. J. Kliore; D. J. McCleese; I. R. Patel

1980-01-01

175

Circular orbits in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

SciTech Connect

The stability under radial and vertical perturbations of circular orbits associated to particles orbiting a spherically symmetric center of attraction is studied in the context of the n-dimensional: the Newtonian theory of gravitation, Einstein's general relativity, and the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravitation. The presence of a cosmological constant is also considered. We find that this constant as well as the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant are crucial to have stability for n>4.

Rosa, Valeria M.; Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-000 Vicosa, M.G. (Brazil); Departamento de Matematica Aplicada-IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, S.P. (Brazil)

2008-10-15

176

Orbits in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This discussion of orbits around the Earth and Sun begins by describing synchronous orbits and then explains how satellites in low orbits encounter atmospheric interference. There is an explanation of how the bulge of the Earth affects the calculation of an Earth orbit. The satellites stationed at the Lagrangian Point L1, ACE and SOHO are discussed along with information on the other Lagrangian points. Finally, there is information about other orbits within our solar system and an explanation of why it is no easy task to get to the Sun.

David Stern

177

Orbital Evolution of Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthetic orbital frequencies and eccentricities of main belt asteroids computed by Knezevic and Milani [2] show evidence that the structure of the asteroid belt has been determined by a dense of web of high-order resonances. By examining the orbital frequency distribution at high resolution, we discover a correlation between asteroid number density, mean orbital eccentricity and Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent. In particular, the orbital eccentricities of asteroids trapped in resonance tend to be higher than those of non-resonant asteroids and we argue that this is observational evidence for orbital evolution due to chaotic diffusion.

Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

2011-10-01

178

Orbit Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

2012-01-01

179

Compound orbits break-up in constituents: an algorithm  

E-print Network

In this paper decomposition of periodic orbits in bifurcation diagrams are derived in unidimensional dynamics system $x_{n+1}=f(x_{n};r)$, being $f$ an unimodal function. We proof a theorem which states the necessary and sufficient conditions for the break-up of compound orbits in their simpler constituents. A corollary to this theorem provides an algorithm for the computation of those orbits. This process closes the theoretical framework initiated in (Physica D, 239:1135--1146, 2010).

Jesús San Martín; A. González Gómez; Ma José Moscoso; Daniel Rodríguez-Pérez

2014-02-24

180

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

Slojkowski, Steven E.

2014-01-01

181

ORBITS AROUND BLACK HOLES IN TRIAXIAL NUCLEI  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the properties of orbits within the influence sphere of a supermassive black hole (BH), in the case that the surrounding star cluster is non-axisymmetric. There are four major orbit families; one of these, the pyramid orbits, have the interesting property that they can approach arbitrarily closely to the BH. We derive the orbit-averaged equations of motion and show that in the limit of weak triaxiality, the pyramid orbits are integrable: the motion consists of a two-dimensional libration of the major axis of the orbit about the short axis of the triaxial figure, with eccentricity varying as a function of the two orientation angles and reaching unity at the corners. Because pyramid orbits occupy the lowest angular momentum regions of phase space, they compete with collisional loss cone repopulation and with resonant relaxation (RR) in supplying matter to BHs. General relativistic advance of the periapse dominates the precession for sufficiently eccentric orbits, and we show that relativity imposes an upper limit to the eccentricity: roughly the value at which the relativistic precession time is equal to the time for torques to change the angular momentum. We argue that this upper limit to the eccentricity should also apply to evolution driven by RR, with potentially important consequences for the rate of extreme-mass-ratio inspirals in low-luminosity galaxies. In giant galaxies, we show that capture of stars on pyramid orbits can dominate the feeding of BHs, at least until such a time as the pyramid orbits are depleted; however this time can be of order a Hubble time.

Merritt, David [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Vasiliev, Eugene, E-mail: merritt@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: eugvas@lpi.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-10

182

GOCE Satellite Orbit in a Computational Aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented work plays an important role in research of possibility of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE) satellite orbit improvement using a combination of satellite to satellite tracking high-low (SST- hl) observations and gravity gradient tensor (GGT) measurements. The orbit improvement process will be started from a computed orbit, which should be close to a reference ("true") orbit as much as possible. To realize this objective, various variants of GOCE orbit were generated by means of the Torun Orbit Processor (TOP) software package. The TOP software is based on the Cowell 8th order numerical integration method. This package computes a satellite orbit in the field of gravitational and non-gravitational forces (including the relativistic and empirical accelerations). The three sets of 1-day orbital arcs were computed using selected geopotential models and additional accelerations generated by the Moon, the Sun, the planets, the Earth and ocean tides, the relativity effects. Selected gravity field models include, among other things, the recent models from the GOCE mission and the models such as EIGEN-6S, EIGEN-5S, EIGEN-51C, ITG-GRACE2010S, EGM2008, EGM96. Each set of 1-day orbital arcs corresponds to the GOCE orbit for arbitrary chosen date. The obtained orbits were compared to the GOCE reference orbits (Precise Science Orbits of the GOCE satellite delivered by the European Space Agency) using the root mean squares (RMS) of the differences between the satellite positions in the computed orbits and in the reference ones. These RMS values are a measure of performance of selected geopotential models in terms of GOCE orbit computation. The RMS values are given for the truncated and whole geopotential models. For the three variants with the best fit to the reference orbits, the empirical acceleration models were added to the satellite motion model. It allowed for further improving the fitting of computed orbits to the reference orbits. A linear and non-linear model of empirical accelerations was used. After using the non-linear model, the RMS values were reduced by the factor from about 2 to 3 compared with the linear model. A general form of the non-linear model of empirical accelerations is shown in this work. This model can be scaled to a given set of dynamical data for orbit determination by estimating of 192 parameters. The comparison between the computed orbits and the reference ones was performed with respect to the inertial reference frame (IRF) at J2000.0 epoch. Thus, the given GOCE reference orbits were transformed from ITRF2005 reference frame into IRF frame. It is shown that the velocity components of GOCE reference orbits must be transformed into IRF frame using the full rotation vector of the Earth. In such a case RMS values reach a level of meters.

Bobojc, Andrzej; Drozyner, Andrzej

2013-04-01

183

Transneptunian orbit computation Jenni Virtanen  

E-print Network

Transneptunian orbit computation Jenni Virtanen Finnish Geodetic Institute Gonzalo Tancredi Observatory Karri Muinonen University of Helsinki We review the orbit computation problem orbital arcs, which are known to be coupled with large uncertainties in orbital elements. Currently

Bernstein, Gary

184

Spinning compact binary dynamics and chameleon orbits  

E-print Network

We analyse the conservative evolution of spinning compact binaries to second post-Newtonian (2PN) order accuracy, with leading order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. As a main result we derive a closed system of first order differential equations in a compact form, for a set of dimensionless variables encompassing both orbital elements and spin angles. These evolutions are constrained by conservation laws holding at 2PN order. As required by the generic theory of constrained dynamical systems we perform a consistency check and prove that the constraints are preserved by the evolution. We apply the formalism to show the existence of chameleon orbits, whose local, orbital parameters evolve from elliptic (in the Newtonian sense) near pericenter, towards hyperbolic at large distances. This behavior is consistent with the picture that General Relativity predicts stronger gravity at short distances than Newtonian theory does.

László Árpád Gergely; Zoltán Keresztes

2014-11-14

185

Spinning compact binary dynamics and chameleon orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the conservative evolution of spinning compact binaries to second post-Newtonian (2PN) order accuracy, with leading-order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. As a main result we derive a closed system of first-order differential equations in a compact form, for a set of dimensionless variables encompassing both orbital elements and spin angles. These evolutions are constrained by conservation laws holding at 2PN order. As required by the generic theory of constrained dynamical systems we perform a consistency check and prove that the constraints are preserved by the evolution. We apply the formalism to show the existence of chameleon orbits, whose local, orbital parameters evolve from elliptic (in the Newtonian sense) near pericenter, towards hyperbolic at large distances. This behavior is consistent with the picture that general relativity predicts stronger gravity at short distances than Newtonian theory does.

Gergely, László Árpád; Keresztes, Zoltán

2015-01-01

186

Potential of elliptic orbits for theatre observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intuitive interest of elliptic orbit is to enable low altitude flight with much less orbit decay constraints since the atmospheric drag occurs during the limited duration of perigee, and therefore to enable higher resolution capabilities within a given instrument and satellite format. A factor greater than 2 can be foreseen with respect to the lowest usual circular orbits. The working restriction to perigee leads to coverage limitation within a latitude window of 30°. This is not a fundamental obstacle since there are (will be) in the world several regional concentrations of needs for high-resolution civilian or military surveillance. For the only goal of high resolution near the vertical of the satellite, the elliptic has no equivalent, but under given coverage and revisit constraint the circular orbit reduces the need for off-nadir steering and the resulting degradation of (optical) resolution with respect to vertical. Therefore, the purpose of this preliminary study is, through comparison of elliptical and circular orbit at an unusually low altitude, to identify more precisely the application domain of elliptical. This is based on existing formats of satellite designed to fly above the usual altitude floor (500 km) and therefore according to limited mass extension (˜10%) to accommodate the extra ? V and propulsion needs for flying lower than usual. Emphasis is given to the microsatellite format. Electrical and chemical solutions are compared as well as different satellite configurations with respect to the matter of solar array drag. It comes up that the elliptic orbits can be very efficient solutions when the needs are geographically concentrated ( 1000 km circle) permanently or for several weeks or months, what corresponds to the usual definition of theatre with military, civilian (e.g.: catastrophe) understanding. This needs to select an orbit cycle of one day locked on the theatre. The theatre location can be moved to any longitude within one or few weeks (depending on propulsion choices). One can imagine scenarios with constellations of satellites on circular orbits giving the global coverage, plus one or few extra satellites able through some modifications/adaptations and placement on elliptical orbits to drastically upgrade both the resolution and the revisit on one or several theatres with tuneable locations within a fixed 30° latitude zone.

Aguttes, J.-P.; Fernandez, N.; Foliard, J.

2004-08-01

187

Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

188

Orbits and Interiors of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

Batygin, Konstantin

2012-05-01

189

Toroidal path filter for orbital conjunction screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For satellite conjunction prediction containing many objects, timely processing can be a concern. Various filters are used to identify orbiting pairs that cannot come close enough over a prescribed time period to be considered hazardous. Such pairings can then be eliminated from further computation to quicken the overall processing time. One such filter is the orbit path filter (also known as the geometric pre-filter), designed to eliminate pairs of objects based on characteristics of orbital motion. The goal of this filter is to eliminate pairings where the distance (geometry) between their orbits remains above some user-defined threshold, irrespective of the actual locations of the satellites along their paths. Rather than using a single distance bound, this work presents a toroid approach, providing a measure of versatility by allowing the user to specify different in-plane and out-of-plane bounds for the path filter. The primary orbit is used to define a focus-centered elliptical ring torus with user-defined thresholds. An assessment is then made to determine if the secondary orbit can touch or penetrate this torus. The method detailed here can be used on coplanar, as well as non-coplanar, orbits.

Alfano, Salvatore

2012-07-01

190

Short- and long-term vertical diplopia secondary to blunt trauma.  

PubMed

This report describes the short- and long-term ocular signs and symptoms of a patient with an orbital blow-out fracture and discusses the differential diagnosis of vertical diplopia. A blow-out fracture occurs when blunt trauma is applied either directly to the eyeball itself or the orbital rim and usually results in a fracture of the orbital floor with consequential excavation and entrapment of orbital contents in the fracture. Vertical diplopia is a common presenting symptom for a blow-out fracture of the orbit but careful considerations should be given to other potential conditions leading to such diplopia. A patient is presented who suffered a blow-out fracture almost a decade earlier, secondary to blunt trauma to the globe. The clinical findings are provided immediately after the trauma, post-surgery and during a recent ocular examination. PMID:17958569

Turnbull, Philip R K; Vingrys, Algis J; Kalloniatis, Michael

2007-11-01

191

Jupiter orbiter lifetime: The hazard of Galilean satellite collision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter present a long-term collision hazard to an uncontrolled orbiting spacecraft that repeatedly enters the spatial region occupied by the satellites. Satellite close encounters and the likelihood of collision over a wide range of initial orbit conditions were analyzed. The effect of orbit inclination was of key interest. The scope of the analysis was restricted to orbital dynamic considerations alone, i.e. the question of biological contamination given the event of collision was not considered. A quarantine or orbiter lifetime of 50 years was assumed. This time period begins at spacecraft shutdown following completion of the mission objectives. A numerical approach was adopted wherein each initial orbit is propagated for 50 years, and satellite closest encounter distances recorded on every revolution. The computer program includes approximations of the three major perturbation effects on the long-term motion of the orbiter: (1) Jupiter oblateness, (2) solar gravity, and (3) satellite gravity.

Friedlander, A. L.

1975-01-01

192

Optimization of the Helical Orbits in the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

To avoid multiple head-on collisions the proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron move along separate helical orbits created by 7 horizontal and 8 vertical electrostatic separators. Still the residual long-range beam-beam interactions can adversely affect particle motion at all stages from injection to collision. With increased intensity of the beams it became necessary to modify the orbits in order to mitigate the beam-beam effect on both antiprotons and protons. This report summarizes the work done on optimization of the Tevatron helical orbits, outlines the applied criteria and presents the achieved results.

Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

193

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

194

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

195

Vertical slender jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shape of a vertical slender jet of fluid falling steadily under the force of gravity is studied. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear free boundary-value problem for the potential. Surface tension effects are neglected. The use of perturbation expansions results in a system of equations that can be solved by an efficient numerical procedure. Computations were made for jets issuing from orifices in various shapes including an ellipse, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle. Computational results are presented illustrating the propagation of discontinuities and the formation of thin sheets of fluid.

Geer, J. F.; Strikwerda, J. C.

1980-01-01

196

Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

2011-01-01

197

Satellite orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historic account of the activities of the Satellite OD Group during the MM'71 mission is given along with an assessment of the accuracy of the determined orbit of the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Preflight study results are reviewed, and the major error sources described. Tracking and data fitting strategy actually used in the real time operations is itemized, and Deep Space Network data available for orbit fitting during the mission and the auxiliary information used by the navigation team are described. A detailed orbit fitting history of the first four revolutions of the satellite orbit of Mariner 9 is presented, with emphasis on the convergence problems and the delivered solution for the first orbit trim maneuver. Also included are a solution accuracy summary, the history of the spacecraft orbit osculating elements, the results of verifying the radio solutions with TV imaging data, and a summary of the normal points generated for the relativity experiment.

Jordan, J. F.; Boggs, D. H.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Ferrari, A. J.; Green, D. W.; Hylkema, R. K.; Mohan, S. N.; Reinbold, S. J.; Sievers, G. L.

1973-01-01

198

Statistics of close approaches between asteroids and planets - Project Spaceguard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base of close approaches to the major planets has been generated via numerical integrations for a large number of planet-crossing asteroid orbits over the course of 200,000 yr; these data are then applied to such statistical theories as those of Kessler (1981) and Wetherill (1967). Attention is given to the orbits of the Toro-class asteroids, which violate the assumption of a lack of mean motion resonance locking between target planet and asteroid. A modified form of the Kessler theory is proposed which can address the problem of approaches between orbits that are either nearly coplanar or nearly tangent. A correlation analysis is used to test the assumption that the orbital elements of a planet-crossing orbit change solely due to close approaches.

Milani, A.; Carpino, M.; Marzari, F.

1990-01-01

199

Determination of orbital parameters of interacting galaxies using a genetic algorithm. Description of the method and application to artificial data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the orbital parameters of interacting pairs of galaxies is presented and evaluated using artificial data. The method consists of a genetic algorithm which can search efficiently through the very large space of possible orbits. It is found that orbital parameters close to the actual orbital parameters of the pair can in general be found, even in

M. Wahde

1998-01-01

200

48The Grail and LRO Spacecraft Encounters in Lunar Orbit On May 31, 2012 the Grail `Ebb'  

E-print Network

' of light as it passes by. Note: Explore the encounter by using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System orbit48The Grail and LRO Spacecraft Encounters in Lunar Orbit On May 31, 2012 the Grail `Ebb' spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnissance Orbiter (LRO) will come very close to each other in their orbits around the moon

Christian, Eric

201

Orbital varix thrombosis: a rare cause of unilateral proptosis  

PubMed Central

Orbital varices are thin walled, low flow, distensible veins which may rarely present with periorbital pain, proptosis or visual loss. Most orbital varices may be managed conservatively and only warrant surgery in the presence of recurrent thrombosis, disfiguring proptosis or acute visual loss. This report concerns an 84-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted following a fall and noted to have isolated proptosis of the right eye, with vertical diplopia. All biochemical and haematological investigations were normal. A CT scan of the orbits demonstrated a serpiginous soft tissue mass within the superior portion of the right orbit, consistent with a thrombosed orbital varix. Conservative management was agreed with prism glasses and ophthalmological follow-up. PMID:23355578

Wade, Ryckie George; Maddock, Thomas B; Ananth, Srinivasan

2013-01-01

202

Orbital varix thrombosis: a rare cause of unilateral proptosis.  

PubMed

Orbital varices are thin walled, low flow, distensible veins which may rarely present with periorbital pain, proptosis or visual loss. Most orbital varices may be managed conservatively and only warrant surgery in the presence of recurrent thrombosis, disfiguring proptosis or acute visual loss. This report concerns an 84-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted following a fall and noted to have isolated proptosis of the right eye, with vertical diplopia. All biochemical and haematological investigations were normal. A CT scan of the orbits demonstrated a serpiginous soft tissue mass within the superior portion of the right orbit, consistent with a thrombosed orbital varix. Conservative management was agreed with prism glasses and ophthalmological follow-up. PMID:23355578

Wade, Ryckie George; Maddock, Thomas B; Ananth, Srinivasan

2013-01-01

203

Orbital myositis complicating sinusitis  

PubMed Central

Orbital myositis is a common cause of extraocular muscle enlargement. It is characterized by nonspecific inflammation of one or more extraocular muscles. Although often idiopathic in origin, orbital myositis has been associated with various noninfectious diseases. Several cases have also been reported as occurring after upper respiratory tract infections. The present report describes a case of orbital myositis together with subclinical sinusitis and its rapid resolution after antibiotic treatment. The literature on this clinical entity is also reviewed. PMID:18159317

Dylewski, Joe S; Drummond, Robert; Townsend, Tiffany

2001-01-01

204

Temporary Changes in the Selected Accelerations and Orbital Elements for the GOCE Satellite Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work contains the results of the GOCE satellite orbit simulation. The GOCE satellite orbit was presented by the temporary changes in selected accelerations and in selected orbital elements. The satellite accelerations due to: the geopotential, the Earth tides and the ocean tides (the radial component for both), the gravitation of the Moon, the gravitation of the Sun, the gravitation of the Venus and the relativity effects, are given. The showed changes in orbital elements include the semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, argument of perigee and right ascension of ascending node. Additionally, the changes in the satellite altitude were presented. For the orbit determination the Cowell numerical integration of the eighth order was used. In order to obtain the GOCE satellite orbit, the geopotential was described by means of the EGM96 model. The mentioned temporary changes in the selected accelerations and orbital elements were described. Most of them contain the characteristic periodic components, which are close to the satellite orbital period, the Earth's rotation period and the Moon's synodic period.

Boboj?, Andrzej

205

Flight Mechanics of Manned SubOrbital Reusable Launch Vehicles with Recommendations for Launch and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of every significant method of launch and recovery for manned sub-orbital Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) is presented here. We have categorized launch methods as vertical takeoff, horizontal takeoff, and air launch. Recovery methods are categorized as wings, aerodynamic decelerators, rockets, and rotors. We conclude that both vertical takeoff and some air launch methods are viable means of attaining

Marti Sarigul-Klijn; Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn

206

Planet-C: Venus Climate Orbiter mission of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Climate Orbiter mission (PLANET-C), one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four cameras at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, detecting lightning with a high-speed imager, and observing the vertical structure of the atmosphere with radio science

Masato Nakamura; Takeshi Imamura; Munetaka Ueno; Naomoto Iwagami; Takehiko Satoh; Shigeto Watanabe; Makoto Taguchi; Yukihiro Takahashi; Makoto Suzuki; Takumi Abe; George L. Hashimoto; Takeshi Sakanoi; Shoichi Okano; Yasumasa Kasaba; Jun Yoshida; Manabu Yamada; Nobuaki Ishii; Takahiro Yamada; Kazunori Uemizu; Tetsuya Fukuhara; Koh-Ichiro Oyama

2007-01-01

207

Family of Orbiters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.

All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.

Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

2008-01-01

208

Closeup view looking forward along the centerline of the Orbiter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view looking forward along the centerline of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay. This view is a close-up view of the external airlock and the beam-truss attach structure supporting it and attaching it to the payload bay sill longerons. Also note the protective covering over the docking mechanism on top of the airlock assembly. This external airlock configuration was for mating to the International Space Station. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Cente - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

209

Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings  

E-print Network

Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings Ali Reza The Fibonacci cube #n is obtained from the n­cube Qn by removing all the vertices that contain two consecutive 1 of orbits of each size, are determined for the Fibonacci cubes and the Lucas cubes under the action

Klavzar, Sandi

210

Orbital Evolution of Planetesimals due to the Galactic Tide: Formation of the Comet Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the orbital evolution of planetesimals perturbed by the Galactic tide using analytical expressions. We consider the vertical component of the tidal force from the Galactic disk. The Galactic tide increases or decreases the perihelia and randomizes the inclination of planetesimals with large aphelion distances. We applied the analytical solutions to the orbital evolution of planetesimals that form

A. Higuchi; E. Kokubo; H. Kinoshita; T. Mukai

2007-01-01

211

ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

212

Pioneer Venus orbiter electron temperature probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document lists the scientific accomplishments of the Orbiter Electron Temperature Probe (OETP) group. The OETP instrument was fabricated in 1976, integrated into the PVO spacecraft in 1977, and placed in orbit about Venus in December 1978. The instrument operated flawlessly for nearly 14 years until PVO was lost as it entered the Venusian atmosphere in October 1992. The OETP group worked closely with other PVO investigators to examine the Venus ionosphere and its interactions with the solar wind. After the mission was completed we continued to work with the scientist selected for the Venus Data Analysis Program (VDAP), and this is currently leading to additional publications.

Brace, Larry H.

1994-01-01

213

Orbital Evolution of Jupiter-Family Comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the evolution for periods of at least 5-10 Myr of 2500 Jupiter-crossing objects (JCOs) under the gravitational influence of all planets, except for Mercury and Pluto (without dissipative factors). In the first series we considered N=2000 orbits near the orbits of 30 real Jupiter-family comets with period less than 10 yr, and in the second series we took 500 orbits close to the orbit of Comet 10P Tempel 2. We calculated the probabilities of collisions of objects with the terrestrial planets, using orbital elements obtained with a step equal to 500 yr and then summarized the results for all time intervals and all bodies, obtaining the total probability P(sub sigma) of collisions with a planet and the total time interval T(sub sigma) during which perihelion distance of bodies was less than a semimajor axis of the planet. The values of P = 10(exp 6)P(sub sigma)/N and T = T(sub sigma)/1000 yr are presented in Table together with the ratio r of the total time interval when orbits were of Apollo type (at e less than 0.999) to that of Amor type.

Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. S.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

214

Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

2001-01-01

215

Orbital trapdoor fractures  

PubMed Central

Orbital trapdoor fractures are commonly encountered in children. Awareness of trapdoor fractures is of particular importance. This is because early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent permanent motility abnormities. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of orbital fractures. The clinical and radiographic features of trapdoor fractures will then be reviewed, followed by a discussion on their proper management. PMID:23961006

Phan, Laura T.; Jordan Piluek, W.; McCulley, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

216

Orbits R Us!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site introduces the principle of geosynchronous orbits and geostationary weather satellites in non-technical terms. Several animations show how they work. The GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) satellite programs at NASA and NOAA are briefly explained.

217

Idiopathic orbital myositis mimicking orbital cellulitis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic orbital myositis (IOM) is a subtype of orbital inflammatory disease characterized by primarily involving the extraocular muscle. The signs and symptoms of IOM may also be seen in such processes as orbital cellulitis, primary or metastatic orbital neoplasm, carotid-cavernous fistulae, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and thyroid eye disease, and because there is no pathognomonic sign, symptoms, laboratory test, or radiologic findings, its diagnosis is often provisional. In our case, diagnosis of IOM was more difficult because our patient presented with proptosis after alloplastic implant insertion in the blow-out fracture. After considering radiologic and physical findings, we concluded that cellulitis was more likely as initial diagnosis. To remove foreign body or pus, surgical exploration was done, but intraoperative findings did not show any pus or sign of infection but diffuse enlargement and swelling of inferior rectus muscle. The diagnosis was confirmed as IOM, and the patient was treated with systemic corticosteroid. Although proptosis after alloplastic insertion in blow-out fracture is usually a sign of cellulitis, this case illustrates that it may also occur in patients with IOM. PMID:20485087

Kim, Dong Seok; Lee, Jung Ho; Oh, Deuk Young; Seo, Je Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Rhie, Jong Won

2010-05-01

218

Moon Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Orbiter III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hidden or dark side of the Moon was taken by Lunar Orbiter III During its mission to photograph potential lunar-landing sites for Apollo missions. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 94), by James Schultz.

1967-01-01

219

STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

1992-01-01

220

Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. PMID:24534003

Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

2014-04-01

221

Mars Climate Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.

1998-01-01

222

Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

2007-01-01

223

Orbital Debris Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

2014-01-01

224

Hydrogen atom in a magnetic field: Ghost orbits, catastrophes, and uniform semiclassical approximations  

SciTech Connect

Applying closed-orbit theory to the recurrence spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, one can interpret most, but not all, structures semiclassically in terms of closed classical orbits. In particular, conventional closed-orbit theory fails near bifurcations of orbits where semiclassical amplitudes exhibit unphysical divergences. Here we analyze the role of ghost orbits living in complex phase space. The ghosts can explain resonance structures in the spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field at positions where no real orbits exist. For three different types of catastrophes, viz. fold, cusp, and butterfly catastrophes, we construct uniform semiclassical approximations and demonstrate that these solutions are completely determined by classical parameters of the real orbits and complex ghosts. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Main, J.; Wunner, G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

1997-03-01

225

Design and Fabrication of a Vertical Pump Multiphase Flow Loop  

E-print Network

design has been developed to address this issue. This has been named the Multi-Vane Pump, (MVP). The MVP is a development of the Electric Submersible Pump (ESP), which is a vertical centrifugal pump with a self-contained, close coupled electric motor...

Kirkland, Klayton 1965-

2012-08-24

226

FAST DIGITAL ORBIT FEEDBACK SYSTEMS AT NSLS.  

SciTech Connect

We are implementing digital orbit feedback systems to replace the analog ones in both the VUV and the X-ray rings. We developed an original VME-based design which is run by a powerful Motorola 2305 CPU and consists entirely of off-the-shelf VME boards. This makes the system inexpensive and easy to configure, and allows for high digitizing rates. The new 5 kHz digital global feedback system is currently operational in the VUV ring, and the X-ray system is in the commissioning phase. Some of the parameters achieved include vertical correction bandwidth of 200 Hz (at DC gain of 100) and typical orbit drift over a fill of <3% of the rms beam size. In this paper we discuss the system architecture, implementation and performance.

PODOBEDOV,B.; KUSHNER,B.; RAMAMOORTHY,S.; TANG,Y.; ZITVOGEL,E.

2001-06-18

227

The orbital record in stratigraphy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity, and (2) presence of abundant microfossils yields close ties to geochronology. A tantalizing possibility that stratigraphy may yield a record of orbital signals unrelated to climate has turned up in magnetic studies of our Cretaceous core. Magnetic secular variations here carry a strong 39 ka periodicity, corresponding to the theoretical obliquity period of that time - Does the obliquity cycle perhaps have some direct influence on the magnetic field?

Fischer, Alfred G.

1992-01-01

228

Vertically reciprocating auger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

1988-01-01

229

Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

1990-01-01

230

Visualization of atom's orbits.  

PubMed

High-resolution imaging techniques have been used to obtain views of internal shapes of single atoms or columns of atoms. This review article focuses on the visualization of internal atomic structures such as the configurations of electron orbits confined to atoms. This is accomplished by applying visualization techniques to the reported images of atoms or molecules as well as static and dynamic ions in a plasma. It was found that the photon and electron energies provide macroscopic and microscopic views of the orbit structures of atoms, respectively. The laser-imaged atoms showed a rugged orbit structure, containing alternating dark and bright orbits believed to be the pathways for an externally supplied laser energy and internally excited electron energy, respectively. By contrast, the atoms taken by the electron microscopy provided a structure of fine electron orbits, systematically formed in increasing order of grayscale representing the energy state of an orbit. This structure was identical to those of the plasma ions. The visualized electronic structures played a critical role in clarifying vague postulates made in the Bohr model. Main features proposed in the atomic model are the dynamic orbits absorbing an externally supplied electromagnetic energy, electron emission from them while accompanying light radiation, and frequency of electron waves not light. The light-accompanying electrons and ionic speckles induced by laser light signify that light is composed of electrons and ions. PMID:24749452

Kim, Byungwhan

2014-02-01

231

The Gains from Vertical Scaling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

2013-01-01

232

Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

Briggs, Derek C.

2013-01-01

233

Vertical axis wind turbine motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind power conversion turbine motor has a body supported to rotate about a vertical axis and carrying a plurality of substantially upright vanes substantially spaced from the vertical axis and circumferentially spaced from one another so that wind thrusting propulsively against outer sides of the vanes can move across the space circumscribed by the vanes and thrust propulsively against

Rumsey

1977-01-01

234

Modeling Verticality Estimation During Locomotion  

E-print Network

for gravitational vertical estimation is introduced including an inclinometer combined with an imu, as proposed´eal, Qc, Canada 3 Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Coll`ege de France, Paris, France Abstract Estimation of the gravitational vertical is a fundamental problem faced by locomoting

Hayward, Vincent

235

External Resource: What is orbit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 5-8 NASA Education reference answering the question, " What is orbit?" Topics include: satellite, ecliptic plane, perigee, apogee, escape velocity, geosynchronous, polar orbits, and low Earth orbit.

1900-01-01

236

Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

2010-01-01

237

Removal of orbital debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The several methods presently identified for the reduction of orbital debris populations are broadly classifiable as either preventive or remedial, and fall within distinctive operational regimes. For all particles, (1) in the 250-2000-km altitude band, intelligent sweepers may be used; (2) for large objects, in the 80-250-km altitude band, orbital decay renders removal impractical; (3) for the 250-750-km altitude band, deorbit devices should be used; (4) for 750-2500-km altitude, OMV rendezvous for propulsive deorbit package attachment is foreseeable; and beyond 2500 km, (5) propulsive escape from earth orbit is required.

Petro, Andrew J.; Talent, David L.

1989-01-01

238

Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how orbits are created by a force pulling toward the center in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a paper model of a Space Shuttle. This activity simulates an object in orbit. A paper Space Shuttle is swung in a circle on a string. The string provides a pull toward the center of the orbit, simulating the force of gravity. The four-page PDF guide includes suggested background readings for educators, activity notes, and step-by-step directions with suggested discussion questions for older students.

239

Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual libration point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous libration point missions (ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) -3, SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard range and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using seaboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN (Deep Space Network), missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.

Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

240

Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual notation point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous notation point missions (ISEE-3, SOHO, ACE and MAP) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard marine and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using onboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN, missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.

Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

241

Requirements report for SSTO vertical take-off and horizontal landing vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the detailed design requirements and design criteria to support Structures/TPS Technology development for SSTO winged vehicle configurations that use vertical take-off and horizontal landing and delivers 25,000 lb payloads to a 220 nm circular orbit at an inclination of 51.6 degrees or 40,000 lb payloads to a 150 nm circular orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination.

Greenberg, H. S.

1994-01-01

242

Altimetry, Orbits and Tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.

Colombo, O. L.

1984-01-01

243

Habitability study shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

1973-01-01

244

Imaging in orbital trauma  

PubMed Central

Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

Lin, Ken Y.; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C.; Tao, Jeremiah P.

2012-01-01

245

Orbiter thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.

Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.

1985-01-01

246

Orbit Physlet Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Danish Website for Interactive Science Education. Html pages in this directory contain scripts that were written by Morten Brydensholt and coworkers for the Orbit website. This commercial website is in Danish. This site provides English translations of this material.

Wolfgang Christian

247

Optical orbital debris spotter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of man-made debris objects orbiting the Earth, or orbital debris, is alarmingly increasing, resulting in the increased probability of degradation, damage, or destruction of operating spacecraft. In part, small objects (<10 cm) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are of concern because they are abundant and difficult to track or even to detect on a routine basis. Due to the increasing debris population it is reasonable to assume that improved capabilities for on-orbit damage attribution, in addition to increased capabilities to detect and track small objects are needed. Here we present a sensor concept to detect small debris with sizes between approximately 1.0 and 0.01 cm in the vicinity of a host spacecraft for near real time damage attribution and characterization of dense debris fields and potentially to provide additional data to existing debris models.

Englert, Christoph R.; Bays, J. Timothy; Marr, Kenneth D.; Brown, Charles M.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Finne, Theodore T.

2014-11-01

248

Imaging in orbital trauma.  

PubMed

Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

Lin, Ken Y; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C; Tao, Jeremiah P

2012-10-01

249

Tethered orbital refueling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major applications of the space station will be to act as a refueling depot for cryogenic-fueled space-based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), Earth-storable fueled orbit maneuvering vehicles, and refurbishable satellite spacecraft using hydrazine. One alternative for fuel storage at the space station is a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF), separated from the space station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient force that settles the stored fuels. The technical feasibility was examined with the primary focus on the refueling of LO2/LH2 orbital transfer vehicles. Also examined was the tethered facility on the space station. It was compared to a zero-gravity facility. A tethered refueling facility should be considered as a viable alternative to a zero-gravity facility if the zero-gravity fluid transfer technology, such as the propellant management device and no vent fill, proves to be difficult to develop with the required performance.

Fester, Dale A.; Rudolph, L. Kevin; Kiefel, Erlinda R.; Abbott, Peter W.; Grossrode, Pat

1986-01-01

250

Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

1989-01-01

251

Space: Orbiting the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students solve various problems related to John Glenn's first ride into space, and complete calculations involving velocity, distance and time. Then they calculate the height a satellite would need to be to keep to a geosynchronous orbit.

2010-01-01

252

Orbiter entry aerothermodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The challenge in the definition of the entry aerothermodynamic environment arising from the challenge of a reliable and reusable Orbiter is reviewed in light of the existing technology. Select problems pertinent to the orbiter development are discussed with reference to comprehensive treatments. These problems include boundary layer transition, leeward-side heating, shock/shock interaction scaling, tile gap heating, and nonequilibrium effects such as surface catalysis. Sample measurements obtained from test flights of the Orbiter are presented with comparison to preflight expectations. Numerical and wind tunnel simulations gave efficient information for defining the entry environment and an adequate level of preflight confidence. The high quality flight data provide an opportunity to refine the operational capability of the orbiter and serve as a benchmark both for the development of aerothermodynamic technology and for use in meeting future entry heating challenges.

Ried, R. C.

1985-01-01

253

Ulysses orbit determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ulysses mission ESA spacecraft with ESA and NASA experiments explores the polar regions of the sun by sending a spacecraft on a trajectory out of the ecliptic after a Jupiter flyby. After correcting for launch errors and refining the aimpoint, orbit determination results show the change and general improvement in the Jupiter arrival point. Orbit determination results are further discussed, and future plans are mentioned.

Gordon, H. J.; Luthey, J. L.; McElrath, T. P.; Menon, P. R.

1992-08-01

254

A tapestry of orbits  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the author describes how orbital research developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the earth and its atmosphere. King-Hele relates a personal account of this research based on analysis of satellite orbits between 1957 and 1990 conducted from the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough England. The early research methods used before the launch of Sputnik in 1957 are discussed.

King-Hele, D.

1992-01-01

255

Orbits of 6 Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the orbits of binaries WDS 10093+2020 = A 2145, WDS 21074-0814 = BU 368 AB and WDS 22288-0001 = STF 2909 AB are recalculated because of significant deviations of more recent observations from the ephemerides. For binaries WDS 22384-0754 = A 2695, WDS 23474-7118 = FIN 375 Aa and WDS 23578+2508 = McA 76 the orbital elements are calculated for the first time.

Olevic, D.; Cvetkovic, Z.

256

Pediatric Orbital Fractures  

PubMed Central

It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

2013-01-01

257

Orbital Evolution and Chaos Among the Inner Moons of Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranus has a family of thirteen satellites orbiting interior to the innermost classical moon, Miranda. Nine of these comprise the Portia group, a closely-packed dynamical system that has recently been found to show significant orbital variations over time scales of 1-2 decades. This result supports inferences that the system is chaotic, with collisions expected over time scales of less than one million years. No analogous orbital system has been seen elsewhere in the Solar System. With these new results, it becomes much more important to understand the orbital history of the inner moons of Uranus. The HST archive contains numerous detections of these moons, from WFPC2, NICMOS and ACS, that have never been used for orbital determinations. Many observations fill a gap between 1994 and 2003, during which the orbits have never been measured. This is a proposal to use all the available data from the HST archive to derive the orbital variations of the larger moons in the Portia group from 1994 to 2005. This investigation will provide unique new information about the time scales over which the variations occur and the nature of the hypothesized chaos. For example, this study will enable us to test the prediction that the two adjacent moons Cressida and Desdemona have closely coupled variations, and it may reveal whether the surprisingly large orbital deviations of Belinda are related to its resonance with the nearby, but much smaller moon Perdita.

Showalter, Mark

2006-07-01

258

Propulsion evaluation for orbit-on-demand vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future earth-to-orbit vehicles may be required to reach orbit within hours or even minutes of a decision. A study has been conducted to consider vehicles with such a capability. In Phase I of the study, 11 vehicles were designed to deploy 5000 lb to a polar orbit. Changes in the designs were examined parametrically for increased on-orbit maneuvers, increased payload, and other mission variations. Based on the results, two concepts were selected for Phase II design work: a vertical-takeoff, two-stage system and a horizontal-takeoff, two-stage system with an airbreathing subsonic first stage. The results of several propulsion evaluations are presented, including liftoff thrust-to-weight effects, dual-fuel propulsion for a horizontal-takeoff concept, and the effect of using fluorine.

Martin, J. A.; Naftel, J. C.; Turriziani, R. V.

1985-01-01

259

Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Can you see any hint of the Orbiter Discovery? It is in there. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

260

Definition of molecular orbitals in fragment molecular orbital method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an explicit definition of molecular orbitals in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. We evaluated the accuracy of this method by using a conventional MO method and the FMO method to compare the calculated molecular orbitals and their orbital energies for four poly glycine molecules. These comparisons show that the molecular orbitals and their orbital energies calculated with the FMO method are within about 1% difference of those calculated with the conventional method. Therefore, the molecular orbitals calculated with the FMO method can be used for accurate calculations of chemical properties of large molecules.

Inadomi, Yuichi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Kitaura, Kazuo; Nagashima, Umpei

2002-09-01

261

Mars Geoscience Orbiter and Lunar Geoscience Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using the AE/DE Earth orbiting spacecraft design for the LGO and/or MGO missions was determined. Configurations were developed and subsystems analysis was carried out to optimize the suitability of the spacecraft to the missions. The primary conclusion is that the basic AE/DE spacecraft can readily be applied to the LGO mission with relatively minor, low risk modifications. The MGO mission poses a somewhat more complex problem, primarily due to the overall maneuvering hydrazine budget and power requirements of the sensors and their desired duty cycle. These considerations dictate a modification (scaling up) of the structure to support mission requirements.

Fuldner, W. V.; Kaskiewicz, P. F.

1983-01-01

262

Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. It appears the Orbiter is in the roll out / launch pad configuration. A protective cover is over the Rotational Hand Controller to protect it during the commander's ingress. Most notable in this view are the Speed Brake/Thrust Controller in the center right in this view and the Translational Hand Controller in the center top of the view. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

263

The orbits in cancer imaging  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant lesions in the orbit are relatively uncommon. However, the orbits are frequently involved in haematogeneous metastasis or by direct extension from malignancies originating from the adjacent nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. This paper focuses on the more commonly encountered primary orbital malignancies and the mapping of tumour spread into the orbits. PMID:17114076

Chong, V F H

2006-01-01

264

Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have recently stimulated significant research interest to achieve better material functionality or multifunctionalities. In VAN thin films, both phases grow epitaxially in parallel on given...

Bi, Zhenxing

2012-07-16

265

Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

2014-10-01

266

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

267

Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

2005-01-01

268

Tidal evolution in close binary systems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical outline of the theory of tidal evolution in close binary systems of secularly constant total momentum. Following a general outline of the problem the basic expressions for the energy and momenta of close binaries consisting of components of arbitrary internal structure are established, and the maximum and minimum values of the energy (kinetic and potential) which such systems can attain for a given amount of total momentum are investigated. These results are compared with the actual facts encountered in binaries with components whose internal structure (and, therefore, rotational momenta) are known from evidence furnished by the observed rates of apsidal advance. The results show that all such systems whether of detached or semidetached type - disclose that more than 99% of their total momenta are stored in the orbital momentum. The sum of the rotational momenta of the constituent components amounts to less than 1% of the total -a situation characteristic of a state close to the minimum energy for given total momentum.

Kopal, Z.

1972-01-01

269

Sedna Orbit Comparisons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These four panels show the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' which lies in the farthest reaches of our solar system. Each panel, moving counterclockwise from the upper left, successively zooms out to place Sedna in context. The first panel shows the orbits of the inner planets, including Earth, and the asteroid belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter. In the second panel, Sedna is shown well outside the orbits of the outer planets and the more distant Kuiper Belt objects. Sedna's full orbit is illustrated in the third panel along with the object's current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. The final panel zooms out much farther, showing that even this large elliptical orbit falls inside what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

2004-01-01

270

Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

Eberhardt, Ralph N.

1989-01-01

271

Management of orbital tumors.  

PubMed

Orbital tumors are uncommon. In children, both malignant and benign causes of orbital proptosis necessitate urgent assessment; in many cases, emergent intervention is necessary to avoid blindness. In adults, proptosis is most commonly associated with thyroid orbitopathy. Orbital tumors in adults rarely are characterized by the explosive growth and damage that can occur with childhood lesions. In both age-groups, the evolution of better scanning modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging with fat saturation and gadolinium enhancement, has improved diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with loss of vision. In more than 95% of cases, noninvasive techniques yield a correct diagnosis. In patients who require nonsurgical intervention, especially if the diagnosis is uncertain, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has an accuracy that exceeds 95%. Combined-modality therapy has improved the control of and decreased the morbidity associated with several orbital tumors. Surgical advances, such as the ancillary use of the CO2 laser, have enhanced the management of some orbital tumors. PMID:8231272

Char, D H

1993-11-01

272

Study Close-Out  

Cancer.gov

Step 4: Closing Out a Cancer Prevention Clinical Trial These documents are intended for the use of DCP Consorta staff conducting cancer chemoprevention studies under contract with NCI/DCP. SOP #2: Study Close-Out Responsibilities (SOP) (doc, 48kb) Lists

273

The Closed Booth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven reasons excerpted from "Language Laboratory Learning" (1960) by Fernand Marty are cited for a preference for individual rooms or closed booths to language laboratories with open booths. The author specifies additional psychological and acoustical advantages of the closed booth system. Weaknesses inherent in the open booth laboratory are also…

Hanson, Edwin M.

1968-01-01

274

Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

2014-12-01

275

Notes to Saturn satellites Ijiraq and Kiviuq mutual close encounters  

E-print Network

The problem of origin of outer irregular satellites of large planets is considered. The capture way of their origin most probable, however there is not detail theory. There are a number of irregular satellites, discovered in recent time. It gives an ability to investigate the statistics of orbital interaction and try to reconstruct real collision history of these objects We restrict this consideration by pair of orbits with close elements: Kiviuq and Ijiraq and determine period of close encounters between this satellites. It may be considered as a first step on road to the construction of theory of origin of the abundant class of irregular satellites.

A. E. Rosaev

2006-02-01

276

Method of resolving radio phase ambiguity in satellite orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available today is microwave radio phase, which can be differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter- and receiver-related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of the doubly differenced observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is proposed. This strategy requires the tracking stations to have a wide ranging progression of spacings. By conventional 'integrated Doppler' processing of the observations from the most widely spaced stations, the orbits are determined well enough to permit resolution of the ambiguities for the most closely spaced stations. The resolution of these ambiguities reduces the uncertainty of the orbit determination enough to enable ambiguity resolution for more widely spaced stations, which further reduces the orbital uncertainty. In a test of this strategy with six tracking stations, both the formal and the true errors of determining Global Positioning System satellite orbits were reduced by a factor of 2.

Councelman, Charles C., III; Abbot, Richard I.

1989-01-01

277

THE ORBITAL PERIOD OF SWIFT J1626.6-5156  

SciTech Connect

We present the discovery of the orbital period of Swift J1626.6-5156. Since its discovery in 2005, the source has been monitored with Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, especially during the early stage of the outburst and into the X-ray modulating episode. Using a data span of {approx}700 days, we obtain the orbital period of the system as 132.9 days. We find that the orbit is close to a circular shape with an eccentricity 0.08, that is one of the smallest among Be/X-ray binary systems. Moreover, we find that the timescale of the X-ray modulations varied, which led to earlier suggestions of orbital periods at about a third and half of the orbital period of Swift J1626.6-5156.

Baykal, Altan [METU, Physics Department, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Goegues, Ersin [Sabanci University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Orhanli-Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Inam, Sitki Cagdas [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Baskent University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Belloni, Tomaso, E-mail: altan@astroa.physics.metu.edu.t [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

2010-03-10

278

Simulations of eccentric disks in close binary systems  

E-print Network

We study the development of finite eccentricity in accretion disks in close binary systems using a two-dimensional grid-based numerical scheme. We perform detailed parameter studies to explore the dependence on viscosity, disk aspect ratio, the inclusion of a mass-transfer stream and the role of the boundary conditions. We consider mass ratios 0.05orbits for the largest viscosities and the instability mechanism is for the most part consistent with the mode-coupling mechanism associated with the 3:1 resonance proposed by Lubow. However, the results are sensitive to the treatment of the inner boundary and to the incorporation of the mass-transfer stream. In the presence of a stream we found a critical viscosity below which the disk remains circular. Incorporation of a mass-transfer stream tends to impart stability for small enough viscosity (or, equivalently, mass-transfer rate through the disk) and does assist in obtaining a prograde precession rate that is in agreement with observations. For the larger q the location of the 3:1 resonance is pushed outwards towards the Roche lobe where higher-order mode couplings and nonlinearity occur. It is likely that three-dimensional simulations that properly resolve the disk's vertical structure are required to make significant progress in this case.

Wilhelm Kley; John Papaloizou; Gordon Ogilvie

2008-06-24

279

Orbit utilization - Current regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that an increasingly efficient use of the geostationary satellite orbit and spectrum is necessary to accommodate the growing number of planned U.S. domestic satellites, as well as those of other countries. Technical efficiency can be maximized by designing satellites in a homogeneous manner which minimizes transmission differences between satellites. However, flexibility is also needed to design domestic satellite facilities to respond to the diverse demands in a competitive market. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) seeks to achieve a balance between these goals in their domestic satellite policies and regulations. In December 1980, the FCC authorized the construction of some 22 new domestic satellites and the launch of 18 satellites. Attention is given to orbit use policies and reduced orbital spacings.

Lepkowski, R. J.

280

Pioneer Venus orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbiter mission of the Pioneer Venus probe is discussed. In accordance with the low-cost Pioneer Venus concept, NASA intends to use the same basic spacecraft, known as the bus, for the execution of the two missions. The bus will be equipped with all of the subsystems common to the probe and orbiter missions (for example, thermal control, solar cells and power supply, attitude measurement and control, telemetry and communication electronics, and auxiliary propulsion unit). For the 1977 mission, the bus will be equipped with the large and small probes and a special antenna system. For the orbiter mission, the bus will be equipped with a retro-propulsion motor and a high-gain antenna. A diagram of the system envisaged is shown.

1974-01-01

281

Elliptical vs Circular Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find the contrast between a highly exaggerated earth elliptical orbit and circular orbit depicted in .mov format. It should be mentioned to students that in reality the earth's elliptical orbit around the sun would hardly be noticeable if viewed from this distance. Taken alone, the video could unfortunately perpetuate the misconception that earth sun distance is responsible for the seasons. Still, the video is useful for pointing out that the earth's speed around the sun is not constant, with the earth moving fastest in January and slowest in July. This phenomenon helps explain why summer is longer in the Northern Hemisphere and for the analemma. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

Bob Urschel

282

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

Zuber, Maria T.

1997-01-01

283

Trajectories and Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Materials presented here outline some basic concepts associated with space flight. Users can read about orbits and the difference between an orbit and a trajectory, escape velocities for Earth and some planets, launch velocities and transit times for interplanetary flights, and the effects of time dilation for astronauts travelling at near-light speeds. This is part of the famous Rand corporation study that was commissioned by Congress in 1958 after the Soviet Union stunned the world by launching Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite.

284

Satellite orbit predictor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

285

[A Roman orbital implant?].  

PubMed

During an excavation in Regensburg/Germany the skeleton of an approximately 20-year-old Roman man was found who was buried in the 3rd/4th century after Christ. A "stone" was found which fitted into the left orbit precisely. After a thorough investigation of the "stone" and with the ophthalmohistorical literature in mind an orbital "implant" as well as a petrified medical paste ("Kollyrium") could be ruled out almost with certainty. Possibly the "stone" served another medical purpose or was used for protection of the eye. PMID:23011607

Rohrbach, J M; Harbeck, M; Holzhauser, P; Tekeva-Rohrbach, C I; Mach, M; Codreanu-Windauer, S

2012-11-01

286

Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

1982-01-01

287

Modelling the Bias of Abel Inversion Algorithm for Ionospheric Vertical Electron Density (VED) Profile Retrieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

When GPS signals are transmitted to the receivers installed in the LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites, these signals are bent by the atmosphere and the ionosphere. The vertical electron density (VED) profile of the ionosphere can be retrieved by calculating the signal bending angles by the Abel inversion algorithm. But this retrieved VED includes a big bias (about 20% ~

Gary Ouyang; Jinling Wang

288

Classical and modern orbit determination for asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the substantial improvements in observational techniques we have to deal with very big databases, consisting of a few positions of an object over a short time span; this is often not enough to compute a preliminary orbit with traditional tools. In this paper we first review a classical method by C.F. Gauss to compute a preliminary orbit for asteroids. This method, followed by a least squares fit to improve the orbit, still today gives successful results when we have at least three separate observations. Then we introduce the basics of a very recent orbit determination theory, that has been thought just to be used with modern sets of data. These data allow us in many cases to know the angular position and velocity of an asteroid at a given time, even though the radial distance and velocity (r,dot r), needed to compute its full orbit, are unknown. The variables (r,dot r) can be constrained to a compact set, that we call the admissible region(AR), whose definition requires that the body belongs to the Solar System, that it is not a satellite of the Earth, and that it is not a "shooting star" (i.e. very close and very small). We provide a mathematical description of the AR: its topological properties are surprisingly simple, in fact it turns out that the AR cannot have more than two connected components. A sampling of the AR can be performed by means of a Delaunay triangulation; a finite number of six-parameter sets of initial conditions are thus defined, with each node of the triangulation representing a possible orbit (a virtual asteroid).

Gronchi, Giovanni F.

2005-04-01

289

The challenge of reusable, single stage to orbit propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single stage to orbit (SSTO) applications will require high performance of the main propulsion system (whether rocket or airbreathing) throughout launch-to-orbit to achieve any meaningful payload capability. The challenge of true reusability dictates fail safe operation, high reliability and low maintenance actions to achieve turnaround similar to that achieved thousands of times each day in the commercial and military aircraft industry. This paper discusses the relative merits of candidate SSTO rocket propulsion systems and defines a reusable near-term expander cycle configuration for a vertical take-off/vertical landing vehicle with high performance and attractive operability characteristics. This engine could be available for a flight test program within four years of the start of development.

Holloway, J. F.; Limerick, C. D.

1993-02-01

290

Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

Bary-Soroker, Lior

2009-07-01

291

Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

2014-11-01

292

The vertical structure of limb hazes in the Martian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical distribution and reflectance properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere are presented, based on Viking Orbiter images containing the planetary limb. Profiles of scattered light above the limb are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of the aerosols. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometries. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation, depending on the season, whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes there is a continuous haze extending to the surface. The continuous haze is rarely above 50 km and is much redder in color than the detached hazes above, implying a composition that has a strong dust component. The aerosol distribution exhibits solid seasonal control inferred to be driven by the variable solar flux around the orbit of Mars.

Jaquin, Fred; Gierasch, Peter; Kahn, Ralph

1986-01-01

293

Lessons Learned from Natural Space Debris in Heliocentric Orbit: An Analogue for Hazardous Debris in Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from interactions between solar wind and clouds of nanometer-scale charged dust released in interplanetary collisions. These charged dust clouds are then accelerated by the solar wind and moving away from the Sun at near solar wind speed and detected by spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. The dynamics of the debris in heliocentric orbit is analogous to that mankind has placed into Earth orbit. There are lessons here that are worth exploring. The IFE formation hypothesis was supported by the discovery of co-orbiting materials associated with asteroid 2201 Oljato: IFE rate peaked when Oljato was close and IFE occurrence clustered in the longitudes near which the orbit of Oljato intersects the orbital plane of Venus. A followed up study with Venus Express observations suggested that the co-orbiting materials dissipated in 30 years. An important aspect of this evolution is that at collisional speeds of 20 km/s, a small body can destroy one 106 times more massive. This destruction of large debris by small debris could also be important in the evolution of the terrestrial debris. At 1AU, based on ACE and Wind observations, IFEs have a significant cluster in the longitude range between 195° and 225°. Thus we use the same IFE technique to identify the ‘parent’ Near-Earth Objects of co-orbiting materials which should be responsible for those IFEs. There are more than 5000 JPL documented NEOs whose ecliptic plane crossings are near to or inside the Earth’s orbit and whose orbital periods are less than five years. By comparing their trajectories, we find that the asteroid 138175 is a good candidate for the ‘parent’ body. This asteroid orbits the Sun in a 5.24° inclined elliptical orbit with a period of 367.96 days. Its descending node is at about 206°, where the IFE occurrence rate peaks. We also find that there is a spread of the IFE rate around the descending node, indicating that the co-orbiting materials have significant dispersion about the asteroid’s orbit. In summary, orbiting debris in orbits intersecting at high speeds can destroy itself quite efficiently, but with a long timescale. In deep space, this process is a step on the path between the asteroidal source population and the creation of solar system dust. This may be true for Earth-orbiting debris as well.

Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin; Lai, Hairong; Delzanno, Gian Luca

294

Circular and noncircular nearly horizon-skimming orbits in Kerr spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a detailed analysis of orbital motion in the vicinity of a nearly extremal Kerr black hole. For very rapidly rotating black holes--spin parameter a{identical_to}J/M>0.9524M--we have found a class of very strong-field eccentric orbits whose orbital angular momentum L{sub z} increases with the orbit's inclination with respect to the equatorial plane, while keeping latus rectum and eccentricity fixed. This behavior is in contrast with Newtonian intuition, and is in fact opposite to the normal behavior of black hole orbits. Such behavior was noted previously for circular orbits; since it only applies to orbits very close to the black hole, they were named 'nearly horizon-skimming orbits'. Our current analysis generalizes this result, mapping out the full generic (inclined and eccentric) family of nearly horizon-skimming orbits. The earlier work on circular orbits reported that, under gravitational radiation emission, nearly horizon-skimming orbits exhibit unusual inspiral, tending to evolve to smaller orbit inclination, toward prograde equatorial configuration. Normal orbits, by contrast, always demonstrate slowly growing orbit inclination--orbits evolve toward the retrograde equatorial configuration. Using up-to-date Teukolsky-based fluxes, we have concluded that the earlier result was incorrect - all circular orbits, including nearly horizon-skimming ones, exhibit growing orbit inclination under radiative backreaction. Using kludge fluxes based on a Post-Newtonian expansion corrected with fits to circular and to equatorial Teukolsky-based fluxes, we argue that the inclination grows also for eccentric nearly horizon-skimming orbits. We also find that the inclination change is, in any case, very small. As such, we conclude that these orbits are not likely to have a clear and peculiar imprint on the gravitational waveforms expected to be measured by the space-based detector LISA.

Barausse, Enrico; Hughes, Scott A.; Rezzolla, Luciano [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies and INFN, Via Beirut 2, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics and MIT Kavli Institute, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Potsdam (Germany) and Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2007-08-15

295

Theory of Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook treats Celestial Mechanics as well as Stellar Dynamics from the common point of view of orbit theory making use of the concepts and techniques from modern geometric mechanics. It starts with elementary Newtonian Mechanics and ends with the dynamics of chaotic motions. The book is meant for students in astronomy and physics alike. Prerequisite is a physicist's knowledge

Dino Boccaletti; Giuseppe Pucacco

1996-01-01

296

Mars Climate Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

1998-01-01

297

Orbital Forces: Teacher Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstates orbital motions and forces using a tennis ball swung by a ribbon (this activity should be done outside). The Teacher Page contains background information, tennis ball preparation instructions, and wrap up information. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Planetary Properties series.

298

Orbital Forces: Student Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about orbital motions and forces using a tennis ball swung by a ribbon. Students answer the question "What happens when you let the ball go?" Background information, activity procedures, and key words are provided. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Planetary Properties series.

299

Sedna Orbit Animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

2004-01-01

300

Goddard Brouwer Orbit Bulletin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bulletin provides operational support for earth space research and technological missions by producing a tape containing pertinent spacecraft orbital information which is provided to a number of cities around the world in support of individual missions. A program description of the main and associated subroutines, and a complete description of the input, output and requirements of the bulletin program are presented.

Morgan, D. B.; Gordon, R. A.

1971-01-01

301

A Neptune Orbiter Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

1998-01-01

302

Close Window Position Information  

E-print Network

of the new Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE). Coordination and facilitation of applied research Education: Bachelor's degree in Biology, Entomology, Horticulture, Wildlife and Fisheries Science, Environmental Sciences or closely related field. Preferred Education: Master's degree in Biology, Entomology

Behmer, Spencer T.

303

Closed Large Cell Clouds  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

2013-04-19

304

Close It Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As learners play this challenging strategy game, they build understanding of area and perimeter. On each turn, a player draws a line between two dots next to each other on the grid. When you close a shape, mark it as yours. You can make any shapes, as long as theyâre closed. Keep taking turns until there is no more room. The player with the most area wins. Includes easier and harder variations. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

305

Closed-Loop Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on closed-loop systems, which includes an animation that describes the typical components of a closed-loop system (error detector, controller, actuator, and measurement device), and describes the input and output signals for each component. The interactive lesson includes three sections: introduction, system overview, and adjustment scenarios. The activity includes 18 screens with reading materials as well as a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-11

306

Closed anisotropic cosmological models.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Derivation of a new exact solution to Einstein's equations representing homogeneous nonisotropic cosmological models of a closed universe containing electromagnetic and scalar fields. This solution reduces to a generalization of Brill's electromagnetic universe when the scalar field vanishes, and to the Taub-NUT-M space when both these fields vanish. The solutions also satisfy the scalar tensor equations and represent a universe containing electromagnetic fields and a source-free solution to the scalar-tensor equations representing a closed universe.

Batakis, N.; Cohen, J. M.

1972-01-01

307

Very Precise Orbits of 1998 Leonid Meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventy-five orbits of Leonid meteors obtained during the 1998 outburst are presented. Thirty-eight are precise enough to recognize significant dispersion in orbital elements. Results from the nights of 1998 November 16/17 and 17/18 differ, in agreement with the dominant presence of different dust components. The shower rate profile of 1998 November 16/17 was dominated by a broad component, rich in bright meteors. The radiant distribution is compact. The semimajor axis is confined to values close to that of the parent comet, whereas the distribution of inclination has a central condensation in a narrow range. On the other hand, 1998 November 17/18 was dominated by dust responsible for a more narrow secondary peak in the flux curve. The declination of the radiant and the inclination of the orbit are more widely dispersed. The argument of perihelion, inclination, and the perihelion distance are displaced. These data substantiate the hypothesis that trapping in orbital resonances is important for the dynamical evolution of the broad component.

Betlem, Hans; Jenniskens, Peter; vantLeven, Jaap; terKuile, Casper; Johannink, Carl; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Lei, Chen-Ming; Li, Guan-You; Zhu, Jin; Evans, Steve; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

308

Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation.  

PubMed

Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

2012-09-01

309

Some statistical aspects of cometary orbits and their discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the cometary orbital elements available in the tenth edition of the 'Catalogue of Cometary Orbits' (Marsden and Williams, 1995) which hereafter will be written as the 'Catalogue 1995' and the perpetual discoveries of comets reveal various interesting features. The 'Catalogue 1995' contains 1472 orbital elements of 878 individual comets which were possible to observe for displaying 1444 apparitions during the period from 239 B.C. to 1994 A.D. Among these comets, 184 are designated as the Short Period (SP) comets, for having periods less than 200 years. The remaining 694 comets, are termed as the Long Period (LP) comets, since their periods are longer than 200 years. All the orbital elements have been studied thoroughly and found how the orbital inclinations, perihelion distances and aphelion distances are distributed. The analysis of the proximity of aphelia distances of SP comet orbits from their respective nearby planetary orbits reveals that the orbits of major planets are closely visited by most of the SP comet aphelia. The set of comets whose aphelia closely visit a particular planetary orbit, are said to constitute a family of comets of the said planet. Classifying these comets, it has been noticed that the Jupiter Family of Comets (JFC) are the largest in number. Also the nodal distances of all the comets have been studied in respect of their distributions. It has been found that 91% of the nodes are within the orbital distance of the planet Neptune at 30 AU away from the Sun. The consequences of the aphelia and nodes of the SP comets being closer to their nearby planetary orbits, have been studied. This study justifies the existence of a number of multiple nuclei comets as well as predicts the possible split of a few more SP cometary nuclei which may finally crash into any one of the perturbing major planetary globes, like the one C/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9). Interestingly, it can be inferred from these studies that any group of comets having almost identical orbital elements, may be the outcome of the split suffered by their parent cometary nuclei at a distance far away from the Sun. The discovery of comets was initiated by Gottfried Kirch in 1680 and the recovery of periodic comets was first done by J.G. Palitzsch in 1758. The rate at which the comets are discovered and also recovered, have been shown. Key Words : cometary orbits, orbital elements, nodal distributions, split comets, cometary discovery.

Biswas, Sudhindra Nath

2000-09-01

310

A Third Exoplanetary System with Misaligned Orbital and Stellar Spin Axes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We presented evidence that the WASP-14 exoplanetary system has misaligned orbital and stellar-rotational axes, with an angle of 33.1 plus or minus 7.4 degrees between their sky projections. At the time of this publication, WASP-14 was the third system known to have a significant spin-orbit misalignment, and all three systems had super- Jupiter planets and eccentric orbits. Therefore we hypothesized that the migration and subsequent orbital evolution of massive, eccentric exoplanets is somehow different from that of less massive close-in Jupiters, the majority of which have well-aligned orbits.

Johnosn, John A.; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gazak, J. Zachary

2009-01-01

311

Periodic Orbit Theory Revisited in the Anisotropic Kepler Problem  

E-print Network

The Gutzwiller's trace formula for the anisotropic Kepler problem is Fourier transformed with a convenient variable $u=1/\\sqrt{-2E}$ which takes care of the scaling property of the AKP action $S(E)$. Proper symmetrization procedure (Gutzwiller's prescription) is taken by the introduction of half-orbits that close under symmetry transformations so that the two dimensional semi-classical formulas match correctly the quantum subsectors $m^\\pi=0^+$ and $m^\\pi=0^-$. Response functions constructed from half orbits in the POT side are explicitly given. In particular the response function $g_X$ from $X$-symmetric half orbit has an amplitude where the root of the monodromy determinant is inverse hyperbolic. The resultant {\\it weighted densities of periodic orbits $D^{m=0}_e(\\phi)$ and $D^{m=0}_o(\\phi)$} from both quantum subsectors show peaks at the actions of the periodic orbits with correct peak heights corresponding to the Lyapunov exponents of them. The formulation takes care of the cut off of the energy levels, and the agreement between the $D(\\phi)$s of QM and POT sides is observed independent for the choice of the cut off. The systematics appeared in the densities of the periodic orbits is explained in terms of features of periodic orbits. It is shown that from quantum energy levels one can extract the information of AKP periodic orbits, even the Lyapunov exponents-- the success of inverse quantum chaology in AKP.

Kazuhiro Kubo; Tokuzo Shimada

2013-11-07

312

First Orbital Parameters of a Planet Found by Microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter/Saturn analog planetary system OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb,c (Gaudi et al. 2008, Science, 319, 927) provides the first case of a planetary system found by microlensing in which there are constraints on the planetary orbital parameters besides the separation in the plane of the sky. The orbital motion of the "saturn" is constrained by the light curve, and we are able to measure the relative star-planet velocity with reasonably high precision. We also have a weak measure of the orbital acceleration, which constrains the separation along the line of sight. Since the light curve constrains the mass of the star through the microlensing parallax and finite source effects, the orbit is described by 6 parameters. We measure 4 of these with high precision (the separations and velocities in the plane of the sky), while the 5th parameter (the orbital acceleration) is weakly constrained. We explore the bound, stable orbits that are consistent with these measured parameters, and find the range of orbital parameters that are consistent with these measurements. We find that the orbital inclination is close to 60 degrees and the eccentricity is likely to be small.

Bennett, David P.; MicroFUN Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; PLANET/RoboNet Collaboration

2009-01-01

313

Sleeping with an Elephant: Asteroids that Share a Planet's Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under special circumstances, relatively small asteroids are able to safely share the orbit of a much larger planet. The best known examples of such "co-orbital" bodies are the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter, over 1700 of which are known to travel either 60 degrees ahead of or behind this giant planet in its orbit. The stability of such configurations might be thought to depend on the asteroid giving the planet a wide berth. In reality, co-orbital asteroids may approach their planet relatively closely, to within a few times its Hill sphere (which is five times the distance to the Moon in the case of the Earth). For many co-orbital bodies such approaches occur rarely or not at all, but recently examples of co-orbital states that become trapped near their planet have been found. Such "quasi-satellites" may remain near their much larger partner for thousands of years, though in actuality they are not true satellites and continue to orbit the Sun. Here we discuss the behaviour of some recently discovered co-orbital asteroids with emphasis on 2004 GU9, recently found to have a long-lived quasi-satellite state relative to the Earth.

Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Brasser, Ramon; Mikkola, Seppo; Stacey, Greg; Innanen, Kimmo

2005-08-01

314

Statistical and numerical study of asteroid orbital uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The knowledge of the orbit or the ephemeris uncertainty of asteroids presents a particular interest for various purposes. These quantities are, for instance, useful for recovering asteroids, for identifying lost asteroids, or for planning stellar occultation campaigns. They are also needed for estimating the close approach of near-Earth asteroids, and the subsequent risk of collision. Ephemeris accuracy can also be used for instrument calibration or for scientific applications. Aims: Asteroid databases provide information about the uncertainty of the orbits and allow the measure of the quality of an orbit. This paper analyses these different uncertainty parameters and estimates the impact of the different measurements on the uncertainty of orbits. Methods: We dealt with two main databases, astorb and mpcorb, that provide uncertainty parameters for asteroid orbits. Statistical methods were used to estimate orbital uncertainty and to compare them with parameters from the databases. Simulations were also generated to deal with specific measurements such as the future Gaia mission or present radar measurements. Results: Relations between the uncertainty parameter and the characteristics of the asteroid (orbital arc, absolute magnitude, etc.) are highlighted. Moreover, a review of the different measuments are compiled and their impact on the accuracy of the orbit is also estimated.

Desmars, J.; Bancelin, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

2013-06-01

315

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

316

Waves, circulation and vertical dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper includes four appendices. The first appendix demonstrates the numerical process by which Stokes drift is excluded from the turbulence stress parameterization in the momentum equation. A second appendix determines a bottom slope criterion for the application of linear wave relations to the derivation of the wave radiation stress. The third appendix explores the possibility of generalizing results by non-dimensionalization. The final appendix applies the basic theory to a problem introduced by Bennis and Ardhuin (J Phys Oceanogr 41:2008-2012, 2011).

Mellor, George

2013-04-01

317

Convection in vertical Bridgman configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in tracing the convective profiles of vertical Bridgman growth in two configurations, the pure Rayleigh convective mode and the combined Rayleigh-Marangoni mode. In order to do so, we conducted a numerical investigation that involved a finite volume calculation. The governing equations were integrated about a cell volume, using the Gauss Theorem and the volume variables like temperature and velocity were related to the surface variables. In order to solve for the pressure field, we employed the continuity equation and the residuals resulted in a Poisson equation. Results and comments for the Rayleigh and Marangoni problems in a vertical cylinder or Bridgman configuration are given.

Narayanan, Ranga

1991-01-01

318

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

319

NS-NS sector of closed superstring field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a construction for a general class of vertices in superstring field theory which include integration over bosonic moduli as well as the required picture changing insertions. We apply this procedure to find a covariant action for the NS-NS sector of Type II closed superstring field theory.

Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

2014-08-01

320

SPECS: Orbital debris removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the system has the ability to capture 50 pieces of orbital debris. One mission will take approximately six months and the system is designed to allow for a 30 deg inclination change on the outgoing and incoming trips of the transfer vehicle.

1991-01-01

321

Orbital Motions in Binary Protostellar Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-resolution ( ˜ 0to z @. hss ''1), multi-epoch Very Large Array observations, we have detected orbital motions in several low-luminosity protobinary systems in the Taurus and ? Ophiuchus molecular complexes. The masses obtained from Kepler's third law are of the order of 0.5 to 2 M?, as expected for such low-mass protostars. The relatively large bolometric luminosities of these young systems corroborates the notion that protostars obtain most of their luminosity from accretion and not from nuclear reactions. In addition, in one of the sources studied (a multiple system in Taurus), a low-mass young star has shown a drastic change in its orbit after a close approach with another component of the system, presumed to be a double star. The large proper motion achieved by this low mass protostar (20 km s-1), suggests an ejection from the system.

Rodríguez, L. F.

2004-08-01

322

Europa planetary protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore Jupiter and its near environment starting in 2016. Planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. In particular Juno's polar orbit, which enables scientific investigations of parts of Jupiter's environment never before visited, also greatly assist avoiding close flybys of Europa and the other Galilean satellites. The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

2013-08-01

323

Determination of the GOCE Satellite Orbit Sensitivity Under the Influence of Perturbing Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work contains the results of research into the simulated orbit of GOCE satellite. Satellite accelerations due to atmospheric drag, the gravitation of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets, the Earth tides, the ocean tides, the solar radiation pressure, the reflected solar radiation pressure and the relativity effects were computed. Besides the reference orbit (i.e. the orbit as close as possible to the GOCE planned orbit), the various variants of the satellite orbit (called the modified reference orbits - with different motion models) were obtained. The motion models contained the forces determining the satellite motion. For the orbital computations, the Cowell numerical integration of the eighths order was used. The geopotential was described by means of the EGM96 model. In order to obtain the influence of the aforementioned forces on the GOCE orbit, the percentage contributions of the accelerations due to these forces in the sum of all accelerations were computed. The maximum values of the mentioned accelerations were computed for the GOCE orbit variant with the motion model containing all forces given above. These values were compared with the measurement error of the linear accelerations by the GOCE satellite control system. The comparison between the reference orbit and the computed variants of the orbit was performed. In order to perform this comparison, the distances between the satellite position in the reference orbit and the satellite position in the given modified reference orbit (i.e. in a given orbit variant) were determined. These distances were compared with the total error of the GOCE satellite position determination. The orbital arc length, for which the selected forces can be neglected in the satellite motion model, were determined from this comparison. For these orbital arc lengths, the distance between the satellite position in the reference orbit and the satellite position in the given modified reference orbit is less or equal to the total error of the GOCE satellite position determination.

Boboj?, A.; Dro?yner

324

Close up view of the center console on the flight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view of the center console on the flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery showing the console's instrumentation and controls. The commanders station is located to the left in this view and the pilot's station is to the right in the view. The handle and lever located on the right side of the center console and towards its front is one of a pair, the commander has one on the left of his seat in his station, of Speed Brake/Thrust Controllers. These are dual purpose controllers. During ascent the controller can be use to throttle the main engines and during entry the controllers can be used to control aerodynamic drag by opening or closing the orbiter's speed brake. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

325

Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.  

SciTech Connect

The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2008-01-01

326

Vertical capacitive SiBARs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces high frequency, vertical silicon bulk acoustic resonators (SiBAR). A combination of the new resonator structures with much larger transduction area and the HARPSS fabrication process is used to demonstrate high frequency capacitive resonators with significantly lower impedances compared to the previous capacitive resonators. Impedances as low as a few kilo-Ohms and quality factors in the range of

Siavash Pourkamali; Gavin K. Ho; Farrokh Ayazi

2005-01-01

327

Long wavelength vertical cavity lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for low cost, high speed telecommunication sources demands the maturation of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers (VCLs). Both long haul fiber optic systems and gigabit ethernet links are potential markets for 1.3 and 1.55 micron VCLs. This past year has seen much progress to this end, but the emerging technology has yet to be determined. This paper overviews

K. A. Blacka; P. Abraham; A. Keating; Y. J. Chiu; E. L. Hu; J. E. Bowers

1999-01-01

328

Topological analysis of chaotic orbits: Revisiting Hyperion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is emerging interest in the possibility of chaotic evolution in astrophysical systems. To mention just one example, recent well-sampled ground-based observations of the Saturian satellite Hyperion strongly suggest that it is exhibiting chaotic behavior. We present a general technique, the method of close returns, for the analysis of data from astronomical objects believed to be exhibiting chaotic motion. The method is based on the extraction of pieces of the evolution that exhibit nearly periodic behavior-episodes during which the object stays near in phase space to some unstable periodic orbit. Such orbits generally act as skeletal features, tracing the topological organization of the manifold on which the chaotic dynamics takes place. This method does not require data sets as lengthy as other nonlinear analysis techniques do and is therefore well suited to many astronomical observing programs. Well sampled data covering between twenty and forty characteristic periods of the system have been found to be sufficient for the application of this technique. Additional strengths of this method are its robustness in the presence of noise and the ability for a user to clearly distinguish between periodic, random, and chaotic behavior by inspection of the resulting two-dimensional image. As an example of its power, we analyze close returns in a numerically generated data set, based on a model for Hyperion extensively studied in the literature, corresponding to nightly observations of the satellite. We show that with a small data set, embedded unstable periodic orbits can be extracted and that these orbits can be responsible for nearly periodic behavior lasting a substantial fraction of the observing run.

Boyd, Patricia T.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.; Gilmore, Robert; Solari, Hernan G.

1994-01-01

329

On initial orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The classical methods of initial orbit determination are brought together within a larger viewpoint. This new synthesis stresses that all such techniques follow one of three approaches. Either they seek to compute the orbital element set, or its equivalent, by attacking the differential equations of motion (Laplace), the first integrals of the equations of motion (Taff), or the solution itself (Gauss). The particular technique pursued within a given type of approach should depend upon the nature of the observational data, the amount of a priori information one is willing to presume, and the object of the exercise. This might be a binary star system, a moon, a minor planet, or an artificial satellite. The efficacy of some algorithms for each approach is discussed briefly. Unfortunately, none of them work very well. Extensions of these techniques to radars or laser radars are trivial and have provided no new insights into the overall problem.

Taff, L. G.

1984-01-01

330

Orbital rhabdomyosarcomas: A review  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor and is one of the few life-threatening diseases that present first to the ophthalmologist. It is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of the head and neck in childhood with 10% of all cases occurring in the orbit. RMS has been reported from birth to the seventh decade, with the majority of cases presenting in early childhood. Survival has changed drastically over the years, from 30% in the 1960’s to 90% presently, with the advent of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to provide a general overview of primary orbital RMS derived from a literature search of material published over the last 10 years, as well as to present two representative cases of patients that have been managed at our institute. PMID:24227982

Jurdy, Lama; Merks, Johanus H.M.; Pieters, Bradly R.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kloos, Roel J.H.M.; Strackee, Simone D.; Saeed, Peerooz

2013-01-01

331

Orbit Spaces in Superconductivity  

E-print Network

In the framework of Landau theory of phase transitions one is interested to describe all the possible low symmetry ``superconducting'' phases allowed for a given superconductor crystal and to determine the conditions under which this crystal undergoes a phase transition. These problems are best described and analyzed in the orbit space of the high symmetry group of the ``normal, non-superconducting'' phase of the crystal. In this article it is worked out a simple example concerning superconductivity, that shows the P-matrix method to determine the equations and inequalities defining the orbit space and its stratification. This approach is of general validity and can be used in all physical problems that make use of invariant functions, as long as the symmetry group is compact.

Vittorino Talamini

2006-07-30

332

Mercury orbiter transport study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base and comparative performance analyses of alternative flight mode options for delivering a range of payload masses to Mercury orbit are provided. Launch opportunities over the period 1980-2000 are considered. Extensive data trades are developed for the ballistic flight mode option utilizing one or more swingbys of Venus. Advanced transport options studied include solar electric propulsion and solar sailing. Results show the significant performance tradeoffs among such key parameters as trip time, payload mass, propulsion system mass, orbit size, launch year sensitivity and relative cost-effectiveness. Handbook-type presentation formats, particularly in the case of ballistic mode data, provide planetary program planners with an easily used source of reference information essential in the preliminary steps of mission selection and planning.

Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.

1977-01-01

333

Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. Toward the right of the view and in front of te seat is the commander's Rotational Hand Controller. The pilot station has an identical controller. These control the acceleration in the roll pitch and yaw directions via the reaction control system and/or the orbiter maneuvering system while outside of Earth's atmosphere or via the orbiter's aerosurfaces wile in Earth's atmosphere when the atmospheric density permits the surfaces to be effective. There are a number of switches on the controller, most notably a trigger switch which is a push-to-talk switch for voice communication and a large button on top of the controller which is a switch to engage the backup flight system. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

334

Orbiter OMS and RCS technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

Boudreaux, R. A.

1982-01-01

335

Global Orbit Corrections Keith Symon  

E-print Network

Global Orbit Corrections Keith Symon LS-I0l November 1987 K. Symon I. Introduction. There are various reasons for preferring local (e.g., three-bump) orbit correction methods to global corrections this point needs to be tested. Otherwise, some other correction scheme will be needed to bring the orbit

Kemner, Ken

336

What is a MISR orbit?  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... an altitude of 705 km above sea level on a sun-synchronous orbit. It revolves once around the planet in 98.88 minutes and thus completes ... data exploitation, each complete revolution is called an orbit, and orbits are consecutively numbered from launch. The number of the ...

2014-12-08

337

Closed transfer systems  

SciTech Connect

The handling of concentrated pesticides presents the greatest chance of exposure to the handler. A recent study shows that approximately 90% of the total chemical exposure is to the mixer/loader, while the applicator receives the remaining 10%. A closed transfer system is an excellent way of limiting exposure to the handler. This is especially important when the handler does not wear the personal protective equipment as recommended on the chemical label. There are several types of closed transfer systems commercially available. The vacuum type is safer as compared to a pressure system. If a leak occurs in the vacuum system, air will be pulled in versus chemical squirting out. Many closed transfer systems incorporate pressure rinsing of one-way pesticide containers. This helps reduce the chance of exposure as the rinsate is transferred to the spray tank through the handling system.

Hofman, V. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

1994-12-31

338

Orbital changes and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 41,000-period of orbital tilt, summer insolation forces a lagged response in northern ice sheets. This delayed ice signal is rapidly transferred to nearby northern oceans and landmasses by atmospheric dynamics. These ice-driven responses lead to late-phased changes in atmospheric CO2 that provide positive feedback to the ice sheets and also project ‘late’ 41-K forcing across the tropics and

William F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01

339

Orbits from Two Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a particular interest in estimating orbital elements and ephemeris uncertainties from just two astrometric observations. Since 1996 the Minor Planet Center has used a two-observation method in which the coordinate system is rotated so that the reference plane passes through the two observations and the origin is at one of them. The selection of appropriate values for the topocentric distance ? at the other observation then immediately provides, not only the components of the heliocentric position vector, but also two components of the heliocentric velocity vector. It therefore remains to select appropriate values for the third velocity component, the value zero yielding ?, the largest reciprocal semimajor axis for the specified ?. The Vaisala (or apsidal) value of the velocity component follows, together with values yielding the two lateral orbits (at most one of which can be elliptical), with the object on the orbital latus rectum. If ? is positive, elliptical solutions exist for values of the velocity component out to ±??. It is also the case that ? generally decreases with increasing ?, though not necessarily monotonically. Indeed, for an object at opposition, distances corresponding to a lone parabolic solution readily follow from a cubic equation, there being one or three real roots according as to whether the apparent retrograde motion is greater than or less than some critical value. A very similar quadratic equation can be used to derive the distances corresponding to precisely circular solutions, when the apsidal velocity component is equal to the smaller of the lateral values. Corresponding equations are also derived to describe possible orbits near quadrature.

Marsden, Brian G.

2010-05-01

340

Interplanetary orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The logistical aspects of orbit determination (OD) in the interplanetary phase of the Mariner Mars 1971 mission are described and the working arrangements for the OD personnel, both within the Navigation Team and with outside groups are given. Various types of data used in the OD process are presented along with sources of the data. Functional descriptions of the individual elements of the OD software and brief sketches of their modes of operation are provided.

Zielenbach, J. W.; Acton, C. H.; Born, G. H.; Breckenridge, W. G.; Chao, C. C.; Duxbury, T. C.; Green, D. W.; Jerath, N.; Jordan, J. F.; Mottinger, N. A.

1973-01-01

341

Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

Onffroy, J. R.

1980-01-01

342

Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

1989-01-01

343

Orbital drilling kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In orbital drilling the tool (special end mill) moves relative to the work piece on a helical course. Because of the three-dimensional\\u000a tool path and the superimposed rotary cutting motion a complex machining motion results which determines the contact conditions\\u000a of the tool. The objective of this study is to describe mathematically the occurring cutting conditions over the engagement\\u000a angle

E. Brinksmeier; Sascha Fangmann; I. Meyer

2008-01-01

344

Orbital Debris Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)

Liou, J. C.

2012-01-01

345

Vertical Sextants give Good Sights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

Dixon, Mark

346

A vertical resonance heating model for X- or peanut-shaped galactic bulges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a second-order Hamiltonian vertical resonance model for X-shaped or peanut-shaped galactic bulges. The X- or peanut-shape is caused by the 2:1 vertical Lindblad resonance with the bar, with two vertical oscillation periods per orbital period in the bar frame. We examine N-body simulations and find that due to the bar slowing down and disc thickening during bar buckling, the resonance and associated peanut-shape moves outward. The peanut-shape is consistent with the location of the 2:1 vertical resonance, independent of whether the bar buckled or not. We estimate the resonance width from the potential m = 4 Fourier component and find that the resonance is narrow, affecting orbits over a narrow range in the angular momentum distribution, dL/L ˜ 0.05. As the resonance moves outward, stars originally in the mid-plane are forced out of the mid-plane and into orbits just within the resonance separatrix. The height of the separatrix orbits, estimated from the Hamiltonian model, is approximately consistent with the peanut-shape height. The peanut- or X-shape is comprised of stars in the vicinity of the resonance separatrix. The velocity distributions from the simulations illustrate that low-inclination orbits are depleted within resonance. Within resonance, the vertical velocity distribution is broad, consistent with resonant heating caused by the passage of the resonance through the disc. In the Milky Way bulge, we relate the azimuthally averaged mid-plane mass density near the vertical resonance to the rotation curve and bar pattern speed. At an estimated vertical resonance galactocentric radius of ˜1.3 kpc, we confirm a mid-plane density of ˜5 × 108 M? kpc-3, consistent with recently estimated mass distributions. We find that the rotation curve, bar pattern speed, 2:1 vertical resonance location, X-shaped tips and mid-plane mass density, are all self-consistent in the Milky Way galaxy bulge.

Quillen, Alice C.; Minchev, Ivan; Sharma, Sanjib; Qin, Yu-Jing; Di Matteo, Paola

2014-01-01

347

Closing the Health Gap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and ABC Radio Networks are working together to help African-Americans gain access to the best possible information regarding health issues. HHS reports that life expectancies for African-Americans lag five years behind expectancies for White Americans. The new Website Closing the Health Gap has links to information on health conditions such as diabetes and cancer as well as consumer health resources that relate to African-Americans' particular needs. Each page offers links, publications, and any news related to the subject, all in an effort to close "the health gap."

2001-01-01

348

Global Orbit Feedback in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

For improved reproducibility of good operating conditions and ramp commissioning efficiency, new dual-plane slow orbit feedback during the energy ramp was implemented during run-10 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The orbit feedback is based on steering the measured orbit, after subtraction of the dispersive component, to either a design orbit or to a previously saved reference orbit. Using multiple correctors and beam position monitors, an SVD-based algorithm is used for determination of the applied corrections. The online model is used as a basis for matrix computations. In this report we describe the feedback design, review the changes made to realize its implementation, and assess system performance.

Minty, M.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.

2010-05-23

349

Closing the Loop Sampler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

350

Closing the Performance Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

Riggins, Cheryl G.

2002-01-01

351

Closed Small Cell Clouds  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... (right)   The structure of tightly packed "closed cells" in a layer of marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific Ocean ... into interesting structures such as those shown here. These cells are notably small, with diameters ranging from 10-15 kilometers, instead ...

2013-04-19

352

Open. Closed. Open  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a window into the subject, we recount some of the his- tory (and geography) of two mature, challenging, partially open, partially closed problems in the theory of rewriting (numbers 13 and 21 from the original RTA List of Open Problems). One problem deals with (criteria for left-linear) confluence and the other with termination (of one linear or string rule),

Nachum Dershowitz

2005-01-01

353

The criterion algorithm of relation of implication between periodic orbits (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there is a wide interest in Sarkovskii's theorem and the related study. According to Sarkovskii's theorem if the continuous self-mapf of the closed interval has a 3-periodic orbit, thenf must has an n-periodic orbit for any positive integer n. Butf can not has all n-periodic orbits for some n. For example, let\\u000a$$f(x) = \\\\left\\\\{ {\\\\begin{array}{*{20}c} {x

Zhang Jing-zhong; Yang Lu; Zhang Lei

1989-01-01

354

The criterion algorithm of relation of implication between periodic orbits (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there is a wide interest in Sarkovskii's theorem and related study. According to Sarkovskii's theorem, if the continuous self-mapf of the closed interval has a 3-periodic orbit, thenf must has an n-periodic orbit for any positive integer n. But f can not have all n-periodic orbits for some n.Example. Let\\u000a$$f(x) = \\\\left\\\\{ {\\\\begin{array}{*{20}c} {x + 1\\/2}

Zhang Jing-zhong; Yang Lu; Zhang Lei

1990-01-01

355

Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Close Binary Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets around close binary stars, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. The sum of the masses of the two stars is one solar mass, and the initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and in the Alpha Centauri wide binary star system. Giant planets &are included in the simulations, as they are in most simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation in our Solar System. When the stars travel on a circular orbit with semimajor axis of up to 0.1 AU about their mutual center of mass, the planetary embryos grow into a system of terrestrial planets that is statistically identical to those formed about single stars, but a larger semimajor axis and/or a significantly eccentric binary orbit can lead to significantly more dynamically hot terrestrial planet systems.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.

2003-01-01

356

Set up of Work for Big Orbit Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

All conference participants are welcome to exhibit work at the Big Orbit Gallery in Buffalo. You must be able to deliver and set up your work between noon and 6pm on Wednesday the 14th, and be able to pick up your work at the close of the conference.

Big Orbit Gallery

2012-01-01

357

Viking orbiter attitude control analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Viking orbiters are currently in Mars orbit. In the nearly two years since they were launched, the orbiters have successfully performed many functions including transportation of the Viking landers to Mars. The orbiters have for the last year provided relay links for lander-earth communications, and they have carried out from orbit their own scientific exploration of the planet. Crucial to the success of the orbiters has been the performance of the on-board attitude control system, which has provided the required orbiter stabilization and orientation throughout the missions. A comprehensive spacecraft and attitude control system dynamic analysis was necessary to certify the control system before launch and to evaluate its flight performance. This paper contains an outline of the analysis and of some of its results.

Rodriguez, G.

1977-01-01

358

Orbital Phase Environments and Stereoselectivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial selections are reviewed to propose a new theory, orbital phase environment, for stereoselectivities of organic reactions. The orbital phase environment is a generalized idea of the secondary orbital interaction between the non-reacting centers and the unsymmetrization of the orbitals at the reacting centers arising from in-phase and out-of-phase overlapping with those at the neighboring non-reacting sites. In this context, the nucleophilic addition preferentially occurs on the face of the carbonyl functionality opposite to the better electron-donating orbital at the ? position. In a similar manner to the carbonyl cases, the preferred reaction faces of olefins in electrophilic addition reactions are opposite to the better electron-donating orbitals at the ? positions. The orbital phase environments in Diels-Alder reactions are also reviewed.

Ohwada, Tomohiko

359

SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AND ORBITS OF 'FAST' VISUAL BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

Results of speckle observations at the 4.1 m SOAR telescope in 2012 (158 measures of 121 systems, 27 non-resolutions) are reported. The aim is to follow fast orbital motion of recently discovered or neglected close binaries and sub-systems. Here, eight previously known orbits are defined better, two more are completely revised, and five orbits are computed for the first time. Using differential photometry from Hipparcos or speckle and the standard relation between mass and absolute magnitude, the component's masses and dynamical parallaxes are estimated for all 15 systems with new or updated orbits. Two astrometric binaries HIP 54214 and 56245 are resolved here for the first time, another eight are measured. We highlight several unresolved pairs that may actually be single despite multiple historic measures, such as 104 Tau and f Pup AB. Continued monitoring is needed to understand those enigmatic cases.

Tokovinin, Andrei, E-mail: atokovinin@ctio.noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

2012-08-15

360

Numerical simulations of particle orbits around 2060 Chiron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scattered light from orbiting or coorbiting dust is a primary signature by which Earth-based observers study the activity and atmosphere of the unusual outer solar system object 2060 Chiron. Therefore, it is important to understand the lifetime, dynamics, and loss rates of dust in its coma. We report here dynamical simulations of particles in Chiron's collisionless coma. The orbits of 17,920 dust particles were numerically integrated under the gravitational influence of Chiron, the Sun, and solar radiation pressure. These simulations show that particles ejected from Chiron are more likely to follow suborbital trajectories, or to escape altogether, than to enter quasistable orbits. Significant orbital lifetimes can only be achieved for very specific launch conditions. These results call into question models of a long-term, bound coma generated by discrete outbursts, and instead suggest that Chiron's coma state is closely coupled to the nearly instantaneous level of Chiron's surface activity.

Stern, S. A.; Jackson, A. A.; Boice, D. C.

1994-01-01

361

A Concept of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) has a capability of delivering a wide rang of payload to earth orbit with greater reliability, lower cost, more flexibility and operability than any of today's launch vehicles. It is the goal of future space transportation systems. Past experience on single stage to orbit (SSTO) RLVs, such as NASA's NASP project, which aims at developing an rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) airplane and X-33, which aims at developing a rocket RLV, indicates that SSTO RLV can not be realized in the next few years based on the state-of-the-art technologies. This paper presents a concept of all rocket two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle. The TSTO RLV comprises an orbiter and a booster stage. The orbiter is mounted on the top of the booster stage. The TSTO RLV takes off vertically. At the altitude about 50km the booster stage is separated from the orbiter, returns and lands by parachutes and airbags, or lands horizontally by means of its own propulsion system. The orbiter continues its ascent flight and delivers the payload into LEO orbit. After completing orbit mission, the orbiter will reenter into the atmosphere, automatically fly to the ground base and finally horizontally land on the runway. TSTO RLV has less technology difficulties and risk than SSTO, and maybe the practical approach to the RLV in the near future.

Yang, Yong; Wang, Xiaojun; Tang, Yihua

2002-01-01

362

Prospects for the Determination of Star Orbits near the Galactic Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulate the observations of proper motion of stars very close to the Galactic center. We show that the speckle interferometry done with the Keck II telescope is accurate enough to obtain orbital parameters for stars with the period P~10 yr during ~10 seasons of astrometric observations made once a year. The determination of a single orbit will give a

M. Jaroszynski

1999-01-01

363

A quantitative analysis of the Eutherian orbit: correlations with masticatory apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian orbit, or eye-socket, is a highly plastic region of the skull. It comprises between seven and nine bones, all of which vary widely in their contribution to this region among the different mammalian orders and families. It is hypothesised that the structure of the mammalian orbit is principally influenced by the forces generated by the jaw-closing musculature. In

Philip G. Cox

2008-01-01

364

Close-in companions to contact binary stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W UMa-type contact binaries are composed of two late-type main-sequence stars, where both components are filling their critical Roche Lobes and sharing a common convective envelope. Their formation and evolution are unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics. This kind of binary systems have the lowest angular momentum and shortest orbital periods among main-sequence binaries. One of the possibilities for their origin is that the angular momentums of binary stars are transferred from the central binaries to close-in companions. In this paper, we will summarize some of our recent progresses on searching for close-in companions to contact binary stars, including the closest stellar companion to a contact binary at an orbital separation of about 0.8 AU. Then, based on the observational properties of those close-in companions, the formation and the evolution of contact binaries will be discussed.

Qian, S. B.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Wang, J. J.; Liu, N. P.

2013-02-01

365

PSEUDO-NEWTONIAN POTENTIALS FOR NEARLY PARABOLIC ORBITS  

SciTech Connect

We describe a pseudo-Newtonian potential which, to within 1% error at all angular momenta, reproduces the precession due to general relativity of particles whose specific orbital energy is small compared to c{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild metric. For bound orbits, the constraint of low energy is equivalent to requiring the apoapsis of a particle to be large compared to the Schwarzschild radius. Such low-energy orbits are ubiquitous close to supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, but the potential is relevant in any context containing particles on low-energy orbits. Like the more complex post-Newtonian expressions, the potential correctly reproduces the precession in the far field, but also correctly reproduces the position and magnitude of the logarithmic divergence in precession for low angular momentum orbits. An additional advantage lies in its simplicity, both in computation and implementation. We also provide two simpler, but less accurate potentials, for cases where orbits always remain at large angular momenta, or when the extra accuracy is not needed. In all of the presented cases, the accuracy in precession in low-energy orbits exceeds that of the well-known potential of Paczynski and Wiita, which has {approx}30% error in the precession at all angular momenta.

Wegg, Christopher, E-mail: wegg@tapir.caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-04-20

366

Towards the 1-cm goal: characterizing Jason orbit error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR and DORIS data types have been determined from over 180 days of Jason-1 tracking data. Analysis of current solution performance indicates the 1-cm radial orbit accuracy goal is close to being met. For example, the GPS dynamic solutions which overlap by 6-hours, show radial orbit differences of 7 mm, and show SLR high elevation fits of 14 mm. The reduced-dynamic solutions show even better performance. Sources of orbit error include the mis-modeling of gravity, tides, non-conservative forces, and the tracking measurement. Analysis of orbit differences, tracking and altimeter data residuals, and recovered accelerations are used to identify and characterize error remaining in the Jason orbit.

Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, D. B.; Williams, T. A.; Chinn, D. S.

2003-04-01

367

Simple control laws for low-thrust orbit transfers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods are presented by which to determine both a thrust direction and when to apply thrust to effect specified changes in any of the orbit elements except for true anomaly, which is assumed free. The central body is assumed to be a point mass, and the initial and final orbits are assumed closed. Thrust, when on, is of a constant value, and specific impulse is constant. The thrust profiles derived from the two methods are not propellant-optimal, but are based firstly on the optimal thrust directions and location on the osculating orbit for changing each of the orbit elements and secondly on the desired changes in the orbit elements. Two examples of transfers are presented, one in semimajor axis and inclination, and one in semimajor axis and eccentricity. The latter compares favourably with a propellant-optimized transfer between the same orbits. The control laws have few input parameters, but can still capture the complexity of a wide variety of orbit transfers.

Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

2003-01-01

368

Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices  

SciTech Connect

The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

Paul Mattione

2007-05-01

369

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

370

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2010-01-01

371

Vertical combustor for refuse combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical combustor for refuse-particle combustion was analyzed for waste-to-energy recovery. A one-dimensional model was constructed that consisted of fuel particles, inert solid particles, and the gaseous mixture. The gaseous mixture was divided further into six chemical species that are involved in combustion at temperatures below about 2000°F. It was concluded that such combustors may be viable in the United

Chung

1981-01-01

372

Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth is surrounded by a protective atmosphere, composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and trace amounts of other gases, that protects Earth's surface from damaging solar radiation and plays a major role in water and energy transport. This interactive feature shows the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Viewers can see the regions of the atmosphere, some of the objects (natural and man-made) found at various altitudes, as well as the variations in air temperature and pressure with altitude.

373

Analysis of geometries with closed timelike curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the analysis of cylindrically symmetric and stationary space-times mathcal{C}_{t} with closed timelike curves. The equation of motion describing the evolution of a massive scalar field in a mathcal{C}_{t} space-time is obtained. A class of space-times with closed timelike curves describing cosmic strings and cylinders is studied in detail. In such space-times, both massive particles as well as photons can reach the non-causal region. Geodesics and closed timelike curves are calculated and investigated. We have observed that massive particles and photons describe, essentially, two kinds of trajectories: confined orbits and scattering states. The analysis of the light cones show us clearly the intersection between future and past inside the non-causal region. Exact solutions for the equation of motion of massive scalar field propagating in cosmic strings and cylinder space-times are presented. Quasinormal modes for the scalar field have been calculated in static and rotating cosmic cylinders. We found unstable modes in the rotating cases. Rotating as well as static cosmic strings, i.e., without regular interior solutions, do not display quasinormal modes for the scalar field. We conclude presenting a conjecture relating closed timelike curves and space-time instability.

Pavan, A. B.

2010-05-01

374

Galactic Habitable Orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

2014-03-01

375

Vertical Height of the Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the vertical dimension of the atmosphere and includes four activities. Activity 1 Introduces concepts related to distance, including length and height and units of measurement. Students are asked to make comparisons of distances. In activity 2, students learn about the vertical profile of the atmosphere. They work with a graph and plot the heights of objects and the layers of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. In activity 3, students learn about other forms of visual displays using satellite imagery. They compare images of the same weather feature, a hurricane, using two different images from MODIS and CALIPSO. One image is looking down on the hurricane from space, the other looks through the hurricane to display a profile of the hurricane. Activity 4 reinforces the concept of the vertical nature of the atmosphere. Students will take a CALIPSO satellite image that shows a profile of the atmosphere and use this information to plot mountains and clouds on their own graph of the atmosphere. The recommended order for the activities is to complete the first two activities on day one, and the second two activities on day two. Each day will require approximately 1 to 1.5 hours.

376

The Earth's Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These eleven activities relate to the results of the motion and position of the Earth in its orbit, investigating both the causes and the effects of changing seasons. It starts simply by trying to quantify the observation that it is colder in the winter and ends by measuring the tilt of the Earth. This is chapter two of the online book Eyes on the Sky, Feet on the Ground, containing explorations into astronomy as a classroom tool for learning how to theorize, experiment, and analyze data. The activities are fully illustrated and contain detailed, step-by-step instructions as well as suggested discussion topics.

2007-12-12

377

Commission 42: Close Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The president of the Commission welcomed the participants in the business meeting and provided an overview of the activities carried out during the past triennium 2002-2005. A good number of meetings have been held during this period on close binaries, about two per year, including both classical and interacting systems. One specific Symposium at the General Assembly in Prague, devoted to binary stars as astrophysical tools, showed the vitality of the field and the trend of cooperation between scientists studying close binaries and those specialized in visual double stars. The study of very low-mass binaries, including those containing planet-sized components also received much attention as well as the analysis of massive objects in nearby galaxies.

Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Szkody, Paula; Gies, Douglas R.; Kang, Young-Woon; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Livio, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Nordström, Birgitta; Ribas, Ignasi; Ribas, Edward; Vrielmann, Sonja; Scarfe, Colin D.

2007-12-01

378

An accelerated closed universe  

E-print Network

We study a model in which a closed universe with dust and quintessence matter components may look like an accelerated flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe at low redshifts. Several quantities relevant to the model are expressed in terms of observed density parameters, $\\Omega_M$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}$, and of the associated density parameter $\\Omega_Q$ related to the quintessence scalar field $Q$.

Sergio del Campo; Mauricio Cataldo; Francisco Pena

2004-08-03

379

Commission 42: Close Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triennial report from Commission 42 covers various topics like massive binaries, contact systems, cataclysmic variables and low-mass binary stars. We try in a number of sections to provide an update on the current status of the main research areas in the field of close binaries. It is not a formal review, even complete or comprehensive, but an attempt to bring the main topics on recent research to astronomers working in other fields. References are also not comprehensive and simply added to the text to help the reader looking for deeper information on the subject. For this reason, we have chosen to include references (sometimes incomplete for ongoing work) not in a list at the end but integrated with the main text body. Complete references and additional sources can be easily obtained through web access of ADS or SIMBAD. Furthermore, the summary of papers on close-binary research contained in the Bibliography of Close Binaries (BCB) can be accessed from the web site of Commission 42. I would like to express the gratitude of the commission for the careful work of Colin Scarfe as Editor-in-Chief of BCB and Andras Holl and Attila Sragli for maintaining the web pages of the Commission within the structure of Division V. Finally, K. Olah and J. Jurcsik are gratefully acknowledged for their continued support as editors of the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), also accessible through the commission web page.

Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek; Szkody, P.; Gies, D.; Kang, Y.-W.; Linsky, J.; Livio, M.; Morrell, N.; Hilditch, R.; Nordström, B.; Ribas, I.; Sion, E.; Vrielman, S.

2007-03-01

380

Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence  

E-print Network

We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

Acemoglu, Daron

381

Orbital fractures: pathophysiology and implant materials for orbital reconstruction.  

PubMed

Among midfacial fractures, the frequency of orbital injuries is surpassed only by nasal fractures. A clear understanding of orbital anatomy and the pathophysiology of these injuries is critical to accurate diagnosis, precise surgical reconstruction, and successful clinical outcomes. This chapter reviews the mechanism of injury and pathophysiology of orbital fractures as well as the implant materials that are currently used for surgical reconstruction. PMID:25397706

Strong, E Bradley

2014-10-01

382

Precise regional baseline estimation using a priori orbital information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution using GPS measurements acquired during the CASA Uno campaign has resulted in 3-4 mm horizontal daily baseline repeatability and 13 mm vertical repeatability for a 729 km baseline, located in North America. The agreement with VLBI is at the level of 10-20 mm for all components. The results were obtained with the GIPSY orbit determination and baseline estimation software and are based on five single-day data arcs spanning the 20, 21, 25, 26, and 27 of January, 1988. The estimation strategy included resolving the carrier phase integer ambiguities, utilizing an optial set of fixed reference stations, and constraining GPS orbit parameters by applying a priori information. A multiday GPS orbit and baseline solution has yielded similar 2-4 mm horizontal daily repeatabilities for the same baseline, consistent with the constrained single-day arc solutions. The application of weak constraints to the orbital state for single-day data arcs produces solutions which approach the precise orbits obtained with unconstrained multiday arc solutions.

Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

1990-01-01

383

Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

2012-01-01

384

The orbit properties of colliding co-orbiting bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is generally assumed that an ensemble of small bodies located in similar Keplarian orbits will, because of collisions, tend to disperse into more and more dissimilar orbits. This theory was challenged. Alfven maintains that for the case where the time between collisions is longer than the orbit period and the collisions are essentially inelastic the orbits and velocities will become more similar. This gives rise to the concepts of negative diffusion and jet streams. It is proposed that this question might be investigated experimentally using the space station. The proposed experiment is briefly described.

Freeman, John W.

1987-01-01

385

General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center showing the payload bay doors open exposing the heat-dissipating radiator panels located on the inside of the payload bay doors. Also in the view is the boom portion of the boom sensor system deployed as part of the return to flight procedures after STS-107 to inspect the orbiter's thermal protection system. The Remote Manipulator System, the "Canadarm", and the airlock are seen in the background of the image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

386

Orbital Evolution and Impact Hazard of Asteroids on Retrograde Orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the past evolutional scenarios of known group of asteroids in retrograde orbits. Applying the latest observational data, we determined their nominal and averaged orbital elements. Next, we studied the behaviour of their orbital motion 1~My in the past (100~My in the future for two NEAs) taking into account the limitations of observational errors. It has been shown that the influence of outer planets perturbations in many cases can import small bodies on high inclination or retrograde orbits into the inner Solar System.

Kankiewicz, P.; W?odarczyk, I.

2014-07-01

387

Global well-posedness for the two-dimensional nonlinear Boussinesq equations with vertical dissipation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is devoted to the study of the global well-posedness for the two-dimensional nonlinear Boussinesq equations with vertical dissipation. In the absence of horizontal dissipation, we establish a growth estimate on vertical component of velocity, that is, sup ?/?{plogp} which is close to ? and is bounded via the low-high decomposition technique. This together with the smoothing effect in vertical direction enables us to obtain the H1-estimate for velocity. Based on this, we prove the existence and uniqueness of classical solution without smallness assumptions. In addition, we also discuss the global well-posedness result for the rough initial data.

Wu, Gang; Zheng, Xiaoxin

388

Continental seismic events observed by the MPL vertical DIFAR array  

SciTech Connect

The vertical DIFAR array, an underwater acoustic sensor system, deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) was in place over the continental shelf off of Southern California and recorded the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test and nearly a score of after-shocks of the Landers/Big Bear earthquakes. Data from this array raise the possibility that detection thresholds for continental events may be significantly lower for arrays over the continental shelf than for arrays in the deep ocean basins. Offshore stations could be used to fill gaps in land-based seismic networks for monitoring the NPT and a CTBT, especially for monitoring non-cooperating nations with large coastlines. This preliminary report provides an analysis of the HUNTERS TROPHY observation as well as one of the Landers aftershocks. The analysis suggests detection thresholds for vertical hydrophone arrays below mb 3.0 at ranges between 3 and 4 degrees, and below mb 4.4 out to 6 degrees. This report also describes two signal processing techniques that enhance the detection potential of short vertical arrays. These methods are deterministic null steering to suppress horizontally propagating ambient ocean noise, and matched field processing for vertically-incident acoustic fields. The latter technique is ideally suited for acoustic fields derived from incident seismic waves, and may be viewed as a {open_quotes}synthetic aperture{close_quotes} approach to increase the effective aperture of the array.

Harris, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); D`Spain, G. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States). Marine Physical Lab.

1993-11-01

389

Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1  

E-print Network

Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1 and Caroline Noyer and Olivier Raynaud2 Research Report;Abstract Twin vertices in graphs correspond to vertices sharing the same neighbor- hood. We propose an extension to hypergraphs of the concept of twin ver- tices. For this we give two characterizations of twin

Boyer, Edmond

390

7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

Boyer, Edmond

391

A guidance and control assessment of three vertical landing options for RLV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is considering a vertical lander as a candidate concept for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Three strategies for guiding and controlling the inversion of a reentering RLV from a nose-first attitude to a vertical landing attitude are suggested. Each option is simulated from a common reentry state to touchdown, using a common guidance algorithm and different controllers. Results demonstrate the characteristics that typify and distinguish each concept and help to identify peculiar problems, level of guidance and control sophistication required, feasibility concerns, and areas in which stringent subsystem requirements will be imposed by guidance and control.

Gallaher, M.; Coughlin, D.; Krupp, D

1995-01-01

392

Mars Observer orbit determination analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a simulated orbit determination analysis for three phases of the Mars Observer mission (interplanetary cruise, orbit insertion, and mapping), together with a summary of orbital accuracies throughout the Mars Observer mission. The plan for achieving the navigation objectives of the Mars Observer mission is described. These objectives are to navigate the Mars Observer spacecraft to Mars and achieve accurate targeting at Mars; to propulsively maneuver the spacecraft into a 3-day period, capture orbit; to navigate the spacecraft into a 1.96-hr period low-altitude, nearly circular mapping orbit; and to maintain Mars Observer in the mapping orbit throughout the 687 days devoted for scientific data acquisition. Factors that will affect the spacecraft during each of the three phases are discussed.

Esposito, Pasquale; Roth, Duane; Demcak, Stuart

1991-01-01

393

Updated orbit of Apophis with recent observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroid Apophis (previously designed 2004 MN4) was first discovered in June 2004. From its first observations, Apophis was revealed to be a special study case in as much as, it reached the level 4 of Torino scale with a high probability of collision in 2029. New observations eliminated all danger for 2029. But, because of a deep close encounter in 2029 (˜38000 km), the asteroid will be put on a chaotic-like orbit and some risks of collision in 2036 occur if the asteroid goes through a very small region called keyhole. Now, its orbit is quite well known and thanks to additional observations, the risk for the short term seems to disappear. But what about the long term? As far as the Earth-impact threat study is concerned, the deep 2029-close encounter is an opportunity for space missions towards Apophis. With our technologies, to deflect an asteroid, we can only act from the source. Many deflection missions were studied, from the hardest (nuclear weapons), to the softest (shadow mission). But in order to prepare such missions, we have to be sure that the asteroid is really on an impact trajectory. Moreover, if it is the case, we have to be sure that it won't be put on the trajectory of other keyholes. To this aim, we need a good knowledge of the 2029 region uncertainty and we will analyse the impact of the new observations of March 2011.

Bancelin, D.; Colas, F.; Thuillot, W.; Hestroffer, D.; Assafin, M.

2011-12-01

394

Requirements report for SSTO vertical take-off/horizontal landing vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the detailed design requirements and design criteria to support Structures/TPS Technology development for SSTO winged vehicle configurations that use vertical take-off and horizontal landing and deliver 25,000 lb payloads to a 220 nm circular orbit at an inclination of 51.6 degrees or 40,000 lb payloads to a 150 nm circular orbit at a 28.5 degree of inclination. This document will be updated on a timely basis as informatIon becomes available throughout the project.

Greenberg, H. S.

1994-01-01

395

Requirements report for SSTO vertical take-off/horizontal landing vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the detailed design requirements and design criteria to support Structures/TPS Technology development for SSTO winged vehicle configurations that use vertical take-off and horizontal landing and deliver 25,000 lb payloads to a 220 nm circular orbit at an inclination of 51.6 degrees or 40,000 lb payloads to a 150 nm circular orbit at a 28.5 degree of inclination. This document will be updated on a timely basis as informatIon becomes available throughout the project.

Greenberg, H. S.

1994-07-01

396

N -observations and radar orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial asteriod orbits are determined by a least squares adjustment of an arbitrary number (N) of optical and radar observations. The usual separation, into an orbit determination by three observations and a subsequent\\u000a differential orbit improvement, is combined into a single algorithm. A priori information is used for very small arcs. Ephemerides\\u000a very suitable for linking are obtained by strictly

Leif Kahl Kristensen

2007-01-01

397

Spectroscopic binaries with elliptical orbits  

E-print Network

The radial velocity curves of many spectroscopic binaries (SBs) are perturbed by gas streams or proximity effects. For SBs with circular orbits, these perturbations can give rise to spurious orbital eccentricities of high statistical significance. But tests to identify such anomalous orbits can be constructed since perturbed velocity curves are in general no longer Keplerian. The derived tests are applied both to synthetic and to observed velocity curves.

L. B. Lucy

2005-05-11

398

Observations of orbital debris and satellites in Slovak Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many accidental optically tracked artificial objects during observations at Astronom-ical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra, Slovak Republic (AGO). Those objects are usually orbital debris or satellites. A tool to identify such a type of objects was necessary to create. Our software is called SatEph and is used to identify tracked artificial objects and to compute their orbital elements. SatEph is based on analytic propagation model SGP4 and TLE data. Program is still under development and in the near future it will be a part of software for automated search telescope for small near Earth asteroids at AGO. We present orbital debris observation simulation for the new optical searching system. Unlike other aster-oids searching systems (Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, Spacewatch etc.) our system should be capable to detect small asteroids in close vicinity of the Earth (smaller then Lunar distance) with high angular speed. The limiting magnitude of observable objects is about +16 magnitude and the pixel scale is 4,6 arcsec/px. This allows us to detect man made objects as well. We studied how many satellites and orbital debris with known orbital elements are able to track per given observing night. We also studied frequency detection of tracked object during one night. The searching system field of view will be 4.4 x 4.4 square degrees and the system will search more then 2000 square degrees per night. Exposure time for every single CCD shot is set to 30 seconds. We found out, there is possible to track from 250 to 450 objects (mostly with geosynchronous orbits) per one night in dependence on given day of the year. More then 200 objects have at least 3 astrometric positions per one night, which can be useful for orbit determination process. The tracked objects are mostly satellites and rocket bodies, which have different orbits, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Data of orbital debris astrometric positions will be offered for national space agencies and used for our own orbit determination. Those data could be useful for orbital elements updating of catalogue, or non catalogue artificial objects.

Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

399

Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings  

E-print Network

Orbits of Fibonacci and Lucas cubes, dihedral transformations, and asymmetric strings Ali Reza The Fibonacci cube n is obtained from the n-cube Qn by removing all the vertices that contain two consecutive 1s size, are determined for the Fibonacci cubes and the Lucas cubes under the action of the automorphism

Klavzar, Sandi

400

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight; Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which will investigate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on tissue-equivalent plastics as a constraint on models of biological response to background space radiation. The technology demonstration is an advanced radar (mini-RF) that will demonstrate X- and S-band radar imaging and interferometry using a light-weight synthetic aperture radar.

Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

2007-08-01

401

[Orbital granulocytic sarcoma: case report].  

PubMed

Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localized tumor consisting of malignant cells of myeloid origin. This tumor may present in association with acute myelogenous leukemia. Granulocytic sarcoma may be found in a variety of locations throughout the body including the orbit and typically affects children and young adults. There is a slight male predominance in these cases. This is an uncommon case report of a 33-year-old Latin-American woman who was admitted to the Hospital for rapidly progressive orbital proptosis. There was no systemic manifestation of leukemia. The occurrence of orbital granulocytic sarcoma before the development of systemic leukemia in children and young adults is not uncommon and these cases frequently develop hematological evidence within 2 months after initial orbital disease. In this case report, there was no systemic manifestation of leukemia in the last 30 months, even in the presence of orbital tumors. Granulocytic sarcoma is most frequently confused with malignant lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma. The differential diagnosis of these cases can be challenging, particularly when there is no evidence of systemic leukemia, when imaging features are not sufficiently specific to distinguish granulocytic neoplasms from other tumors. To establish the diagnosis often a biopsy is required. The treatment in such cases (orbital granulocytic sarcoma) is not standardized. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma may be suspected in cases of orbital tumors even in the absence of systemic manifestations of leukemia at any age. PMID:16322847

Fonseca Junior, Nilson Lopes da; Paves, Luis; Nakanami, Deise Mitsuko; Seixas, Maria Teresa; Manso, Paulo Góis

2005-01-01

402

OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

1972-01-01

403

Lévy Flights of Binary Orbits due to Impulsive Encounters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evolution of an almost-circular Keplerian orbit interacting with unbound perturbers. We calculate the change in eccentricity and angular momentum that results from a single encounter, assuming that the timescale for the interaction is shorter than the orbital period. The orbital perturbations are incorporated into a Boltzmann equation that allows for eccentricity dissipation. We present an analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation that describes the distribution of orbital eccentricity and relative inclination as a function of time. The eccentricity and inclination of the binary do not evolve according to a normal random walk but perform a Lévy flight. The slope of the mass spectrum of perturbers dictates whether close gravitational scatterings are more important than distant tidal ones. When close scatterings are important, the mass spectrum sets the slope of the eccentricity and inclination distribution functions. We use this general framework to understand the eccentricities of several Kuiper belt systems: Pluto, 2003 EL61, and Eris. We use the model of Tholen et al. to separate the non-Keplerian components of the orbits of Pluto's outer moons Nix and Hydra from the motion excited by interactions with other Kuiper belt objects. Our distribution is consistent with the observations of Nix, Hydra, and the satellites of 2003 EL61 and Eris. We address applications of this work to objects outside of the solar system, such as extra-solar planets around their stars and millisecond pulsars.

Collins, Benjamin F.; Sari, Re'em

2008-12-01

404

?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

Richey, Michael

405

Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices  

SciTech Connect

A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31

406

Position Paper on School Closings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A position paper addresses the current round of school closings in the District of Columbia arguing that these closings are not within the context of the 10-year educational facilities plan that included community input, and valid criteria for closing decisions being consistently and objectively applied. Current closings decisions are viewed as…

Twenty-First Century School Fund, Washington, DC.

407

Geology orbiter comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

1977-01-01

408

Orbital magnetic ratchet effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic ratchets—two-dimensional systems with superimposed noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic gratings—are considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that excitation by radiation results in a directed motion of two-dimensional carriers due to the pure orbital effect of the periodic magnetic field. Magnetic ratchets based on various two-dimensional systems such as topological insulators, graphene, and semiconductor heterostructures are investigated. The mechanisms of the electric current generation caused by both radiation-induced heating of carriers and by acceleration in the radiation electric field in the presence of a space-oscillating Lorentz force are studied in detail. The electric currents sensitive to the linear polarization plane orientation as well as to the radiation helicity are calculated. It is demonstrated that the frequency dependence of the magnetic ratchet currents is determined by the dominant elastic-scattering mechanism of two-dimensional carriers and differs for the systems with linear and parabolic energy dispersions.

Budkin, G. V.; Golub, L. E.

2014-09-01

409

Exploratory orbit analysis  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

Michelotti, L.

1989-03-01

410

Orbiting Carbon Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

Miller, Charles E.

2005-01-01

411

TOPEX orbital radiation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Barth, J. M.

1984-01-01

412

Orbital exenteration--simplified.  

PubMed Central

In summary, a simplified technique of orbital exenteration has been presented. Results, with complications, in eleven cases have been described. The advantages of the operative method described are: (1) full thickness skin provides better cushion for self-retaining prosthesis, (2) skin with intact blood supply is much less likely to be rejected, (3) no donor site with added discomfort and care, (4) local recurrence of neoplasm is easily detected, (5) operating time shortened and (6) favorable patient acceptance. Images FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 PMID:7043863

Coston, T O; Small, R G

1981-01-01

413

Determination of orbits with Torun Orbit Processor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torun Orbit Processor system (TOP) is a multipurpose system designed to provide the research requirements of the various orbital problems for artificial satellites. The analysis of mathematical model for the TOP system began in 1991 and coding for the IBM PC and Sun SparcStation 10 computers was completed in 1993. TOP was first used for laser data processing of

A. Drozyner

1995-01-01

414

Orbit Determination Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

2010-01-01

415

Track and capture of the orbiter with the space station remote manipulator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the first study using the real-time, man-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) for track and capture of the Space Shuttle Orbiter with the space station manipulator are presented. The objectives include evaluation of the operational coordination required between the orbiter pilot and the space station manipulator operator, evaluation of the locations and required number of closed-circuit television cameras, and evaluation of the orbiter grapple fixture clearance geometry. The SES is a premium quality real-time facility with full fidelity orbiter and space station crew workstations and cockpits.

Bains, E. M.; Price, C. R.; Walter, L. M.

1987-01-01

416

PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT  

SciTech Connect

ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

2003-07-01

417

Laser tracking for vertical control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

1993-01-01

418

A Jupiter Orbiter mother/daughter spacecraft concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a tandem launch of a mother/daughter spacecraft pair with a single launch vehicle for a 1981 Mariner Jupiter Orbiter mission is described. The mother is a close derivative of the three-axis stabilized Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977 spacecraft with the addition of a Viking-type propulsion module for orbit capture; it concentrates on the planetology and satellite science objectives. The daughter is a small, simple spin-stabilized spacecraft taking advantage of the mother's transit and delivery capabilities; it obtains in-situ measurements of the surrounding planetary environment. A conceptual design of the daughter spacecraft is presented.

Duxbury, J. H.

1975-01-01

419

Gauge Orbit Types for Theories with Classical Compact Gauge Group  

E-print Network

We determine the orbit types of the action of the group of local gauge transformations on the space of connections in a principal bundle with structure group O(n), SO(n) or $Sp(n)$ over a closed, simply connected manifold of dimension 4. Complemented with earlier results on U(n) and SU(n) this completes the classification of the orbit types for all classical compact gauge groups over such space-time manifolds. On the way we derive the classification of principal bundles with structure group SO(n) over these manifolds and the Howe subgroups of SO(n).

Alexander Hertsch; Gerd Rudolph; Matthias Schmidt

2008-12-01

420

Analyses of shuttle orbiter approach and landing conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of one shuttle orbiter approach and landing conditions are summarized. Causes of observed PIO like flight deficiencies are identified and potential cures are examined. Closed loop pilot/vehicle analyses are described and path/attitude stability boundaries defined. The latter novel technique proved of great value in delineating and illustrating the basic causes of this multiloop pilot control problem. The analytical results are shown to be consistent with flight test and fixed base simulation. Conclusions are drawn relating to possible improvements of the shuttle orbiter/digital flight control system.

Teper, G. L.; Dimarco, R. J.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Hoh, R. H.

1981-01-01

421

Orbit targeting specialist function: Level C formulation requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A definition of the level C requirements for onboard maneuver targeting software is provided. Included are revisions of the level C software requirements delineated in JSC IN 78-FM-27, Proximity Operations Software; Level C Requirements, dated May 1978. The software supports the terminal phase midcourse (TPM) maneuver, braking and close-in operations as well as supporting computation of the rendezvous corrective combination maneuver (NCC), and the terminal phase initiation (TPI). Specific formulation is contained here for the orbit targeting specialist function including the processing logic, linkage, and data base definitions for all modules. The crew interface with the software is through the keyboard and the ORBIT-TGT display.

Dupont, A.; Mcadoo, S.; Jones, H.; Jones, A. K.; Pearson, D.

1978-01-01

422

Shuttle orbiter - IUS/DSP satellite interface contamination study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a contamination analysis on the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite during launch and deployment by the Space Transportation System (STS) are presented. Predicted contaminant deposition was also included on critical DSP surfaces during the period soon after launch when the DSP is in the shuttle orbiter bay with the doors closed, the bay doors open, and during initial deployment. Additionally, a six sided box was placed at the spacecraft position to obtain directional contaminant flux information for a general payload while in the bay and during deployment. The analysis included contamination sources from the shuttle orbiter, IUS and cradle, the DSP sensor and the DSP support package.

Rantanen, R. O.; Strange, D. A.

1978-01-01

423

Conservation of closed loops.  

PubMed

The closed loop hypothesis of Berezovsky and Trifonov implicates the closure of loops of length 25-35 through hydrophobic interactions at the 'locks' as a key event in protein folding. The hypothesis is supported by published analyses of nine major superfolds. Here, we have generated multiple sequence alignments for the nine superfolds with PDB codes lthb, 1ilb, 256b, 2rhe, 1aps, 2stv, 4fxn (2fox), lubq and 7tim and have analysed the degree of conservation at the loop ends. Seventy percent of these loop ends are found to be well conserved and the peak in the distribution of distances between these well conserved regions lies at around 25 residues; both observations are consistent with the Berezovsky and Trifonov's hypothesis. PMID:17459747

Yew, Boon K; Chintapalli, Sree V; Upton, Graham G C; Reynolds, Christopher A

2007-10-01

424

Beyond the periodic orbit theory  

E-print Network

The global constraints on chaotic dynamics induced by the analyticity of smooth flows are used to dispense with individual periodic orbits and derive infinite families of exact sum rules for several simple dynamical systems. The associated Fredholm determinants are of particularly simple polynomial form. The theory developed suggests an alternative to the conventional periodic orbit theory approach to determining eigenspectra of transfer operators.

Predrag Cvitanovic; Kim Hansen; Juri Rolf; Gabor Vattay

1997-12-02

425

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) will be launched in August 2005 by an Atlas V 401 expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, USA. It will deliver to Mars orbit a payload to conduct remote sensing science observations, identify and characterize sites for future landers, and provide critical telecom\\/navigation relay capability for follow-on missions. The mission is designed

James E. Graf; Richard W. Zurek; Howard J. Eisen; Benhan Jai; M. D. Johnston; Ramon DePaula

2005-01-01

426

Orbital anatomy for the surgeon.  

PubMed

An anatomic description of the orbit and its contents and the eyelids directed toward surgeons is the focus of this article. The bone and soft tissue anatomic nuances for surgery are highlighted, including a section on osteology, muscles, and the orbital suspensory system. Innervation and vascular anatomy are also addressed. PMID:23107426

Turvey, Timothy A; Golden, Brent A

2012-11-01

427

Early History & Fiction! Orbital Motion!  

E-print Network

://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FRS.html! ·! Decades of the Great Dreams" ·! From the Earth to the Moon, Jules Verne" ·! Equations of Motion of the Great Dreams! Decades of the Great Dreams! #12;Near and Far Sides of the Moon" Clementine mission, 1994-1905)! 1865! Orbital Motion! #12;Orbits 101" Satellites" Escape and Capture (Comets, Meteorites)" Two

Stengel, Robert F.

428

Artificial frozen orbits around Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbits around Mercury are influenced by the strong elliptic third-body perturbation, especially for high eccentricity orbits, the periapsis altitude changes dramatically. Frozen orbits whose mean eccentricity and argument of perigee remain constants are obviously a good choice for space missions, but the forming conditions are too harsh to meet practical needs. To deal with this problem, a continuous control method that combines analytical theory and parameter optimization is proposed to build an artificial frozen orbit. The artificial frozen orbits are investigated on the basis of double averaged Hamiltonian, of which the second and third zonal harmonics and the perturbation of elliptic third-body gravity are considered. In this paper, coefficients of perturbations which satisfy the conditions of frozen orbits are involved as control parameters, and the relevant artificial perturbations are compensated by the control strategy. So probes around Mercury can be kept on frozen orbit under the influence of continuous control force. Then complex method of optimization is used to search for the energy optimized artificial frozen orbits. The choosing of optimal parameters, the objective function setting and other issues are also discussed in the study. Evolution of optimal control parameters are given in large ranges of semi-major axis and eccentricity, through the variation of these curves, the fuel efficiency is discussed. The result shows that the control method proposed in this paper can effectively maintain the eccentricity and argument of perigee frozen.

Ma, Xue; Li, Junfeng

2013-12-01

429

Orbital evolution around irregular bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new profiles of the space missions aimed at asteroids and comets, moving from fly-bys to rendezvous and orbiting, call for new spaceflight dynamics tools capable of propagating orbits in an accurate way around these small irregular objects. Moreover, interesting celestial mechanics and planetary science problems, requiring the same sophisticated tools, have been raised by the first images of asteroids

A. Rossi; F. Marzari; P. Farinella

1999-01-01

430

Seasonal variation and dynamics of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma, after 8 years of Cassini in orbit.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn orbits the Sun with a period of nearly 29.5 years and has an obliquity of 26.73°. As a result, Saturn presents seasonal variations similar to Earth's, but with much longer seasons, as the tilt between the planet's spin axis and the solar wind vary (approximately sinusoidally) with time between solstices. Saturn was close to its equinox (tilt below 8.1°) during the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 flybys that took place between September 1979 and August 1981, so any seasonal effects would have been relatively hard to see in the limited data from these missions. More than 2 decades later, on July 4, 2004, Cassini began orbiting Saturn, returning a variety of in situ and remote measurements. During the last 8 years, Cassini covered a large part of the Saturnian system and offered the opportunity of sampling the planetary magnetosphere not just at different seasons, but also at seasonal phases that are symmetric to the Saturnian equinox (August 2009). In this talk, we focus on the seasonal effects seen in the magnetosphere of Saturn as the angle between the solar wind flow and the Saturn-Sun direction changes from +23.7° (northern hemisphere winter) at the arrival of Cassini, to -14.9° (northern hemisphere summer) on July 2012. Particle and magnetic field data taken from a extensive set of equatorial and high latitude orbits of Cassini, at various distances and local times, show that: (a) the plasma sheet of Saturn has the form of a magnetodisk, with an energy-dependent vertical structure, being thicker by a factor of ~2 in the energetic particle range than in the electron plasma, and (b) it exhibits intense dynamical behavior, evident in in-situ particle measurements but also in energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. The study of the pre-equinox high latitude orbits revealed that the night side plasma sheet was tilted northward beyond a radial distance of ~15 Rs (1Rs=60,258 km). As equinox approached, Cassini observed a clear decrease in the tilt of the planetary plasma sheet, which was progressively becoming aligned to the solar wind direction, while temperature, pressure and number density remained essentially unaffected by the seasonal change. Saturn's magnetospheric tilt is not seen only in the tail, but is also observable on the dayside (unlike the Jovian and the terrestrial magnetosphere), at least for the thermal plasma and the magnetic field, so that the magnetodisk adopts the shape of a bowl or basin, when observed on either side of the equinox. Moreover, magnetic field and particle data have shown that the plasma sheet oscillates normal to the rotational plane with an amplitude that is generally comparable to or larger than its thickness and a period very close to that of the planetary sidereal rotation (~10.6 hr). The shape, the seasonal changes and the short period motion (flapping) of the plasma sheet have now been successfully reproduced by the models of Arridge et al. 2008 and 2011. The anticipated orbits in 2013 and 2014 will hopefully provide a more complete seasonal overview, with available data from half a Saturnian year.

Sergis, N.

2012-12-01

431

Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster  

E-print Network

The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.

Euaggelos E. Zotos

2014-11-18

432

Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the z-coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary (x, y) plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of z0 on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.

Zotos, Euaggelos E.

2015-01-01

433

Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close up view of the pair of Rudder Pedals in the Commander's Satiation on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. The rudder pedals command orbiter acceleration in yaw by positioning the rudder during atmospheric flight. However, because the flight control software automatically performs turn coordination during banking maneuvers, the rudder pedals are not operationally used during glided flight. It is not until after touchdown that the crew uses them for nose wheel steering during rollout. Depressing the upper portion of the rudder pedals provides braking. Differential braking may also be used for directional control during rollout. This view was take at Johnson Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

434

Orbit bifurcations and wavefunction autocorrelations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently shown (Keating J P and Prado S D 2001 Proc. R. Soc. A 457 1855 72) that, in the semiclassical limit, the scarring of quantum eigenfunctions by classical periodic orbits in chaotic systems may be dramatically enhanced when the orbits in question undergo bifurcation. Specifically, a bifurcating orbit gives rise to a scar with an amplitude that scales as hbar? and a width that scales as hbar?, where ? and ? are bifurcation-dependent scar exponents whose values are typically smaller than those (? = ? = ½) associated with isolated and unstable periodic orbits. We here analyse the influence of bifurcations on the autocorrelation function of quantum eigenstates, averaged with respect to energy. It is shown that the length-scale of the correlations around a bifurcating orbit scales semiclassically as hbar1-?, where ? is the corresponding scar amplitude exponent. This imprint of bifurcations on quantum autocorrelations is illustrated by numerical computations for a family of perturbed cat maps.

Bäcker, A.; Keating, J. P.; Prado, S. D.

2002-09-01

435

General relativity and satellite orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general relativistic correction to the position of a satellite is found by retaining Newtonian physics for an observer on the satellite and introducing a potential. The potential is expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the orbit and substituted in Lagrange's equations. Integration of the equations shows that a typical earth satellite with small orbital eccentricity is displaced by about 17 cm. from its unperturbed position after a single orbit, while the periodic displacement over the orbit reaches a maximum of about 3 cm. The moon is displaced by about the same amounts. Application of the equations to Mercury gives a total displacement of about 58 km. after one orbit and a maximum periodic displacement of about 12 km.

Rubincam, D. P.

1975-01-01

436

Determination of orbital parameters of interacting galaxies using a genetic algorithm. Description of the method and application to artificial data  

E-print Network

A method for determining the orbital parameters of interacting pairs of galaxies is presented and evaluated using artificial data. The method consists of a genetic algorithm which can search efficiently through the very large space of possible orbits. It is found that, in most cases, orbital parameters close to the actual orbital parameters of the pair can be found. The method does not require information about the velocity field of the interacting system, and is able to cope with noisy data. The inner regions of the galaxies, which are difficult to model, can be neglected, and the orbital parameters can be determined using the remaining information.

M. Wahde

1997-10-24

437

Simulation of flow and growth phenomena in a close-spaced reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of operating conditions and reactor geometry on flow patterns, growth rate and growth rate uniformity in vertical, close-spaced reactors for metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are described. Finite element solutions of three-dimensional models of transport phenomena in a close-spaced reactor establish that the individual jets that comprise the gas injector do not penetrate close to the substrate despite its

Theodoros G. Mihopoulos; Steven G. Hummel; Klavs F. Jensen

1998-01-01

438

Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo. It generates high frequency acoustic waves around 1kHz. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections and currently being processed for imaging the subsurface structure.

Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

2011-12-01

439

Vertical combustor for refuse combustion  

SciTech Connect

A vertical combustor for refuse-particle combustion was analyzed for waste-to-energy recovery. A one-dimensional model was constructed that consisted of fuel particles, inert solid particles, and the gaseous mixture. The gaseous mixture was divided further into six chemical species that are involved in combustion at temperatures below about 2000/sup 0/F. It was concluded that such combustors may be viable in the United States since US refuse contains large amounts of volatile matter. Combustion of the relatively small char, however, may not be cost-effective in the present combustor where the fuel residence time is on the order of 2 s for a combustor height of 20 to 30 ft. A computer solution was designed to optimize a given combustor system. A simplified version of the solution was programmed for a TI-59 programmable hand calculator for field use.

Chung, P.M.

1981-06-01

440

Orbit on demand - In this century if pushed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance requirements and design features of the next generation of manned launch vehicles are discussed. The vehicles will launch within minutes of demand and will have a several-day turnaround time. Launch and landing sites will have minimal facilities. Baseline requirements comprise carriage and return of a 5000 lb, 7 ft diam, 15 ft long payload, a 160 n. mi. polar orbit, a 200 fps on-orbit delt-V capability, provisions for two men for 24 hr, an 1100 n. mi. cross range option, 500 flights/vehicle, land on 10,000 ft runways, and be acceptable passing over populated areas. Significant advances are needed in propulsion and fuel systems, lightweight durable structures and airbreathing acceleration engines. Trade-offs have yet to be fully explored among the number of stages and horizontal or vertical take-off.

Martin, J. A.

1985-01-01

441

FORMING CLOSE-IN EARTH-LIKE PLANETS VIA A COLLISION-MERGER MECHANISM IN LATE-STAGE PLANET FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The large number of exoplanets found to orbit their host stars in very close orbits have significantly advanced our understanding of the planetary formation process. It is now widely accepted that such short-period planets cannot have formed in situ, but rather must have migrated to their current orbits from a formation location much farther from their host star. In the late stages of planetary formation, once the gas in the protoplanetary disk has dissipated and migration has halted, gas giants orbiting in the inner disk regions will excite planetesimals and planetary embryos, resulting in an increased rate of orbital crossings and large impacts. We present the results of dynamical simulations for planetesimal evolution in this later stage of planet formation. We find that a mechanism is revealed by which the collision-merger of planetary embryos can kick terrestrial planets directly into orbits extremely close to their parent stars.

Ji Jianghui; Jin Sheng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Tinney, C. G., E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: qingxiaojin@gmail.com [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2011-01-20

442

A demonstration of high precision GPS orbit determination for geodetic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High precision orbit determination of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is a key requirement for GPS-based precise geodetic measurements and precise low-earth orbiter tracking, currently under study at JPL. Different strategies for orbit determination have been explored at JPL with data from a 1985 GPS field experiment. The most successful strategy uses multi-day arcs for orbit determination and includes fine tuning of spacecraft solar pressure coefficients and station zenith tropospheric delays using the GPS data. Average rms orbit repeatability values for 5 of the GPS satellites are 1.0, 1.2, and 1.7 m in altitude, cross-track, and down-track componenets when two independent 5-day fits are compared. Orbit predictions up to 24 hours outside the multi-day arcs agree within 4 m of independent solutions obtained with well tracked satellites in the prediction interval. Baseline repeatability improves with multi-day as compared to single-day arc orbit solutions. When tropospheric delay fluctuations are modeled with process noise, significant additional improvement in baseline repeatability is achieved. For a 246-km baseline, with 6-day arc solutions for GPS orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million (0.4-0.6 cm) for east, north, and length components and 8 parts in 100 million for the vertical component. For 1314 and 1509 km baselines with the same orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million for the north components (2-3 cm) and 4 parts in 100 million or better for east, length, and vertical components.

Lichten, S. M.; Border, J. S.

1987-01-01

443

Orbital dystopia: attempts to evaluate the results of surgery.  

PubMed

This study has shown that surgery for hypertelorism or vertical orbital dystopia gives very satisfying results overall to the patients and their families and leads to a modest but highly significant objective improvement in appearance after surgery, as perceived by panels of laymen or hospital staff not known to the patients. The complexities of the methodology of panel assessments of appearance are discussed. The results of this study confirm the need to go beyond our traditional methods of assessing surgical outcome simply within our specialty. PMID:2018910

Poole, M D; Walters, E; Beardsworth, E; Griffiths, P

1991-01-01

444

A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

1997-01-01

445

Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars' - Comparison with Viking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shortly after midnight Sunday morning (5 April 1998 12:39 AM PST), the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft successfully acquired a high resolution image of the 'Face on Mars' feature in the Cydonia region. The image was transmitted to Earth on Sunday, and retrieved from the mission computer data base Monday morning (6 April 1998). The image was processed at the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) facility 9:15 AM and the raw image immediately transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for release to the Internet. The images shown here were subsequently processed at MSSS.

The picture was acquired 375 seconds after the spacecraft's 220th close approach to Mars. At that time, the 'Face', located at approximately 40.8o N, 9.6o W, was 275 miles (444 km) from the spacecraft. The 'morning' sun was 25o above the horizon. The picture has a resolution of 14.1 feet (4.3 meters) per pixel, making it ten times higher resolution than the best previous image of the feature, which was taken by the Viking Mission in the mid-1970's. The full image covers an area 2.7 miles (4.4 km) wide and 25.7 miles (41.5 km) long.

In this comparison, the best Viking image has been enlarged to 3.3 times its original resolution, and the MOC image has been decreased by a similar 3.3 times, creating images of roughly the same size. In addition, the MOC images have been geometrically transformed to a more overhead projection (different from the mercator map projection of PIA01440 & 1441) for ease of comparison with the Viking image. The left image is a portion of Viking Orbiter 1 frame 070A13, the middle image is a portion of MOC frame shown normally, and the right image is the same MOC frame but with the brightness inverted to simulate the approximate lighting conditions of the Viking image.

Processing Image processing has been applied to the images in order to improve the visibility of features. This processing included the following steps:

The image was processed to remove the sensitivity differences between adjacent picture elements (calibrated). This removes the vertical streaking.

The contrast and brightness of the image was adjusted, and 'filters' were applied to enhance detail at several scales.

The image was then geometrically warped to meet the computed position information for a mercator-type map. This corrected for the left-right flip, and the non-vertical viewing angle (about 45o from vertical), but also introduced some vertical 'elongation' of the image for the same reason Greenland looks larger than Africa on a mercator map of the Earth.

A section of the image, containing the 'Face' and a couple of nearly impact craters and hills, was 'cut' out of the full image and reproduced separately.

See PIA01440-1442 for additional processing steps. Also see PIA01236 for the raw image.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1998-01-01

446

Highly Unquenched Orbital Moment In Fe Phthalocyanine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-Phthalocyanine molecules (MPc) form a family of compounds with a wide range of commercial application such as catalysts or dyes, and more recently in thin film technology. In an early work we found that in the ?-phase of FePc, where the FePc molecules are stacked in a herringbone structure, the Fe atoms are strongly magnetically coupled into ferromagnetic Ising chains with very weak antiferromagnetic interchain coupling. The chains achieve 3D long range ordering at TN=10 K, and strong irreversibility (slow relaxation) below 5K. The Fe(II) is in a S=1 state and the hyperfine field in the ordered phase reaches a record value in Fe(II) of Bhf=66.2 T. This result is consistent with a large, unquenched orbital moment. It has been measured directly in a X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopic study on FePc thin films deposited parallel on a Au surface predeposited on a Si substrate. The XMCD spectra at the L3 and L2 edges were measured as a function of incident angle ?. The orbital moment is | mL |=0.53±0.04?B and the isotropic spin component is mS=0.64±0.05?B. The origin of this unusually high orbital moment is the incompletely filled eg level lying close to the Fermi energy. The ferromagnetically coupled Fe moments show strong, in-plane anisotropy [1]. Angular dependent measurements at the Fe K-edge also show strong quadrupolar excitations associated to a strong orbital moment, confirming the above result of the existence of a large, unquenched orbital moment in this molecule. Submonolayer FePc thin films deposited on Au, recently studied my XAS and XMCD have shown that there is charge transfer from the substrate to the Fe atom, modifying the electronic structure and magnetic properties [2] [4pt] [1] J. Bartolom'e et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 195405 (2010) [0pt] [2] S. Stepanow et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 220401(R) (2011).

Bartolome, Juan

2012-02-01

447

Close encounters with large asteroids in the next 50 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined method of searching for asteroid close encounters has been described and applied for detection of close encounters with largest asteroids in a period of 50 years starting from 1991. The method consists of a multistep selection procedure and an accurate numerical integration and provides the parameters of close encounters with high reliability. We compiled a list of 208 close encounters with asteroids larger than 100 km in diameter occurring at distances less than 0.01 AU. Expected mutual perturbing effects have been computed for the most interesting pairs. Measurable effects, enabling an asteroid mass determination, have been found for three of the examined pairs (1, 1393; 4, 2831; 10, 2061), whereas smaller effects, requiring an improved observational accuracy, better orbital fits, and more reliable ephemerides, were detected in several other cases.

Kuzmanoski, M.; Knezevic, Z.

1993-05-01

448

Coupling Correction and Beam Dynamics at Ultralow Vertical Emittance in the ALS  

SciTech Connect

For synchrotron light sources and for damping rings of linear colliders it is important to be able to minimize the vertical emittance and to correct the spurious vertical dispersion. This allows one to maximize the brightness and/or the luminosity. A commonly used tool to measure the skew error distribution is the analysis of orbit response matrices using codes like LOCO. Using the new Matlab version of LOCO and 18 newly installed power supplies for individual skew quadrupoles at the ALS the emittance ratio could be reduced below 0.1% at 1.9 GeV yielding a vertical emittance of about 5 pm. At those very low emittances, additional effects like intra beam scattering become more important, potentially limiting the minimum emittance for machine like the damping rings of linear colliders.

Steier, Christoph; Robin, D.; Wolski, A.; Portmann, G.; Safranek, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC

2008-03-17

449

Vertical motion of near-surface aerosols close to breaking waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used two-dimensional correlation on two-dimensional extinction cross-sections measured by a scanning lidar to determine the velocity structure of the salt-spray aerosols. The lidar scans were collected over a reef at Bellows Beach, on the Northeast side of Oahu, Hawaii. The resulting velocity streamlines suggest that lifting of sea-spray aerosols as high as 200 m occurs in the vicinity of opposing horizontal roll vortices. The velocities vary rapidly over distances of less than 500 m and show a complex pattern which is inadequately represented by conventional anemometer measurements.

Lienert, Barry; Porter, John; Sharma, Shiv

2005-10-01

450

Lifetimes of lunar satellite orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Exploration Initiative has generated a renewed interest in lunar mission planning. The lunar missions currently under study, unlike the Apollo missions, involve long stay times. Several lunar gravity models have been formulated, but mission planners do not have enough confidence in the proposed models to conduct detailed studies of missions with long stay times. In this report, a particular lunar gravitational model, the Ferrari 5 x 5 model, was chosen to determine the lifetimes for 100-km and 300-km perilune altitude, near-circular parking orbits. The need to analyze orbital lifetimes for a large number of initial orbital parameters was the motivation for the formulation of a simplified gravitational model from the original model. Using this model, orbital lifetimes were found to be heavily dependent on the initial conditions of the nearly circular orbits, particularly the initial inclination and argument of perilune. This selected model yielded lifetime predictions of less than 40 days for some orbits, and other orbits had lifetimes exceeding a year. Although inconsistencies and limitations are inherent in all existing lunar gravity models, primarily because of a lack of information about the far side of the moon, the methods presented in this analysis are suitable for incorporating the moon's nonspherical gravitational effects on the preliminary design level for future lunar mission planning.

Meyer, Kurt W.; Buglia, James J.; Desai, Prasun N.

1994-01-01

451

Radiation therapy for orbital lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe radiation techniques and evaluate outcomes for orbital lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients (and 62 eyes) with orbital lymphoma treated with radiotherapy between 1987 and 2003 were included. The majority had mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (48%) or follicular (30%) lymphoma. Seventeen patients had prior lymphoma at other sites, and 29 had primary orbital lymphoma. Median follow-up was 46 months. Results: The median dose was 30.6 Gy; one-third received <30 Gy. Electrons were used in 9 eyes with disease confined to the conjunctiva or eyelid, and photons in 53 eyes with involvement of intraorbital tissues to cover entire orbit. Local control rate was 98% for all patients and 100% for those with indolent lymphoma. Three of the 26 patients with localized primary lymphoma failed distantly, resulting in a 5-year freedom-from-distant-relapse rate of 89%. The 5-year disease-specific and overall survival rates were 95% and 88%, respectively. Late toxicity was mainly cataract formation in patients who received radiation without lens block. Conclusions A dose of 30 Gy is sufficient for indolent orbital lymphoma. Distant relapse rate in patients with localized orbital lymphoma was lower than that reported for low-grade lymphoma presenting in other sites. Orbital radiotherapy can be used for salvage of recurrent indolent lymphoma.

Zhou Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: pzhou@partners.org; Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Li Sigui [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Hua Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2005-11-01

452

Monolithic vertical combdrive actuators for adaptive optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

High aspect ratio vertical combdrive actuators are demonstrated which advance the capabilities and applications of SOI-MEMS by adding additional independent degrees of freedom of operation: both upward and downward vertical pistoning motion as well as bi-directional pure rotation. The methodology for the first time enables monolithic fabrication of isolated vertical combdrive sets in the SOI device layer, with combfinger self-alignment

Veliko MilanoviC; Sunghoon Kwon; L. P. Lee

2002-01-01

453

Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report of an international meeting on the topic of Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions, which was held 9-11 Jul. 1991 at the Johns Hopkins University is presented. The meeting was attended by 22 researchers working on various aspects of orbital and rotational dynamics, paleoclimate data analysis and modeling, solid-Earth deformation studies, and paleomagnetic analyses. The primary objective of the workshop was to arrive at a better understanding of the interactions between the orbital, rotational, and climatic variations of the Earth. This report contains a brief introduction and 14 contributed papers which cover most of the topics discussed at the meeting.

Bills, Bruce G. (editor)

1992-01-01

454

Civilized Strategies for Closing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollments will continue to decline in the foreseeable future and schools will continue to close. Armed with such long-range planning strategies as a developed master plan, clearly specified goals for school closings, an established process, acceptable and quantifiable criteria for selecting schools to be closed, and the involvement of an…

Fredrickson, John H.

455

Reification and the Closed Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What does it mean to have an open mind? Is it desirable? Are we therefore to avoid its opposite, a closed mind? How shall we proceed in producing an open mind or avoiding its opposite a closed mind? The terms open and closed are commonly used as if the meanings of the terms were clear and the expectant goods associated with being open preferred.…

Rockwell, Mark

2012-01-01

456

Simulation of precise orbit determination of lunar orbiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ongoing Chinese lunar exploration mission, i.e. the “Chang'e 1” project, precise orbit determination of lunar orbiters is analyzed for the actual geographical distribution and observational accuracy of the Chinese united S-band (USB) observation and control network as well as the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) tracking network. The observed data are first simulated, then solutions are found

Xiao-Gong Hu; Cheng Huang; Yong Huang

2005-01-01

457

Close to the Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile. ALMA will be composed initially of 66 high-precision telescopes, operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. The ALMA antennas will be electronically combined and will provide astronomical observations which are equivalent to those from a single large telescope of tremendous size and resolution. Chajnantor was selected as the ideal spot for ALMA, following several years of atmospheric and meteorology studies. The high elevation, stable atmosphere, and low humidity make it one of the best locations in the world for radio astronomy. To protect the outstanding conditions of Chajnantor, the Government of Chile declared a major portion of the area a scientific reserve. The publication is available in PDF format. It is the second book on ALMA for the general public, following the previous launch of "Footprints in the Desert", also available on the Internet in PDF format in Spanish. ALMA is a partnership between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is funded in Europe by ESO, in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc.

2007-11-01

458

JSC Orbital Debris Website Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as required. These data also help in the analysis and interpretation of impact features on returned spacecraft surfaces. 4) Mitigation - Controlling the growth of the orbital debris population is a high priority for NASA, the United States, and the major space-faring nations of the world to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. Mitigation measures can take the form of curtailing or preventing the creation of new debris, designing satellites to withstand impacts by small debris, and implementing operational procedures ranging from utilizing orbital regimes with less debris, adopting specific spacecraft attitudes, and even maneuvering to avoid collisions with debris. Downloadable items include several documents in PDF format and executable software.and 5) Reentry - Because of the increasing number of objects in space, NASA has adopted guidelines and assessment procedures to reduce the number of non-operational spacecraft and spent rocket upper stages orbiting the Earth. One method of postmission disposal is to allow reentry of these spacecraft, either from orbital decay (uncontrolled entry) or with a controlled entry. Orbital decay may be achieved by firing engines to lower the perigee altitude so that atmospheric drag will eventually cause the spacecraft to enter. However, the surviving debris impact footprint cannot be guaranteed to avoid inhabited landmasses. Controlled entry normally occurs by using a larger amount of propellant with a larger propulsion system to drive the spacecraft to enter the atmosphere at a steeper flight path angle. It will then enter at a more precise latitude, longitude, and footprint in a nearly uninhabited impact region, generally located in the ocean.

Johnson, Nicholas L.

2006-01-01

459

Search for periodic orbits in the general three-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for searching for regions of initial conditions giving rise to close to periodic orbits is proposed in the framework of the general three-body problem with equal masses and zero angular momentum. Until recently, three stable periodic orbits were known: the Schubart orbit for the rectilinear problem, the Broucke orbit for the isosceles problem, and the Moore eight-figure orbit. Recent studies have also found new periodic orbits for this problem. The proposed method minimizes a functional that calculates the sum of squared differences between the initial and current coordinates and the velocities of the bodies. The search is applied to short-period orbits with periods T < 10 ?, where ? is the mean crossing time for the components of the triple system. Twenty one regions of initial conditions, each corresponding to a particular periodic orbit, have been found in the current study. A criterion for the reliability of the results is that the initial conditions for the previously known stable periodic orbits are located inside the regions found. The trajectories of the bodies with the corresponding initial conditions are presented. The dynamics and geometry of the orbits constructed are described.

Iasko, P. P.; Orlov, V. V.

2014-11-01

460

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the orbital maneuvering system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) hardware are documented. The OMS provides the thrust to perform orbit insertion, orbit circularization, orbit transfer, rendezvous, and deorbit. The OMS is housed in two independent pods located one on each side of the tail and consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization; Propellant Storage and Distribution; Orbital Maneuvering Engine; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control. The IOA analysis process utilized available OMS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluted and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was asigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

Prust, C. D.; Paul, D. J.; Burkemper, V. J.

1987-01-01