Sample records for vertical cup-to-disc ratio

  1. Vertical Cup-to-Disc Ratio: Agreement between Direct Ophthalmoscopic Estimation, Fundus Biomicroscopic Estimation, and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopic Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSSELL WATKINS; LEENA PANCHAL; JIMMY UDDIN; PINAKIN GUNVANT

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. Ophthalmoscopic estimation of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) of the optic nerve head is important in the management of patients with glaucoma or who are glaucoma suspects. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of estimation of VCDR obtained with direct ophthalmoscopy with that obtained with fundus biomicroscopy through undilated pupils. Measurements of VCDR obtained with

  2. Enhancement of optic cup to disc ratio detection in glaucoma diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Murthi; M. Madheswaran

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a major global cause of blindness. An approach to automatically extract the main features in color fundus images is proposed in this paper. The optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) in retinal fundus images is one of the principle physiological characteristics in the diagnosis of glaucoma. The least square fitting algorithm aims to improve the accuracy of the boundary estimation.

  3. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Kim, Sung Eum; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA) are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and eyes with childhood glaucoma. Methods Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH) or peripapillary atrophy (PPA) change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD), horizontal disc diameter (HDD), and maximum PPA width (PPW) were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed. Results Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP) at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001). The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612). However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1%) were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1%) were from the disc suspect group, and 2 (4.8%) were from the glaucoma group (P < 0.001). Conclusions and Relevance The optic disc change during childhood myopic shift was different in eyes with various conditions. Eyes of childhood glaucoma showed less change in the disc morphology during myopic shift compared to eyes with normal disc or enlarged cup-to-disc ratio. PMID:26147983

  4. ARGALI: an automatic cup-to-disc ratio measurement system for glaucoma detection and AnaLysIs framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wong, D. W. K.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Tan, N. M.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Glaucoma is an irreversible ocular disease leading to permanent blindness. However, early detection can be effective in slowing or halting the progression of the disease. Physiologically, glaucoma progression is quantified by increased excavation of the optic cup. This progression can be quantified in retinal fundus images via the optic cup to disc ratio (CDR), since in increased glaucomatous neuropathy, the relative size of the optic cup to the optic disc is increased. The ARGALI framework constitutes of various segmentation approaches employing level set, color intensity thresholds and ellipse fitting for the extraction of the optic cup and disc from retinal images as preliminary steps. Following this, different combinations of the obtained results are then utilized to calculate the corresponding CDR values. The individual results are subsequently fused using a neural network. The learning function of the neural network is trained with a set of 100 retinal images For testing, a separate set 40 images is then used to compare the obtained CDR against a clinically graded CDR, and it is shown that the neural network-based result performs better than the individual components, with 96% of the results within intra-observer variability. The results indicate good promise for the further development of ARGALI as a tool for the early detection of glaucoma.

  5. Automated determination of cup-to-disc ratio for classification of glaucomatous and normal eyes on stereo retinal fundus images.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world, can halt or slow the progression of the disease. We propose an automated method for analyzing the optic disc and measuring the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) on stereo retinal fundus images to improve ophthalmologists' diagnostic efficiency and potentially reduce the variation on the CDR measurement. The method was developed using 80 retinal fundus image pairs, including 25 glaucomatous, and 55 nonglaucomatous eyes, obtained at our institution. A disc region was segmented using the active contour method with the brightness and edge information. The segmentation of a cup region was performed using a depth map of the optic disc, which was reconstructed on the basis of the stereo disparity. The CDRs were measured and compared with those determined using the manual segmentation results by an expert ophthalmologist. The method was applied to a new database which consisted of 98 stereo image pairs including 60 and 30 pairs with and without signs of glaucoma, respectively. Using the CDRs, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 was obtained for classification of the glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous eyes. The result indicates potential usefulness of the automated determination of CDRs for the diagnosis of glaucoma. PMID:21950923

  6. Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: impact of influent COD/N ratios.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinlin; Wang, Wengang; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Yeye; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming

    2013-09-01

    The performance response of eight vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) to different influent COD/N ratios and intermittent aeration in domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. Almost complete nitrification was obtained by intermittent aeration, which well developed alternate anaerobic and aerobic conditions for nitrification and denitrification. Sufficient carbon source supply resulted from influent COD/N ratio of 10 simultaneously obtained high removals of COD (96%), ammonia nitrogen (99%) and total nitrogen (90%) in intermittently aerated VFCWs. In all non-aerated VFCWs, poor nitrification was observed due to oxygen deficiency whilst high COD/N ratios further led to lower COD and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results suggest that intermittent aeration combined with high influent COD/N ratios could achieve high nitrogen removal in VFCWs. PMID:23831745

  7. Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess "unusual" abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures. PMID:26054048

  8. Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess “unusual” abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures. PMID:26054048

  9. Vertical cup\\/disc ratio in relation to optic disc size: its value in the assessment of the glaucoma suspect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F Garway-Heath; Simon T Ruben; Ananth Viswanathan; Roger A Hitchings

    1998-01-01

    AIMSThe vertical cup\\/disc ratio (CDR) has long been used in the assessment of the glaucoma suspect, though the wide range of CDR values in the normal population limits its use. Cup size is related physiologically to disc size and pathologically to glaucomatous damage. Disc size can be measured at the slit lamp as the vertical disc diameter (DD). The ability

  10. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an JIaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  11. Realization of Vertically Aligned, Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio InAsSb Nanowires on Graphite.

    PubMed

    Anyebe, E A; Sanchez, A M; Hindmarsh, S; Chen, X; Shao, J; Rajpalke, M K; Veal, T D; Robinson, B J; Kolosov, O; Anderson, F; Sundaram, R; Wang, Z M; Falko, V; Zhuang, Q

    2015-07-01

    The monolithic integration of InAs1-xSbx semiconductor nanowires on graphitic substrates holds enormous promise for cost-effective, high-performance, and flexible devices in optoelectronics and high-speed electronics. However, the growth of InAs1-xSbx nanowires with high aspect ratio essential for device applications is extremely challenging due to Sb-induced suppression of axial growth and enhancement in radial growth. We report the realization of high quality, vertically aligned, nontapered and ultrahigh aspect ratio InAs1-xSbx nanowires with Sb composition (xSb(%)) up to ?12% grown by indium-droplet assisted molecular beam epitaxy on graphite substrate. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the InAs1-xSbx nanowires exhibit bright band-to-band related emission with a distinct redshift as a function of Sb composition providing further confirmation of successful Sb incorporation in as-grown nanowires. This study reveals that the graphite substrate is a more favorable platform for InAs1-xSbx nanowires that could lead to hybrid heterostructures possessing potential device applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26086785

  12. High Rayleigh number convection in rectangular enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls and aspect ratios between zero and unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Siavash A.

    1988-01-01

    High Rayleigh number convection in a rectangular cavity with insulated horizontal surfaces and differentially heated vertical walls was analyzed for an arbitrary aspect ratio smaller than or equal to unity. Unlike previous analytical studies, a systematic method of solution based on linearization technique and analytical iteration procedure was developed to obtain approximate closed-form solutions for a wide range of aspect ratios. The predicted velocity and temperature fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  13. Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio and Geological Conditions: The Case of Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Theodulidis; Y. Bard; R. Archuleta; M. Bouchon

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to further check the use of the hori- zontal-to-vertical (h\\/v) spectral ratio, which has been recently suggested as an indi- cator of site effects. The data set consists of 1 t0, three-component, high sensitivity accelerograms, recorded at five different depths by the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA), in southern California, with peak ground

  14. Magnetic alignment of high-aspect ratio microwires into vertical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardslee, Joseph

    Fundamental studies of magnetic alignment of highly anisotropic mesostructures can enable the clean-room-free fabrication of flexible, array-based solar and electronic devices, in which preferential orientation of nano- or microwire-type objects is desired. In this study, ensembles of 100 micron long Si microwires with ferromagnetic Ni and Co coatings are oriented vertically in the presence of magnetic fields. The degree of vertical alignment and threshold field strength depend on geometric factors, such as microwire length and ferromagnetic coating thickness, as well as interfacial interactions, which are modulated by varying solvent and substrate surface chemistry. Microwire ensembles with vertical alignment over 97% within 10 degrees of normal, as measured by X-ray diffraction, are achieved over square cm scale areas and set into flexible polymer films. A force balance model has been developed as a predictive tool for magnetic alignment, incorporating magnetic torque and empirically derived surface adhesion parameters. As supported by these calculations, microwires are shown to detach from the surface and align vertically in the presence of magnetic fields on the order of 100 gauss. Microwires aligned in this manner are set into a polydimethylsiloxane film where they retain their vertical alignment after the field has been removed and can subsequently be used as a flexible solar absorber layer. Finally, these microwires arrays can be protected for use in electrochemical cells by the conformal deposition of a graphene layer.

  15. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    E-print Network

    CosmoALEPH Collaboration; M. Schmelling; N. O. Hashim; C. Grupen; S. Luitz; F. Maciuc; A. Mailov; A. -S. Müller; H. -G. Sander; S. Schmeling; R. Tcaciuc; H. Wachsmuth; K. Zuber

    2011-10-19

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

  16. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelling, M.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Hashim, N.O.; /Kenyatta U. Coll.; Grupen, C.; /Siegen U.; Luitz, S.; /SLAC; Maciuc, F.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Mailov, A.; /Siegen U.; Muller, A.-S.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Sander, H.-G.; /Mainz U., Inst. Phys.; Schmeling, S.; /CERN; Tcaciuc, R.; /Siegen U.; Wachsmuth, H.; /CERN; Zuber, K.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2012-09-14

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10{sup 15} eV.

  17. Vertical Profile Control in Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Contact Hole Etching with 0.05-µm-Diameter Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Naokatsu; Yabata, Atsushi; Liu, Guo; Uchida, Hidetsugu; Hirashita, Norio; Kanamori, Jun

    1998-04-01

    Vertical processing of 0.05-µm-class SiO2 holes with an aspect ratio around 20 was realized using a dipole-ring-type magnetron reactive-ion-etching system in a mixture of C4F8/O2/Ar gas. Secondary ion mass spectrometric study of the F and C concentration profiles of the polymer deposited inside the holes in the depth direction revealed that a very small amount of polymer deposition occurred in this system. This indicates that energetic species reached the hole bottoms with excellent verticality, even in an extremely fine feature. In contrast, the CHF3/CO process (tapered shape) resulted in an extremely thick polymer and carbonized region on the sidewalls, suggesting the presence of energetic species sticking to the sidewalls. The effects of energetic species impinging onto the sidewalls and the protection resulting from polymer deposition have been discussed in terms of the etched shape and F/C depth profile. Vertical incidence of the energetic species into the holes is concluded to be a significant factor in realizing a vertical profile.

  18. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euser, T.; Luxemburg, W.; Everson, C.; Mengistu, M.; Clulow, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.

    2013-06-01

    The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by default in operational Bowen ratio systems. In this paper we present the concept of a new measurement methodology to estimate the Bowen ratio from high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles. A short field experiment with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in a fibre optic cable having 13 levels was undertaken. A dry and a wetted section of a fibre optic cable were suspended on a 6 m high tower installed over a sugar beet trial near Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Using the DTS cable as a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapour pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals was established. These data allows the computation of the Bowen ratio with a high precision. By linking the Bowen ratio to net radiation and soil heat flux, the daytime latent heat flux was estimated. The latent heat flux derived from DTS-based Bowen ratio (BR-DTS) showed consistent agreement (correlation coefficients between 0.97 and 0.98) with results derived from eddy covariance, surface layer scintillometer and surface renewal techniques. The latent heat from BR-DTS overestimated the latent heat derived with the eddy covariance by 4% and the latent heat derived with the surface layer scintillometer by 8%. Through this research, a new window is opened to engage on simplified, inexpensive and easy to interpret in situ measurement techniques for measuring evaporation.

  19. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This "homework help" lesson introduces students to ratios, ratio language, equivalent ratios, and allows students to practice with a set of problems at the end. The lesson is divided into four parts: First Glance, In Depth, Examples, and Workout.

  20. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-23

    This set of instructional materials and problems helps students understand ratios and proportions, starting with a simple review and progressing into the more advanced territory of similar triangles. The first three pages introduce ratios, proportions, and checking proportionality and the last four pages present mathematical and real-world problems for students to solve given their understanding of ratios and proportions.

  1. Bulletin of the SeismologicalSocietyof America,Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 306-319, April 1996 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio and Geological Conditions

    E-print Network

    Archuleta, Ralph

    -to-Vertical Spectral Ratio and Geological Conditions: The Case of Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California accelerograms, recorded at five different depths by the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA), in southern/v) spectral ratio tech- nique provides only partially the information that can be obtained from a downhole

  2. Assessment of aerosol's mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, A.; Vasilescu, J.; Talianu, C.; Belegante, L.; Nicolae, D.

    2013-11-01

    Multi-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements from Magurele, Romania are used in this study along with simulated mass-extinction efficiencies to calculate the mass concentration profiles of different atmospheric components, due to their different depolarization contribution to the 532 nm backscatter coefficient. Linear particle depolarization ratio (?part) was computed using the relative amplification factor and the system-dependent molecular depolarization. The low depolarizing component was considered as urban/smoke, with a mean ?part of 3%, while for the high depolarizing component (mineral dust) a mean ?part of 35% was assumed. For this study 11 months of lidar measurements were analysed. Two study cases are presented in details: one for a typical Saharan dust aerosol intrusion, 10 June 2012 and one for 12 July 2012 when a lofted layer consisting of biomass burning smoke extended from 3 to 4.5 km height. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds software package (OPAC) classification and conversion factors were used to calculate mass concentrations. We found that calibrated depolarization measurements are critical in distinguishing between smoke-reach aerosol during the winter and dust-reach aerosol during the summer, as well as between elevated aerosol layers having different origins. Good agreement was found between lidar retrievals and DREAM- Dust REgional Atmospheric Model forecasts in cases of Saharan dust. Our method was also compared against LIRIC (The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code) and very small differences were observed.

  3. Assessment of aerosol's mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, A.; Vasilescu, J.; Talianu, C.; Belegante, L.; Nicolae, D.

    2013-06-01

    Multiwavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements from Magurele, Romania are used in this study along with simulated mass-extinction efficiencies to calculate the mass concentrations profiles of different atmospheric components, due to their different depolarization contribution to the 532 nm backscatter coefficient. Linear particle depolarization ratio (?part) was computed using the relative amplification factor and the system-dependent molecular depolarization. The low depolarizing component was considered as urban/smoke, with a mean ?part of 3%, while for the high depolarizing component (mineral dust) a mean ?part of 35% was assumed. For this study 11 months of lidar measurements were analyzed. Two study cases are presented in details: one for a typical Saharan dust aerosol intrusion, 10 June 2012 and one for 12 July 2012 when a lofted layer consisting of biomass burning smoke extended from 3 to 4.5 km height. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds software package (OPAC) classification and conversion factors were used to calculate mass concentrations. We found that calibrated depolarization measurements are critical to distinguish between smoke-reach aerosol during the winter and dust-reach aerosol during the summer, as well as between elevated aerosol layers having different origins. Good agreement was found between lidar retrievals and DREAM- Dust REgional Atmospheric Model forecasts in cases of Saharan dust. Our method was also compared against LIRIC (The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code) and very small differences were observed.

  4. Design and Analysis of Novel Micromachined Thermocouples with Vertical Free-Standing High-Aspect-Ratio Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, M.; Hedler, H.; Seidel, H.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design and analysis of free-standing three-dimensional (3D) thermocouples (TCs) for uncooled high-resolution infrared imaging. In contrast to the conventional horizontal thermocouple design, our 3D TCs consist of vertically oriented coaxial thermoelectric legs covered by an infrared absorber plate. The high aspect ratio of the 3D TCs of up to 100:1 leads to increased thermal resistance and, thus, higher electrical responsivity. Furthermore, reduced lateral dimensions of the device are achieved by coaxial mounting. This allows a closely packed arrangement of 3D TCs, which results in a high-resolution microarray sensor setup. These features represent the 3D TC's innovative uniqueness and open up new possibilities for further minimized uncooled thermal sensors and low-cost high-resolution imagers. We developed a fabrication process for 3D TCs with doped polysilicon as thermoelectric legs and a geometry with diameter of m and length of m. Performance analysis has been carried out using the lumped-heat-capacity method, resulting in an electrical responsivity and specific detectivity of a 3D TC of 383 V/W and cm /W, respectively.

  5. Two dimensional microscanners with large horizontal-vertical scanning frequency ratio for high-resolution laser projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Ting; Klose, Thomas; Drabe, Christian; Schenk, Harald

    2008-02-01

    We present two designs of two-dimensional gimbal microscanners with low vertical-scan frequencies of 70 Hz and 330 Hz and a high horizontal scan frequency of 30 kHz. The scanners are fabricated in a 30 ?m silicon-on-insulator with backside structures for both mirror and gimbal-frame. The backside structure under the frame increases the frame weight and effectively reduces the resonant frequency of the rotation springs. The slow vertical scan can thus be achieved without reducing the spring width dramatically. A patterned backside structure also reinforces the mirror plate during actuation such that the root-mean-square dynamic deformation of the 1 mm diameter mirror is less than 44 nm (?/10 for blue) at 10 degrees mechanical scan angle. A microscanner is installed into a prototype laser projector to demonstrate its capability of producing high quality images.

  6. Two dimensional microscanners with large horizontal-vertical scanning frequency ratio for high-resolution laser projectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ting Hsu; Thomas Klose; Christian Drabe; Harald Schenk

    2008-01-01

    We present two designs of two-dimensional gimbal microscanners with low vertical-scan frequencies of 70 Hz and 330 Hz and a high horizontal scan frequency of 30 kHz. The scanners are fabricated in a 30 mum silicon-on-insulator with backside structures for both mirror and gimbal-frame. The backside structure under the frame increases the frame weight and effectively reduces the resonant frequency

  7. Engineered high aspect ratio vertical nanotubes as a model system for the investigation of catalytic methanol synthesis over Cu/ZnO.

    PubMed

    Güder, Firat; Frei, Elias; Kücükbayrak, Umut M; Menzel, Andreas; Thomann, Ralf; Luptak, Roman; Hollaender, Bernd; Krossing, Ingo; Zacharias, Margit

    2014-02-12

    Catalytically synthesized methanol from H2 and CO2 using porous Cu/ZnO aggregates is a promising, carbon neutral, and renewable alternative to replace fossil fuel based transport fuels. However, the absence of surface-engineered model systems to understand and improve the industrial Cu/ZnO catalyst poses a big technological gap in efforts to increase industrial methanol conversion efficiency. In this work, we report a novel process for the fabrication of patterned, vertically aligned high aspect ratio 1D nanostructures on Si that can be used as an engineered model catalyst. The proposed strategy employs near-field phase shift lithography (NF-PSL), deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to pattern, etch, and coat Si wafers to produce high aspect ratio 1D nanostructures. Using this method, we produced a model system consisting of high aspect ratio Cu-decorated ZnO nanotubes (NTs) to investigate the morphological effects of ZnO catalyst support in comparison to the planar Cu/ZnO catalyst in terms of the catalytic reactions. The engineered catalysts performed 70 times better in activating CO2 than the industrial catalyst. In light of the obtained results, several important points are highlighted, and recommendations are made to achieve higher catalytic performance. PMID:24392784

  8. Mapping bedrock surface contours using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method near the middle quarter srea, Woodbury, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Voytek, Emily B.; Lane, John W.; Stone, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    The bedrock surface contours in Woodbury, Connecticut, were determined downgradient of a commercial zone known as the Middle Quarter area (MQA) using the novel, noninvasive horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio (HVSR) passive seismic geophysical method. Boreholes and monitoring wells had been drilled in this area to characterize the shallow subsurface to within 20 feet (ft) of the land surface, but little was known about the deep subsurface, including sediment thicknesses and depths to bedrock (Starn and Brown, 2007; Brown and others, 2009). Improved information on the altitude of the bedrock surface and its spatial variation was needed for assessment and remediation of chlorinated solvents that have contaminated the overlying glacial aquifer that supplies water to wells in the area.

  9. Evaluation of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method to determine sediment thickness in the vicinity of the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method involves analyzing measurements of ambient seismic noise in three dimensions to determine the fundamental site resonance frequency. Resonance is excited by the interaction of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) and body waves (vertically incident shear) with the high-contrast aconstic impedance boundary at the bedrock-sediment interface. Measurements were made to determine the method's utility for estimating thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments at 18 locations at the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH, and at six locations in Pickaway County where sediment thickness was already known. Measurements also were made near a high-capacity production well (with pumping on and off) and near a highway and a limestone quarry to examine changes in resonance frequencies over a 20-hour period. Although the regression relation for resonance frequency and sediment thickness had a relatively low [r.sup.2] (0.322), estimates of sediment thickness were, on average, within 14 percent of known thicknesses. Resonance frequencies for pumping on and pumping off were identical, although the amplitude of the peak was nearly double under pumping conditions. Resonance frequency for the 20-hour period did not change, but the amplitude of the peak changed considerably, with a maximum amplitude in the early afternoon and minimum in the very early morning hours. Clay layers within unconsolidated sediments may influence resonance frequency and the resulting regression equation, resulting in underestimation of sediment thickness; however, despite this and other complicating factors, hydrogeologists should consider this method when thickness data are needed for unconsolidated sediments.

  10. Evaluation of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method to determine sediment thickness in the vicinity of the south well field, Franklin county, OH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, R.J.; Sheets, R.A.; Andrews, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method involves analyzing measurements of ambient seismic noise in three dimensions to determine the fundamental site resonance frequency. Resonance is excited by the interaction of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) and body waves (vertically incident shear) with the high-contrast acoustic impedance boundary at the bedrock-sediment interface. Measurements were made to determine the method's utility for estimating thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments at 18 locations at the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH, and at six locations in Pickaway County where sediment thickness was already known. Measurements also were made near a high-capacity production well (with pumping on and off ) and near a highway and a limestone quarry to examine changes in resonance frequencies over a 20-hour period. Although the regression relation for resonance frequency and sediment thickness had a relatively low r 2(0.322), estimates of sediment thickness were, on average, within 14 percent of known thicknesses. Resonance frequencies for pumping on and pumping off were identical, although the amplitude of the peak was nearly double under pumping conditions. Resonance frequency for the 20-hour period did not change, but the amplitude of the peak changed considerably, with a maximum amplitude in the early afternoon and minimum in the very early morning hours. Clay layers within unconsolidated sediments may influence resonance frequency and the resulting regression equation, resulting in underestimation of sediment thickness; however, despite this and other complicating factors, hydrogeologists should consider this method when thickness data are needed for unconsolidated sediments. ?? 2011 by The Ohio Academy of Science. All Rights Reserved.

  11. ClONO2 vertical profile and estimated mixing ratios of ClO and HOCl in winter Arctic stratosphere from Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding limb emission spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. von Clarmann; G. Wetzel; H. Oelhaf; F. Friedl-Vallon; A. Linden; G. Maucher; M. Seefeldner; O. Trieschmann; F. Lefèvre

    1997-01-01

    Nighttime limb emission spectra recorded by the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS) on February 11, 1995, near Kiruna were used to infer a vertical profile of ClONO2 as well as estimates of ClO and HOCl volume mixing ratios. The highest ClONO2 mixing ratio [2.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)] was found at 22.69 km altitude and

  12. Initial results from spatially averaged coherency, frequency-wavenumber, and horizontal to vertical spectrum ratio microtremor survey methods for site hazard study at Launceston, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claprood, Maxime; Asten, Michael W.

    2009-02-01

    The Tamar rift valley runs through the City of Launceston, Tasmania. Damage has occurred to city buildings due to earthquake activity in Bass Strait. The presence of the ancient valley, the Tamar valley, in-filled with soft sediments that vary rapidly in thickness from 0 to 250m over a few hundreds metres, is thought to induce a 2D resonance pattern, amplifying the surface motions over the valley and in Launceston. Spatially averaged coherency (SPAC), frequency-wavenumber (FK) and horizontal to vertical spectrum ratio (HVSR) microtremor survey methods are combined to identify and characterise site effects over the Tamar valley. Passive seismic array measurements acquired at seven selected sites were analysed with SPAC to estimate shear wave velocity (slowness) depth profiles. SPAC was then combined with HVSR to improve the resolution of these profiles in the sediments to an approximate depth of 125m. Results show that sediments thicknesses vary significantly throughout Launceston. The top layer is composed of as much as 20m of very soft Quaternary alluvial sediments with a velocity from 50m/s to 125m/s. Shear-wave velocities in the deeper Tertiary sediment fill of the Tamar valley, with thicknesses from 0 to 250m vary from 400m/s to 750m/s. Results obtained using SPAC are presented at two selected sites (GUN and KPK) that agree well with dispersion curves interpreted with FK analysis. FK interpretation is, however, limited to a narrower range of frequencies than SPAC and seems to overestimate the shear wave velocity at lower frequencies. Observed HVSR are also compared with the results obtained by SPAC, assuming a layered earth model, and provide additional constraints on the shear wave slowness profiles at these sites. The combined SPAC and HVSR analysis confirms the hypothesis of a layered geology at the GUN site and indicates the presence of a 2D resonance pattern across the Tamar valley at the KPK site.

  13. Modulation of Schottky barrier height in graphene/MoS2/metal vertical heterostructure with large current ON–OFF ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sata, Yohta; Moriya, Rai; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Morikawa, Sei; Yabuki, Naoto; Masubuchi, Satoru; Machida, Tomoki

    2015-04-01

    Detail transport properties of graphene/MoS2/metal vertical heterostructure have been investigated. The van der Waals interface between the graphene and MoS2 exhibits Schottky barrier. The application of gate voltage to the graphene layer enables us to modulate the Schottky barrier height; thus gives rise to the control of the current flow across the interface. By analyzing the temperature dependence of the conductance, the modulation of Schottky barrier height ?? has been directly determined. We observed significant MoS2 layer number dependence of ??. Moreover, we demonstrate that the device which shows larger ?? exhibits larger current modulation; this is consistent with the fact that the transport of these devices is dominated by graphene/MoS2 Schottky barrier.

  14. Bedrock topography of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, based on bedrock altitudes from geologic borings and analysis of ambient seismic noise by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral-ratio method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Gillian M.; Lane, John W.; Voytek, Emily B.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a topographic map of the bedrock surface beneath western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, that was prepared for use in groundwater-flow models of the Sagamore lens of the Cape Cod aquifer. The bedrock surface of western Cape Cod had been characterized previously through seismic refraction surveys and borings drilled to bedrock. The borings were mostly on and near the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The bedrock surface was first mapped by Oldale (1969), and mapping was updated in 2006 by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE, 2006). This report updates the bedrock-surface map with new data points collected by using a passive seismic technique based on the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) of ambient seismic noise (Lane and others, 2008) and from borings drilled to bedrock since the 2006 map was prepared. The HVSR method is based on a relationship between the resonance frequency of ambient seismic noise as measured at land surface and the thickness of the unconsolidated sediments that overlie consolidated bedrock. The HVSR method was shown by Lane and others (2008) to be an effective method for determining sediment thickness on Cape Cod owing to the distinct difference in the acoustic impedance between the sediments and the underlying bedrock. The HVSR data for 164 sites were combined with data from 559 borings to bedrock in the study area to create a spatially distributed dataset that was manually contoured to prepare a topographic map of the bedrock surface. The interpreted bedrock surface generally slopes downward to the southeast as was shown on the earlier maps by Oldale (1969) and AFCEE (2006). The surface also has complex small-scale topography characteristic of a glacially eroded surface. More information about the methods used to prepare the map is given in the pamphlet that accompanies this plate.

  15. Vertical Farm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

  16. Optimal segmentation of the optic nerve head from stereo retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merickel, Michael B., Jr.; Wu, Xiaodong; Sonka, Milan; Abramoff, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Early detection of glaucoma is essential to minimizing the risk of visual loss. It has been shown that a good predictor of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio of the optic nerve head. This paper presents a highly automated method to segment the 'rim' (disc) and 'cup' from the optic nerve head in stereo images and calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. In this approach, the optic nerve head is unwrapped in polar coordinates and represented as a graph. Utilizing a novel and efficient graph searching technique for determining globally optimal closed-paths and an intelligent cost function, the rim and the cup are segmented from the stereo images. The results offer a more intuitive quantitative analysis compared to current planimetry-based techniques because the ophthalmologist can view the segmented images along with the derived cup-to-disc ratio.

  17. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S Y; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K S; Wong, Tina T; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E; Herndon, Leon W; Moroi, Sayoko E; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O S; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H K; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae H; Haines, Jonathan L; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E; Pasquale, Louis R; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W; Girkin, Christopher A; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2015-07-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. PMID:25861811

  18. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R. Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F.; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A.; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S.Y.; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A.; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K.; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K.S.; Wong, Tina T.; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E.; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E.; Herndon, Leon W.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P.; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O.S.; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H.K.; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Kang, Jae H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E.; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B.; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A.; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E.; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L.; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A.; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10?33), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7–TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10?8). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. PMID:25861811

  19. Vertical profiles of biospheric and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 and fossil fuel CO 2 ?:?CO ratios from airborne measurements of ? 14 C, CO 2 and CO above Colorado, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEATHER D. GRAVEN; BRITTON B. STEPHENS; THOMAS P. GUILDERSON; TERESA L. CAMPOS; DAVID S. SCHIMEL; J. ELLIOTT CAMPBELL; RALPH F. KEELING

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of ? 14C in atmospheric CO2 are an effective method of separating CO2 additions from fossil fuel and biospheric sources or sinks of CO2. We illustrate this technique with vertical profiles of CO2 and ? 14C analysed in whole air flask samples collected above Colorado, USA in May and July 2004. Comparison of lower tropospheric composition to cleaner air

  20. Vertical dynamics Spiral structure

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 7;Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy Outline Vertical dynamics van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Structure of galaxy disks #12;Outline Vertical dynamics

  1. Rod Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2013-01-01

    This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

  2. Lightning Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

  3. Mixture model-based approach for optic cup segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tan, N M; Liu, J; Wong, D K; Yin, F; Lim, J H; Wong, T Y

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness with permanent damage to optic nerve head. ARGALI is an automated computer-aided diagnosis system designed for glaucoma detection via optic cup-to-disc ratio assessment. It employs several methods to determine the optic cup and disc from retinal images. PMID:21097297

  4. Vertical Map Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joanne M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

  5. Effects of the Spanwise, Chordwise, and Vertical Location of an External Store on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 45 Degree Sweptback Tapered Wing of Aspect Ratio 4 at Mach Numbers of 1.41, 1.62, and 1.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Carl R.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 9- by 12-inch supersonic blowdown tunnel to determine the effects of external-store location on the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of a 45 degree sweptback wing at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.62, and 1.96. The spanwise, chordwise, and vertical location of a Douglas-Aircraft Company, Inc., store of fineness ratio 8.58 was systematically varied over the outer 60 percent of the wing semispan. A brief investigation of strut sweep angle was also made. The test Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord ranged from 1.3 x 10(exp 6) to 1.5 x 10(exp 6).

  6. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  7. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lytle

    1984-01-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic

  8. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic concept has seen some application, this technology has not been as systematically developed and applied as VSP. Vertical electromagnetic profiling provides distinct and complementary data due to sensing different physical parameters than seismic profiling. Certain of the advantages of VEMP are presented. 28 references, 7 figures.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kutcher, H.R.

    1984-05-15

    A Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine is disclosed which includes a vertically extending rotor tube mounted on a support structure with two or three rotor blades of troposkein configuration on the rotor tube for rotating the tube in response to wind energy and thereby drive a generator to produce electrical power. The turbine includes an erection hinge which permits assembly of the rotor tube and blades at close to ground level followed by upward hinging of the rotor assembly to a vertical position. It also includes a system for automatically lubricating the top bearing upon erection and a system for visually tensioning the guy cables.

  10. Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  11. Vertical neck lifting.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Talei, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The authors' vertical neck lifting procedure is an extended deep plane facelift, which elevates the skin and SMAS-platysma complex as a composite unit. The goal is to redrape cervicomental laxity vertically onto the face rather than laterally and postauricularly. The authors consider this an extended technique because it lengthens the deep plane flap from the angle of the mandible into the neck to release the cervical retaining ligaments that limit platysmal redraping. This technique does not routinely use midline platysmal surgery because it counteracts the extent of vertical redraping. A majority of aging face patients are good candidates for this procedure in isolation, but indications for combining vertical neck lifting with submental surgery are elucidated. PMID:24745389

  12. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food you can ... staples. This creates a long vertical tube or banana-shaped stomach. The surgery does not involve cutting ...

  13. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  14. Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

    2012-05-01

    Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

  15. OPTIC DISC CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSED BY EVALUATION OF CLINICAL OPTIC DISC PHOTOGRAPHS IN GLAUCOMA PATIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuyo Ohguro; Hiroshi Ohguro; Hiroshi Ohkuro; Mitsuru Nakazawa

    Purpose: To describe optic disc characteristics assessed by evaluation of clinical optic disc photographs and to utilize these findings to differentiate glaucoma patients and normal subjects. Patients and Methods: A total of 329 eyes of 329 glaucoma patients and 220 eyes of 220 normal subjects were included The disc diameter to disc-to-macula distance ratio (DD\\/DM ratio), cup-to-disc diameter ratio (C\\/D

  16. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  17. Vertical ionospheric sounding measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Utlaut; T. N. Gautier

    1964-01-01

    This report presents data on the ionospheric perturbations resulting from the five 1962 high-altitude nuclear detonations, Star Fish, Check Mate, Blue Gill, King Fish, and Tight Rope, as obtained with sweep-frequency vertical-incidence ionosondes operated at the Islands of Maui, Tern (French Frigate Shoals), Midway, Wake (Star Fish only), Canton, Tutuila (American Samoa), and Tongatapu. The ionosondes at Midway and Tongataupu

  18. Learning About Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hadley

    2005-06-17

    Ratios appear in everyday life, but what exactly is a ratio. This lesson will help you understand what is a ratio and what to do with a ratio. What is a ratio? Dr. Math gives a pretty good explanation on these sites What is a ratio? Ratios as Fractions Figuring Ratios Writing Ratios Ratios Use this site to explore ratios using pictures All About Ratios Now that you have a little understanding here are some in-class activities that your teacher can help you with ...

  19. Aspect Ratio of Thermal Diffusion Chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Tomlinson; N. Fukuta

    1979-01-01

    The supersaturation distribution inside thermal diffusion chambers of cylindrical symmetry with a linear vertical temperature gradient on the wall was computed with various aspect ratios using the vapor pressure field. The results were compared with previous works. It was shown that the effect of the wall on the supersaturation inside the chamber is much reduced when a linear temperature gradient

  20. Topographic changes in the optic disc in eyes with cotton-wool spots and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etsuo Chihara; Yoshihito Honda

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the topography of the optic disc in 26 eyes with cotton-wool spots displaying defects in the retinal nerve-fiber layer and in 31 eyes with early primary open-angle glaucoma showing a similar degree of such defects were studied by computer-assisted optic disc analyzer and then compared with 27 controls. Changes in the cup-to-disc ratio, cup volume, and ratio of

  1. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  2. Vertical Motion Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

  3. Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer and Macular Thicknesses in Adults with Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yakar, Konuralp; Alan, Ayd?n; Alp, Mehmet Hanifi; Ceylan, Tolga

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the macular and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses and optic nerves of eyes with reduced vision due to anisometropia with the contralateral healthy eyes in adults using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Atatürk State Hospital, Sinop, Turkey. Macular and RNFL thicknesses, optic nerve disc area, cup area, and horizontal and vertical cup-to-disc ratios obtained using a NIDEK RS-3000 SLO spectral domain OCT device were compared between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in 30 adults with anisometropic amblyopia 18–55 years old who were seen in our clinic with unilateral poor vision. Results. The mean macular thickness was 266.90 ± 23.22?µm in the amblyopic eyes and 263.90 ± 22.84?µm in the fellow eyes, and the mean RNFL thickness was 111.90 ± 12.9 and 109.70 ± 9.42?µm, respectively. The two thicknesses did not differ significantly between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. There were also no significant differences between the eyes in disc area, cup area, and horizontal-vertical cup/disc ratios. Conclusion. There does not seem to be a difference in macular thickness, peripapillary RNFL, or optic disc structures between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in adults. PMID:26064676

  4. Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer and Macular Thicknesses in Adults with Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Yakar, Konuralp; Kan, Emrah; Alan, Ayd?n; Alp, Mehmet Hanifi; Ceylan, Tolga

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the macular and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses and optic nerves of eyes with reduced vision due to anisometropia with the contralateral healthy eyes in adults using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Atatürk State Hospital, Sinop, Turkey. Macular and RNFL thicknesses, optic nerve disc area, cup area, and horizontal and vertical cup-to-disc ratios obtained using a NIDEK RS-3000 SLO spectral domain OCT device were compared between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in 30 adults with anisometropic amblyopia 18-55 years old who were seen in our clinic with unilateral poor vision. Results. The mean macular thickness was 266.90 ± 23.22?µm in the amblyopic eyes and 263.90 ± 22.84?µm in the fellow eyes, and the mean RNFL thickness was 111.90 ± 12.9 and 109.70 ± 9.42?µm, respectively. The two thicknesses did not differ significantly between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. There were also no significant differences between the eyes in disc area, cup area, and horizontal-vertical cup/disc ratios. Conclusion. There does not seem to be a difference in macular thickness, peripapillary RNFL, or optic disc structures between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in adults. PMID:26064676

  5. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.D.; Gassman, R.A.; Keicher, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  6. Vertical wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, D.P.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes a wind driven turbine of the vertical axis type comprising: (a) a support base; (b) a generally vertical column rotatably mounted to the support base; (c) upper and lower support means respectively mounted on the column for rotation therewith; wind driven blades connected between the upper and lower support means for rotation about the column and each blade being individually rotatable about a blade axis extending longitudinally through the blade to vary a blade angle of attach thereof relative to wind velocity during rotation about the column; and (e) control means for variably adjusting angles of attack of each blade to incident wind, the control means including a connecting rod means having drive means for rotating each blade about the associated blade axis in response to radial movement of the connecting rod means and control shaft pivotally mounted within the column and having a first shaft portion connected to the connecting rod means and a second shaft portion radially offset from the first shaft portion and pivotally connected to radially displace the first portion and thereby the connecting rod means to vary the blade angles of attack during rotation about the column.

  7. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  8. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ?y=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  9. Glaucoma in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulaziz H. Awad; Paul B. Mullaney; Saleh Al-Mesfer; Johan T. Zwaan

    1999-01-01

    Background: In glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), medical treatment often fails to control intraocular pressure, thus requiring surgical intervention that may result in serious complications. Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients with SWS were reviewed retrospectively at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital. An intraocular pressure less than 20 mm Hg, plus stable optic nerve cup-to-disc ratio and corneal diameter (or

  10. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  11. Dynamics of geckos running vertically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Autumn; S. T. Hsieh; D. M. Dudek; J. Chen; C. Chitaphan; R. J. Full

    2006-01-01

    Geckos with adhesive toe pads rapidly climb even smooth vertical surfaces. We challenged geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii) to climb up a smooth vertical track that contained a force platform. Geckos climbed vertically at up to 77·cm·s -1 with a stride frequency of 15·Hz using a trotting gait. During each step, whole body fore-aft, lateral and normal forces all decreased to zero

  12. Ratios and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-02

    In this learning object from Wisc-Online, students will examine ratios and proportions. The unit's activities include defining ratios and proportions, simplifying ratios, solving problems using proportions and answering practice questions.

  13. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  14. Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The automatic determination of the optic disc area in retinal fundus images can be useful for calculation of the cup-to-disc (CD) ratio in the glaucoma screening. We compared three different methods that employed active contour model (ACM), fuzzy c-mean (FCM) clustering, and artificial neural network (ANN) for the segmentation of the optic disc regions. The results of these methods were evaluated using new databases that included the images captured by different camera systems. The average measures of overlap between the disc regions determined by an ophthalmologist and by using the ACM (0.88 and 0.87 for two test datasets) and ANN (0.88 and 0.89) methods were slightly higher than that by using FCM (0.86 and 0.86) method. These results on the unknown datasets were comparable with those of the resubstitution test; this indicates the generalizability of these methods. The differences in the vertical diameters, which are often used for CD ratio calculation, determined by the proposed methods and based on the ophthalmologist's outlines were even smaller than those in the case of the measure of overlap. The proposed methods can be useful for automatic determination of CD ratios. PMID:20546966

  15. Development and Analysis of a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Cooper; Oliver Kennedy

    This paper describes the development of a novel vertical axis wind turbine used for teaching and research purposes. The device is designed to operate at low tip speed ratios and features blades that are symmetric about the mid-chord plane. The blades are actively pitched by means of a mechanical system so that the chord of each blade rotates by 180º

  16. An Examination of Vertical Equity Over Two Reassessment Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl D. Benson; Arthur L. Schwartz Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines vertical equity in the assessment of single-family homes over two assessment cycles in Bellingham, Washington. The two assessment periods, which are four years apart, followed two differing property appreciation periods. The 1992 reassessment followed an explosion in home values, while the 1996 reassessment came after more moderate price appreciation. The assessed value\\/ market value ratio is the

  17. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio ?. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio ?. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  18. Latitude and longitude vertical disparities.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Phillipson, Graeme P; Glennerster, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term "vertical disparity" are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparities. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparities expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position-gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment-can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  19. Functions and Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

  20. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  1. A vertical microfluidic probe.

    PubMed

    Kaigala, G V; Lovchik, R D; Drechsler, U; Delamarche, E

    2011-05-01

    Performing localized chemical events on surfaces is critical for numerous applications. We earlier invented the microfluidic probe (MFP), which circumvented the need to process samples in closed microchannels by hydrodynamically confining liquids that performed chemistries on surfaces (Juncker et al. Nat. Mater. 2005, 4, 622-628). Here we present a new and versatile probe, the vertical MFP (vMFP), which operates in the scanning mode while overcoming earlier challenges that limited the practical implementation of the MFP technology. The key component of the vMFP is the head, a microfluidic device (?1 cm(2) in area) consisting of glass and Si and having microfluidic features fabricated in-plane in the Si layer. The base configuration of the head has two micrometer-size channels that inject/aspirate liquids and terminate at the apex which is ?1 mm(2). In scanning mode, the head is oriented vertically with the apex parallel to the surface with typical spacing of 1-30 ?m. Such length scales and using flow rates from nanoliters/second to microliters/second allow chemical events to be performed on surfaces with tens of picoliter quantities of reagents. Before scanning, the head is clipped on a holder for leak-free, low dead volume interface assembly, providing a simple world-to-chip interface. Surfaces are scanned by mounting the holder on a computer-controlled stage having ?0.1 ?m resolution in positioning. We present detailed steps to fabricate vMFP heads having channels with dimensions from 1 ?m × 1 ?m to 50 ?m × 50 ?m for liquid localization over areas of 10-10,000 ?m(2). Additionally, advanced design strategies are described to achieve high yield in fabrication and to support a broad range of applications. These include particulate filters, redundant aperture architectures, inclined flow-paths that service apertures, and multiple channels to enable symmetric flow confinement. We also present a method to characterize flow confinement and estimate the distance between the head and the surface by monitoring the evolution of a solution of fluorescently labeled antibody on an activated glass surface. This flow characterization reveals regimes of operation suitable for different surface topographies. We further integrate the dispensing of immersion liquid to the vMFP head for processing surfaces for extended periods of time (?60 min). The versatility of the vMFP is exemplified by patterning fluorescently labeled proteins, inactivation of cells using sodium hypochlorite, and staining living NIH fibroblasts with Cellomics. These applications are enabled by the compact design of the head, which provides easy access to the surface, simplifies alignment, and enables processing surfaces having dimensions from the micrometer to the centimeter scale and with large topographical variations. We therefore believe that ease-of-operation, reconfigurability, and conservative use of chemicals by the vMFP will lead to its widespread use by microtechnologists and the chemical and biomedical communities. PMID:21476506

  2. Modeling and control of household-size vertical axis wind turbine and electric power generation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harki Apri Yanto; Chun-Ta Lin; Jonq-Chin Hwang; Sheam-Chyun Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a low tip-speed ratio, drag type vertical axis wind turbine which is incorporated with permanent magnet synchronous generator with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy of control system to acquire the optimal performance. By using two dimensional large eddy simulations (LES) method as fluid dynamic model, the calculated power coefficient for this multi-blade vertical

  3. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  4. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  5. Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

    1997-01-01

    Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

  6. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial{times}7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  7. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  8. Bicycle Gears- Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Students experiment with and learn about the gear ratios on a bicycle—thus enhancing their understanding of circumference of a circle, proportions, etc. Actual gear ratio would be the ratio between the front and rear sprocket, NOT between pedal and rear wheel.

  9. Progress on relationships between horizontal and vertical dust flux: Mathematical, empirical and risk-based perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.

    2014-09-01

    Aeolian processes driving sediment flux and corresponding erosion are inherently 3-dimensional, but are primarily studied either with respect to the horizontal flux component, or to a lesser extent the vertical component. Understanding the relationship between horizontal flux and the vertical component of sediment and dust is critical to predicting fundamental processes such as erosion, and to assessing human and environmental risks associated with contaminated sediment and dust. Multiple mathematical approaches to calculate vertical flux of dust exist but are limited in their ability to predict vertical flux across a wide variety of landscapes and soil conditions. To address these issues, here we explore the relationship between horizontal and vertical fluxes from three perspectives: mathematical, based on existing equations; empirical, based on existing and new data; and risk-based, based on translating the former two into a risk context. Mathematical derivations suggest, depending on the approach, the two components could either be a constant ratio or that the vertical flux could be more dependent on the shear stress and particle size than horizontal flux. Empirical data highlight a wide range of ratios, varying by more than two orders of magnitude, though the ratios can be relatively similar within a given site and set of conditions. Risk-based assessment indicates the vertical flux component is relatively important in dose calculations, and consequently further improvement in mathematical and empirical relationships is needed. Collectively, these three perspectives expand insights on horizontal and vertical sediment fluxes and could aide future risk assessment from dust contaminants.

  10. CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

  11. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  12. Association analysis of cigarette smoking with onset of primary open-angle glaucoma and glaucoma-related biometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, studies on the role played by cigarette smoking in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) remains controversial. The current study evaluated cigarette smoking as a risk factor of POAG and its relationships with vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a Chinese cohort. Methods In a total of 248 unrelated individuals including 30 juvenile-onset POAG (JOAG), 92 adult-onset POAG (AOAG) and 126 sex-matched senile cataract controls, underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Their smoking was obtained and documented by questionnaire. Association of cigarette smoking with POAG was performed using logistic regression controlled for age and sex. Effects of cigarette smoking on VCDR, IOP and CCT were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Results In either JOAG or AOAG, no association of cigarette smoking was found with disease onset (P?=?0.692 and 0.925 respectively). In controls and JOAG, no significant effects of smoking were found on VCDR, IOP or CCT (all P?>?0.05). Smoking was found to be correlated with decreased CCT in AOAG and combined POAG (JOAG?+?AOAG) (P?=?0.009 and 0.003), but no association with VCDR or IOP was observed (P?>?0.05). Conclusions Although cigarette smoking was not found to be risk factor for onset of POAG, it was correlated with CCT in AOAG, and thus might still play a role in the disease course, especially for AOAG. PMID:23186177

  13. Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

  14. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

  15. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    SciTech Connect

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation ? was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  16. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  17. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Colchin, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Duck, R.; Edlington, T.; Erents, S.K.; Ferreira, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Gibson, K.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Hender, T.C.; Hugill, J.; Jenkins, I.; Li, J.; Manhood, S.J.; Parham, B.J.; Robinson, D.C.; Singleton, M.; Sykes, A.; Todd, T.N.; Turner, M.F.; Valovic, M.; Walsh, M.; Wilson, H.R. (AEA Fusion Technology, Culham Laboratory (EURATOM/UKAEA Association), Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom))

    1993-07-01

    Low-aspect-ratio tokamaks offer both the economic advantage of smaller size and a number of physics advantages which are not available at conventional aspect ratio. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) [[ital Fusion] [ital Technology] 1990, edited by B. E. Keen, M. Huguet, and R. Hemsworth (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. 1, p. 353] was conceived as a first substantial test of tokamak plasma behavior at low aspect ratio. It has achieved plasma currents up to 200 kA, peak densities of [similar to]2[times]10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] and central electron temperatures of [similar to]500 eV at an aspect ratio of 1.3--1.5. Central beta values of [similar to]13% have been measured and the volume-averaged beta [l angle][beta][r angle] can approach the Troyon limit. Plasmas are naturally elongated ([kappa][approx lt]2.0) and are vertically stable without feedback control. Major disruptions have not been observed at low aspect ratios ([ital A][le]2.0).

  18. The latitudinal and vertical distribution of molecular hydrogen in the troposphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Schmidt; Atmosphiirische Chemie

    1978-01-01

    Meridional profiles of the H. mixing ratio in surface air were obtained by continuous registrations during a ship cruise from Hamburg, West Germany, to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, in 1973. Vertical and meridional profiles in the troposphere were measured during a research flight from Cologne, West Germany, to Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1974. The average H. mixing ratio of surface

  19. Experimental study for the optimization of the performance of the Filippini Vertical Axis Wind Rotor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Nguyen

    1980-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the performance of models of the simplified Filippini Vertical Axis Wind Rotor (FVAWR), in which straight splitter plates are used instead of curved ones, employing five different bucket to swept diameter ratios are reported. Variations of rotor torque coefficient and power coefficient with tip speed ratio were determined by a Prony brake system with the rotor placed

  20. Likelihood Ratio Tests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This page, created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama - Huntsville, introduces likelihood ratio tests by giving the Neyman-Pearson lemma and several examples. The examples include a gamma model, a binomial model, and a nonparametric model. The page concludes with a definition of the generalized likelihood ratio test.

  1. Baseball Lab (Ratios)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Using batting averages, students will create ratios and convert them to rounded decimals (3 places). In addition, they will take decimals and determine several possible equivalent ratios. Then using the relationship that batting average = hits/at bats, the students can use proportions or equations to find either the number of hits or the number of at bats for a given situations.

  2. The Ratio Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, James A.; Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja van den

    1995-01-01

    Examines the use of a ratio table for developing students' conceptual understanding of rational number. The ratio table is an alternative to cross-multiplication and can utilize both additive and multiplicative strategies. It organizes numbers and keeps track of operations and results, which aids the teacher in assessment. (MLB)

  3. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Wind tunnel investigation of a 14 foot vertical axis windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. J.; Guillotte, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale wind tunnel investigation was made to determine the performance characteristics of a 14 ft diameter vertical axis windmill. The parameters measured were wind velocity, shaft torque, shaft rotation rate, along with the drag and yawing moment. A velocity survey of the flow field downstream of the windmill was also made. The results of these tests along with some analytically predicted data are presented in the form of generalized data as a function of tip speed ratio.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL TRACK MODULUS FROM A MOVING RAILCAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Arnold; Sheng Lu; Cory Hogan; Shane Farritor; Mahmood Fateh; Magdy El-Sibaie

    Track performance and maintenance requirements are strongly related to track modulus - the ratio between the rail deflection and the vertical contact pressure between the rail base and track foundation. This work seeks to develop an on-board, real-time, non-contact track modulus measurement system that functions at track speed. Measuring track modulus from a moving rail car is nontrivial because there

  6. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES IN

    E-print Network

    VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES: Stenobrachius leucopsarus and Diaphus theta. which performed diel vertical migrations of300 m vertical extent; andProtomyctophum thompsoni andS. nannochir. which exhibited only slight diel variation in vertical

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Walters; J. B. Fanucci; P. W. Hill; P. G. Migliore

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research accomplished in evaluating an innovative concept for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is described. The concept is that of using straight blades composed of circulation controlled airfoil sections. The theoretical analysis was developed to determine the unsteady lift and moment characteristics of multiple-blade cross-flow wind turbines. To determine the drag data needed as input to the

  8. Vertical Dynamics of Marine Risers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Apiazu; V. N. Nguyen

    1984-01-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values

  9. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  10. A likelihood ratio test for separability of covariances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mitchell; M. G. Genton; M. Gumpertz

    2002-01-01

    Abstract We propose a formal test of separability of covariance models based on a likelihood ratio statistic. The test is developed in the context of multivariate repeated measures (for example, several variables measured at multiple times on many subjects), but can also apply to a replicated spatio-temporal process and to problems in meteorology, where horizontal and vertical covariances are often

  11. A likelihood ratio test for separability of covariances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew W. Mitchell; Marc G. Genton; Marcia L. Gumpertz

    2006-01-01

    We propose a formal test of separability of covariance models based on a likelihood ratio statistic. The test is developed in the context of multivariate repeated measures (for example, several variables measured at multiple times on many subjects), but can also apply to a replicated spatio-temporal process and to problems in meteorology, where horizontal and vertical covariances are often assumed

  12. Rhombus Ratio Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four activities which allow students to work with rhombus patterns. These activities encourage students to search for, test, and verify patterns and to also practice computation and work with ratios. Diagrams needed for each activity are included. (KR)

  13. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

  14. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  15. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  16. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  17. Towards a New Vertical Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is responsible for maintaining and improving the National Spatial Reference System. This paper particularly focuses on developments leading to a new vertical datum to replace the existing North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). This new model will be developed from a combination of satellite, airborne, and terrestrial gravity data to define a gravimetric geoid height model. In particular, the aerogravity data collected as a part o the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project are intended to help achieve the goal of a cm-level accurate geoid model to serve as the new vertical datum. The different data sources have been melded into a single gravity field model consistent across the entire spectrum to about 2 km resolution. A previous comparison developed a localized model over just the southern Texas region, where the Geoid Slope Validation Study for 2011 (GSVS 11) demonstrated that it was possible to achieve the desired accuracy. This new model was developed using methodology consistent at regional to national scales following techniques used to make USGG2009 and USGG2012, but now incorporating aerogravity. This new model proves out the basic concepts behind GRAV-D in that the aeorgravity bridge the spectral gap between satellite and terrestrial data and provide the requisite improvements to the derived gravimetric geoid height model - all without artificially targeting a solution to a specific test area. Additional comparisons were made to tidal bench mark data observed by GPS in combination with ocean topography models to validate the behavior of the model in the coastal regions.

  18. Variations in leaf ? 13 C along a vertical profile of irradiance in a temperate Japanese forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko T. Hanba; Shigeta Mori; Thomas T. Lei; Takayoshi Koike; Eitaro Wada

    1997-01-01

    The vertical profile of stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) of leaves was analyzed for 13 tree species in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan. The vertical distribution of\\u000a long-term averaged ?13C in atmospheric CO2 (?a) was estimated from ?13C of dry matter from NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plant (Zea mays L. var. saccharata Sturt.) grown at a tower in the

  19. Simulating smoke movement through long vertical shafts in zone-type compartment fire models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    A limitation of traditional zone-type compartment fire modeling is the inadequacy of two-layer quasi-steady-buoyant-plume analyses to simulate the fire-generated environment in room configurations with large height-to-span ratios, e.g., elevator shafts and ventilation shafts. Model equations to remove this limitation are developed. These simulate time-dependent flow in a long, ventilated, vertical shaft with an arbitrary vertical density distribution, including one or

  20. On the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during winter: Role of water vapour and vertical updrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-09-01

    The differences in the spatial pattern of column carbon monoxide (CO) and in-situ measured near-surface CO over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during winter were examined in the light of vertical distribution of CO as retrieved from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) on board Terra spacecraft. The column CO showed relatively high values over southern-BoB whereas the near-surface CO showed low mixing ratio indicating the existence of significant amount of CO at higher altitudes. The vertical profiles of CO over the BoB region retrieved from MOPITT exhibit a high altitude peak around ~9 km altitude region. The role of water vapour and convective activity/vertical updrafts in establishing the observed vertical profile of CO was investigated. It is found that CO got uplifted to the higher altitude due to updrafts and water vapour caused depletion of CO at lower altitudes which appeared as an apparent high in CO mixing ratio at higher altitude relative to that over lower altitude. The role of water vapour in the destruction of CO was confirmed by box model simulations. Airmass back-trajectory analysis showed that the long range transport from lower troposphere/boundary layer was also partially responsible for higher mixing ratios at higher altitude. In addition, a comparison of in-situ measured near-surface CO and those retrieved from MOPITT using retrieval algorithm Versions 4 and 5 showed that the points of discrepancy have reduced in the Version 5. Biomass burning and anthropogenic activities taking place over the Myanmar landmass was found to be responsible for the hot spots of near-surface-CO over the northeast-BoB.

  1. Study of high aspect ratio silicon etching based on ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Shun; Hu, Shuai; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiguo

    2015-02-01

    The etching process of the high aspect ratio of Si deep trench is the key technology in MEMS field. Having used Oxford Plasmalabsystem100 ICP-180 etcher with SF6 and C4F8 as the etching gas, the influence on the deep Si etching process of Bosch under different ICP power, bias voltage, temperature, pressure and other parameters has been studied. The experimental result shows that under appropriate parameters, the high-aspect ratio of silicon deep trench is greater than 26:1, the sidewalls' vertical degree is 89.9°, and the etching rate is greater than 2?m/min the high aspect ratio of SOI deep trench is greater than 28:1, the sidewalls' vertical degree is 89.7°, and the etching rate is greater than 2?m/min.

  2. High-frequency vertical current observations in stratified seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Hans

    2009-05-01

    Although large-scale tidal and inertial motions dominate the kinetic energy and vertical current shear in shelf seas and ocean, short-scale internal waves at higher frequencies close to the local buoyancy frequency are of some interest for studying internal wave breaking and associated diapycnal mixing. Such waves near the upper limit of the inertio-gravity wave band are thought to have relatively short O (10 2-10 3 m) horizontal scales and to show mainly up- and downward motions, which contrasts with generally low aspect ratio large-scale ocean currents. Here, short-term vertical current ( w) observations using moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) are presented from a shelf sea, above a continental slope and from the open ocean. The observed w, with amplitudes between 0.015 and 0.05 m s -1, all span a considerable part of the water column, which is not a small vertical scale O(water depth) or O (100-500 m, the maximum range of observations), with either 0 or ? phase change. This implies that they actually represent internal waves of low vertical modes 1 or 2. Maximum amplitudes are found in layers of largest stratification, some in the main pycnocline bordering the frictional bottom boundary layer, suggesting a tidal source. These 'pycnocline-w' compose a regular train of (solitary) internal waves and linearly decrease to small values near surface and bottom.

  3. Vertical Profiles in NO3 and N2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. S.; Osthoff, H. D.; Dube, W. P.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stutz, J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    The nocturnal formation and subsequent reactions of NO3 (the nitrate radical) and N2O5 (dinitrogen pentoxide) are an important component of atmospheric nitrogen oxide chemistry. However, relatively little is known about their spatial distribution and variability, mainly because in-situ instruments for measurement of their ambient concentrations have only recently become available. This presentation will show the vertical distributions of NO3 and N2O5 (and related compounds) from two recent field campaigns; measurements from the NOAA P3 aircraft over the Northeast United States and the North Atlantic during the summer of 2004, and from a tower site near Boulder, CO in the fall of 2004. The aircraft data show vertical distributions from 0-3.5 km, while those from the tower site cover the range from 0-300 m with high vertical resolution (< 1 m). A common feature in both data sets is the large increase in NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios measured aloft compared those at the surface, even in the absence of similar vertical variations in NOx and ozone. While there are varying reasons for these gradients, it is clear that nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry aloft leads to different evolution of NOx and VOC than that at the surface, an observation that will influence the understanding of the lifetime, transport and distribution of atmospheric NOx.

  4. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  5. The Likelihood Ratio Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Don

    This module, created by Don Johnson of Rice University, provides an explanation and an example of the likelihood ratio test. Topics include: decision regions, Bayes' decision criterion, Bayes' cost, and likelihood function. The site is enhanced by Johnson's use of graphic and numerical demonstrations to better explain his points. Additionally, a PDF attachment providing an in-depth explanation is also featured.

  6. Vertical variation of vertical hydraulic conductivity in channel sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Song, J.; Cheng, C.; Wang, D.; Lackey, S.; Burbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of streambed is of great importance in the analysis of stream-aquifer interactions. We used two methods to estimate the Kv in three rivers of Nebraska. The first method was in-situ permeameter test in river channels. We investigated streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) in two depths, one incumbent to the other, immediately beneath the channel surface. Our results demonstrated that streambed Kv in the upper sediment layer was much higher than that in the sediment just beneath the upper layer at each test location. We speculate that hyporheic processes can result in a larger streambed Kv in the upper part of channel sediments. Specifically, water exchange through upwelling and downwelling zones can lead to bigger pore spaces and a more unconsolidated structure of sediments in the upper layer. The upward movement of gas produced by redox processes can loosen sediments and further enlarge pore spaces in the upper layers. Bio- activity in the upper part of the streambed can also expand pore space and thus increase hydraulic conductivity. In-situ permeameter tests penetrated the sediment to depth as much as 90 cm. We then used Geoprobe direct- push technique to generate electrical conductivity log and collect sequences of sediment cores from larger depths. Permeameter tests were conducted on these cores to determine Kv. Our results suggest that Kv values have a decrease tendency with the depth for sediments in these rivers.

  7. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds. PMID:18833568

  8. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  9. Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  10. Vertical dynamics of marine risers

    SciTech Connect

    Apiazu, W.R.; Nguyen, V.N.

    1984-05-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values under all operating modes including hangoff, by increasing compliance at the riser vessel interface. Finally, recommendations for the design of heave compensation equipment intended to limit the dynamic force amplitude on riser-load systems hanging in deeper waters and harsher environments are presented.

  11. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  12. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2008-02-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and paramaterized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We focus on a case study in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. An upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found in this case study to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  13. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2007-05-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and parametrized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We have investigated cases in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. Upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  14. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  15. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  16. Displacement and Velocity Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bourassa, James

    This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses displacement and velocity ratios. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of both topics and then provide mathematical examples of each. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to the physical and mathematical concepts of displacement and velocity ratios. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.

  17. Ratios and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Jensen

    2005-01-01

    This interactive slideshow explains the notion of ratios and proportions, how to write the, and how to find them. There are practice problems which walk visitors through each step of the process, including reducing answers to simplest terms, in which students are asked to calculate the rate of grass seed coverage per square foot and find the miles per gallon fuel use of a car. The lesson continues on to introduce proportion and work through practice problems in the same fashion.

  18. PROPORTIONS and RATIOS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Squire

    2009-04-13

    Using what you already know and the text, can you solve these problems? Just by looking at the titles below, describe in your journal what you think each activity is going to be about and how it relates to proportions and ratios. Which tastes juicier? Statue of Liberty : is the Statue of Liberty's nose too long? Describe in your journal how your favorite question above was answered. Also, include any fun facts you learned along the way. What ...

  19. Thinking Blocks: Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This set of six interactive Flash activities gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate the unknown quantity from ratios and other information, all in the context of solving word problems. A video demonstration introduces each method, and then students work on modeling and solving five problems. Students can check their modeling of the problem at intermediate stages. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem set.

  20. Vertical ?13C and ?15N changes during pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunn, Melanie; Spielvogel, Sandra; Wells, Andrew; Condron, Leo; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2015-04-01

    The natural abundance of soil organic matter (SOM) stable C and N isotope ratios are subjected to vertical changes throughout the soil profile. This vertical distribution is a widely reported phenomenon across varieties of ecosystems and constitutes important insights of soil carbon cycling. In most ecosystems, SOM becomes enriched in heavy isotopes by several per mill in the first few centimeters of the topsoil. The enrichment of 13C in SOM with soil depth is attributed to biological and physical-chemical processes in soil e.g., plant physiological impacts, microbial decomposition, sorption and transport processes. Such vertical trends in 13C and 15N abundance have rarely been related to SOM composition during pedogenesis. The aims of our study were to investigate short and long-term ?13C and ?15N depth changes and their interrelations under progressing pedogenesis and ecosystem development. We sampled soils across the well studied fordune progradation Haast-chronosequence, a dune ridge system under super-humid climate at the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island (43° 53' S, 169° 3' E). Soils from 11 sites with five replicates each covered a time span of around 2870 yr of soil development (from Arenosol to Podzol). Vertical changes of ?13C and ?15N values of SOM were investigated in the organic layers and in 1-cm depth intervals of the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. With increasing soil depth SOM became enriched in ?13C by 1.9 ± SE 0.1 o and in ?15N by 6.0 ± 0.4 ‰?Litter ?13C values slightly decreased with increasing soil age (r = -0.61; p = 0.00) likely due to less efficient assimilation linked to nutrient limitations. Fractionation processes during mycorrhizal transfer appeared to affect ?15N values in the litter. We found a strong decrease of ?15N in the early succession stages ? 300 yr B.P. (r = -0.95; p = 0.00). Positive relations of vertical 13C and 15N enrichment with soil age might be related to decomposition and appeared to be affected by a change of hydrology, nutrient limitations, secondary minerals and root impacts. The investigation of vertical changes of soil organic matter (SOM) stable isotope ratios provides the opportunity to detect combined processes that enhance our understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning and pedogenetic processes leading to stabilization/destabilization in soil and therefore addressing the soil's sink/source function.

  1. Constant Ratio Approximations of Feedback Vertex Sets in Weighted Undirected Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vineet Bafna; P. Bergman; T. Fujito

    1996-01-01

    A feedback vertex set of a graph is a subset of vertices that contains at least one vertexfrom every cycle in the graph. We show that a feedback vertex set approximating a minimumone within a constant factor can be efficiently found in undirected graphs. In fact thederived approximation ratio matches the best constant ratio known today for the vertexcover problem,

  2. Horizontal Distributions of Thermospheric Vertical Winds in the Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, M.; Kubota, M.; Conde, M.; Smith, R. W.; Krynicki, M.

    2003-12-01

    Thermospheric vertical winds can play a significant role in the thermospheric dynamics, energy balance between thermosphere and ionosphere, and displacement of the altitude profiles of mixing ratio for each atmospheric species. Optical measurements with Fabry-Perot Interferometers are powerful method to observe vertical winds, but the observing area is restricted in small portion of the sky just above the instruments. Several attempts have been executed to extend the observable region. Innis and Conde [2002a,b] shows thermospheric vertical winds obtainedfrom DE2 satellite data (WATS, NACS). In the recent studies, a rocket experimentwith TMA trail measured horizontal distribution of vertical winds in HEX (Horizontal E-region eXperiments) campaign on March 2003. In this campaign, multi-site observation with Fabry-Perot Interferometers was conducted for another approach. In this study, we will show several results of detailed analysis obtained with two Fabry-Perot Interferometers at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) and Eagle (EGL). These two sites are separated about 300 km along a typical auroral arc and we can expect to deduce vertical wind distribution on the vicinity of auroral arc from these results. The present results show that the vertical winds estimated from OI557.7nm at the two sites has high correlation (the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.6 in six of 13 nights). In many of low correlated cases, one observatory (EGL in most cases) was displaced from auroral arc. This results mean that the neutral wind system is uniform along the auroral arc. Innis, J. L., and M. Conde, High-latitude thermospheric vertical wind activity from Dynamics Explorer 2 Wind and Temperature Spectrometer Observations: Indications of a source region for polar cap gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res., 107, A8, 10.1029/2001JA009130, 2002a. Innis J. L., and M. Conde, Characterization of acoustic-gravity waves in the upper thermosphere using Dynamics Explorer 2 Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) and Nuetral Atmosphere Composition Spectrometer (NACS) data, J. Geophys. Res., 107, A12, 10.1029/2002JA009370, 2002b.

  3. [Architectural analysis of vertical dimension].

    PubMed

    Danguy, M; Danguy, C

    2003-09-01

    Laude and the Lille orthodontic department describe the trigeminal nerve as the main architect of the face. Using the points where it emerges into the cranium, the authors propose an analysis, which they base on four concepts: --the stability of the pterygoid base, --the interaction between two activities, prehensile and masticatory, of the oral cavity, --the cranio-mandibular entity, --the importance of the paired fifth cranial nerve. This study deals with vertical dimension of both alveolar and basal bone, as well as global, ramal, and maxillary growth directions, which they conceptualize as three parallel, convergent, or divergent lines. This analysis can be carried out quickly and easily because it requires only four simple measurements. PMID:15301369

  4. Handy Measuring Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-23

    In this activity, learners use their hands as tools for indirect measurement. Learners explore how to use ratios to calculate the approximate height of something that can't be measured directly by first measuring something that can be directly measured. This activity can also be used to explain how scientists use indirect measurement to determine distances between things in the universe that are too far away, too large or too small to measure directly (i.e. diameter of the moon or number of bacteria in a volume of liquid).

  5. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007–2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  6. Fixed wake theory for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N.

    1983-12-01

    A theory for vertical axis wind turbines has been developed using a fixed wake approach. The theory combines some of the best features of vortex and streamtube approaches. This approach accounts for flow differences between fore-and-aftblade positions that are predicted by vortex methods while retaining the low computation costs associated with streamtube theories. The theory is applied to high tip speed ratio operation of a Darrieus Rotor where the use of linear aerodynamics results in explicit calculation of the induced velocities. Comparison to test results shows good agreement.

  7. Fixed wake theory for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N.

    1983-11-01

    A theory for vertical axis wind turbines has been developed using a fixed wake approach. The theory combines some of the best features of vortex and streamtube approaches. This approach accounts for flow differences between fore-and-aft blade positions that are predicted by vortex methods while retaining the low computation costs associated with streamtube theories. The theory is applied to high tip speed ratio operation of a Darrieus Rotor where the use of linear aerodynamics results in explicit calculation of the induced velocities. Comparison to test results shows good agreement.

  8. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.; Hou, Hong Q.; Geib, Kent M.; Hammons, B. E.

    1998-04-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. We report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising form the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  9. Ratios For All Occasions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terese Herrera

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards.A central theme in the middle school mathematics curriculum, proportional reasoning is based on making sense of ratios in a variety of contexts. The resources chosen for this unit provide practice in solving problems, often informally, in the format of games, hands-on modeling, mapmaking, and questions selected for their interest for students. As students work through the activities, they will exercise reasoning about basic proportions as ell as further develop their knowledge of the relationship between fractions and percents.The section titled Background Resources for Teachers contains links to workshop sessions, developed for teachers, on the mathematical content of the unit. Ratios in Childrens Books identifies three picture books that entertain while they explore scale and proportion. In the final section, we look at the coverage of proportionality at the iddle level in the NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.

  10. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  11. Vertical motion requirements for landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the significance of vertical acceleration cues in the simulation of the visual approach and landing maneuver. Landing performance measures were obtained for four subject pilots operating a visual landing simulation device which provides up to plus or minus 40 feet of vertical motion. Test results indicate that vertical motion cues are utilized in the landing task, and that they are particularly important in the simulation of aircraft with marginal longitudinal handling qualities. To assure vertical motion cues of the desired fidelity in the landing tasks, it appears that a simulator must have excursion capabilities of at least plus or minus 20 feet.

  12. Comparison of Some Ratio Estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myint Tin

    1965-01-01

    In this article, four ratio estimators designated as simple, Quenouille's, Beale's and modified ratio estimators are compared with respect to bias, efficiency, approach to normality and computational convenience. They are shown to be asymptotically minimum variance bound estimators. Some additional ratio estimators are discussed briefly and compared with these. Quenouille's, Beale's, and modified ratio estimators are found to be more

  13. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Ogliore; G. R. Huss; K. Nagashima

    2011-01-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator

  14. A High Aspect-Ratio Polysilicon Vibrating Ring Gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farrokh Ayazi; Hsiao H. Chen; Fatih Kocer; Guohong He; Khalil Najafl

    2000-01-01

    Drive and Control This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a high aspect-ratio 80um tall polysilicon ring gyroscope (PRG) fabricated using a new dry-release poly-silicon MEMS technology. This single-wafer technology is capable of producing electrically isolated vertical electrodes as tall as the main body polysilicon structure (50 to 100's urn tall) with various size air-gaps ranging from sub-micron to

  15. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  16. [Monitoring and analysis of vertical profile of atmospheric HONO, NO2 in boundary layer of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Wu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Fang, Jing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Dou, Ke; Qin, Min; Si, Fu-Qi

    2011-04-01

    Based on the scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system, field measurement of vertical profiles of HONO and NO2 was performed continuously from Aug. 27, 2007 to Sep. 4, 2007 in Chaoyang District of Beijing, and their vertical profiles were analyzed. Based on the acquired data, the typical vertical variation characteristics of HONO, NO2 and the ratio HONO/NO2 were discussed, and the possible formation sources of HONO were studied. The results indicated that the decrease of HONO with height was faster than the decrease of NO2. The study found good correlation between NO2 and HONO, as well as between the ratio HONO/NO2 and vapor, respectively. Therefore, the authors' conclusion is that HONO was formed by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on surfaces or near ground and then transported to higher altitudes. PMID:21714264

  17. A vertical axis cyclogiro type wind-turbine with freely-hinged blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayly, D. A.; Kentfield, J. A. C.

    A description is given of the design, construction and testing of a prototype vertical axis cycloturbine. The machine has straight vertical blades of symmetrical cross-section. Each blade is hinged, on a vertical axis, near its upper and lower extremities to the ends of radial arms projecting from a central, rotating, tower structure. What is believed to be a unique method is used for the control of blade articulation. The cyclic motion of each blade is derived solely from a combination of the centrifuging action of a mass attached to the blade and the aerodynamic load acting on the blade. Results of open-air tests of the small two-bladed prototype unit resulted in the achievement of a maximum power coefficient of 0.37 at a velocity ratio of 3.6 with a runaway velocity ratio of 5.2. The machine was found to self-start easily.

  18. Structural and Electrical Investigation of C60-Graphene Vertical Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanpyo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Santos, Elton J G; Jo, Pil Sung; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-06-23

    Graphene, with its unique electronic and structural qualities, has become an important playground for studying adsorption and assembly of various materials including organic molecules. Moreover, organic/graphene vertical structures assembled by van der Waals interaction have potential for multifunctional device applications. Here, we investigate structural and electrical properties of vertical heterostructures composed of C60 thin film on graphene. The assembled film structure of C60 on graphene is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which reveals a uniform morphology of C60 film on graphene with a grain size as large as 500 nm. The strong epitaxial relations between C60 crystal and graphene lattice directions are found, and van der Waals ab initio calculations support the observed phenomena. Moreover, using C60-graphene heterostructures, we fabricate vertical graphene transistors incorporating n-type organic semiconducting materials with an on/off ratio above 3 × 10(3). Our work demonstrates that graphene can serve as an excellent substrate for assembly of molecules, and attained organic/graphene heterostructures have great potential for electronics applications. PMID:26027690

  19. Incipient buoyant thermal convection in a vertical cylindrical annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, D.L. (US Army Ballistic Research Lab., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA)); Desai, P.V. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The incipient buoyant thermal convection in a vertical cylindrical annulus when heated from below is examined. The ends are assumed to be free, and the sidewalls perfectly conducting. The temperature needed to initiate fluid motion is expressed nondimensionally in terms of the Rayleigh number. The analytical conflict that arises for annuli of infinite aspects ratios due to insufficient independent boundary conditions is resolved. Calculations for the critical Rayleigh numbers are presented for a variety of geometries, and the corresponding velocity and temperature perturbations are also shown. The number of cells increases as the aspect and radius ratio decrease with a strong bias towards the development of azimuthally varying cells. These changes in cellular behavior are expected based on physical justifications and comparisons with previous studies.

  20. Abyssal Atlantic circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum: Constraining the ratio between transport and vertical mixing

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    The ocean's role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide on glacial-interglacial timescales remains an unresolved issue in paleoclimatology. Reduced mixing between deep water masses may have aided oceanic storage of ...

  1. Some design aspects of high-speed vertical-axis wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Templin; P. South

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the aerodynamic, mechanical and economic reasons for the choice of the various design parameters (rotor height to diameter ratio, solidity, number of blades, etc.) for high-speed vertical-axis wind turbines from kilowatt to megawatt sizes and shows that very large turbines are theoretically feasible. The paper also describes various methods to prevent overspeeding, to improve the starting characteristics,

  2. The design and testing of a vertical-axis wind turbine using sails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Newman; T. M. Ngabo

    1978-01-01

    A vertical-axis wind turbine using sails rather than solid blades has been designed and tested at large model scale in a 15 ft diameter wind tunnel. The turbine has a relatively high solidity, three blades and an operating range of tip speed ratios from zero to about 2.5. Two types of sail have been tested - a double sail consisting

  3. Dynamics and oxygen transfer of a novel vertical tubular biological reactor for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanli Xu; Jiti Zhou; Yuanyuan Qu; Hua Yang; Zhijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics and oxygen transfer of a novel vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR) for wastewater treatment were investigated in this paper. It was showed that the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in VTBR is higher than that in the conventional bubble column. When the ratio of gas and liquid flow rates was greater than 6.44, there were no phenomena of deficiency oxygen

  4. Latitudinal variation of HNO3, HCl and HF vertical column density above 11.5 km

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Girad; Louis Gramont; Nicole Louisnard; S. Le Boiteux; Gilbert Fergant

    1982-01-01

    The considered investigation makes use of infrared absorption spectroscopy, utilizing as a radiation source the sun either at sunset or at sunrise. On the basis of simultaneous spectral observations of HNO3, HCl, and HF, it was found that the vertical column density above 11.5 km increases from low latitude in both hemispheres for the three species. The ratio between the

  5. Overspeed spoilers for vertical axis wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Rangi; P. South

    1978-01-01

    An overspeed spoiler is described for vertical axis wind turbines of the type having straight or curved airfoil blades attached to a vertical shaft formed by a relatively thin flat blade shaped spoiler element hinge mounted on the trailing edge, leading edge, or at a central position of a portion of the airfoil section. The element has two portions one

  6. A method for quantifying vertical forest structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope A Latham; Hans R Zuuring; Dean W Coble

    1998-01-01

    Vertical forest structure is an attribute of forests that is of interest to many disciplines and is consistently discussed in the context of ecosystem management. The vertical stratification of tree crowns is a forest attribute that influences both tree growth and understory community structure. Therefore, it should be considered when making management decisions that affect the structure of stands. However,

  7. Some empirical regularities on vertical restraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xulia González

    2006-01-01

    Vertical restraints most often arise when an upstream firm wants to restrict the choices of a downstream distributor in order to increase profits. The aim of this paper is to analyze some empirical regularities in the motivations for vertical restraints. Firstly a simple theoretical framework is developed in which an upstream monopoly decides on the intermediate price and an effort

  8. The “vertical effect” in human squint amblyopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sireteanu; W. Singer

    1980-01-01

    Grating acuity was tested in seven squint amblyopes as a function of orientation. In the squinting eyes of six unilateral amblyopes, the resolution for vertical gratings was much lower (by about 1\\/2 octave) than that of horizontal gratings. The non-amblyopic eyes of these subjects showed a normal “oblique effect”. In one bilateral amblyope the selective loss of resolution for vertical

  9. Lunar and Vertical Distribution of Myctophidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsarin

    2002-01-01

    The Myctophidae are the most numerous of the mesopelagic fishes in all oceans. Daily vertical migrations which connected with nutrition and energy exchange, are charac- teristic feature of the myctophids behavior. Myctophidae in main during the nighttime basic feed. There are two ecological groups of Myctophidae on the type of vertical migrations. (Some scientists select the third intermediate group). Superficial

  10. Theory of orientation, the visual vertical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schröer

    2002-01-01

    The book deals with the direction of orientation and the total acceleration in space. First in the book the visual vertical is explained. Then the direction of orientation on the earth's surface is determined. In the second chapter two planets are viewed. The observer is in the outer space, the visual vertical is calculated. The next chapter presents what happens

  11. Vertical Junction Type Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouji Suemori; Takahiro Miyata; Masahiro Hiramoto; Masaaki Yokoyama

    2004-01-01

    Vertical junction type organic photovoltaic cells having a pn junction formed perpendicularly to a light irradiated surface were fabricated. Short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.5 mA\\\\cdotcm-2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.54% were observed under simulated solar illumination. The large photocurrent density is attributed to the light collection effect via the transparent vertical layer.

  12. Origami Multistabilty: From Single Vertices to Metasheets

    E-print Network

    Scott Waitukaitis; Rémi Menaut; Bryan Gin-ge Chen; Martin van Hecke

    2014-09-09

    We explore the surprisingly rich energy landscape of origami-like folding planar structures. We show that the configuration space of rigid-paneled degree-4 vertices, the simplest building blocks of such systems, consists of at least two distinct branches meeting at the flat state. This suggests that generic vertices are at least bistable, but we find that the nonlinear nature of these branches allows for vertices with as many as five distinct stable states. In vertices with collinear folds and/or symmetry, more branches emerge leading to up to six stable states. Finally, we introduce a procedure to tile arbitrary 4-vertices while preserving their stable states, thus allowing the design and creation of multistable origami metasheets.

  13. Modeling of leachate recirculation using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2015-06-01

    Leachate recirculation (LR) in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. The subsurface application method of vertical wells is one of the most common LR techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a novel two-dimensional model of leachate recirculation using vertical wells. This novel method can describe leachate flow considering the effects of MSW settlement while also accounting separately for leachate flow in saturated and unsaturated zones. In this paper, a settlement model for MSW when considering the effects of compression and biodegradation on the MSW porosity was adopted. A numerical model was proposed using new governing equations for the saturated and unsaturated zones of a landfill. The following design parameters were evaluated by simulating the recirculated leachate volume and the influence zones of waste under steady-state flow conditions: (1) the effect of MSW settlement, (2) the effect of the initial void ratio, (3) the effect of the injected head, (4) the effect of the unit weight, (5) the effect of the biodegradation rate, and (6) the effect of the compression coefficient. The influence zones of LR when considering the effect of MSW settlement are smaller than those when neglecting the effect. The influence zones and LR volume increased with an increase in the injection pressure head and initial void ratio of MSW. The proposed method and the calculation results can provide important insight into the hydrological behavior of bioreactor landfills. PMID:25874416

  14. Temperature-insensitive line ratios

    E-print Network

    Kesich, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    We develop method to extract elemental abundance ratios using temperature-insensitive ratios of x-ray line fluxes for a collisionally ionized plasma. This method is then refined using more realistic plasma models for coronae ...

  15. High-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals Chien-Hui Wen, Sebastian Gauza, and Shin-Tson Wua

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    cell; a poor alignment leads to a low-contrast ratio and smeared thresh- old behavior. Several VAHigh-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals Chien-Hui Wen method for achieving high-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals using

  16. A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bo; Bandilla, Karl W.; Doster, Florian; Keilegavlen, Eirik; Celia, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional vertically integrated models for CO2 storage usually adopt a vertical equilibrium (VE) assumption, which states that due to strong buoyancy, CO2 and brine segregate quickly, so that the fluids can be assumed to have essentially hydrostatic pressure distributions in the vertical direction. However, the VE assumption is inappropriate when the time scale of fluid segregation is not small relative to the simulation time. By casting the vertically integrated equations into a multiscale framework, a new vertically integrated model can be developed that relaxes the VE assumption, thereby allowing vertical dynamics to be modeled explicitly. The model maintains much of the computational efficiency of vertical integration while allowing a much wider range of problems to be modeled. Numerical tests of the new model, using injection scenarios with typical parameter sets, show excellent behavior of the new approach for homogeneous geologic formations.

  17. Poisson's ratio and crustal seismology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolas I. Christensen

    1996-01-01

    New measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities to hydrostatic pressures of 1 GPa are summarized for 678 rocks. Emphasis was placed on obtaining high-accuracy velocity measurements, which are shown to be critical in calculating Poisson's ratios from velocities. The rocks have been divided into 29 major groups for which velocities, velocity ratios, and Poisson's ratios are presented at several

  18. Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    The layered materials such as graphene have attracted considerable interest for future electronics. Here we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials to enable high current density vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs). An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene and a metal thin film. The VFETs exhibit a room temperature on-off ratio >103, while at same time deliver a high current density up to 5,000 A/cm2, sufficient for high performance logic applications. This study offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of various layered materials to obtain both p- and n-channel transistors for complementary logic functions. A complementary inverter with larger than unit voltage gain is demonstrated by vertically stacking the layered materials of graphene, Bi2Sr2Co2O8 (p-channel), graphene, MoS2 (n-channel), and metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve high on-off ratio, high current density, and logic integration in the vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up a new dimension for future electronics to enable three-dimensional integration. PMID:23241535

  19. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  20. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  1. Vertical transmission of Salmonella paratyphi A.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, R; Wattal, C; Sharma, A; Kler, N; Garg, P; Gujral, K; Khera, N

    2007-08-01

    Neonatal enteric fever is a rare but life-threatening illness. Patients may present with varying severity, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi causing more severe illness than Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is considered to cause milder infection with fewer complications. We report a rare case of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with severe complications and high mortality. Even though there are case reports of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, to our knowledge, this is the first case report of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype ParatyphiA. The role of blood culture in accurate diagnosis and treatment is also discussed. PMID:17785907

  2. Dominant vertices in regulatory networks dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Beatriz; Ugalde, Edgardo

    2008-11-01

    Discrete-time regulatory networks are dynamical systems on directed graphs with a structure that is inspired on natural systems of interacting units. Using a notion of determination between vertices, we define sets of dominant vertices, and we prove that in the asymptotic regime, the projection of the dynamics on a dominant set allows us to determine the state of the whole system at all times. We provide an algorithm to find sets of dominant vertices, and we test its accuracy on several examples. We also explore the possibility of using the dominant set characteristics as a measure of the structural complexity of networks.

  3. Measurement of the $B^{+}$ and $B^{0}$ lifetimes and search for CP(T) violation using reconstructed secondary vertices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Abbiendi; K Ackerstaff; Gideon Alexander; J Allison; N Altekamp; K J Anderson; S Anderson; S Arcelli; S Asai; S F Ashby; D A Axen; Georges Azuelos; A H Ball; E Barberio; R J Barlow; R Bartoldus; J Richard Batley; S Baumann; J Bechtluft; T Behnke; K W Bell; G Bella; A Bellerive; Stanislaus Cornelius Maria Bentvelsen; Siegfried Bethke; S Betts; O Biebel; A Biguzzi; S D Bird; Volker Blobel; Ian J Bloodworth; P Bock; J Böhme; D Bonacorsi; M Boutemeur; S Braibant; P G Bright-Thomas; L Brigliadori; R M Brown; Helfried J Burckhart; P Capiluppi; R K Carnegie; A A Carter; J R Carter; C Y Chang; D G Charlton; D Chrisman; C Ciocca; P E L Clarke; E Clay; I Cohen; J E Conboy; O C Cooke; C Couyoumtzelis; R L Coxe; M Cuffiani; S Dado; G M Dallavalle; R Davis; S De Jong; A de Roeck; P J Dervan; Klaus Desch; B Dienes; M S Dixit; J Dubbert; E Duchovni; G Duckeck; I P Duerdoth; D Eatough; P G Estabrooks; E Etzion; Franco Luigi Fabbri; M Fanti; A A Faust; F Fiedler; M Fierro; I Fleck; R Folman; A Fürtjes; D I Futyan; P Gagnon; J W Gary; J Gascon; S M Gascon-Shotkin; G Gaycken; C Geich-Gimbel; G Giacomelli; P Giacomelli; V Gibson; W R Gibson; D M Gingrich; D A Glenzinski; J Goldberg; W Gorn; C Grandi; K Graham; E Gross; Jacob Grunhaus; M Gruwé; G G Hanson; M Hansroul; M Hapke; K Harder; A Harel; C K Hargrove; C Hartmann; M Hauschild; C M Hawkes; R Hawkings; Richard J Hemingway; M Herndon; G Herten; R D Heuer; M D Hildreth; J C Hill; P R Hobson; M Hoch; Andreas Höcker; K Hoffman; R James Homer; A K Honma; D Horváth; K R Hossain; R Howard; P Hüntemeyer; P Igo-Kemenes; D C Imrie; K Ishii; F R Jacob; A Jawahery; H Jeremie; Martin Paul Jimack; C R Jones; P Jovanovic; T R Junk; D A Karlen; V G Kartvelishvili; K Kawagoe; T Kawamoto; P I Kayal; Richard K Keeler; R G Kellogg; B W Kennedy; D H Kim; A Klier; S Kluth; T Kobayashi; M Kobel; D S Koetke; T P Kokott; M Kolrep; S Komamiya; R V Kowalewski; T Kress; P Krieger; J Von Krogh; T Kühl; P Kyberd; G D Lafferty; Hagar Yaël Landsman; D Lanske; J Lauber; S R Lautenschlager; I Lawson; J G Layter; D Lazic; A M Lee; Daniel Lellouch; J Letts; L Levinson; R Liebisch; B List; C Littlewood; A W Lloyd; S L Lloyd; F K Loebinger; G D Long; Michael J Losty; J Ludwig; D Liu; A Macchiolo; A L MacPherson; W F Mader; M Mannelli; S Marcellini; C Markopoulos; A J Martin; J P Martin; G Martínez; T Mashimo; P Mättig; W J McDonald; J A McKenna; E A McKigney; T J McMahon; R A McPherson; F Meijers; S Menke; F S Merritt; H Mes; J Meyer; Aldo Michelini; S Mihara; G Mikenberg; D J Miller; R Mir; W Mohr; A Montanari; T Mori; K Nagai; I Nakamura; H A Neal; B Nellen; R Nisius; S W O'Neale; F G Oakham; F Odorici; H O Ögren; M J Oreglia; S Orito; J Pálinkás; G Pásztor; J R Pater; G N Patrick; J Patt; R Pérez-Ochoa; S Petzold; P Pfeifenschneider; J E Pilcher; James L Pinfold; D E Plane; P R Poffenberger; J Polok; M B Przybycien; C Rembser; Hartmut Rick; S Robertson; S A Robins; N L Rodning; J M Roney; K Roscoe; A M Rossi; Y Rozen; K Runge; O Runólfsson; D R Rust; K Sachs; T Saeki; O Sahr; W M Sang; E Sarkisyan-Grinbaum; C Sbarra; A D Schaile; O Schaile; F Scharf; P Scharff-Hansen; J Schieck; B Schmitt; S Schmitt; A Schöning; M Schröder; M Schumacher; C Schwick; W G Scott; R Seuster; T G Shears; B C Shen; C H Shepherd-Themistocleous; P Sherwood; G P Siroli; A Sittler; A Skuja; A M Smith; G A Snow; Randall J Sobie; S Söldner-Rembold; S Spagnolo; M Sproston; A Stahl; K Stephens; J Steuerer; K Stoll; D Strom; R Ströhmer; B Surrow; S D Talbot; S Tanaka; P Taras; S Tarem; R Teuscher; M Thiergen; J Thomas; M A Thomson; E Von Törne; E Torrence; S Towers; I Trigger; Z L Trócsányi; E Tsur; A S Turcot; M F Turner-Watson; I Ueda; R Van Kooten; P Vannerem; M Verzocchi; H Voss; F Wäckerle; A Wagner; C P Ward; D R Ward; P M Watkins; A T Watson; N K Watson; P S Wells; N Wermes; J S White; G W Wilson; J A Wilson; T R Wyatt; S Yamashita; G Yekutieli; V Zacek; D Zer-Zion

    1998-01-01

    The lifetimes of the B+ and B0 mesons, and their ratio, have been measured in the OPAL experiment using 2.4 million hadronic Z0 decays recorded at LEP. Z0 -> b bbar decays were tagged using displaced secondary vertices and high momentum electrons and muons. The lifetimes were then measured using well-reconstructed charged and neutral secondary vertices selected in this tagged

  4. Effects of Geographic Variation in Vertical Mode Structure on the Sea Surface Topography, Energy, and Wind Forcing of Baroclinic Rossby Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Codiga; Peter Cornillon

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and wind forcing of first baroclinic mode Rossby waves is considered using linear inviscid long-wave dynamics for both the standard and surface-intensified vertical mode in a continuously stratified rest-state ocean. The ratio between SSHA variance and vertically integrated energy of waves is proportional to 1) a dimensionless ratio characterizing the surface intensification of

  5. Demonstration of terabit-scale data transmission in silicon vertical slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Gui, Chengcheng; Li, Chao; Yang, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-20

    We design and fabricate silicon vertical slot waveguides for terabit-scale data transmission. The designed silicon photonic device is composed of apodized grating couplers, strip waveguides, strip-to-slot/slot-to-strip mode converters, and slot waveguide. Tight light confinement in the nano-scale air slot region is achieved in the silicon vertical slot waveguide which features relatively lower nonlinearity compared to silicon strip waveguide. Using the fabricated silicon photonic devices, we first demonstrate ultra-wide bandwidth 1.8-Tbit/s data transmission through a 2-mm-long silicon vertical slot waveguide using 161 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) channels each carrying 11.2-Gbit/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal. All 161 WDM channels achieve bit-error rate (BER) less than 1e-3 after on-chip data transmission. We further demonstrate terabit-scale data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides with different lengths (1 mm, 2 mm, 3.1 mm, 12.2 mm). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides are 1, 2, 3.2 and 4.5 dB at a BER of 1e-3, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the presented silicon vertical slot waveguide might be an alternative promising candidate facilitating chip-scale high-speed optical interconnections. PMID:25969012

  6. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOEpatents

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  7. Vertical Glider Robots for Subsea Equipment Delivery

    E-print Network

    Reed, Brooks L.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an underwater vehicle that offers significant performance improvements over existing sub sea elevators. Our Vertical Glider Robot falls under its own weight to a precise location on the seafloor, employing ...

  8. Vertical-axis wind-turbine program

    SciTech Connect

    Braasch, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    During the interval since the Fourth Biennial Wind Energy Conference, the vertical axis wind turbine program has experienced significant progress. The purpose of this paper is to review that progress in aerodynamics research, structural dynamics research, and machine development.

  9. Vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of simple vertical wind models to improve the hazard prediction capability of an airborne Doppler sensor in a realistic microburst environment. The results indicate that in the altitude region of interest (at or below 300 meters), both the linear and empirical vertical wind models improved the hazard estimate. The radar simulation study showed that the magnitude of the performance improvement was altitude dependent. The altitude of maximum performance improvement occurred at about 300 meters. At the lower altitudes the percent improvement was minimized by the diminished contribution of the vertical wind. The vertical hazard estimate errors from flight tests were less than those of the radar simulation study.

  10. Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles

    E-print Network

    Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

  11. Stability of Granular Materials under Vertical Vibrations

    E-print Network

    Deng, Rensheng

    The influence of periodic vibrations on the granular flow of materials is of great interests to scientists and engineers due to both theoretical and practical reasons. In this paper, the stability of a vertically vibrated ...

  12. Laminar Free Convection from Vertical Thin Needles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai P. Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1972-01-01

    A similarity solution is obtained for the problem of free-convection heat transfer over a thin vertical needle with uniform heat flux at the surface. A few errors in previous papers on “isothermal” needles have been modified.

  13. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites in Magnetic Thin Films 

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Raziq, Haron

    2013-02-11

    With the advent of ferromagnetic materials for magnetic memory among other applications, increased attention has been given to understanding the properties of these ferromagnets. Here, a vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) system is examined...

  14. 23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  15. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  16. Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer between two oblate concentric and eccentric hemi-spheroids with different elliptical ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Eldesouki Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, natural convection between a pair of oblate hemi-spheroids with different elliptical ratios was depicted experimentally. The experimental tests study the effects of the orientation modes (horizontal, inclined, vertical, inclined revolved and vertical revolved) as well as the vertical eccentricity on the natural convection between each pair. Correlations among Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, elliptical ratio and eccentricity were deduced. A notable increase in the natural convection could be satisfied through the gaps among successive layers of hemi-spheroids having higher elliptical ratio rather than hemi-spherical ones. The positive vertical eccentricity shows remarked increase in natural convection rather than both concentric and negative eccentric cases. Also, the inclination of the minor axis of hemi-spheroids while keeping the major axis parallel to the horizontal plane produces a stronger upward plume rather than different inclination modes.

  17. Measurements of the vertical profile of water vapor abundance in the Martian atmosphere from Mars Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, J. T.; Mccleese, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) capabilities along with how the vertical profiles of water vapor will be obtained. The PMIRR will employ filter and pressure modulation radiometry using nine spectral channels, in both limb scanning and nadir sounding modes, to obtain daily, global maps of temperature, dust extinction, condensate extinction, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles as a function of pressure to half scale height or 5 km vertical resolution. Surface thermal properties will also be mapped, and the polar radiactive balance will be monitored.

  18. First observation of ELM pacing with vertical jogs in a spherical torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ahn, Joon-Wook [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Canik, John [ORNL; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Goldston, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hawryluk, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Le Blanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Tritz, K. [Johns Hopkins University

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies.

  19. Seismic vertical array analysis for phase decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kunikazu; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    We propose a vertical array analysis method that decomposes complex seismograms into body and surface wave time histories by using a velocity structure at the vertical array site. We assume that the vertical array records are the sum of vertically incident plane P and S waves, and laterally incident Love and Rayleigh waves. Each phase at the surface is related to that at a certain depth by the transfer function in the frequency domain; the transfer function is obtained by Haskell's matrix method, assuming a 1-D velocity structure. Decomposed P, S and surface waves at the surface are estimated from the vertical array records and the transfer functions by using a least-squares method in the frequency domain; their time histories are obtained by the inverse Fourier transform. We carried out numerical tests of this method based on synthetic vertical array records consisting of vertically incident plane P and S waves and laterally incident plane Love and Rayleigh waves. Perfect results of the decomposed P, S, Love and Rayleigh waves were obtained for synthetic records without noise. A test of the synthetic records in which a small amount of white noise was added yielded a reasonable result for the decomposed P, S and surface waves. We applied this method to real vertical array records from the Ashigara valley, a moderate-sized sedimentary valley. The array records from two earthquakes occurring at depths of 123 and 148 km near the array (epicentral distance of about 31 km) exhibited long-duration later phases. The analysis showed that duration of the decomposed S waves was a few seconds and that the decomposed surface waves appeared a few seconds after the direct S-wave arrival and had very long duration. This result indicated that the long-duration later phases were generated not by multireflected S waves, but by basin-induced surface waves.

  20. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Krishnan; Michael Riley; Sabrina Lee; Toh-Ming Lu

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85º with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation.

  1. Competitive co-existence of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites

    E-print Network

    Lively, Curt

    of vertically transmitted bacteria within the female reproductive organs of many arthropods, especially blood by systemic fungal endophytes that are vertically transmitted through seeds (Schardl, 1996). Theory suggests

  2. Theoretical calculations of the pressure, forces, and moments at supersonic speeds due to various lateral motions acting on thin isolated vertical tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, Kenneth; Bobbitt, Percy J

    1956-01-01

    Velocity potentials, pressure, distributions, and stability derivatives are derived by use of supersonic linearized theory for families of thin isolated vertical tails performing steady rolling, steady yawing, and constant-lateral-acceleration motions. Vertical-tail families (half-delta and rectangular plan forms) are considered for a broad Mach number range. Also considered are the vertical tail with arbitrary sweepback and taper ratio at Mach numbers for which both the leading edge and trailing edge of the tail are supersonic and the triangular vertical tail with a subsonic leading edge and a supersonic trailing edge. Expressions for potentials, pressures, and stability derivatives are tabulated.

  3. Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether Petroleum Ether (30-60) 2-methyl-THF 2-methylpentane ethyl ether/isopentane 1:1, 1:2 3-methylpentane ethyl ether/methylcyclohexane 2:3 3-ethylpentane propyl ether/pentane 2:1 2,3-dimethylpentane EtOH 3-methylhexane glycerol 4-methylheptane 1-propanol 3

  4. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  5. Should sex-ratio distorting parasites abandon horizontal transmission?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sex-ratio distorting parasites are of interest due to their effects upon host population dynamics and their potential to influence the evolution of host sex determination systems. In theory, the ability to distort host sex-ratios allows a parasite with efficient vertical (hereditary) transmission to dispense completely with horizontal (infectious) transmission. However, recent empirical studies indicate that some sex-ratio distorting parasites have retained the capability for horizontal transmission. Results Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. It is also demonstrated that even a small amount of horizontal transmission can allow multiple feminising parasites to coexist within a single host population. Finally it is shown that, by boosting its host's rate of population growth, a feminising parasite can increase its own horizontal transmission and allow the invasion of other, more virulent parasites. Conclusions The prediction that sex-ratio distorting parasites are likely to retain a degree of horizontal transmission has important implications for the epidemiology and host-parasite interactions of these organisms. It may also explain the frequent co-occurrence of several sex-ratio distorting parasite species in nature. PMID:22188680

  6. The sex ratio in anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H James

    1979-01-01

    A review of the data supports the suggestion of Knox (1974) that the sex ratio and incidence of anencephalics vary together within populations, as they are known to do between populations. There seems some doubts, though, whether Knox was correct in hypothesising that the sex ratio of anencephalics varies with their incidence in relation to the dizygotic twinning rate. The

  7. Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Stone

    2009-01-01

    Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking (LRDT) is an extension of Bayesian tracking that simultaneously estimates whether a target is present and its state if present. It is particularly suited to difficult detection and tracking situations involving low signal-to-noise ratios or high clutter density. LRDT extends the basic Bayes Markov single target recursion by adding a null state to represent the

  8. The Gyromagnetic Ratio of Supermalloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Scott

    1953-01-01

    The gyromagnetic ratio of supermalloy has been determined by a highly refined magneto-mechanical method. The value obtained is 1.030+\\/-0.001 times the mass-to-charge ratio of the electron. Within the limits of experimental error, this is the same value as has recently been reported for pure iron.

  9. Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection with uniform vertical magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Basak, Arnab; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field near instability onset. We have done simulations in boxes with square as well as rectangular cross-sections in the horizontal plane. We have considered horizontal aspect ratio $\\eta = L_y/L_x =1$ and $2$. The onset of the primary and secondary instabilities are strongly suppressed in the presence of the vertical magnetic field for $\\eta =1$. The Nusselt number $\\mathrm{Nu}$ scales with Rayleigh number $\\mathrm{Ra}$ close to the primary instability as $[\\mathrm{\\{Ra - Ra_c (Q)\\}/Ra_c (Q)} ]^{0.91}$, where $\\mathrm{Ra_c (Q)}$ is the threshold for onset of stationary convection at a given value of the Chandrasekhar number $\\mathrm{Q}$. $\\mathrm{Nu}$ also scales with $\\mathrm{Ra/Q}$ as $(\\mathrm{Ra/Q})^{\\mu}$. The exponent $\\mu$ varies in the range $0.39 \\le \\mu \\le 0.57$ for $\\mathrm{Ra/Q} \\ge 25$. The primary instability is stationary as predicted by Chandrasekhar. The seco...

  10. Optimal maneuvers at supersonic speeds in a vertical plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinh, N. X.; Lin, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents several optimal maneuvers of supersonic aircraft in a vertical plane. The general dimensionless equations of motion are derived and the computation of the optimal trajectories are carried out using the aerodynamics and engine characteristics of a light-weight fighter called the supercruiser. Because of the normalizing of the control variables, namely, the load factor and the thrust-to-weight ratio, the results applied to any supersonic aircraft. The optimality of the singular thrust control and the optimal junction of different subarcs are discussed. The proposed method of computing the optimal trajectory is very efficient and makes explicit the selection of the optimal control. The technique should be useful for performance assessment of supersonic aircraft with potential for implementation of onboard flight control system.

  11. Control of dynamic stall phenomenon for vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulic?, Florin; Dumitrescu, Horia; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    In the last years the wind turbine with vertical axis (VAWT) began to be more attractive due benefits in exploitation, the power range covering usually the domain 2 kW-20 kW. But, VAWTs suffer from many complicated aerodynamically problems, of which dynamic stall is an inherent phenomenon when they are operating at low values of tip speed ratio (TSR < 4), and this has a significant impact on vibration, noise, and power output of the VAWTs. For this reason, in the present work we perform a computational investigation of a two-dimensional dynamic stall phenomenon around a NACA0012 airfoil in oscillating motion at relative low Reynolds number (˜105). The unsteady flow is investigated numerically using RANS approach with two turbulence models (k-? SST and transition SST). The same analysis was performed to evaluate three flow control methods: two passive and one active.

  12. Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; GEIB,KENT M.; BRIGGS,RONALD D.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; HINDI,JANA JO

    2000-04-26

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which operate in multiple transverse optical modes have been rapidly adopted into present data communication applications which rely on multi-mode optical fiber. However, operation only in the fundamental mode is required for free space interconnects and numerous other emerging VCSEL applications. Two device design strategies for obtaining single mode lasing in VCSELs based on mode selective loss or mode selective gain are reviewed and compared. Mode discrimination is attained with the use of a thick tapered oxide aperture positioned at a longitudinal field null. Mode selective gain is achieved by defining a gain aperture within the VCSEL active region to preferentially support the fundamental mode. VCSELs which exhibit greater than 3 mW of single mode output power at 850 nm with mode suppression ratio greater than 30 dB are reported.

  13. Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Britnell, L; Gorbachev, R V; Jalil, R; Belle, B D; Schedin, F; Mishchenko, A; Georgiou, T; Katsnelson, M I; Eaves, L; Morozov, S V; Peres, N M R; Leist, J; Geim, A K; Novoselov, K S; Ponomarenko, L A

    2012-02-24

    An obstacle to the use of graphene as an alternative to silicon electronics has been the absence of an energy gap between its conduction and valence bands, which makes it difficult to achieve low power dissipation in the OFF state. We report a bipolar field-effect transistor that exploits the low density of states in graphene and its one-atomic-layer thickness. Our prototype devices are graphene heterostructures with atomically thin boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide acting as a vertical transport barrier. They exhibit room-temperature switching ratios of ?50 and ?10,000, respectively. Such devices have potential for high-frequency operation and large-scale integration. PMID:22300848

  14. The Correlation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness With Blood Pressure in a Chinese Hypertensive Population.

    PubMed

    Gangwani, Rita A; Lee, Jacky W Y; Mo, H Y; Sum, Rita; Kwong, Alfred S K; Wang, Jenny H L; Tsui, Wendy W S; Chan, Jonathan C H; Lai, Jimmy S M

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the association between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and blood pressure (BP) in subjects with systemic hypertension.Subjects with systemic hypertension on anti-hypertensive medications were screened by fundus photography and referred for glaucoma work-up if there was enlarged vertical cup-to-disc (VCDR) ratio ?0.6, VCDR asymmetry ?0.2, or optic disc hemorrhage. Workup included a complete ophthalmological examination, Humphrey visual field test, and RNFL thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography. The intraocular pressure (IOP) and RNFL thicknesses (global and quadrant) were averaged from both eyes and the means were correlated with: the systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using Pearson correlation.Among 4000 screened hypertensive subjects, 133 were referred for glaucoma workup and 110 completed the workup. Of the 4000 screened subjects, 1.3% had glaucoma (0.9% had normal tension glaucoma [NTG], 0.2% had primary open angle glaucoma, and 0.2% had primary angle closure glaucoma), whereas 0.3% were NTG suspects. The SBP was negatively correlated with the mean superior RNFL thickness (P?=?0.01). The DBP was negatively correlated with the mean global (P?=?0.03), superior (P?=?0.02), and nasal (P?=?0.003) RNFL thickness. The MAP was negatively correlated with the mean global (P?=?0.01), superior (P?=?0.002), and nasal (P?=?0.004) RNFL thickness while positively correlated with the mean IOP (P?=?0.02).In medically treated hypertensive subjects, glaucoma was present in 1.3%, with NTG being most prevalent. MAP control may help with IOP lowering and RNFL preservation, although future prospective studies will be needed. PMID:26061324

  15. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence.

    PubMed

    Van Rijn, L J; Simonsz, H J; Tusscher, M P

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds, Subsequently, DVD was induced by covering one eye during 4 seconds. Finally, both eyes were uncovered during 4 seconds. Several trials were recorded for each subject and covered eye. Eye movements were measured with scleral coils. We found that in all subjects, the vertical divergence followed an exponential course with a time constant of 0.67 ± 0.14 seconds on average. In three of the five subjects this vertical divergence was associated with binocular torsion (cycloversion), partly, in the form of a cycloversional nystagmus. The time course of the vertical divergence as well as the direction and nystagmic nature of the cycloversion was similar to the behaviour that was previously observed in disparity induced vertical vergence in normal subjects. In two of the subjects, the torsion that was associated with the vertical divergence was monocular. Our results indicate that DVD and disparity induced vertical vergence share the same characteristics. In addition, they demonstrate that extorsion associated with the elevation in DVD possibly but not necessarily points at a dissociated torsional deviation. PMID:21314389

  16. Rayleigh-Bénard convection with uniform vertical magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Basak, Arnab; Raveendran, Rohit; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-09-01

    We present the results of direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field near instability onset. We have done simulations in boxes with square as well as rectangular cross sections in the horizontal plane. We have considered the horizontal aspect ratio ?=L(y)/L(x)=1 and 2. The onset of the primary and secondary instabilities are strongly suppressed in the presence of the vertical magnetic field for ?=1. The Nusselt number Nu scales with the Rayleigh number Ra close to the primary instability as [{Ra-Ra(c)(Q)}/Ra(c)(Q)](0.91), where Ra(c)(Q) is the threshold for onset of stationary convection at a given value of the Chandrasekhar number Q. Nu also scales with Ra/Q as (Ra/Q)(?). The exponent ? varies in the range 0.39???0.57 for Ra/Q?25. The primary instability is stationary as predicted by Chandrasekhar. The secondary instability is temporally periodic for Pr=0.1 but quasiperiodic for Pr=0.025 for moderate values of Q. Convective patterns for higher values of Ra consist of periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic wavy rolls above the onset of the secondary instability for ?=1. In addition, stationary as well as time-dependent cross rolls are observed, as Ra is further raised. The ratio r(o)/Pr is independent of Q for smaller values of Q. The delay in the onset of the oscillatory instability is significantly reduced in a simulation box with ?=2. We also observe inclined stationary rolls for smaller values of Q for ?=2. PMID:25314524

  17. Binocular contributions to linear vertical vection.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Ash, April; Palmisano, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Compelling illusions of self-motion, known as vection, can be produced in a stationary observer by visual stimulation alone. The role of binocular vision and stereopsis in these illusions was explored in a series of three experiments. Previous research had provided evidence of stereoscopic enhancements for linear vection in depth (e.g., Palmisano, 1996, 2002). Here we examined for the first time the effects of binocular vision and stereopsis on linear vertical vection. Vertical vection was induced by the upward or downward translation of large stereoscopic surfaces. These surfaces were horizontally oriented depth corrugations produced by disparity modulation of patterns of persistent or short lifetime dot elements. We found that binocular viewing of such surfaces significantly increased the magnitudes and decreased the onset delays of vertical vection. Experiments utilizing short lifetime dot stereograms demonstrated that these particular binocular enhancements of vection were due to the motion of stereoscopically defined features. PMID:25761282

  18. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  19. Vertical Vergence Adaptation Produces an Objective Vertical Deviation That Changes With Head Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.; Ramey, Nicholas A.; Adyanthaya, Rohit S.; Ying, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Methods. Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Results. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. Conclusions. These results not only show that head-tilt–dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases. PMID:23572100

  20. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  1. Sediment Vertical Flux in Unsteady Sheet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Jenkins, J. T.; Liu, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    In models for sediment suspension, two different boundary conditions have been employed at the sediment bed. Either the sediment concentration is given or the vertical flux of sediment is specified. The specification of the latter is usually called the pick-up function. Recently, several developments towards a better understanding of the sediment bed boundary condition have been reported. Nielson et al (Coastal Engineering 2002, 45, p61-68) have indicated a better performance using the sediment vertical flux as the bed boundary condition in comparisons with experimental data. Also, Drake and Calantoni (Journal of Geophysical Research 2001, 106, C9, p19859-19868) have suggested that in the nearshore environment with its various unsteady flow conditions, the appropriate sediment boundary conditions of a large-scale morphology model must consider both the magnitude the free stream velocity and the acceleration of the flow. In this research, a small-scale sheet flow model based on the two-phase theory is implemented to further study these issues. Averaged two-phase continuum equations are presented for concentrated flows of sediment that are driven by strong, fully developed, unsteady turbulent shear flows over a mobile bed. The particle inter-granular stress is modeled using collisional granular flow theory and a two-equation closure for the fluid turbulence is adopted. In the context of the two-phase theory, sediment is transported through the sediment vertical velocity. Using the fully developed sediment phase continuity equation, it can be shown that the vertical velocity of the sediment must vanish when the flow reaches a steady state. In other words, in fully developed conditions, it is the unsteadiness of the flow that induces the vertical motion of the sediment and that changes the sediment concentration profile. Therefore, implementing a boundary condition based on sediment vertical flux is consistent with both the two-phase theory and with the observation that the flow acceleration is an important parameter. In this paper, the vertical flux of sediment is studied under various combinations of free stream velocity, acceleration, and sediment material properties using the two-phase sheet flow model. Some interesting features of sediment dynamics within the sheet, such as time history of sediment vertical velocity, collisional and turbulent suspension mechanisms are presented.

  2. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  3. Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

  4. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  5. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  6. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  7. Highly ordered vertical GaAs nanowire arrays with dry etching and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Chia, Andrew; Boulanger, Jonathan; Khodadad, Iman; LaPierre, Ray; Saini, Simarjeet S.

    2014-08-01

    We report fabrication methods, including metal masks and dry etching, and demonstrate highly ordered vertical gallium arsenide nanowire arrays. The etching process created high aspect ratio, vertical nanowires with insignificant undercutting from the mask, allowing us to vary the diameter from 30 nm to 400 nm with a pitch from 250 nm to 1100 nm and length up to 2.2 ?m. A diameter to pitch ratio of ˜68% was achieved. We also measured the reflectance from the nanowire arrays and show experimentally diameter-dependent strong absorption peaks resulting from resonant optical mode excitations within these nanowires. The reflectance curves match very well with simulations. The work done here paves the way towards achieving high efficiency solar cells and tunable photodetectors using III-V nanowires.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA FLUXES OVER SOYBEAN USING MODIFIED BOWEN-RATIO TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of bi-directional ammonia exchange over a fertilized soybean canopy are presented for an 8-week period during the summer of 2002. The modified Bowne-ratio approach was used to determine fluxes from vertical NH3 and temperature gradients in combination with eddy covar...

  9. A source representation of microseisms constrained by HV spectral ratio observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dreger; J. Rhie

    2006-01-01

    The microseisms are generated by pressure variation on the sea floor caused by incident and reflected ocean waves, and dominant background noises at short periods. The observations of microseism wave fields in deep sedimentary basins (e.g., Santa Clara Valley) show that the maximum period of the horizontal to vertical (H\\/V) spectral ratio correlates with basin thickness. A similar correlation has

  10. Flux between soil and atmosphere, vertical concentration profiles in soil, and turnover of nitric oxide: 2. Experiments with naturally layered soil cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Rudolph; Ralf Conrad

    1996-01-01

    Intact soils cores were taken with a stainless steel corer from a sandy podzol and a loamy luvisol, and used to measure the flux (J) of NO between soil and atmosphere and the vertical profile of the NO mixing ratios (m) in the soil atmosphere, both as function of the NO mixing ratio (ma) in the atmosphere of the headspace.

  11. The design, construction, testing and manufacturing of vertical axis wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Braasch

    1978-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of a 17-meter Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) are described, and results of a performance-cost optimation study and manufacturing studies of VAWTs are presented. Two- and three-blade rotor configurations have been tested. The blades are troposkein-shaped, with a symmetrical airfoil cross section developed from helicopter-blade technology. The power train has 13 gear-ratio settings

  12. Visualization by PIV of dynamic stall on a vertical axis wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Simão Ferreira; Gijs van Kuik; Gerard van Bussel; Fulvio Scarano

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic behavior of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is analyzed by means of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV),\\u000a focusing on the development of dynamic stall at different tip speed ratios. The VAWT has an unsteady aerodynamic behavior\\u000a due to the variation with the azimuth angle ? of the blade’s sections’ angle of attack, perceived velocity and Reynolds number.

  13. The dependence of clouds and their radiative impacts on the large-scale vertical velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Middle-tropospheric vertical velocity(o500) is used to isolate the effect of large-scale dynamics on the observed radiation budget and cloud properties in the Tropics. The ratio of shortwave to longwave cloud forcing (N=-SWCF\\/LWCF) is approximately 1.2 and independent of the magnitude of w5oo when it is upward over the warmer water. Increasingly negative net cloud forcing (NetCRF) with increasing upward motion

  14. Surface and bulk- micromachined two-dimensional scanner driven by angular vertical comb actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wibool Piyawattanametha; Pamela R. Patterson; Dooyoung Hah; Hiroshi Toshiyoshi; Ming C. Wu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and measurements of a two-dimensional (2-D) optical scanner with electrostatic angular vertical comb (AVC) actuators. The scanner is realized by combining a foundry-based surface-micromachining process (Multi-User MEMS Processes-MUMPs) with a three-mask deep-reactive ion-etching (DRIE) postfabrication process. The surface-micromachining provides versatile mechanical design and electrical interconnect while the bulk micromachining offers high-aspect ratio

  15. Direct comparison of nonmigrating tidal signatures in the electrojet, vertical plasma drift and equatorial ionization anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lühr; M. Rother; K. Häusler; B. Fejer; P. Alken

    This paper presents for the first time a full decomposition of tidal signatures in three important ionospheric quantities, the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), vertical plasma drift and the crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) of the equatorial ionization anomaly. Data sources are the EEJM-2 model, ROCSAT-1 data and CHAMP electron density measurements. The analysis is based on data sampled around the solar maximum 23

  16. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  17. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  18. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  19. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  20. Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1 and Caroline Noyer and Olivier Raynaud2 Research Report LIMOS/RR-06-07 24 juillet 2006 1 medina@isima.fr 2 raynaud@isima.fr hal-00678051,version1-12Mar2012 #12

  1. Performance evaluation of Vertical Handoff Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Garcia Dávalos; Lina Escobar; Andres Navarro; Adriana Arteaga; Fabio Guerrero; Carlos Salazar

    2010-01-01

    Different Vertical Handoff Algorithms (VHA) have been proposed in the literature recently. However, there is no consensus on how to evaluate performance of different VHA at the research community. Although some models have been proposed for evaluation of the VHA, this issue is a challenge because the VHA have evolved to become more sophisticated, thus the evaluation models must consider

  2. Experimental Research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoying Feng; Zhizhang Liu; Bao Daorina; Zheng Gong

    2009-01-01

    In China, researches on vertical axis wind turbine focus on aerodynamic design mostly. This paper presents the wind tunnel test data of a Darrieus wind turbine. The output powers of wind turbine systems with and without optimal power controller are tested separately. The factors influencing the output power of the wind turbine are analyzed and design methods for wind turbine

  3. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  4. Radar For Measuring Vertical Cloud Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Li, Fuk K.; Durden, Stephen L.; Wilson, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed radar system views clouds from above and measures their vertical structures with resolution of 500 m. Two versions of system; initial developmental version to be flown aboard aircraft and final version flown aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around Earth at altitude of 400 km.

  5. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Yortsos

    1995-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Equilibrium (VE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable

  6. Vertical Fracture Containment During Massive Hydraulic Fracturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Cormack; R. L. Fung; S. Vijayakumar

    1983-01-01

    Massive hydraulic fractures are projected to play a major role in the recovery of the tremendous reserves of gas tied up in the tight gas sands of the Deep Basin of N. Alberta and British Columbia. One of the major problems in designing fractures in such formations is the uncertain vertical extent of these fractures: fracture containment. This work presents

  7. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  8. Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study

    E-print Network

    Babic, Jan

    are energy inefficient. With the understanding of the anatomy and the biomechanics of the human body, one can find out that, beside the shape, majority of today's humanoid robots and human bodies do not have a lot31 Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study Jan Babi and Jadran Lenar i "Jozef

  9. Dynamic crosswind fatigue of slender vertical structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Pia Repetto; Giovanni Solari

    2002-01-01

    Wind-excited vibrations of slender structures can induce fatigue damage and cause structural failure without exceeding ultimate limit state. Unfortunately, the growing importance of this problem is coupled with an evident lack of simple calculation criteria. This paper proposes a mathematical method for evaluating the crosswind fatigue of slender vertical structures, which represents the dual formulation of a parallel method that

  10. Introduction Diel vertical migration occurs when plankton

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    over a 24 h cycle. Zooplankton typically migrate nocturnally, occupying depths near the hypolimnion and can occur among both marine and freshwater plankton (Lampert & Sommer 1997). Although there have been many studies on zooplankton DVM, little is known about the daily vertical movements of phytoplank- ton

  11. Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine program overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Braasch

    1979-01-01

    Some of the more salient recent developments in the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine technology are presented. First generation costs and future plans are discussed. Potential design improvements are presented along with their cost benefits. Aerodynamic structural, and system analyses capabilities were developed to support and evaluate the system design.

  12. Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine program overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Braasch

    2008-01-01

    As a US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, Sandia Laboratories is developing Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology with the objective of encouraging private industry to produce economically feasible, commercially marketable wind energy systems. The first full cycle of development is essentially complete, and resulting current technology designs have been evaluated for cost-effectiveness. Aerodynamic, structural, and system analyses capabilities

  13. VERTICAL PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PARALLEL IMPORTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHANGYING LI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model of endogenous R&D in vertical product innovation by an original manufacturer facing Bertrand competition from parallel importer(s). We show that if parallel imports are prohibited among the distributors' countries and there is at least one country other than the manufacturer's homeland in which there is only one distributor, then allowing reimports reduces the

  14. Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

    E-print Network

    Yang, Peidong

    Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors Josh Goldberger, Allon I. Hochbaum Manuscript Received February 24, 2006 ABSTRACT Silicon nanowires have received considerable attention, alternative transistor geometries need to be considered.1 Silicon nanowire based devices2,3 and horizontal

  15. Vertical distribution of Titan's atmospheric neutral constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Lara; E. Lellouch; J. J. López-Moreno; R. Rodrigo

    1996-01-01

    The vertical distribution of Titan's neutral atmosphere compounds is calculated from a new photochemical model extending from 40 to 1432 km. This model makes use of many updated reaction rates, and of the new scheme for methane photolysis proposed by Mordaunt et al. [1993]. The model also includes a realistic treatment of the dissociation of N2, of the deposition of

  16. Kinematic Features of Unrestrained Vertical Arm Movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER G. ATKESON; JOHN M. HOLLERBACH

    1985-01-01

    Unrestrained human arm trajectories between point targets have been investigated using a three-dimensional tracking apparatus, the Selspot system. Movements were executed between different points in a vertical plane under varying conditions of speed and hand-held load. In contrast to past results which emphasized the straightness of hand paths, movement regions were discovered in which the hand paths were curved. All

  17. Vertical occupational mobility and its measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Dex; Joanne Lindley; Kelly Ward

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a number of alternative approaches to devising a vertical occupational scale and compares the outcomes of different scales on calculations of occupational mobility. The paper describes the conceptual issues relevant to calculating occupational mobility and documents the measurement error embedded in the choice of measure, as applied to different data sets. The ranking schemes used include SOC

  18. [Vertical and tortional deviations in early strabismus].

    PubMed

    Spielmann, A

    1990-04-01

    The occlusion of one eye may trigger two types of deviation: 1) Heterophorias: the occluded eye deviates towards a horizontal, vertical or torsional abnormal position of rest. Fusion keeps the eyes straight during binocular fixation. 2) Dissociated deviations, horizontal (DHD), vertical (DVD), torsional (DTD): they are found in infantile strabismus. The deviation without fixation is always smaller than the deviation of the occluded eye. The more typical cases are the ones where the position of rest without fixation is an orthoposition. Normal binocular vision is lacking. Most of the time, an alternant neutralisation is found: the occlusion deviation is not the return of the occluded eye to an abnormal position of rest. The deviation is caused by a disequilibrium of binocular retinal stimulations. Horizontal and vertical deviations are easy to study. It is not the case in dissociated torsional deviation (DTD) where the incyclotorsion does not exist when fixation is absent. An indirect proof of extorsion is given by the study of horizontal and vertical deviations determined in the cardinal position of gaze. Extorsion of the globus leeds always to abnormal actions of the recti. This give a typical synoptometer chart which is found in any extorsion whatever its origins: paralysis, alphabetic patterns or infantile strabismus. Dissociated extorsions are always associated with a bilateral elevation in the primary position. Dissociated deviations are found in infantile strabismus with the other dissociations phenomenon such as nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry, fixation in adduction preference (and incyclotorsion). PMID:2208493

  19. Vertical technology transfer via international outsourcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Pack; Kamal Saggi

    2001-01-01

    To analyze the effect of vertical technology transfer on industrial development in lesser developed countries (LDCs), we develop a model in which the technology transferred to an LDC supplier by a developed country (DC) importer can diffuse to other LDC firms. Surprisingly, even if such diffusion in the LDC market leads to entry into the DC market, it can benefit

  20. Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration SOM 822 Research Paper Diogo Souza-Monteiro Dep. of Resource Economics 05/10/2004 #12;Introduction Food Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex in different tiers of food chains. Barkena and Drabenstott (1995) claim that contracts are quickly taking

  1. Vertical Acoustic Arrays in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F.

    2002-12-01

    The R/P FLIP has made possible the deployments of vertical arrays to study sound propagation and ambient noise in the deep ocean in ways never before possible from existing research vessels. Long vertical arrays can be deployed without the flow noise contamination from platform motion, long a bane for making such studies. The vertical stability of FLIP combined with the deep mooring capability developed by Earl D. Bronson made it possible to deploy multi-element arrays beginning with a versatile 20 element array with variable spacing developed by Bill Whitney in Fred Spiess's group. The 20 element array consisted of bungee mounted hydrophones in metal cages at either uniform spacing or variable spacing to meet directivity or other requirements. It was assembled on station in the vertical and deployed to the desired depths for the elements. Gerald Morris at MPL conducted ambient noise studies using variable spacing of the elements to below the critical depth as well as in the water column above. Vic Anderson used it for his DIMUS processing system for detecting low level signals masked by ambient noise. As a 500 meter array, I used it for a series of CONTRACK (Continuous Tracking of signals at long range) experiments to resolve multipaths so they wouldn't interfere with one another. The VEKA vertical array developed by Rick Swenson of NORDA was deployed in very deep (below 3300 m) water by Dan Ramsdale of NORDA using the winch and double lay armored cable on FLIP, the same cable system for the MPL 20 element array. In my group Bruce Williams designed a rapidly deployable array to study vertical anisotropy of ambient noise as a function of range from near shore shipping via downslope conversion in a series of 48 hours FLIP stations 350, 1000 and 1500 miles from the Pacific coast. A short 120 element array, 1000 meters long, was built by John Hildebrands's group for a test of matched field processing and the SLICE experiment in acoustic tomography research of Peter Worcester and Walter Munk in 1987. Later a different 200 element array over 3000 meters long was also built by John Hildebrand's group for deloyment in the VAST experiment in 1987. This array included acoustic navigation to measure element location for several different experiments including matched field processing at 1000 km, normal mode studies and down-slope conversion of shipping noise and by Stan Flatte of UCSC for looking at long range barotropic wave reflections from Alaska. In a separate talk, Gerald D'Spain will discuss a trifar (3D) vertical array developed at MPL.

  2. Higgs boson hadronic branching ratios at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, Yambazi; Lastovicka, Tomas; Nomerotski, Andrei [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    We present a study of the Higgs boson decay branching ratios to bb, cc, and gluons, one of the cornerstones of the physics program at the International Linear Collider. A standard model Higgs boson of 120 GeV mass, produced in the Higgs-strahlung process at {radical}(s)=250 GeV, was investigated using the full detector simulation and reconstruction procedures. The analysis was performed in the framework of the Silicon Detector concept with full account of inclusive standard model backgrounds. The selected decay modes contained two heavy flavor jets in the final state and required excellent flavor tagging through precise reconstruction of interaction and decay vertices in the detector. A new signal discrimination technique using correlations of neural network outputs was used to determine the branching ratios and estimate their uncertainties, 4.8%, 8.4%, and 12.2% for bb, cc, and gluons, respectively.

  3. H/V Ratio Characteristics for 3-Component Seismic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villero, D. A.; Porter, J.; Milkereit, B.

    2013-12-01

    Information about the stability of the ground on which a structure will be built is crucial for various geotechnical and safety purposes. With the goal of being able to monitor for changes in stability, we have explored a method to study the distribution of seismic energy in a half-space model as well as to obtain information about the way in which this energy distribution depends on physical properties of the ground. The procedure and results of this study are purely theoretical and they are developed from a more detail study of the expressions for the characteristics of a single geophone specified by Dankbar [1]. It is worth highlighting that these equations exclude the contribution of surface waves and that they work under the assumption that we are only interested in the effects of body waves. In order to understand the distribution of seismic energy detected by a single 3-component sensor, we looked at the energy stored individually in P-waves and S-waves on both the vertical and horizontal geophone components for a white source. Through our analysis, we showed that any changes in the shear modulus of the ground (and thus shear wave velocity) are propositional to changes in the distribution of energies between the vertical and horizontal components recorded by a 3-component seismic sensor (geophone). This observation provides us with a unique opportunity to use the H/V ratio (the ratio of the signal amplitude on the horizontal component(s) to that on the vertical component, also known as the 'transfer function', usually expressed as a function of frequency) to monitor for variations in the shear modulus of the ground. We show, through time-series analysis of numerous hours (60 GB of data per sensor) of 3-component seismic data, that it may be possible to use the long-term average of the H/V ratio to obtain a stable estimate of the ratio itself. A deviation from this estimate over a long period of time would then indicate that the average shear-wave velocity, and thus the shear modulus and indeed the stability of the ground, might have changed. References [1] Daankbar J.W.M., Separation of P- and S-Waves, Geophysical Prospecting 33, pp. 970-986, 1985. [2] Kaehler S. and Meissner R., Radiation and Receiver Pattern of Shear and Compressional Waves as a Function of Poisson's Ratio, Geophysical Prospecting 31, pp. 421-435, 1983.

  4. The vertical-mill stage : design of a vertical movement stage for surface machining

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Juan, Jr

    2007-01-01

    To allow the widespread use of three dimensional patterns on walls, the manufacturing cost must be reduced. The goal of this project is to design a machine for vertical axis movement which can be measured and controlled. ...

  5. Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"—a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bones—and calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

  6. Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    de Bergh, C

    1995-03-01

    Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

  7. Morphologic assessment for glaucoma in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Altaweel, Michael M.; Peng, Qian; Friedman, David S.; Rao, P. Kumar; Foster, C. Stephen; Kim, Rosa Y.; Reed, Susan B.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Wong, Ira G.; Kempen, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare Reading Center (RC) cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) assessment from stereoscopic photographs with clinician estimation in a uveitis clinical trial. Methods Clinical estimation of CDR was performed by ophthalmologists via dilated biomicroscopy. Photographic evaluation was performed at an independent RC by masked, certified evaluators. Quality control was performed by repeat grading of 77 randomly selected images. Results Among 481 eyes with uveitis, 353 eyes had clinical and photographic grades for CDR. Agreement between clinical and RC grading was fair, with exact agreement in 29%. Agreement within 0.1 and 0.2 CDR were 70% and 93%, respectively (wkappa=0.34). Inter-grader reproducibility at the RC was better (wkappa=0.59, ICC 0.74). Conclusion Morphologic assessment of cup to disc ratio is an important outcome and safety measure for determining glaucomatous damage in clinical trials. Masked RC measurements are more likely to be accurate than biomicroscopic grading in identifying meaningful anatomical change associated with glaucoma. PMID:21770805

  8. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  9. Surface to Volume Ratio Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this two-part laboratory activity was designed to complement any chemistry unit on catalysts to "help students understand how nanoparticles may be more effective catalysts by investigating how the surface area-to-volume ratio of a substance is affected as its shape changes." On this site, educators can find both the teacher and student instructions for preparing and presenting the laboratory with objectives, time periods, materials, procedures, example answers, and much more. It is a ready-to-use lesson to help students understand catalysts and surface to volume ratio at molecular and atomic levels.

  10. Vertical fracture containment during massive hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Cormack, D.E.; Fung, R.L.; Vijayakumar, S.

    1983-01-01

    Massive hydraulic fractures are projected to play a major role in the recovery of the tremendous reserves of gas tied up in the tight gas sands of the Deep Basin of N. Alberta and British Columbia. One of the major problems in designing fractures in such formations is the uncertain vertical extent of these fractures: fracture containment. This work presents a procedure for predicting the vertical extent of fractures in multi-layered formations with varying material properties and tectonic stresses. The numeric procedure uses the finite element technique for the rock deformation calculations and employs special high order, crack-tip elements to improve the accuracy of stress intensity calculations. Furthermore, it makes use of the powerful numeric technique of static condensation to reduce computer memory and computation time. The elastic deformation calculation can be coupled to a fluid flow model to predict dynamic fracture growth.

  11. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Fischer, A.J.; Allerman, A.A.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.

    1999-07-22

    For many applications, the device performance of edge emitting semiconductor lasers can be significantly improved through the use of multiple section devices. For example, cleaved coupled cavity (C3) lasers have been shown to provide single mode operation, wavelength tuning, high speed switching, as well as the generation of short pulses via mode-locking and Q-switching [1]. Using composite resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the coupling between the monolithic cavities, incorporate passive or active resonators which are spectrally degenerate or detuned, and to fabricate these devices in 2-dimensional arrays. Composite resonator vertical cavity lasers (CRVCL) have been examined using optical pumping and electrical injection [2-5]. We report on CRVCL diodes and show that efficient modulation of the laser emission can be achieved by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity within a CRVCL.

  12. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

    1999-09-16

    We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

  13. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  14. The Netherlands experimental vertical axis wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. D. H. Bolt

    1978-01-01

    The paper gives a general description of an experimental 5.3-m-diam vertical axis wind turbine and its associated power conversion system and other subsystems. The two glass-fiber reinforced plastic blades are strengthened by bonded light-metal plates. As design-criteria for the static strength of the blades, a maximum blade rotation speed of 450 rpm in calm weather conditions and a reducing speed

  15. Development of vertical axis wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P N Shankar

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarises the work done at the National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) between 1975 and 1977 on the development\\u000a of vertical axis wind turbines based on the Darrieus rotor. On the analytical side, a performance analysis was developed which\\u000a permits the estimation of the characteristics of such machines. A 5 m high wind turbine using curved wooden blades was designed,

  16. Vertical Handover Efficient Transport for Mobile IPTV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salah S. Al-Majeed; Martin Fleury

    \\u000a The success of IPTV suggests that an expansion to mobile devices is likely. A key difference between IPTV delivery to mobile\\u000a devices and broadband access is the possibility of vertical handovers, which can cause disruption to real-time video streaming.\\u000a This paper proposes a lightweight form of IPTV transport based on negative acknowledgments. The performance of the scheme\\u000a is analyzed in

  17. Characterization of vertical-cavity semiconductor structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Christensen; J. G. Pellegrino; R. K. Hickernell; S. M. Crochiere; C. A. Parsons; R. S. Rai

    1992-01-01

    Several analytical tools are applied to characterize vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures grown on GaAs wafers. These epitaxial structures are amenable to x-ray, electron-beam, and optical metrologies. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to measure layer thicknesses and uniformity. Photoluminescence wafer mapping was used to determine alloy composition uniformity across the wafer. Photoreflectance was also used to

  18. Vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation begins with a brief description of the downdraft measurement problem for airborne Doppler based systems and the importance of the downdraft in assessing the hazard posed by a microburst wind shear. This is followed by a review of research on the feasibility of using simple microburst models to compute the downdraft from horizontal wind measurements. The current methodologies for computing the vertical wind are then discussed. A summary of the results and the plan for future research are also presented.

  19. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weert, M. H. M.; den Heijer, M.; van Kouwen, M. P.; Algra, R. E.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-06-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the anisotropic exchange splitting by polarization analysis, and identify the neutral and singly charged exciton. These results are important for spin addressability in a charge tunable nanowire quantum dot.

  20. Structure of Meson-Baryon interaction vertices.

    PubMed

    Melde, T; Canton, L; Plessas, W

    2009-04-01

    We present a microscopic derivation of the form factors of strong-interaction piNN and piNDelta vertices within a relativistic constituent quark model. The results are compared with form factors from phenomenological meson-baryon models and recent lattice QCD calculations. We give an analytical representation of the vertex form factors suitable for applications in further studies of hadron reactions. PMID:19392348

  1. Structure of Meson-Baryon Interaction Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Melde, T.; Plessas, W. [Theoretische Physik, Institut fuer Physik, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Canton, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-04-03

    We present a microscopic derivation of the form factors of strong-interaction {pi}NN and {pi}N{delta} vertices within a relativistic constituent quark model. The results are compared with form factors from phenomenological meson-baryon models and recent lattice QCD calculations. We give an analytical representation of the vertex form factors suitable for applications in further studies of hadron reactions.

  2. Vertical transmission of Salmonella paratyphi A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Raveendran; C. Wattal; A. Sharma; N. Kler; P. Garg; K. Gujral; N. Khera

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal enteric fever is a rare but life-threatening illness. Patients may present with varying severity, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi causing more severe illness than Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is considered to cause milder infection with fewer complications. We report a rare case of vertical\\u000a transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with severe complications

  3. Present day vertical deformation in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Wallace, Laura; Litchfield, Nicola; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta; Denys, Paul; Pearson, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    New Zealand is tectonically very active. It lies along the oblique convergent plate boundary between the Pacific and Australian plate. In the North Island active tectonics is dominated by westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the eastern North Island at the Hikurangi Trench, strike-slip faulting in the upper plate, and back-arc rifting in the central North Island. A series of very large strike-slip faults run through the South Island (Marlborough Fault System and the Alpine Fault) connecting with the Puysegur subduction zone in the south. The present day uplift rates are evaluated by analyzing data from continuous GPS stations in New Zealand. The up to 20 years of continuous GPS gives us a snapshot into the deformation rate. The average velocity is corrected for significant coseismic offsets, but the data can also be influenced by postseismic deformation, slow slip events along the Hikurangi subduction zone, volcanic deformation, as well as none tectonic local affects such as water extraction. We evaluate the interseismic vertical rate. We exclude data significantly affected by postseismic deformation from recent earthquakes and provide vertical rates both with and without correcting for slow slip events. Outside the Taupo rift zone the vertical rates are range from -6 to +6 mm/yr with uplift observed across the Alpine fault, few mm/yr uplift around the Raukumara Peninsula, northeast North Island, and subsidence along the southeast North Island, reflecting variation in plate locking. We compare the present day vertical deformation to the long-term motion along the coast determined primarily from 125,000 years old marine geological markers. The largest proportion of the New Zealand coastline (45%) is undergoing long-term tectonic uplift. Small stretches of the coastline (15%) are undergoing long-term subsidence. Areas farthest from the plate boundary (northern North Island and southeastern South Island) are assessed to be tectonically stable, in agreement with the continuous GPS data.

  4. Spirit's View on Sol 399 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to capture this view during the rover's 399th martian day, or sol, (Feb. 15, 2005). An attempted drive on that sol did not gain any ground toward nearby 'Larry's Lookout' because of slippage that churned the soil on the slope. Spirit used its alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to examine the churned soil. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Vertical leaf pressure filter LVAzh 225

    SciTech Connect

    Fomichev, V.I.; Abramov, V.P.; Gutin, Y.V.

    1984-01-01

    A new vertical lead pressure filter LVAzh 225 has been developed with an arrangement for hydraulic coke removal. Industrial trials of the filter, however, showed the service life of the rubber seals of the butterfly valves to be short, so that butterfly valves were replaced by shut-off valves with a pneumatic drive. The prototype of the LVAzh 225 leaf filter has been recommended for series production.

  6. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  7. Smooth Vertical Surface Climbing With Directional Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangbae Kim; Matthew Spenko; Salomon Trujillo; Barrett Heyneman; Daniel Santos; Mark R. Cutkosky

    2008-01-01

    Stickybot is a bio-inspired robot that climbs smooth vertical surfaces such as glass, plastic and ceramic tile at 4 cm\\/s. The robot employs several design principles adapted from the gecko including a hierarchy of compliant structures, directional adhesion, and control of tangential contact forces to achieve control of adhesion. We describe the design and fabrication methods used to created under-actuated,

  8. Measuring the vertical gradient of gravity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Sternberg

    The free-air effect tells us that as elevation above sea level increases, gravitational acceleration g decreases at the rate of about 0.3086 mgal/meter. This effect is routinely corrected for when making gravity surveys. We will use the LaCoste & Romberg gravimeter to measure the free-air effect in a tall building on campus, and compare with the theoretical value. keywords: gravity; vertical gradient; gravimeter

  9. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej [Laboratory of Physics, Kochi University of Technology, Tosa Yamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Exner, Pavel [Doppler Institute for Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, CZ-11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  10. Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Xu, Z [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly different CNT morphologies. The observations suggest that the evolution of the macroscopic CNT morphologies be driven by competing collective growth and spatial constraints.

  11. Aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties over Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Boon Ning; Campbell, James R.; Salinas, Santo V.; Chang, Chew Wai; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Holben, Brent N.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2013-11-01

    As part of the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and a Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) instrument have been deployed at Singapore to study the regional aerosol environment of the Maritime Continent (MC). Using coincident AERONET Level 2.0 and MPLNET Level 2.0a data from 24 September 2009 to 31 March 2011, the seasonal variability of aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties is examined. On average, the bulk (˜65%) of aerosol extinction is found below 1.5 km with substantial aerosol loading (˜35%) above. Possibly due to the transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions and subsequent reduction in fire events, the MPLNET mean integrated aerosol extinction is observed to be the lowest for July-September 2010, which coincides with the typical MC biomass burning season. On the other hand, the highest mean integrated extinctions are derived for January-March 2010 and 2011, which can be attributed to off-season MC biomass burning smoke and anthropogenic pollution. The seasonal lidar ratios also show higher occurrences ?60 sr, which are indicative of biomass burning smoke, for October 2009-June 2010, but such occurrences decrease from July 2010 to March 2011 when La Niña conditions prevail. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) identifies five primary aerosol vertical profile types over Singapore, i.e. strongly-capped/deep near-surface layer (SCD; 0-1.35 km), enhanced mid-level layer (EML; 1.35-2.4 km), enhanced upper-level layer (EUL; 2.4-3.525 km), deep contiguous layer (DCL; 3.525-4.95 km) and deep multi-layer (DML; >4.95 km). PCA also identifies an off-season MC biomass burning smoke event from 22 February to 8 March 2010, which is subsequently examined in detail.

  12. Empirical Likelihood Ratio Confidence Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Art Owen

    1990-01-01

    An empirical likelihood ratio function is defined and used to obtain confidence regions for vector valued statistical functionals. The result is a nonparametric version of Wilks' theorem and a multivariate generalization of work by Owen. Cornish-Fisher expansions show that the empirical likelihood intervals for a one dimensional mean are less adversely affected by skewness than are those based on Student's

  13. Lower partial moment hedge ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak Eftekhari

    1998-01-01

    Some investors may benefit from using measures of risk other than the variance in their investment decisions, specially if they are concerned with minimizing the downside risk of their portfolios. An accessible numerical method for calculating hedge ratios given any measure of risk is presented. The method is applied to the FTSE-100 index and the futures on FTSE-100, using a

  14. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Mendler

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy

  15. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  16. Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ohashi, Mizue; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2014-05-01

    Difficult access to 40-m-tall emergent trees in tropical rainforests has resulted in a lack of data related to vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux, even though significant variations in wood CO2 efflux are an important source of errors when estimating whole-tree total wood CO2 efflux. This study aimed to clarify vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for emergent trees and to document the impact of the variations on the whole-tree estimates of stem and branch CO2 efflux. First, we measured wood CO2 efflux and factors related to tree morphology and environment for seven live emergent trees of two dipterocarp species at four to seven heights of up to ? 40 m for each tree using ladders and a crane. No systematic tendencies in vertical variations were observed for all the trees. Wood CO2 efflux was not affected by stem and air temperature, stem diameter, stem height or stem growth. The ratios of wood CO2 efflux at the treetop to that at breast height were larger in emergent trees with relatively smaller diameters at breast height. Second, we compared whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates using vertical measurements with those based on solely breast height measurements. We found similar whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates regardless of the patterns of vertical variations in CO2 efflux because the surface area in the canopy, where wood CO2 efflux often differed from that at breast height, was very small compared with that at low stem heights, resulting in little effect of the vertical variations on the estimate. Additionally, whole-tree branch CO2 efflux estimates using measured wood CO2 efflux in the canopy were considerably different from those measured using only breast height measurements. Uncertainties in wood CO2 efflux in the canopy did not cause any bias in stem CO2 efflux scaling, but affected branch CO2 efflux. PMID:24876294

  17. Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Mohamoud, Yousra A.; Calvert, Clara; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?We conducted a systematic review of estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission risk to update current estimates published more than a decade ago. Methods.?PubMed and Embase were searched and 109 articles were included. Pooled estimates of risk were generated for children born to HCV antibody–positive and viremic women, aged ?18 months, separately by maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Results.?Meta-analysis of the risk of vertical HCV infection to children of HCV antibody–positive and RNA-positive women was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2%–7.8%) for children of HIV-negative women and 10.8% (95% CI, 7.6%–15.2%) for children of HIV-positive women. The adjusted meta-regression model explained 51% of the between-study variation in the 25 included risk estimates. Maternal HIV coinfection was the most important determinant of vertical transmission risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56 [95% CI, 1.50–4.43]). Additional methodological (follow-up rate and definition of infection in children) and risk factors independently predicted HCV infection and need to be captured and reported by future studies of vertical transmission. Studies assessing the contribution of nonvertical exposures in early childhood to HCV prevalence among children at risk of vertical transmission are needed. Conclusions.?More than 1 in every 20 children delivered by HCV chronically infected women are infected, highlighting that vertical transmission likely constitutes the primary transmission route among children. These updated estimates are a basis for decision making in prioritization of research into risk-reducing measures, and inform case management in clinical settings, especially for HIV-positive women in reproductive age. PMID:24928290

  18. Kinematics of Vertical Saccades during the Yaw Vestibulo-ocular Reflex in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Listing’s law (LL) constrains the rotational axes of saccades and pursuit eye movements to Listing’s plane (LP). In the velocity domain, LL is ordinarily equivalent to a tilt in the ocular velocity axis equal to half the change in eye position, giving a tilt angle ratio (TAR) of 0.5. This study was undertaken to investigate vertical saccade behavior after the yaw vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) had driven eye torsion out of LP, an initial condition causing the position and velocity domain formulations of LL to differ. Methods Binocular eye and head motions were recorded with magnetic search coils in eight humans. With the head immobile, LP was determined for each eye, and mean TAR was 0.50 ± 0.07 (mean ± SD) for horizontal and 0.45 ± 0.11 for vertical saccades. The VOR was evoked by transient, whole-body yaw at 2800 deg/s2 peak acceleration, capable of evoking large, uninterrupted VOR slow phases. Before rotation, subjects viewed a target at eye level, 20° up, or 20° down. In two thirds of the trials, the target moved upward or downward at systematically varying times, triggering a vertical saccade during the horizontal VOR slow phase. Results Because the head rotation axis was generally misaligned with LP, the eye averaged 3.6° out of LP at vertical saccade onset. During the saccade, eye position continued to depart LP by an average 0.8°. The horizontal TAR at saccade onset was 0.29 ± 0.07. At peak saccade velocity 35 ± 3 ms later, the vertical TAR was 0.45 ± 0.07, statistically similar to that of head fixed saccades. Saccades did not return to LP. Conclusions Although they did not observe the position domain formulation of LL, vertical saccades, during the VOR, observed the half-angle velocity domain formulation of LL. PMID:16043853

  19. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  20. ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David

    1993-07-04

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  1. ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cook, David

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  2. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  3. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films are unique nanostructures with two-phase self-assembled, heteroepitaxially grown on single-crystal substrates. Both phases tend to grow vertically and simultaneously on a given substrate...

  4. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  5. Characterizing Vertical Mass Flux Profiles in Aeolian Saltation Systems 

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Eugene

    2012-07-16

    This dissertation investigates characteristics of the vertical distributions of mass flux observed in field and laboratory experiments. Thirty vertical mass flux profiles were measured during a field experiment in Jericoacoara, Brazil from October...

  6. Assessing and Predicting Vertical Intent for Web Queries

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    usefulness of a vertical, especially as the vertical items are hidden), this assumption eases the assessment, blog, answer, shopping, discussion, scholar, wiki) and contains 320 web topics. Assessors were

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine with continuous blade angle adjustment

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Samuel Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The author presents a concept for a vertical axis wind turbine that utilizes each blade's entire rotational cycle for power generation. Each blade has its own vertical axis of rotation and is constrained to rotate at the ...

  8. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  9. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  10. Air/fuel ratio regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.

    1980-07-22

    A description is given of an air/fuel ratio regulator for use with the fuel injection control system of an internal combustion engine of the spark ignition type having an air and exhaust gas (gas) induction passage open at one end to air at ambient pressure level and connected at its other end to the engine combustion chamber to be subject to manifold vacuum changes therein, a throttle valve rotatably mounted for movement across the passage to control the gas flow therethrough, exhaust gas recirculation (egr) passage means connecting engine exhaust gases to the induction passage above the closed position of the throttle valve, an egr flow control valve mounted in the egr passage means for movement between open and closed postions to control the volume of egr gas flow, an engine speed responsive positive displacement type fuel injection pump having a fuel flow output to the engine that varies in direct proportion to changes in engines speed to match fuel flow and mass airflow through the induction system of the engine over the entire speed and load range of the engine to maintain the intake mixture ratio of air to fuel constant, the pump having a fuel flow control lever movable to vary the fuel rate of flow, the regulator being characterized by engine manifold vacuum responsive first servo means operably connected to the fuel control lever for maintaining a constant air/fuel (A/F) ratio by changing fuel output as a function of changing manifold vacuum and air flow upon opening of the throttle valve, a fuel enrichment control lever operably connected to the pump control lever and movable to modify the position of the pump lever dictated by the first servo means to change the A/F ratio, and further means responsive to engine operating conditions for moving the fuel enrichment control lever to provide the changed A/F ratio.

  11. Fabrication of a vertical sidewall using double-sided anisotropic etching of <1?0?0> oriented silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Jung-Mu; Bang, Yong-Seung; Song, Eun-Seok; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2012-09-01

    A double-sided wet etch process has been proposed to fabricate vertical structures in <1?0?0> oriented silicon substrate. Both sides of a {1?0?0} silicon wafer have been patterned identically along the <1?1?0> direction, and etched using potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. By precisly controlling the etch time, using etch-timer structure and additive control, structures with smooth and vertical {1?1?0} sidewalls have been fabricated at the edges of a rectangular opening without undercut. Rectangular through-holes, bridges and cantilevers have been constructed using the proposed process. The measured average surface roughness of the vertical sidewall was 481 nm, which has been further reduced to 217 nm and 218 nm by postetching using a KOH-IPA and TMAH-Triton mixture, respectively. Slanted {4?1?1} planes exposed at the concave corners during the vertical etch process have been successfully removed or diminished by the postetching process. A bridge structure with a high aspect ratio of 39:1 has been fabricated, and cantilevers without undercutting were successfully constructed by applying the compensation technique. The proposed process can potentially be utilized in place of the deep reactive ion etching process for the fabrication of structures having vertical through-holes, such as through-silicon vias, high aspect ratio springs and filters for microfluidic applications.

  12. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  13. Marine vertical cable multiple attenuation beyond up/down separation 

    E-print Network

    Tran, Andre

    2001-01-01

    fixed vertical receiver arrays as for VSP. A small vessel carries only the source and is very flexible. The vertical cable receivers are in a quiet environment, which can explain the data quality. One main concern with vertical cable data is to remove...

  14. Full vertical car observer design methodology for suspension control applications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Full vertical car observer design methodology for suspension control applications L. Dugarda , O of an H-observer to estimate the state variables of the vertical car dynamics to be used for suspension- sidered model is a 7 DOF full-car vertical model subject to unknown ground disturbances whose effects

  15. Vertical transport of surface fire emissions observed Siegfried Gonzi1

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Paul

    Vertical transport of surface fire emissions observed from space Siegfried Gonzi1 and Paul I, respectively. Citation: Gonzi, S., and P. I. Palmer (2010), Vertical transport of surface fire emissions estimation to infer the vertical distribution of surface emissions lofted from boreal and tropical biomass

  16. Hydraulic fracturing method to control vertical fracture heights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Fitch; L. Masse; W. L. Medlin; M. A. Biot

    1974-01-01

    A method of hydraulically fracturing a subterranean earth formation to form a vertically disposed fracture is described. More particularly, the method controls the height of the vertically disposed fracture such that the fracture does not extend into formations that are adjacent to the target formation. Hydraulic pressure is applied via a well to the formation to initiate a vertical fracture

  17. Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

    1996-01-01

    Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

  18. The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Hummels; Jun Ishii; Kei-Mu Yi

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic changes are occurring in the nature of international trade. Production processes increasingly involve a sequential, vertical trading chain stretching across many countries, with each country specializing in particular stages of a good's production sequence. We document a key aspect of these vertical linkages--the use of imported inputs in producing goods that are exported -- which we call vertical specialization.

  19. Contemporary Vertical Surface Displacements in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Pelton; R. B. Smith

    1982-01-01

    The comparison of repeated geodetic leveling measurements is a well-established technique for the detection of contemporary vertical displacements Of the Earth's surface (see the reviews by Brown and Oliver [1976] and Vanicek et al. [1980]). The basis for contemporary vertical surface displacement studies in Yellowstone National Park was established in 1923 when leveling of second-order precision provided vertical control throughout

  20. Importance of light, temperature, zooplankton, and fish in predicting the nighttime vertical distribution of Mysis diluviana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Robert O'Gorman; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Eillenberger, June L.

    2009-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana (formerly M. relicta) performs large amplitude diel vertical migrations in Lake Ontario and its nighttime distribution is in?uenced by temperature, light and the distribution of its predators and prey. At one location in southeastern Lake Ontario, we measured the vertical distribution of mysids, mysid predators (i.e. planktivorous ?shes) and mysid prey (i.e. zooplankton), in addition to light and temperature, on 8 occasions from May to September, 2004 and 2005. We use these data to test 3 different predictive models of mysid habitat selection, based on: (1) laboratoryderived responses of mysids to different light and temperature gradients in the absence of predator or prey cues; (2) growth rate of mysids, as estimated with a mysid bioenergetics model, given known prey densities and temperatures at different depths in the water column; (3) ratio of growth rates (g) and mortality risk (?) associated with the distribution of predatory ?shes. The model based on light and temperature preferences was a better predictor of mysid vertical distribution than the models based on growth rate and g:?on all 8 occasions. Although mysid temperature and light preferences probably evolved as mechanisms to reduce predation while increasing foraging intake, the response to temperature and light alone predicts mysid vertical distribution across seasons in Lake Ontario.

  1. Importance of light, temperature, zooplankton and fish in predicting the nighttime vertical distribution of Mysis diluviana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boscarino, B.T.; Rusdtam, L.G.; Eillenberger, J.L.; O'Gorman, R.

    2009-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana (formerly M. relicta) performs large amplitude diel vertical migrations in Lake Ontario and its nighttime distribution is influenced by temperature, light and the distribution of its predators and prey. At one location in southeastern Lake Ontario, we measured the vertical distribution of mysids, mysid predators (i.e. planktivorous fishes) and mysid prey (i.e. zooplankton), in addition to light and temperature, on 8 occasions from May to September, 2004 and 2005. We use these data to test 3 different predictive models of mysid habitat selection, based on: (1) laboratory-derived responses of mysids to different light and temperature gradients in the absence of predator or prey cues; (2) growth rate of mysids, as estimated with a mysid bioenergetics model, given known prey densities and temperatures at different depths in the water column; (3) ratio of growth rates (g) and mortality risk (??) associated with the distribution of predatory fishes. The model based on light and temperature preferences was a better predictor of mysid vertical distribution than the models based on growth rate and g:?? on all 8 occasions. Although mysid temperature and light preferences probably evolved as mechanisms to reduce predation while increasing foraging intake, the response to temperature and light alone predicts mysid vertical distribution across seasons in Lake Ontario. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  2. Models of Ratio Schedule Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bizo, Lewis A.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engeridered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter a (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter ? (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules. PMID:9206029

  3. Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand.

    PubMed

    Bo, Tian-Li; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The electrification of sand particles plays an important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the charge-to-mass ratio vertical profiles of saltating particles in wind-blown sand were measured by a field experiments. By combining the results of field measurements with our previous wind-tunnel measurements, we discussed the factors affecting the charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles. It reveals that the magnitude of the charge-to-mass ratio increases exponentially with height above the surface. In addition, the charge polarity of saltating particles depends on the relative size between saltating and creeping particles, and the magnitude of charge-to-mass ratio is determined by wind velocity and the relative size difference ratio between saltating and creeping particles. PMID:24998641

  4. Charge-to-mass Ratio of Saltating Particles in Wind-Blown Sand

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Tian-Li; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The electrification of sand particles plays an important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the charge-to-mass ratio vertical profiles of saltating particles in wind-blown sand were measured by a field experiments. By combining the results of field measurements with our previous wind-tunnel measurements, we discussed the factors affecting the charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles. It reveals that the magnitude of the charge-to-mass ratio increases exponentially with height above the surface. In addition, the charge polarity of saltating particles depends on the relative size between saltating and creeping particles, and the magnitude of charge-to-mass ratio is determined by wind velocity and the relative size difference ratio between saltating and creeping particles. PMID:24998641

  5. Fluid flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend III three phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.; Crawford, N.M. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Three phase water/oil/air flow was studied around a vertical upward to horizontal 90 elbow bend of R/d = 0.654. The results were more complex than corresponding two phase data. The pressure drop recorded for the two tangent legs sometimes showed significant variations to the straight pipe data. In most cases this variation was caused by differences in the flow regimes between the two systems. The elbow bend tended to constrict the flow presented by the vertical inlet tangent leg while sometimes acting as a wave and droplet generator for the horizontal outlet tangent leg. It could be argued that the inclusion of the elbow bend altered the flow regime map transitional boundaries but it also is possible that insufficient settling length was provided in the apparatus design. The elbow bend pressure drop was best presented as l{sub e}/d the equivalent length to diameter ratio using the actual total pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent leg. Generally l{sub e}/d values rose with gas rate, but exhibited an increasingly complex relation with f{sub o} the oil to liquid volumetric ratio as liquid rate was increased. A significant maximum in l{sub e}/d was in evidence around the inversion from water dominated to oil dominated flows. Several models are presented to predict the data. (author)

  6. Comparison of Aerosol Classification from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Omar, A. H.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired large datasets of aerosol extinction (532nm), backscatter (532 and 1064nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064nm) profiles during 349 science flights in 19 field missions across North America since 2006. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio"), aerosol depolarization ratios, and backscatter color ratio measurements from HSRL-1 are scale-invariant parameters that depend on aerosol type but not concentration. These four aerosol intensive parameters are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate composition types. The classification methodology uses models formed from "training cases" with known aerosol type. The remaining measurements are then compared with these models using the Mahalanobis distance. Aerosol products from the CALIPSO satellite include aerosol type information as well, which is used as input to the CALIPSO aerosol retrieval. CALIPSO aerosol types are inferred using a mix of aerosol loading-dependent parameters, estimated aerosol depolarization, and location, altitude, and surface type information. The HSRL instrument flies beneath the CALIPSO satellite orbit track, presenting the opportunity for comparisons between the HSRL aerosol typing and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask Aerosol Subtype product, giving insight into the performance of the CALIPSO aerosol type algorithm. We find that the aerosol classification from the two instruments frequently agree for marine aerosols and pure dust, and somewhat less frequently for pollution and smoke. In addition, the comparison suggests that the CALIPSO polluted dust type is overly inclusive, encompassing cases of dust combined with marine aerosol as well as cases without much evidence of dust. Qualitative classification of aerosol type combined with quantitative profile measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction has many useful applications. The HSRL products are used to apportion AOT by type and vertical location in the column, and to characterize the frequency of cases where multiple types are present in the column. Resolving scenes with multiple types in the column is not possible with passive imaging radiometer and polarimeter measurements. The HSRL aerosol type also has higher resolution than the CALIPSO layer-wise product and provides insight into the performance of CALIPSO layer separation. Information about the vertical distribution of aerosol types is useful for estimating radiative forcing, understanding aerosol lifetime and transport, and assessing the predictions of transport models. CALIPSO has been a pathfinder, providing the first long-term global data set of aerosol vertical distribution. Based on our results, a future satellite lidar similar to CALIPSO, but with the addition of polarization sensitivity at 1064 nm and the HSRL technique at 532 nm, could provide a significant advance in characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosol.

  7. Rates, Ratios, Percents, and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    hbinggeli

    2010-10-22

    Each of these sites will help you get better with percentages, rates, ratios, and solving proportions by cross-multiplying. 1. Begin by comparing fractions to decimals and to percentages. These two sites are similar. Pick one and practice it for a few minutes. Fraction-Decimal-Percent Chart or Percents-Fractions-Decimals (2) 2. Next, try to solve these percentage word problems. To find the problems, scroll down to the bottom of the page to the "Exercises." ...

  8. The midbrain to pons ratio

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Luke A.; Jäger, Hans R.; Paviour, Dominic C.; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Ling, Helen; Williams, David R.; Kallis, Constantinos; Holton, Janice; Revesz, Tamas; Burn, David J.; Yousry, Tarek; Lees, Andrew J.; Fox, Nick C.; Micallef, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: MRI-based measurements used to diagnose progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) typically lack pathologic verification and are not easy to use routinely. We aimed to develop in histologically proven disease a simple measure of the midbrain and pons on sagittal MRI to identify PSP. Methods: Measurements of the midbrain and pontine base on midsagittal T1-weighted MRI were performed in confirmed PSP (n = 12), Parkinson disease (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 7), and in controls (n = 8). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, cutoff values were applied to a clinically diagnosed cohort of 62 subjects that included PSP (n = 21), Parkinson disease (n = 10), MSA (n = 10), and controls (n = 21). Results: The mean midbrain measurement of 8.1 mm was reduced in PSP (p < 0.001) with reduction in the midbrain to pons ratio (PSP smaller than MSA; p < 0.001). In controls, the mean midbrain ratio was approximately two-thirds of the pontine base, in PSP it was <52%, and in MSA the ratio was greater than two-thirds. A midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm and ratio of 0.52 had 100% specificity for PSP. In the clinically defined group, 19 of 21 PSP cases (90.5%) had a midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm. Conclusions: We have developed a simple and reliable measurement in pathologically confirmed disease based on the topography of atrophy in PSP with high sensitivity and specificity that may be a useful tool in the clinic. PMID:23616165

  9. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  10. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  11. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers emitting near 1.5 {mu}m with Sb-based reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, O.; Klem, J.F.; Vawter, G.A. [and others

    1998-04-01

    We describe use of AlAsSb/AlGaAsSb lattice matched to InP for distributed Bragg reflectors. These structures are integral to several surface normal devices, in particular vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. The high refractive index ratio of these materials allows formation of a highly reflective mirror with relatively few mirror pairs. As a result, we have been able to show for the first time the 77K CW operation of an optically pumped, monolithic, all-epitaxial vertical cavity laser, emitting at 1.56 {mu}m.

  12. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  13. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162 Agriculture...Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National...

  14. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...Financial Responsibility § 668.172 Financial ratios. (a) Appendices A and B, ratio methodology. As provided under...

  15. Enhanced Resonant Tunneling in Symmetric 2D Semiconductor Vertical Heterostructure Transistors.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Philip M; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A; Ready, William J; Vogel, Eric M

    2015-05-26

    Tunneling transistors with negative differential resistance have widespread appeal for both digital and analog electronics. However, most attempts to demonstrate resonant tunneling devices, including graphene-insulator-graphene structures, have resulted in low peak-to-valley ratios, limiting their application. We theoretically demonstrate that vertical heterostructures consisting of two identical monolayer 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor electrodes and a hexagonal boron nitride barrier result in a peak-to-valley ratio several orders of magnitude higher than the best that can be achieved using graphene electrodes. The peak-to-valley ratio is large even at coherence lengths on the order of a few nanometers, making these devices appealing for nanoscale electronics. PMID:25923194

  16. Determination of vertical and horizontal wavelengths of gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of horizontal and vertical wavelengths of gravity waves obviously relies on measurement of wave parameters in horizontal and vertical directions. A very suitable parameter, measured fairly easily with MST radars, is the fluid velocity. Average velocities and superimposed turbulent fluctuations are much larger in the horizontal than in the vertical direction. Vertical and horizontal fluid velocities due to wave-like events are mostly about equal in magnitude. Vertical fluid velocities due to waves therefore can be more reliably detected than horizontal velocities. Estimates of gravity wave events using MST radar data are calculated and results are indicated.

  17. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  18. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. The object of the experiment was limited to the rectangular fin with the height of 3 mm. Experimental parameters were the temperature difference, the fin groove width, the fin thickness and the dispersing size on the vertical direction. As the results, it was found from the experiment that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient on the dispersed size is controlled by the fin groove width. That is, the condensation heat transfer coefficient will increase for a smaller fin groove width and will decrease for a larger fin groove width, with decreasing of the dispersing size. Moreover, there is an optimum fin thickness at which the condensation heat transfer coefficient becomes the maximum in the case of constant fin groove width for both size of the fin groove width. This effect of the fin thickness is more significant for the smaller fin groove width. Further, the prediction values exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data in the present experiment.

  19. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  20. Vertical flow in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinen, T.; Harri, A. M.; Tokano, T.; Savijarvi, H.; Siili, T.; Ferri, F.

    During the two and a half hour descent of the Huygens probe through the atmosphere of Titan on January 14, 2005, the HASI instrument measured, among other quantities, the local atmospheric pressure and temperature. From these measurements we have derived the vertical component of the local atmospheric flow along the trajectory of the probe. Complementing the horizontal component derived from radio telemetry, this profile increases our understanding of the global circulation in the atmosphere of Titan. We discuss the features of the profile and compare it to the horizontal profile and GCM models.

  1. Vertical CNT-Si photodiode array.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, Hang; Dai, Qing; Vygranenko, Yuri; Suzuki, Yuji; Esmaeili-Rad, Mr; Amaratunga, Gehan; Nathan, Arokia

    2013-09-11

    A photodiode consisting of nanopillars of thin-film silicon p-i-n on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a noncontinuous cathode electrode is demonstrated. The structure exploits the intrinsic enhancement of the CNTs' electric field, which leads to reduction in the photodiode's operating voltage and response time and enhancement of optical coupling due to better light trapping, as compared with the conventional planar photodiode. These improvements translate to higher resolution and higher frame rate flat-panel imaging systems for a broad range of applications, including computed tomography and particle detection. PMID:23923984

  2. Vertical atmospheric profiles: Measurements by lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, G. J.

    1982-09-01

    A method to determine the vertical atmospheric extinction and backscatter coefficients in a quantitative way by a monostatic lidar system is presented. It was possible to invert the lidar equation by using a boundary condition at low altitude. This low altitude boundary condition is measured accurately and a potential verification is pointed out. The theory is summarized and some practical examples are compared with data obtained by the Klett method. The results are important in the application of slant path operations of optical sensors.

  3. Lubricating system for vertical shaft engine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Tachibana, Y.; Oguri, K.; Isaka, Y.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a lubrication system for an internal combustion engine having an output shaft rotatable about a generally vertically extending axis, a lubricant reservoir defined at least in part by a lower wall of the engine surrounding the output shaft and through which the output shaft passes for driving a driven element. The lower wall is formed with an upwardly extending baffle for dividing the lubricant reservoir into separate sections and for reducing sloshing of lubricant within the lubricant reservoir, and oil passage means extending through the baffle for permitting lubricant to flow therethrough.

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. We have carried out two field surveys in FY2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, the VCS will become a practical exploration tool for the exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  5. Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kover, P. X.; Dolan, T. E.; Clay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Theory predicts that virulent parasites cannot be maintained at high prevalence if they are only vertically transmitted. However, parasites with high rates of vertical transmission that cause severe reduction in host fitness have been reported. Atkinsonella hypoxylon is a fungal pathogen capable of both vertical and horizontal transmission that drastically reduces its host's fitness. In contrast with theoretical predictions, field and laboratory observations suggested that the primary mechanism of transmission was vertical. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers, we investigated the effective contribution of vertical and horizontal transmission to the genetic structure of three natural populations of A. hypoxylon. We found high genotypic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium, indicating that most established genotypes are derived from horizontally transmitted, sexual spores. The low contribution of vertical transmission to the parasite's fitness despite its high potential might be due to lower establishment of cleistogamous seeds (through which vertical transmission occurs) or lower vigour of vertically transmitted fungal genotypes. Low establishment of vertically infected hosts might explain the persistence of virulent parasites with high apparent vertical transmission. Our results suggest that caution must be taken when using the potential for vertical transmission to make predictions about the evolution of parasite virulence.

  6. Free-flight model investigation of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter with twin vertical tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.; Anglin, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Free-flight tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the stability and control characteristics of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter having twin vertical tails and a pivoted fuselage forebody (nose-cockpit) arrangement. The flight tests included hovering flights and transition flights from hover to conventional forward flight. Static force tests were also made to aid in the analysis of the flight tests. The model exhibited satisfactory stability and control characteristics, and the transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight was relatively smooth and straightforward.

  7. Growth of high aspect ratio ZnO nanorods by solution process: Effect of polyethyleneimine

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Han-Seok; Vaseem, Mohammad; Kim, Sang Gon; Im, Yeon-Ho [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of BIN Fusion Technology, BK 21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, and Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Yoon-Bong, E-mail: ybhahn@chonbuk.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of BIN Fusion Technology, BK 21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, and Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    High aspect ratio ZnO nanorods were grown vertically on ZnO seed layer deposited silicon, glass and polyimide substrates by a solution process at low-temperature using zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine. We studied the effect of polyethlyeneimine (PEI) on the growth of ZnO nanorods. It was found that PEI has a prominent effect on controlling the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods in solution. The morphological and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO nanorods were also examined with varying the growth temperature (60-90 Degree-Sign C). - Graphical abstract: With addition of polyehyleneimine (PEI) high aspect-ratio ZnO nanorods were grown. It is believed that during ZnO nanorods growth, protonized form of linear PEI molecules inhibits the lateral growth by being adsorbed on non-polar lateral planes. Thus the vertical growth is favored. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A controlled growth of high aspect ratio ZnO nanorods on different substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A prominent effect of polyethlyeneimine (PEI) on controlling the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precursor concentration and growth temperature effect for various aspect ratio ZnO nanorods.

  8. Growth and FIB-SEM analyses of C60 microtubes vertically synthesized on porous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Kuriyama, Ryota; Shimomura, Shuichi; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Tachibana, Masaru

    2014-02-01

    The vertical growth of C60 microtubes (C60MTs) on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes was investigated. The C60MT size dependence on isopropyl alcohol (IPA) injection rate, into C60-saturated toluene solutions through AAO membranes, was measured. A longitudinal section of the interface between a vertically grown C60MT (V-C60MT) and a membrane was prepared by focused ion beam processing, and observed with scanning electron microscopy. No cracking was observed along the interface, suggesting good bonding. V-C60MTs exhibited spiral growth. V-C60MT planar density, wall thickness and aspect ratio all decreased with increasing IPA injection rate. The relationships among length, inner and outer diameters of V-C60MTs were also investigated by varying IPA injection rate.

  9. Recent advances in ice interaction and force estimation processes for vertical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Arunachalam, A.V.M. [Wiser Associates, Inc., St. John`s, New Foundland (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The present paper briefly traces the advances made, in the last twenty years, in the understanding of ice-structure interaction and design force estimation processes. The particular aim of this paper is to identify from various experimental data, the common parameters that influence the variation of ice strength or stress or pressure and to include those influences in the prediction of design ice forces on vertical structures. Ice force on vertical structures, from this work, is expressed in terms of the dimensionless pressure (p{sub e}/u{sup 2}{rho}{sub i}) which varies inversely as a function of dimensionless strain-rate, (defined as u{sup 2}/g1{sub c}), and is given as a family of curves for various ranges of aspect ratio, (defined as B/1{sub c}). This work is of considerable improvement to earlier works on this topic using similar approach.

  10. Vertical moisture transport above the mixed layer around the mountains in western Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Taichi; Wu, Peiming; Mori, Shuichi; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Tauhid, Yudi I.; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Sribimawati, Tien; Yoshikane, Takao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-04-01

    A remarkable increase in moisture frequently occurred in August afternoon radio soundings in 2001 in the layer up to 1000 m above the mixed layer (ML) near the mountains of western Sumatra, Indonesia. This moisture enhancement was also apparent in the monthly mean diurnal cycle. The mixing ratio is not vertically uniform in this layer, suggesting that turbulent mixing cannot be a major mechanism of the vertical moisture transport. A climatological numerical study using a cloud-resolving model suggests that thermally-induced upslope winds converge over the mountain summits during daytime, forming a moist air band along the mountain range. Ambient winds above the mountain range then advect the moist air into the surroundings, moisturizing the air above the ML over the leeward terrain. This mechanism is important for producing diurnal mesoscale precipitation systems over a wide area of the Indian Ocean, as documented by previous studies analyzing TRMM and GMS observational data.

  11. Steady flow past a vertical surface-piercing circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, J. R.; Teigen, P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes experiments in which a vertical surface-piercing circular cylinder with a large draught was towed at steady speeds through water initially at rest. The cylinder diameter d was 210mm, and measurements were made of pressures around its circumference at elevations between 2.4d below still water level to 0.7d above, at Froude numbers (based on d) up to 1.67. The tests were carried out at a constant ratio of Reynolds number to Froude number of 2.79×105. The total resistance coefficient reached a maximum at a Froude number of about 1, when that part of the loading that can be attributed to the presence of the free surface was equivalent to the submerged form drag on a length of cylinder of about 0.9d. Measurements are also presented of the run-up on the front of the cylinder and of the depth of the depression at the back. Previous measurements by Hay (Flow about Semi-submerged Cylinders of Finite Length. Princeton University Report, Princeton, NJ, 1947) for the case of a cylinder with a submerged free end, and by Hsieh (Proc. Am. Soc. Civil Eng. 90 (1964) 161) of forces on cylinders standing on the floor of an open channel, are reanalysed. In most respects these results are found to be compatible with the present data for a cylinder of large draught.

  12. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão Ferreira, C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-06-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple streamtube model, a double-multiple streamtube model, the actuator cylinder model, a 2D potential flow panel model, a 3D unsteady lifting line model, and a 2D conformal mapping unsteady vortex model. The comparison covers rotor configurations with two NACA0015 blades, for several tip speed ratios, rotor solidity and fixed pitch angle, included heavily loaded rotors, in inviscid flow. The results show that the streamtube models are inaccurate, and that correct predictions of rotor power and rotor thrust are an effect of error cancellation which only occurs at specific configurations. The other four models, which explicitly model the wake as a system of vorticity, show mostly differences due to the instantaneous or time averaged formulation of the loading and flow, for which further research is needed.

  13. The vertical distribution of ClO at Ny-Ålesund during March 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhnke, R.; Kouker, W.; Reddmann, Th.; Berg, H.; Hochschild, G.; Kopp, G.; Krupa, R.; Kuntz, M.

    Results of the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA) are compared with vertical ClO profiles measured by the ground-based Millimeter Wave Radiometer MIRA2 inside the vortex during March 1997 at Ny-Ålesund. The influence of the OH + ClO and HO2 + ClO reaction branching ratio and of the absorption cross section of Cl2O2 on the calculated mixing ratios of ClO and ozone has been investigated. In the upper stratosphere the ClO mixing ratio is reduced by 90% by using a minor channel of the OH + ClO reaction with a branching ratio of 0.07. A temperature dependent minor channel of the HO2 + ClO reaction reduces the upper stratospheric ClO mixing ratio by 22%. Different absorption spectra of Cl2O2 alter the ClO mixing ratios up to 12% at noon at 20 km. This causes differences of 15% in the ozone loss during winter.

  14. Spaceborne Radar Measurements of Rainfall Vertical Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Tanelli, Simone; Giuli, Dino; Durden, Stephen L.; Facheris, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of a spaceborne precipitation radar in measuring vertical Doppler velocity of rainfall. As far as a downward pointing precipitation radar is concerned, one of the major problems affecting Doppler measurement at the nadir direction arises from the Non-Uniform Beam-Filling effect (NUBF). That is, when significant variation in rain rate is present within the radar IFOV (Instrument Field of View) in the along track direction. the Doppler shift caused by the radial component of the horizontal speed of the satellite is weighted differently among the portions of IFOV. The effects of this non-uniform weighting may dominate any other contribution. Under this condition, shape, average value and width of the Doppler spectrum may not be directly correlated with the vertical velocity of the precipitating particles. However, by using an inversion technique which over-samples the radar measurements in the along track direction, we show that the shift due to NUBF can be evaluated, and that the NUBF induced errors on average fall speed can be reduced.

  15. Vertically-stacked multi-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M

    2005-08-22

    A vertically-stacked multi-ring resonator (VMR), which is a sequence of ring resonators stacked on top of each other, is investigated. The light in the VMR propagates horizontally in the plane of rings and at the same time propagates vertically between the adjacent rings due to evanescent coupling. If fabricated, the VMR may be advantageous compared to the conventional planar arrangement of coupled rings due to its dramatic compactness and more flexible transmission characteristics. In this paper, the uniform VMR, which consists of N rings coupled to the input and output waveguides, is studied. The uniform VMR is a 3D version of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW). Closed analytical expressions for the transmission amplitudes and eigenvalues are obtained by solving coupled wave equations. In the approximation considered, it is shown that, in contrast to the conventional planar ring CROW, a VMR can possess eigenmodes even when interring coupling as well as coupling between rings and waveguides is strong. For the isolated VMR, the eigenvalues of the propagation constant are shown to change linearly with the interring coupling coefficient. The resonance transmission near the VMR eigenvalues is investigated. The dispersion relation of a VMR with an infinite number of rings is found. For weak coupling, the VMR dispersion relation is similar to that of a planar ring CROW (leading, however, to a much smaller group velocity), while for stronger coupling, a VMR does not possess bandgaps. PMID:19498649

  16. Vertical velocity in mesoscale geophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viúdez, Álvaro; Dritschel, David G.

    2003-05-01

    An analysis of the vertical velocity field using the full generalized {omega} equation (omega-equation) in a single mesoscale baroclinic oceanic gyre is carried out. The evolution of the gyre over 20 inertial periods is simulated using a new three-dimensional numerical model which directly integrates the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity, explicitly conserves the potential vorticity (PV) via contour advection on isopycnal surfaces, and inverts the nonlinear PV definition via the solution of a three-dimensional Monge Ampère equation. In this framework the omega-equation comes simply from the horizontal divergence of the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity prognostic equation. The ageostrophic vorticity is written as the Laplacian of a vector potential varphib, from which both the velocity and the density fields are recovered, respectively, from the curl and divergence of varphib. A new initialization technique based on the slow, progressive growth of the PV field during an initial time interval is used to avoid the generation of internal gravity waves during the initialization of the gyre. This method generates a nearly balanced baroclinic gyre for which the influence of internal gravity waves in the mesoscale vertical velocity field is negligible.

  17. Characteristics of the ratio of dissolved cadmium to phosphate in subtropical coastal waters of Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Abe; Kouki Fukuoka; Toru Shimoda

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of dissolved cadmium (Cd) to phosphate (PO4) in the subtropical coastal area of Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was investigated. Twenty vertical seawater samplings\\u000a were carried out once a month from May 2008 to January 2010. In order to examine how the Cd\\/PO4 ratio in seawater varies with the oceanographic conditions (i.e., the water temperature–salinity characteristics), the water\\u000a masses

  18. GRB brightness ratio distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laros, J. G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to obtain insight into whether positionally close pairs of GRBs are due to repetitions, clustering, or random chance. We consider the Brightness Ratio Distribution (BRD) of pairs of events. Here, brightness is used as a generic term for any quantity related to the observed intensity of an event. The BRD has the interesting property that if one can select pairs whose components are at the same distance-such as, by considering only close-together pairs-then the distance dependence ``drops out'' of each brightness ratio and the BRD becomes narrower because its width no longer has a component caused by the sources' differing distances. We have begun to apply this analysis to the BATSE events for which location and brightness data are available, comparing the BRD for close-together event pairs to the BRDs for the other (presumedly unrelated) pairs. Preliminary results do not show any clear indication that close-together pairs are related. However, this work is at a very early stage with regard to optimizing the method and understanding its properties.

  19. Coherent vertical changes in North Pacific climate dynamics during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E.; Wake, C.; Yalcin, K.; Fisher, D.; Mayewski, P.; Introne, D.; Handley, M.; Sneed, S.; Whitlow, S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the forcing and spatial response of Late Holocene North Pacific climate remains a challenge, particularly with respect to changes that may have occurred in the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Ice core records recovered from different elevations in the St. Elias Mountains (Eclipse Icefield, 3000 masl; PR Col, 5200 masl) reveal similar changes in atmospheric circulation and hydrology over the past 1000 years. Sodium concentrations at both sites calibrated to the strength of the wintertime Aleutian Low increase after ~1250 AD, suggesting on average a deeper low pressure system in the North Pacific during the Late Holocene. At the same time, stable isotope data from the Eclipse ice core display a classic Little Ice Age (LIA)/Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) pattern; that is, lower isotope ratios during the LIA, and higher isotope ratios during the MCA. Regardless of the scaling used on the Eclipse isotope data (e.g., temperature, hydrology, or some combination), a distinct drop in isotope ratio occurs just prior to 1200AD, which in general corresponds to the observed changes in sodium records as well as many Pacific paleohydrology records. The coherence of this 13th century change in both the horizontal and vertical sense appears to strengthen arguments related to the El Nino Southern Oscillation, namely that changes in volcanic and solar forcing caused a shift from predominately La Nina conditions during the MCA to predominately El Nino conditions during the LIA.

  20. Global observation of vertical-CLVD earthquakes at active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, Ashley; Nettles, Meredith; EkströM, GöRan

    2013-01-01

    AbstractSome of the largest and most anomalous volcanic earthquakes have non-double-couple focal mechanisms. Here, we investigate the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of non-double-couple earthquakes with dominant <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tension or pressure axes, known as <span class="hlt">vertical</span> compensated-linear-vector-dipole (<span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD) earthquakes. We determine focal mechanisms for 313 target earthquakes from the standard and surface wave catalogs of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Project and identify 86 shallow 4.3 ? MW ? 5.8 <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes located near volcanoes that have erupted in the last ~100 years. The majority of <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes occur in subduction zones in association with basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes or submarine volcanoes, although <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are also located in continental rifts and in regions of hot spot volcanism. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are associated with many types of confirmed or suspected eruptive activity at nearby volcanoes, including volcanic earthquake swarms as well as effusive and explosive eruptions and caldera collapse. Approximately 70% of all <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes studied occur during episodes of documented volcanic unrest at a nearby volcano. Given that volcanic unrest is underreported, most shallow <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes near active volcanoes are likely related to magma migration or eruption processes. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes with dominant <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pressure axes generally occur after volcanic eruptions, whereas <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes with dominant <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tension axes generally occur before the start of volcanic unrest. The occurrence of these events may be useful for identifying volcanoes that have recently erupted and those that are likely to erupt in the future.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP21D..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Debris Flow Models With <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Redistribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mcelwaine, J. N.; Kowalski, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The destructive power of debris flows is enormous and hence there is a need for quantitative models that can accurately describe their behavior and predict their flow paths, heights, velocities and corresponding impact pressures. The dynamics of a debris flows is effected by the pore pressure, which can be measured in experiments and in the field, but existing theories to not model this well. We introduce a new class of shallow debris flow models that includes an equation for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of material and show how this gives predictions of the pore pressure and can effect flow mobility. Debris flows exhibit different flow forms depending on water and solid concentration, particle size distribution and the topography of the flow path. The complex interplay between the fluid and solids of a whole range of different grain sizes leads to physical phenomena such as the development of a front with large boulders, lateral levee formation and, due to a varying fraction of particles being in suspension, an effective basal fluid pressure that can exceed the pure fluids hydrostatic pressure. Large scale debris flow data of the Illgraben torrent, Switzerland, show that a varying basal fluid pressure is characteristic for the snout of debris flows with a granular front and significantly affects basal shear stresses. A comprehensive mathematical debris flow model that explains all the observed phenomena will be extremely complicated; if it is achievable at all. However, promising approaches exist that successfully describe some of the effects in simple situations. Yet the observed basal fluid pressure data in granular front flows is not explained satisfactorily up to this point. One reason for this is that any change of the effective basal fluid pressure is associated with an internal redistribution of the solids above, and hence is caused by relative motion between the phases within the flowing body. However, this inter-component slip is usually neglected in the existing debris flow models. In this paper, we present a theory that explicitly allows for small slip in any direction. Starting from mixture theory, we derive an extended shallow flow system formulated in terms of bulk mixture mass, depth-averaged concentration, depth-averaged velocity and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> center of mass of the solid phase. The system reduces to the well-known shallow water equations in the limit of a pure fluid. By tracking the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> center of mass of the solid component we are able to model sedimentation and resuspension processes, and consequently, also variations in the basal fluid pressure. We conclude this paper with a brief comparison of the model with observations of natural debris flow from the Illgraben torrent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOE-PATENT-XML&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/6758654"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular low-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> high-beta torsatron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sheffield, G.V.</p> <p>1982-04-01</p> <p>A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When <span class="hlt">vertical</span> field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOE-PATENT-XML&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/864872"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular low aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-high beta torsatron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)</p> <p>1984-02-07</p> <p>A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When <span class="hlt">vertical</span> field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1158990"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Ye; Karri, Naveen K.; Wang, Qi</p> <p>2014-04-30</p> <p>Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. The technology used to harvest energy from tidal current is called a tidal current turbine. Though some of the principles of wind turbine design are applicable to tidal current turbines, the design of latter ones need additional considerations like cavitation damage, corrosion etc. for the long-term reliability of such turbines. Depending up on the orientation of axis, tidal current turbines can be classified as <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbines or horizontal axis turbines. Existing studies on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis tidal current turbine focus more on the hydrodynamic aspects of the turbine rather than the structural aspects. This paper summarizes our recent efforts to study the integrated hydrodynamic and structural aspects of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis tidal current turbines. After reviewing existing methods in modeling tidal current turbines, we developed a hybrid approach that combines discrete vortex method -finite element method that can simulate the integrated hydrodynamic and structural response of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine. This hybrid method was initially employed to analyze a typical three-blade <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine. The power coefficient was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance, and critical deflection was considered to evaluate the structural reliability. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted with various turbine height-to-radius <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The results indicate that both the power output and failure probability increase with the turbine height, suggesting a necessity for optimal design. An attempt to optimize a 3-blade <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine design with hybrid method yielded a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of turbine height to radius (H/R) about 3.0 for reliable maximum power output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOE-PATENT-XML&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/864068"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable <span class="hlt">ratio</span> regenerative braking device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)</p> <p>1981-12-15</p> <p>Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=44126"><span id="translatedtitle">Likelihood <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for DNA identification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Collins, A; Morton, N E</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (LR) tests are provided for the three alternatives to DNA identity: exclusion, coincidence, and kinship. The coincidence test uses the radius of coalescence to conserve the observed frequency of single band phenotypes. Genotype probabilities under kinship are derived for mating groups, specified relatives, and structured populations; and unbiased estimates of the genetic parameters are provided. The LR is made robust to gene frequency errors by specifying the mean matching probability, and the tolerable loss of information this entails is determined by LR theory. This straightforward application of the seminal work of Jerzy Neyman and Sewall Wright strongly supports the use of LRs and kinship for presentation of DNA evidence by expert witnesses and committees. PMID:8016106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078057"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather-Corrected Performance <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PR): the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAtS...61.1859W"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Cyclone Intensity in <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Wind Shear.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Martin L. M.; Chan, Johnny C. L.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>The structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones (TCs) in environmental <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind shear (VWS) are investigated in this study using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5). Triply nested domains of 36-, 12-, and 4-km resolution are used with fully explicit moisture physics in the 4-km domain. Idealized environments with easterly shears of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 m s-1 between 800 and 200 hPa are applied on an f plane. Under small values of VWS (2 and 4 m s-1), the TC intensities are similar to that of the control (CTRL; i.e., no VWS) after initial adjustments. The TCs under 6 and 8 m s-1 of VWS are not as intense, although they do not weaken during the simulation. On the other hand, the TC in 10 m s-1 of VWS weakened significantly.Given the same VWS, the TC intensity is also found to be sensitive to TC size. Experiments with TCs with a smaller radius of 15 m s-1 wind reveal that while the TC in 2 m s-1 of VWS remains as intense as the CTRL, the TC in the 4 m s-1 VWS case weakened significantly to a minimal hurricane by the end of the simulation. A VWS of 6 m s-1 is strong enough to cause dissipation of the TC in 72 h. These results indicate that the size of a TC has to be taken into account in determining the intensity change of a TC in VWS.In the 10 m s-1 VWS case, the average temperature over the lower half of the troposphere within 50 km from the TC surface center is higher than that of the CTRL throughout the simulation. Such a warming, though of a small magnitude, is also observed for a brief period in the upper half of the troposphere before the rapid weakening of the TC and is related to the asymmetry of temperature required for a tilt of the vortex axis. The evolution of the vortex tilt is found to be similar to the dry simulations in previous studies, with the midlevel center (? = 0.525) located mainly in the southeast quadrant of the surface center. A tendency for the midlevel center to rotate about the surface center is also observed. These results support the idea that the resistance to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tilt by the mutual rotation between the low-level and midlevel centers is also valid in the moist simulations.It is hypothesized that the secondary circulation and the associated diabatic heating reduce the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tilt and the weakening. Condensation heating offsets the anomalous cooling effect due to the anomalous rising motion ahead of the vortex tilt. For small VWS, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> motion asymmetry is not strong enough to destroy the complete secondary circulation and the eyewall. As a result, a large temperature asymmetry and the associated vortex tilt cannot develop. Furthermore, there is no entrainment of cool/dry air in the upper troposphere. Therefore, TCs under small shears can be as intense as the CTRL.Large-scale asymmetries in the form of anticyclones found in previous studies are also observed. These asymmetries are apparently related to the change of shears near the TCs. While the shears at outer radii stay roughly constant with time, the shears near the TC centers can have large temporal fluctuations both in magnitude and orientation. This result suggests that the location at which the VWS is estimated in observational studies could be important in determining the relationship between VWS and TC intensity change.<HR ALIGN="center" WIDTH="30%"></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...79a2006C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> and rotational motion of mahogany seed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camposano, A. V. C.; Virtudes, N. C.; Otadoy, R. E. S.; Violanda, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Starting with a set of basic assumptions and with the application of well-known Newtonian physics, a theoretical model has been established for the flight of the mahogany winged seed. Using a high-speed camera, we successfully confirmed that the mahogany winged seed attains a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> and rotational terminal velocity. From our model the mahogany seed has a terminal speed of 1.45 m/s. The experimental value of the terminal velocity on the average is 1.47 m/s (only about 1% error). The experimental value of the angular velocity was found to be around 54.33 rad/s, about 14% error compared to the predicted terminal velocity of 47.5 rad/s. The high predictable nature of a mahogany's terminal velocity can facilitate the biologist's study of mahogany mass seed dispersal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5055968"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical model for a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> buoyant jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, D.W.</p> <p>1980-10-01</p> <p>An analytical model for a round and two-dimensional turbulent buoyant jet which is discharged <span class="hlt">vertically</span> into a stagnant ambient is developed. The buoyant jet is considered to have three separate zone models which are matched to form a complete solution. The velocity field is determined for the entire jet and plume regions by the use of an eddy viscosity which varies along the axis of the jet. The centerline decay of buoyancy is determined throughout and the results are compared to existing numerical codes. The model is applied to the disposal of carbon dioxide enriched seawater. The results can be used to provide design information for minimizing or maximizing the dilution of a discharge by the receiving environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.450..266W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> oscillations of fluid and stellar discs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Widrow, Lawrence M.; Bonner, Gage</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A satellite galaxy or dark matter subhalo that passes through a stellar disc may excite coherent oscillations in the disc perpendicular to its plane. We determine the properties of these modes for various self-gravitating plane symmetric systems (Spitzer sheets) using the matrix method of Kalnajs. In particular, we find an infinite series of modes for the case of a barotropic fluid. In general, for a collisionless system, there is a double series of modes, which include normal modes and/or Landau-damped oscillations depending on the phase space distribution function of the stars. Even Landau-damped oscillations may decay slowly enough to persist for several hundred Myr. We discuss the implications of these results for the recently discovered <span class="hlt">vertical</span> perturbations in the kinematics of solar neighbourhood stars and for broader questions surrounding secular phenomena such as spiral structure in disc galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11343103"><span id="translatedtitle">Oceanography. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> mixing in the ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Webb, D J; Suginohara, N</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought. PMID:11343103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25699454"><span id="translatedtitle">Origami multistability: from single <span class="hlt">vertices</span> to metasheets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waitukaitis, Scott; Menaut, Rémi; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We show that the simplest building blocks of origami-based materials-rigid, degree-four <span class="hlt">vertices</span>-are generically multistable. The existence of two distinct branches of folding motion emerging from the flat state suggests at least bistability, but we show how nonlinearities in the folding motions allow generic vertex geometries to have as many as five stable states. In special geometries with collinear folds and symmetry, more branches emerge leading to as many as six stable states. Tuning the fold energy parameters, we show how monostability is also possible. Finally, we show how to program the stability features of a single vertex into a periodic fold tessellation. The resulting metasheets provide a previously unanticipated functionality-tunable and switchable shape and size via multistability. PMID:25699454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.114e5503W"><span id="translatedtitle">Origami Multistability: From Single <span class="hlt">Vertices</span> to Metasheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waitukaitis, Scott; Menaut, Rémi; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We show that the simplest building blocks of origami-based materials—rigid, degree-four <span class="hlt">vertices</span>—are generically multistable. The existence of two distinct branches of folding motion emerging from the flat state suggests at least bistability, but we show how nonlinearities in the folding motions allow generic vertex geometries to have as many as five stable states. In special geometries with collinear folds and symmetry, more branches emerge leading to as many as six stable states. Tuning the fold energy parameters, we show how monostability is also possible. Finally, we show how to program the stability features of a single vertex into a periodic fold tessellation. The resulting metasheets provide a previously unanticipated functionality—tunable and switchable shape and size via multistability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.05741.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Oscillations of Fluid and Stellar Disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Widrow, Lawrence M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A satellite galaxy or dark matter subhalo that passes through a stellar disk may excite coherent oscillations in the disk perpendicular to its plane. We determine the properties of these modes for various self-gravitating plane symmetric systems (Spitzer sheets) using the matrix method of Kalnajs. In particular, we find an infinite series of modes for the case of a barotropic fluid. In general, for a collisionless system, there is a double series of modes, which include normal modes and/or Landau-damped oscillations depending on the phase space distribution function of the stars. Even Landau-damped oscillations may decay slowly enough to persist for several hundred Myr. We discuss the implications of these results for the recently discovered <span class="hlt">vertical</span> perturbations in the kinematics of solar neighborhood stars and for broader questions surrounding secular phenomena such as spiral structure in disk galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatSR...3E2460P"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral imaging with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses <span class="hlt">vertical</span> silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3746203"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral imaging with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses <span class="hlt">vertical</span> silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6581325"><span id="translatedtitle">Neck after <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hemilaryngectomy: computed tomographic study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DiSantis, D.J.; Balfe, D.M.; Hayden, R.; Sessions, D.; Sagel, S.S.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>Computed tomographic scans in 22 postoperative <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hemilaryngectomy patients were analyzed retrospectively to determine the normal postoperative appearance and to evaluate the role of CT in assessing recurrent neoplasm. Twelve patients without clinical evidence of recurrence illustrated the normal postoperative changes. In the six patients with recurrent neoplasm, the CT manifestations included increased width of the remaining true vocal cord, convexity of the surgically formed pseudocord at glottic level, subglottic tumor, and extralaryngeal neck masses. Recurrence was mimicked in four patients by bulky soft tissue at the endolaryngeal operative site at both CT and laryngoscopy. CT supplemented the physical examination and indirect laryngoscopy, providing information regarding the presence and extent of tumor that was useful in planning the mode or scope of subsequent therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853789"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypotropic Dissociated <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Deviation; a Case Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadasseh; Haftabadi, Narges; Sheibani, Kourosh</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> deviation (DVD). Case report A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs) of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia. PMID:24349672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptRv..20..277T"><span id="translatedtitle">Infants' sensitivity to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparity for depth perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Both horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48181761"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of rotating backgrounds upon the perception of <span class="hlt">verticality</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Philip C. Hughes; GERHARD A. BRECHERt; STEVEN M. FISHKINtt</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The effect of various types (sandpaper, spoke, spiral, and white) and speeds (0, 1\\/2, 3, 6, 12, and 30 rpm) of rotating disk\\u000a backgrounds upon 276 Ss’ estimates of the apparent <span class="hlt">verticality</span> of a line moved toward physical <span class="hlt">verticality</span> in either a clockwise\\u000a or counterclockwise direction was investigated. The general finding was that the estimate of <span class="hlt">verticality</span> was displaced away</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11749159"><span id="translatedtitle">Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Skew</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>JAMES S. MAXWELL; CLIFTON M. SCHOR</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomi- tant) <span class="hlt">vertical</span> phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> skew takes into account both eye and head position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33694423"><span id="translatedtitle">Head-position-dependent Adaptation of Nonconcomitant <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Skew</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>JAMES S MAXWELL; CLIFTON M SCHOR</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> phoria can be trained to vary with either head position or orbital eye position. The present experiments show that subjects can simultaneously adapt their eye-position-specific (nonconcomitant) <span class="hlt">vertical</span> phorias in different directions at different head positions. Eye-position-dependent and head-position-dependent adaptive pathways, therefore, are not independent. Rather, the adaptation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> skew takes into account both eye and head position. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f553161506p1441k.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Configuration and <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Handoff Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ikram Smaoui; Faouzi Zarai; Mohammad M. Banat; Lotfi Kamoun</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> handoff is one of the most important issues for the next generation heterogeneous wireless networks. However, in\\u000a many situations, unbeneficial <span class="hlt">vertical</span> handoffs occur across intersystem heterogeneous networks cause network performance\\u000a degradation. Therefore, we propose a novel configuration architecture that can be deployed in the next generation of wireless\\u000a networks. Second, we propose a predictive and adaptive <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Handoff Decision</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/71261"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous Growth of <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Guzman de Villoria, Roberto</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..54.1547B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of free <span class="hlt">vertical</span> convection and double-diffusion in groundwater monitoring wells with geophysical borehole measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berthold, Susann; Börner, Frank</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Two algorithms for in-situ detection and identification of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> free convective and double-diffusive flows in groundwater monitoring wells or boreholes are proposed. With one algorithm the causes (driving forces) and with the other one the effects (convection or double-diffusion) of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport processes can be detected based on geophysical borehole measurements in the water column. Five density-driven flow processes are identified: thermal, solutal, and thermosolutal convection leading to an equalization, as well as saltfingers and diffusive layering leading to an intensification of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density gradient. The occurrence of density-driven transport processes could be proven in many groundwater monitoring wells and boreholes; especially shallow sections of boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are affected dramatically by such <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flows. Deep sections are also impaired as the critical threshold for the onset of a density-driven flow is considerably low. In monitoring wells or boreholes, several sections with different types of density-driven <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flows may exist at the same time. Results from experimental investigations in a medium-scale testing facility with high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (height/radius = 19) and from numerical modeling of a water column agree well with paramters of in-situ detected convection cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28235831"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Banded Gastroplasty vs Adjustable Silicone Gastric Banding in the Treatment of Morbid Obesity: a Preliminary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Belachew; P. Jacquet; F. Lardinois; C. Karler</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A prospective comparative study, comparing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> banded gastroplasty (VBG) with adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB)\\u000a has been undertaken. The purpose of the study was to see if ASGB could produce weight loss as good as VBG. Patient population\\u000a was similar and patients' choice was based on informed consent. Male\\/female <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and excess body weight were comparable in\\u000a both groups. Early</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19277455"><span id="translatedtitle">Loss-Reduction in Flexibly <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Coupled Ring Lasers Through Asymmetric Double Shallow Ridge and ICP\\/ICP Cascade Etching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. Zhang; Z. Ren; S. Yu</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Loss-reduction in flexibly <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coupled ring lasers is demonstrated through asymmetric double shallow ridge in the main ring area and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)\\/ICP cascade etching. Compared with the previous counterpart, the reduced threshold current and enhanced output power are obtained; coupling <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is tuned from 27% to 1.5% when threshold current is varied from 60 to 80 mA. Single-mode</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155506"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Polymer Constructs Exhibiting a Tunable Negative Poisson’s <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fozdar, David Y.; Soman, Pranav; Lee, Jin Woo; Han, Li-Hsin; Chen, Shaochen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Young’s modulus and Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of a porous polymeric construct (scaffold) quantitatively describe how it supports and transmits external stresses to its surroundings. While Young’s modulus is always non-negative and highly tunable in magnitude, Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can, indeed, take on negative values despite the fact that it is non-negative for virtually every naturally occurring and artificial material. In some applications, a construct having a tunable negative Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (an auxetic construct) may be more suitable for supporting the external forces imposed upon it by its environment. Here, three-dimensional polyethylene glycol scaffolds with tunable negative Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are fabricated. Digital micromirror device projection printing (DMD-PP) is used to print single-layer constructs composed of cellular structures (pores) with special geometries, arrangements, and deformation mechanisms. The presence of the unit-cellular structures tunes the magnitude and polarity (positive or negative) of Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Multilayer constructs are fabricated with DMD-PP by stacking the single-layer constructs with alternating layers of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> connecting posts. The Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of the single- and multilayer constructs are determined from strain experiments, which show (1) that the Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of the constructs are accurately predicted by analytical deformation models and (2) that no slipping occurrs between layers in the multilayer constructs and the addition of new layers does not affect Poisson’s <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. PMID:21841943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51524404"><span id="translatedtitle">Micromachining using a focused MeV proton beam for the production of high-precision 3D microstructures with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> sidewalls of high orthogonality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Jeroen A. van Kan; Andrew A. Bettiol; K. Ansari; Frank Watt</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The production of high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> microstructures requires a lithographic technique capable of producing microstructures with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> sidewalls. There are few techniques (eg proton beam micromachining, LIGA and Stereolithoghaphy) capable of producing high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> microstructures at sub-micron dimensions. In Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM), a high energy (eg 2 MeV) proton beam is focused to a sub-micron spot size and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h6r44654tl708886.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An experiment on thermosyphon boiling in uniformly heated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube and asymmetrically heated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Jin-Seok Jeon; Jung Hee Na; Hong Chul Park; Ho-Young Kwak</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Continuing efforts to achieve increased circuit performance in electronic package have resulted in higher power density at\\u000a chip and module level. As a result, the thermal management of electronic package has been important in maintaining or improving\\u000a the reliability of the component. An experimental investigation of thermosyphonic boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube and channel made\\u000a by two parallel rectangular plates was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2895636"><span id="translatedtitle">Conductance <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> and Cellular Identity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hudson, Amber E.; Prinz, Astrid A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent experimental evidence suggests that coordinated expression of ion channels plays a role in constraining neuronal electrical activity. In particular, each neuronal cell type of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion exhibits a unique set of positive linear correlations between ionic membrane conductances. These data suggest a causal relationship between expressed conductance correlations and features of cellular identity, namely electrical activity type. To test this idea, we used an existing database of conductance-based model neurons. We partitioned this database based on various measures of intrinsic activity, to approximate distinctions between biological cell types. We then tested individual conductance pairs for linear dependence to identify correlations. Contrary to experimental evidence, in which all conductance correlations are positive, 32% of correlations seen in this database were negative relationships. In addition, 80% of correlations seen here involved at least one calcium conductance, which have been difficult to measure experimentally. Similar to experimental results, each activity type investigated had a unique combination of correlated conductances. Finally, we found that populations of models that conform to a specific conductance correlation have a higher likelihood of exhibiting a particular feature of electrical activity. We conclude that regulating conductance <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can support proper electrical activity of a wide range of cell types, particularly when the identity of the cell is well-defined by one or two features of its activity. Furthermore, we predict that previously unseen negative correlations and correlations involving calcium conductances are biologically plausible. PMID:20628472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107911"><span id="translatedtitle">Muscle activation history at different <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jumps and its influence on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Sáfár, Sándor; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, József</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps (DJs) performed with small (40°) and large (80°) range of joint motion (SROM and LROM). The maximum <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity (v4) was 23.4% (CMJ) and 7.8% (DJ) greater when the jumps were performed with LROM compared with SROM (p < 0.05). These differences are considerably less than it could be expected from the greater COM and knee angular displacement and duration of active state. This small difference can be attributed to the greater deceleration during eccentric phase (CMJ:32.1%, DJ:91.5%) in SROM than that in LROM. v4 was greater for SJ in LROM than for SJ in SROM indicating the significance of the longer active state and greater activation level (p < 0.001). The difference in v4 was greater between SJ and CMJ in SROM (38.6%) than in LROM (9.0%), suggesting that elastic energy storage and re-use can be a dominant factor in the enhancement of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity of CMJ and DJ compared with SJ performed with SROM. PMID:23107911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714632P"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically small objects and interfaces. This configuration can be labeled as a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> differential configuration. At the conference, the reconstruction capabilities of this differential GPR configuration system will be discussed by means of an analysis of the problem based on a properly designed microwave tomographic inversion approach. The proposed approach exploits the Born approximation and faces the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse scattering problem. In this way, the problem of the local minima is avoided [7] and it is possible to impose some regularization to the problem in an easy way problem [8-9]. At the conference, a theoretical analysis of the mathematical propserties of the scattering operator under the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> differential configuration will be presented showing that, with respect to the horizontal differential configuration, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> one allows to reject the direct coupling between the antennas but not the coupling of the antennas occurring through the air-soil interface. On the other hand, the filtering properties of the operator at hand con be considered, let say, less severe in some cases. At the conference, both some numerical and experimental results will be shown. References [1] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Effects of the background removal in linear inverse scattering", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 46, pp. 1104-1114, April 2008. [2] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Three-Dimensional FDTD modeling of a ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 38, pp. 1513-1521, July 2000. [3] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Optimization of the transmitter-receiver separation in the ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 51, no 3, pp. 362-370, March 2003. [4] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "A microwave tomography approach for a differential configuration in GPR prospecting", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 54, pp. 3541 - 3548, 2006. [5] Y.A. Kopylov, S.A. Masalov, G.P. Pochanin, "The way of isolation between transmitting and receiving modules of antenna</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212898"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of confining walls on heat transfer from a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of isothermal horizontal elliptic cylinders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yousefi, T.; Paknezhad, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Razi University, Kermanshah, Tehran 11365-4563 (Iran); Ashjaee, M.; Yazdani, S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11365-4563 (Iran)</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Steady state two-dimensional natural convection heat transfer from the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of five horizontal isothermal elliptic cylinders with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> major axis which confined between two adiabatic walls has been studied experimentally. Experiments were carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Rayleigh number based on cylinder major axis was in the range 10{sup 3}{<=}Ra{<=}2.5 x 10{sup 3}, and dimensionless wall spacing 1.5{<=} t/b{<=}9 and infinity. The effect of wall spacing and Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the individual cylinder and the array were investigated. Experiments are performed for <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wall spacing to major diameter t/b = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and infinity. A correlation based on the experimental data for the average Nusselt number of the array as a function of Ra and t/b is presented in the aforementioned ranges. A relation has been derived for optimum wall spacing at which the Nusselt number of the array attains its maximum value. At optimum wall spacing, approximately 10% increase in the heat transfer from the confined array of elliptic cylinders has been observed as compared to the unconfined case. Also, a heat transfer correlation has been proposed for a single elliptic cylinder with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> major axis and has been compared with earlier works. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922391"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency improvement of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Chieh; Tu, Charng-Gan; Kuo, Yang; Chen, Horng-Shyang; Shih, Pei-Ying; Liao, Che-Hao; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C; Lai, Chih-Han; He, Guan-Ru; Yeh, Jui-Hung; Hsu, Ta-Cheng</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The enhancement of output intensity, the generation of polarized output, and the reduction of the efficiency droop effect in a surface plasmon (SP) coupled <span class="hlt">vertical</span> light-emitting diode (LED) with an Ag nano-grating structure located between the p-GaN layer and the wafer bonding metal for inducing SP coupling with the InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. In fabricating the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> LED, the patterned sapphire substrate is removed with a photoelectrochemical liftoff technique. Based on the reflection measurement from the metal grating structure and the numerical simulation result, it is found that the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance induced around the metal grating crest plays the major role in the SP-QW coupling process although a hybrid mode of LSP and surface plasmon polariton can be generated in the coupling process. By adding a surface grating structure to the SP-coupled <span class="hlt">vertical</span> LED on the n-GaN side, the output intensity is further enhanced, the output polarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is further increased, and the efficiency droop effect is further suppressed. PMID:24922391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21320539"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Luopeng; Chen, Xue; Shen, Shengqiang [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation were experimentally investigated on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> climbing film evaporator heated by tube-outside hot water. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of the height of feed water inside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube and the range of temperature difference on local heat transfer coefficient inside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube (h{sub i}). In this setup, the height of feed water was successfully controlled and the polypropylene shell effectively impedes the heat loss to the ground. The results indicated that a reduction in the height of feed water contributed to a significant increase in h{sub i} if no dry patches around the wall of the heated tube appeared inside the tube. The height <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of feed water R{sub h} = 0.3 was proposed as the optimal one as dry patches destroyed the continuous climbing film when R{sub h} is under 0.3. It was found that the minimum temperature difference driving climbing film evaporation is suggested as 5 C due to a sharp reduction in h{sub i} for temperature difference below 5 C. The experiment also showed that h{sub i} increased with an increase in temperature difference, which proved the superiority of climbing film evaporation in utilizing low-grade surplus heating source due to its wide range of driving temperature difference. The experimental results were compared with the previous literature and demonstrated a satisfactory agreement. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/microalbumin/tab/test"><span id="translatedtitle">Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... limited. Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; Glucose ; A1c ; Urine Protein ; ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Programs-and-Initiatives/Health-Insurance-Market-Reforms/Medical-Loss-Ratio.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (MLR) (Affordable Care Act)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and Guidance Stakeholder Engagement Training Resources Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Many insurance companies spend a substantial portion of ... quality improvement, also known as the Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (MLR). It also requires them to issue rebates ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900019323&hterms=Nitrogen+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Nitrogen%2Bcycle%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> performance through nitrogen augmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>High/variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.uni-bonn.de/people/ursula/surfacecoho.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BOUNDED COHOMOLOGY AND CROSS <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span> URSULA HAMENSTADT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hamenstädt, Ursula</p> <p></p> <p>BOUNDED COHOMOLOGY AND CROSS <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span> URSULA HAMENST¨ADT Abstract. We use cross <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to describe. The goal of this Date: April 19, 2008. Partially supported by Sonderforschungsbereich 611. 1 #12;2 URSULA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23815649"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionarily stable sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and mutation load.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, but biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage. PMID:23815649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFD.L5006F"><span id="translatedtitle">Adjoint Airfoil Optimization of Darrieus-Type <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Axis Wind Turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuchs, Roman; Nordborg, Henrik</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We present the feasibility of using an adjoint solver to optimize the torque of a Darrieus-type <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine (VAWT). We start with a 2D cross section of a symmetrical airfoil and restrict us to low solidity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to minimize blade vortex interactions. The adjoint solver of the ANSYS FLUENT software package computes the sensitivities of airfoil surface forces based on a steady flow field. Hence, we find the torque of a full revolution using a weighted average of the sensitivities at different wind speeds and angles of attack. The weights are computed analytically, and the range of angles of attack is given by the tip speed <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Then the airfoil geometry is evolved, and the proposed methodology is evaluated by transient simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE33A0320D"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Structuring of Gigantic Jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Da Silva, C.; Pasko, V. P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Gigantic Jets (GJs) are large-scale electrical discharges between the thundercloud tops and the lower ionosphere. It is estimated that an individual GJ can contribute as much as cloud-to-ground lightning in discharging a thunderstorm system, transferring hundreds of coulombs from thundercloud to the ionosphere [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617-620, 2009]. GJs are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud lightning discharges. Owing to a charge imbalance, meaning the upper charge center is depleted with respect to the midlevel charge center, the upward-directed lightning leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top to form GJs [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008]. As a GJ leader crosses the stratosphere its streamer zone becomes longer and longer, due to the dynamics of streamer growth in a medium with exponentially-decreasing air density, such as in the Earth's atmosphere [Raizer et al., GRL, 33, L23801, 2006]. The speed at which a leader propagates is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 39, L13805, 2012]. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. To address this issue, we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that simulates the upward propagation of a leader discharge accounting for the effects of the expansion of its streamer zone. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 40, 12, 3315-3319, 2013]. Leaders and streamers are very different electrical discharges in terms of the degree of ionization, temperature, and composition of the plasma inside their channels. A correct description of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structuring of GJs is of fundamental importance for evaluation of their effects in the stratosphere and mesosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS33B1774A"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic System (3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The VCS (<span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays <span class="hlt">vertically</span> moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of shot points and receiver points in the field include the errors. We use these data as initial guesses, we invert iteratively shot and receiver positions to match the travel time data. After several iterations we could finally estimate the most probable positions. Integration of the constraint of VCS hydrophone positions, such as the spacing is 10m, can accelerate the convergence of the iterative inversion and improve results. The accuracy of the estimated positions from the travel time date is enough for the VCS data processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1333A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays <span class="hlt">vertically</span> moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two hundred meters. Our VCS system has been demonstrated as a promising survey tool for the SMS exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S51A2186A"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo. It generates high frequency acoustic waves around 1kHz. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections and currently being processed for imaging the subsurface structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://lib.semi.ac.cn:8080/tsh/dzzy/wsqk/spie/vol6293/62930w.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Downhole Seismic Survey System with Fiber-optic Accelerometer Sensor Array for 3-Dimensions <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Seismic Profile (3D-VSP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Qilin Zou; Liwei Wang; Meng Pang; Dongsheng Tu</p> <p></p> <p>We demonstrated a down-hole seismic survey system that can be applied in three dimensions <span class="hlt">vertical</span> seismic profile (VSP) detection in petroleum exploration. The results of experiments show that the system has a dynamic measurement range of 80db (<span class="hlt">ratio</span> of maximum to minimum value) and the total delay for signal collection, process and communication is less than 200ms @ 2k bit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/88/81/54/PDF/hal-00888154.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">REPRODUCTION About sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p></p> <p>II. - REPRODUCTION About sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in pigs J. LOUGNON, M. PICARD ..1,L.C, fSorric /!(!'('/(!/!r;7!Ct?sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at birth were studied. Combination (4) gave a significantly higher number of males. The lowest sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was registered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000244&hterms=guns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dguns"><span id="translatedtitle">Spray Gun With Constant Mixing <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simpson, William G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow <span class="hlt">ratio</span> near 1:1 (or another desired <span class="hlt">ratio</span>) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol5-sec567-8.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and...Capital Requirements § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital...3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of core capital to adjusted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27484692"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidding <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to predict highway project costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Trefor P. Williams</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Purpose – <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> were constructed using bidding data for highway construction projects in Texas to study whether there are useful patterns in project bids that are indicators of the project completion cost. The use of the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to improve predictions of completed project cost was studied. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> were calculated relating the second lowest bid, mean bid, and maximum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_8_NO_1/24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal Hedging <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> for Pakistan's Wheat Imports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>TARIQ ALI; SARFRAZ HASSAN; KHALID MUSHTAQ; KHUDA BAKHSH</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, optimal hedging <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is calculated for Pakistan's wheat imports from USA. Price risk faced by various market participants is estimated. Slope coefficient from OLS regression is used to calculate optimal hedging <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (OHR). Results indicate that FOB and CIF prices of wheat are significantly volatile and need proper management of associated risk. While optimal hedging <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/qk55l15232806350.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> scar in Lejour's mastoplasty technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Antonio Tapia; Agustín Blanch; Josep Salvador; Josep Prat; Immaculada Albert</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a series of 54 consecutive cases of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mastoplasty carried out over the period February 1994 to April 1995. In 30 cases breast reduction was performed, in 19 pure mastopexy, and in the remaining 5, a mastopexy-breast augmentation with a silicon gel prosthesis was carried out. The parameters used for analyzing the persistence of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> scarring were:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3827351"><span id="translatedtitle">Subjective Visual <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> and Postural Performance in Healthy Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Obeid, Rima; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction <span class="hlt">Verticality</span> is essential in our life, especially for postural stability. Subjective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> as well as postural stability depends on different sensorial information: visual, vestibular and somesthesic. They help to build the spatial referentials and create a central representation of <span class="hlt">verticality</span>. Children are more visuo-dependant than adults; however, we did not find any study focusing on how children develop their sense of <span class="hlt">verticality</span>. Methods We studied two groups of subjects: 10 children (from 6 to 8 years) and 12 young adults. We recorded postural stability with a Techno Concept plateform and perception of subjective visual <span class="hlt">vertical</span> in the following conditions: while adjusting the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> in the dark or with visual perturbation, while fixating the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar, and with eyes closed. Results Children are more instable than adults in terms of postural parameters, and also while performing a double task, especially when no visual references are present. They also present a higher variability and lower accuracy than adults in reporting their perception of true <span class="hlt">vertical</span> reference. Discussion Children might have limited attentional resources, and focus their attention on the more demanding task, corresponding to the U-shaped non-linear model. PMID:24236146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6053609"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and development of hybrid <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Jahangir Alam; Mohammad T. Iqbal</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Power from wind or water current can be extracted using a horizontal or <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> axis turbines are capable of extracting power from wind or water current regardless of the direction of flow. A hybrid turbine consists of two types of turbines on a same shaft. Such a design exploits good features of two turbines. This paper presents</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61279741"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical generation using a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-axis wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, windmills have been of the propeller or multiblade types, both of which have their rotational axis parallel to the flow of the wind. A <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-axis wind turbine has its rotational axis perpendicular to the flow of wind and requires no orientation to keep the rotor in the windstream. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-axis wind turbine operates on the same principle as an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51284788"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> axis wind turbine designed aerodynamically at Tokai University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Y. Kato; K. Seki; Y. Shimizu</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The advantages of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine over conventional propeller-type wind turbines are listed, among them the fact that the turbine is free from the gyroscopic loading accompanied by wind direction tracking. Special attention is given to the straight-wing type <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis turbine, which is thought to be particularly advantageous. Also discussed are the characteristics of the blade. It</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.sics.se/~ianm/Students/daniel_thesis.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">vertical</span> handover performance for RTP streams containing voice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>the handover based in these measurements. #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 MotivationImproving <span class="hlt">vertical</span> handover performance for RTP streams containing voice Using network parameters to predict future network conditions in order to make a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> handover decision Daniel Yunda Lozano</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26298436"><span id="translatedtitle">Planar Hall effect in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Hall sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ch Schott; P.-A Besse; R. S Popovic</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The planar Hall effect is theoretically and experimentally studied in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Hall sensor (VHS). Compared to silicon plate-shaped devices where experimental and theoretical value correspond well, the experimental value for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Hall device is about 10 times smaller than theory predicts. This fact is explained by anisotropy effects and by the unique self-compensating structure of the device. Thus,</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840019036&hterms=measurement+horizontal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmeasurement%2Bhorizontal"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for measurements of horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rottger, J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Spectrum analysis and correlation methods used to measure the horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities of radar echo signals are examined mathematically. Topics include scattering/reflection geometry, monostatic versus bistatic operation, spaced antenna measurements, radar interferometry and the Doppler method. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> velocity determination, optimum pointing angles, and time resolution for periodic variations are also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56127538"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermally optimum spacing of <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, natural convection cooled, parallel plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. Bar-Cohen; W. M. Rohsenow</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=estimation+AND+theory&pg=4&id=EJ956921"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Scaling Methods on Linear Growth Estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lei, Pui-Wa; Zhao, Yu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> scaling is necessary to facilitate comparison of scores from test forms of different difficulty levels. It is widely used to enable the tracking of student growth in academic performance over time. Most previous studies on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> scaling methods assume relatively long tests and large samples. Little is known about their performance when…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930094768&hterms=air+balloons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bballoons"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> air currents in the atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lange, K O</p> <p>1931-01-01</p> <p>To summarize, the experiments with balloons, sailplanes and light airplanes conducted thus far, reveal the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities of the air to be primarily dependent on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature distribution. Stable stratifications result in up-and-down currents forced by the contour of the ground, which are readily recognized in flight and, if need be, may be avoided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22839585"><span id="translatedtitle">Spouting of fine powder from <span class="hlt">vertically</span> vibrated bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. Harada; H. Li; K. Funatsu; Y. Tomita</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Experimental and numerical studies of spouting of powder from <span class="hlt">vertically</span> vibrated bed are performed. The powder flows out vigorously through a side orifice of the <span class="hlt">vertically</span> vibrated vessel in which the powder is contained, provided that the vibration acceleration is greater than the gravitational one. The mechanism of the efflux and the relationship between the efflux rate and the vibration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://webster.ce.gatech.edu/sites/default/files/files/thesis/2011%20True%20MS%20thesis.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">PATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> SHEAR LAYERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>into the sea, the water will become fresh. And wherever the river goes, every living creature that swarmsPATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> SHEAR LAYERS A Thesis Presented #12;PATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> SHEAR LAYERS Approved by: Dr. Donald R</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.mat.uniroma3.it/users/gentile/ricerca/lavori/bageg1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gentile, Guido</p> <p></p> <p>On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum M. V. Bartuccelli , G. Gentile , K. V oscillators have begun to be extensively studied, both theoretically and numerically. Their dynamics to a harmonic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> oscillation of appropriate frequency and amplitude. Stephenson (1908) was the first who</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://personal.maths.surrey.ac.uk/st/M.Bartuccelli/numericprsl.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bartuccelli, Michele</p> <p></p> <p>On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum M. V. Bartuccelli #3; , G. Gentile y parametrically excited nonlinear oscillators have begun to be extensively studied, both theoretically by subjecting the pivot to a harmonic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> oscillation of appropriate frequency and amplitude. Stephenson</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ma.utexas.edu/mp_arc/c/00/00-408.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum M. V. Bartuccelli # , G. Gentile oscillators have begun to be extensively studied, both theoretically and numerically. Their dynamics to a harmonic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> oscillation of appropriate frequency and amplitude: analytically this is obtained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.poli.usp.br/d/PMR5222/artigo4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">MECHANICAL DESIGN AND MODELING OF A NEW MEMS <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> ACTUATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dong Yan; Amir Khajepour; Raafat Mansour</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a new micro electro-thermal actuator with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> motion. In the traditional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electro-thermal actuators, the arms of actuators are fabricated with different widths to provide high and low electrical resistance for the hot and cold arms. Applying electrical current to the arms results in different thermal expansion between the hot and cold arm, which forces the tip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26997993"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and modeling of a MEMS bidirectional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> thermal actuator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dong Yan; Amir Khajepour; Raafat Mansour</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new micro electro-thermal actuator with bidirectional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> motion is introduced, analyzed and tested. In traditional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electro-thermal actuators, the arms of actuators are fabricated with different widths to provide high and low electrical resistance for the hot and cold arms. Applying electrical current to the arms results in different thermal expansions between the hot and cold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/NOPP/papers/haas-svendsen-JGR02.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of rip currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kirby, James T.</p> <p></p> <p>Laboratory measurements of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of rip currents Kevin A. Haas and Ib A. Svendsen-dimensional variation of rip currents through the use of experimental measurements of rip currents in a directional wave basin. The rip currents are unstable, appearing sporadically at any given location. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=TEKTRAN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=202898"><span id="translatedtitle">SeedChaser: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> soil tillage distribution model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of surface residues, chemicals, or seeds following tillage operations is of paramount importance to a wide variety of soil research areas. This paper describes a 1-D empirical <span class="hlt">vertical</span> soil tillage distribution model with 1-cm grid spacing (SeedChaser) that pre...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=TEKTRAN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=185531"><span id="translatedtitle">SEEDCHASER: TILLAGE MODEL FOR <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> WEED SEED DISTRIBUTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of surface residues, chemicals, or seeds following tillage operations is of paramount importance to a wide variety of soil research areas. This paper describes a 1-D empirical <span class="hlt">vertical</span> soil tillage particle distribution model with 1-cm grid spacing. Prior model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.indiana.edu/%7Ecurtweb/Pubs/Lively%20et%20al%202005%20EER%20lowdef.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive co-existence of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> and horizontally transmitted parasites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Curtis M. Lively; Keith Clay; Michael J. Wade; Clay Fuqua</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Questions: Can <span class="hlt">vertically</span> transmitted parasites (VTPs) serve as indirect mutualists by excluding more virulent, horizontally transmitted parasites (HTPs)? How does the efficiency of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transmission affect: (1) the equilibrium number of hosts infected by each type of parasite; (2) the total number of hosts in the population; and (3) virulence of the horizontally transmitted parasite? How does reproductive output by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ee.umanitoba.ca/~pawlak/papers/NonparametricLearning/VertBoxChart2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> BOX CONTROL CHART FOR THE PROCESS MEAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pawlak, Miroslaw</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> BOX CONTROL CHART FOR THE PROCESS MEAN EWARYST RAFAJLOWICZ, MIROSLAW PAWLAK, ANSGAR STELAND Abstract. Our aim is to discuss a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Box Control Chart (V- Box Chart). The chart is designed for quick detection of changes in the mean of a process. V-Box Chart is as simple as the Shewart chart</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.bnl.gov/envsci/pubs/pdf/2011/BNL-94993-2011-AB.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">TOWARDS <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> VELOCITY AND HYDROMETEOR CLASSIFICATION FROM ARM WIND PROFILERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>TOWARDS <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> VELOCITY AND HYDROMETEOR CLASSIFICATION FROM ARM WIND PROFILERS Scott Giangrande of Science ABSTRACT With support from the ARM Climate Research Facility infrastructure, two radar wind for studying deep convective clouds as part of larger ARM efforts towards the estimation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41991147"><span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport of air over southern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Garstang; P. D. Tyson; R. Swap; M. Edwards; P. Kllberg; J. A. Lindesay</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Tropospheric air trajectories that occurred during the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) in August-October 1992 are described in terms of a circulation classification scheme and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stability of the atmosphere. Three major and frequently occurring stable discontinuities are found to control <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport of aerosols in the subtropical atmosphere at the end of the dry season. Of these,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/pubs/BHRS/Peer-reviewed/Clement_and_Knoll_2006_Geophysics.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Traveltime inversion of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> radar profiles William P. Clement1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Barrash, Warren</p> <p></p> <p>method for obtaining detailed EM velocity estimates is <span class="hlt">vertical</span> radar profiling VRP Knoll and Clement, 1999 . The ac- quisition geometry of a VRP is similar to the better-known <span class="hlt">vertical</span> seismic profile VSP of VRP surveys is to obtain an accurate model of velocity changes with depth. Unlike Zhou and Sato 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=method+AND+lines&pg=2&id=EJ749648"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Functions without Using the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Line Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Eileen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Study was conducted on how the students were made to think meaningfully and widely within and across the representations in solving and identifying functions in precalculus, without the usage of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test. It was concluded that the "no <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line testing" method proved to be easily accessible by all students and also made them…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57732240"><span id="translatedtitle">Management Brief: A Quickly Deployed <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> GillNet System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>William E. Lynch JR; Jerald M. Gerber; David L. Johnson; Jeffrey R. Reutter</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>We describe a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> gill-net system that can be easily and quickly deployed in rough water. Previously described <span class="hlt">vertical</span> gill nets are retrieved with floating rollers that work poorly when large waves and swells move the net and where surface rollers may interfere with boat traffic. Our system uses a flotation pipe to keep the top of the net at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPA-EIMS&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=39444"><span id="translatedtitle">SIMPLE PDF MODELS FOR CONVECTIVELY DRIVEN <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> DIFFUSION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mode of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity in convective boundary layers is usually negative and the probability distribution function(PDF) of w, pw is rarely symmetrlc. Consequently, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> diffusion from elevated sources is usually asymmetric and exhibits a descending mode of concentratio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://ipparco.roma1.infn.it/pagine/deposito/2000/bgg1.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Roma "La Sapienza", Università di</p> <p></p> <p>On the Dynamics of a <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Driven Damped Planar Pendulum M. V. Bartuccelli # , G. Gentile on the dynamics of the planar pendulum with parametric <span class="hlt">vertical</span> time­periodic forcing are reviewed and extended the dynamics of the pendulum shows sensitivity to initial conditions. Keywords: basins of attraction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.uvic.ca/~ruskey/Publications/MinVennVerts/MinVennVerts.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">Venn Diagrams with Few <span class="hlt">Vertices</span> Bette Bultena and Frank Ruskey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ruskey, Frank</p> <p></p> <p>at least \\Gamma n bn=2c \\Delta <span class="hlt">vertices</span>, and that this lower bound can be attained for all n ? 1. Keywords of <span class="hlt">vertices</span> is as stated involves the Catalan numbers. 1.1 Venn Diagrams and Graphs Let us review Gr</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cool.hongik.ac.kr/users/hicel/download/1-18.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> CAVITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chang, Ho-Myung</p> <p></p> <p>NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> CAVITY Yeon SukChoi \\ Steven W. Van to measure the natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen between two <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates has been performed power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://eaps.mit.edu/faculty/lindzen/200_Non-lin.Sat.of.Vert.prop.R.Waves.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Linear Saturation of <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Propagating Rossby Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lindzen, Richard S.</p> <p></p> <p>Non-Linear Saturation of <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Propagating Rossby Waves Constantine Giannitsis and Richard S The interaction between <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Rossby wave propagation and wave breaking is studied in the idealized context of such events, commonly called Rossby wave breaking events (McIntyre and Palmer, 1983, 1985), have for the most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.research.att.com/export/sites/att_labs/techdocs/TD_100396.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Iterative Refinement Algorithm for the Minimum Branch <span class="hlt">Vertices</span> Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Fisher, Kathleen</p> <p></p> <p>.festa@unina.it Abstract. This paper presents a new approach to solve the NP-complete minimum branch <span class="hlt">vertices</span> problem (MBV Introduction Given a undirected unweighted graph G = (V, E) the minimum branch <span class="hlt">vertices</span> problem (MBV) consists capable of finding suboptimal solutions for the MBV: Edge Weighting Strategy (EWS), Node Coloring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945674"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M</p> <p>2008-10-13</p> <p>Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER <span class="hlt">vertical</span> control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental <span class="hlt">vertical</span> control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide <span class="hlt">vertical</span> control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable <span class="hlt">vertical</span> displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable <span class="hlt">vertical</span> displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> position measurement which can challenge the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> control loop are assessed and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60313177"><span id="translatedtitle">Rotor blade structure and mounting for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind machines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Lechner</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A lightweight simplified economical and efficient sail or rotor blade for a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind machine and simplified self-acting restraining means for the blade during rotor operation are disclosed. The rotor structure is characterized by ease of assembly and the absence of need for adjustment and frequent maintenance. Individual rotor blades are attached to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis whips extending above and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35988636"><span id="translatedtitle">The nature and growth of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> specialization in world trade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David Hummels; Jun Ishii; Kei-Mu Yi</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Dramatic changes are occurring in the nature of international trade. Production processes increasingly involve a sequential, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> trading chain stretching across many countries, with each country specializing in particular stages of a good’s production sequence. We document a key aspect of these <span class="hlt">vertical</span> linkages — the use of imported inputs in producing goods that are exported — which we call</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54787244"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and theoretical studies of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> annular liquid jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. I. Ramos</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical studies are described of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> annular jets, the conditions are determined under which <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jets form an enclosed volume which can be used as a chemical reactor, the influence is assessed of the nozzle gap width, nozzle geometry, pressure difference across the annular jet, and Froude, Weber and Reynolds numbers on the annular jet's covergence length, and the mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://vcsel.micro.uiuc.edu/Pubs/2003_EL_Danner.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-defect photonic crystal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity surface emitting lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Choquette, Kent</p> <p></p> <p>Coupled-defect photonic crystal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity surface emitting lasers A.J. Danner, J.C. Lee, J elements in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structures [1­4]. We propose using two-dimensional photonic crystals to delineate of the equivalent refractive index [10, 11]. This is one distinguishing feature of photonic crystal VCSELs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46521550"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromechanical behaviour of human muscles in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jumps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. T. Viitasalo; C. Bosco</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Summary  The relationships of muscle structure to the potentiation of myoelectrical activity and to the use of prestretching in five lower limb muscles were studied in different <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jumping conditions. The subjects for the study were six male students, divided according to the muscle fiber distribution in m. vastus lateralis into fast and slow groups. The subjects performed <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jumps (1)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30153657"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiographic features of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> fractured, endodontically treated maxillary premolars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Aviad Tamse; Zvi Fuss; Joseph Lustig; Yehuda Ganor; Israel Kaffe</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most frequent radiographic appearance of bony lesions associated with <span class="hlt">vertically</span> fractured roots of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. Study Design. The radiographic features of 102 endodontically treated teeth and their periradicular areas (51 with and 51 without <span class="hlt">vertically</span> fractured roots) were evaluated and compared. Results. The predominant appearance of the periradicular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.119..203H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Aplin, K. L.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kg m-3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neutron monitor data from Oulu. Model ionisation rates agree well with the observed cosmic ray ionisation below 20 km altitude. Above 10 km, the measured ionisation rates also correlate well with simultaneous neutron monitor data, although, consistently with previous work, measured variability at the ionisation maximum is greater than that found by the neutron monitor. However, in the lower atmosphere (below 5 km altitude), agreement between the measurements and simultaneous neutron monitor data is poor. For studies of transient lower atmosphere phenomena associated with cosmic ray ionisation, this indicates the need for in situ ionisation measurements and improved lower atmosphere parameterisations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126179"><span id="translatedtitle">Airfoil treatments for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klimas, P.C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has taken three airfoil related approaches to decreasing the cost of energy of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine (VAWT) systems; airfoil sections designed specifically for VAWTs, vortex generators (VGs), and ''pumped spoiling.'' SNL's blade element airfoil section design effort has led to three promising natural laminar flow (NLF) sections. One section is presently being run on the SNL 17-m turbine. Increases in peak efficiency and more desirable dynamic stall regulation characteristics have been observed. Vane-type VGs were fitted on one DOE/Alcoa 100 kW VAWT. With approximately 12% of span having VGs, annual energy production increased by 5%. Pumped spoiling utilizes the centrifugal pumping capabilities of hollow blades. With the addition of small perforations in the surface of the blades and valves controlled by windspeed at the ends of each blade, lift spoiling jets may be generated inducing premature stall and permitting lower capacity, lower cost drivetrain components. SNL has demonstrated this concept on its 5-m turbine and has wind tunnel tested perforation geometries on one NLF section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813745"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht</p> <p>2014-07-14</p> <p>This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period. A dead ewe and her aborted fetus were transported to the Ahvaz Veterinary Hospital for the diagnostic evaluation. The microbial cultures from the ewe vaginal discharges and fetal abomasal contents and the liver were negative. The blood films of the ewe and her fetus contained Theileria piroplasms and the impression smears from ewe liver and fetal spleen were positive for Theileria Koch blue bodies. The DNA was extracted from the liver and spleen of ewe and her fetus, respectively, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of T. lestoquardi. A single fragment of 428-bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank(®) showed 100% identities with 18S rDNA gene of T. lestoquardi. The present study is the first report of the T. lestoquardi <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transmission that could be related to the abortion. PMID:24813745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......100L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evanescently coupled <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehman, Ann C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Evanescent optical coupling between elements in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays is interesting for applications in areas such as optical communications, image processing, and electronic beam-steering. Past work in coherently coupled VCSEL arrays has resulted in out-of-phase arrays or more desirable in-phase arrays, which suffer from complex fabrication processes. This work examines two types of evanescently coupled VCSEL arrays: photonic crystal (PhC) and implant-defined arrays. Both array types exhibit electronic beam-steering due to a variable phase difference between neighboring lasers. This phase difference is tunable with changes in the differential current injection between lasers. This work uses antenna array theory and coherence theory to discover that coherence is maximized around purely in-phase and out-of-phase operation conditions. Additionally, this work studies the modes of PhC VCSELs and develops a coupling theory which predicts the frequency splitting between lasers. Because implant-defined arrays do not include optical loss between lasers, these arrays tend to operate in-phase with minimal processing complexity. Thus, devices are studied and developed which operate in-phase and allow for electronic beam-steering, both of which are useful for potential applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1015381"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering design of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> test stand cryostat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140003934&hterms=TUB&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTUB"><span id="translatedtitle">Morpheus <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Test Bed Flight Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140009179&hterms=lesson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlesson"><span id="translatedtitle">ATLAS LTCS <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Challenged System Lessons Learned</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow <span class="hlt">vertical</span> operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5928240"><span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical analysis of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flow equilibrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yortsos, Y.C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The assumption of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPl...22e2107W"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by <span class="hlt">vertical</span> displacements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j// , at plasma boundary is a drive of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by <span class="hlt">vertical</span> modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22181504"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on vortex distribution and heat transfer in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stevens, Richard J A M; Overkamp, Jim; Lohse, Detlef; Clercx, Herman J H</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Numerical and experimental data for the heat transfer as a function of the Rossby number Ro in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection are presented for the Prandtl number Pr=4.38 and the Rayleigh number Ra=2.91×10(8) up to Ra=4.52×10(9). The aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ??D/L, where L is the height and D the diameter of the cylindrical sample, is varied between ?=0.5 and 2.0. Without rotation, where the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> influences the global large-scale circulation, we see a small-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence in the Nusselt number for Ra=2.91×10(8). However, for stronger rotation, i.e., 1/Ro>1/Ro(c), the heat transport becomes independent of the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. We interpret this finding as follows: In the rotating regime the heat is mainly transported by <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned vortices. Since the <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned vortices are local, the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> has a negligible effect on the heat transport in the rotating regime. Indeed, a detailed analysis of vortex statistics shows that the fraction of the horizontal area that is covered by vortices is independent of the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> when 1/Ro>1/Ro(c). In agreement with the results of Weiss et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 224501 (2010)], we find a vortex-depleted area close to the sidewall. Here we show that there is also an area with enhanced vortex concentration next to the vortex-depleted edge region and that the absolute widths of both regions are independent of the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. PMID:22181504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..344...57S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> aligned N-doped CNTs growth using Taguchi experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, Ricardo M.; Fernandes, António J. S.; Ferro, Marta C.; Pinna, Nicola; Silva, Rui F.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Taguchi method with a parameter design L9 orthogonal array was implemented for optimizing the nitrogen incorporation in the structure of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned N-doped CNTs grown by thermal chemical deposition (TCVD). The maximization of the ID/IG <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the Raman spectra was selected as the target value. As a result, the optimal deposition configuration was NH3 = 90 sccm, growth temperature = 825 °C and catalyst pretreatment time of 2 min, the first parameter having the main effect on nitrogen incorporation. A confirmation experiment with these values was performed, ratifying the predicted ID/IG <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 1.42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization revealed a uniform completely <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned array of multiwalled CNTs which individually exhibit a bamboo-like structure, consisting of periodically curved graphitic layers, as depicted by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated a 2.00 at.% of N incorporation in the CNTs in pyridine-like and graphite-like, as the predominant species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25191745"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> and horizontal trust at work as predictors of retirement intentions: the Finnish Public Sector Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000-12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3952..234L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-cavity modulator for optical interconnection and its high-speed performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Harris, James S., Jr.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>Free-space smart-pixel optical interconnect architecture promises to relive the interconnect bottleneck in high-speed parallel interconnection and switching systems. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> cavity Fabry-Perot multiple quantum well modulators, which offers high on-off contrast, low insertion loss, low operating voltage swing, low chirp and easy to be integrated with silicon electronics ins one of the most promising devices. A low chirp <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity Fabry-Perot modulator where the top and bottom mirrors are made of distributed Bragg reflector , the undoped regions between top mirrors and intracavity contact region contain 26 GaAs/Al0.35Ga0.65As quantum wells. By applying a voltage across the quantum well regions through intracavity contacts, the absorptive characteristics of the active region at the cavity's resonance wavelength can be modified through the quantum-confined Stark effect. The device under test is integrated with microwave probe for efficient wafer level GHZ probing without further high frequency packaging. To minimize the parasitic capacitance of the probe pads, the conducting region underneath probe pads is etched away and planarized with low dielectric material-electronics resins BCB. In this paper, we report the low switching voltage with only 3.5V, high contrast <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 10:1 and high bandwidth of 16GHz. The effects of incident laser power on the contrast <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and modulation bandwidth were also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21116047"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and experimental study of nucleate boiling on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal plain tubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ribatski, Gherhardt [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador SanCarlense 400, Centro, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Saiz Jabardo, Jose M. [Escola Politecnica Superior, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); da Silva, Evandro Fockink [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais - CEFETMG, Unidade Divinopolis, R. Monte Santo, 319, Divinopolis, MG (Brazil)</p> <p>2008-09-15</p> <p>An investigation of nucleate boiling on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal plain tubes is presented in this paper. Experiments were performed with refrigerant R123 at reduced pressures varying from 0.022 to 0.64, tube pitch to diameter <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 1.32, 1.53 and 2.00, and heat fluxes from 0.5 to 40 kW/m{sup 2}. Brass tubes with external diameters of 19.05 mm and average roughness of 0.12 {mu}m were used in the experiments. The effect of the tube spacing on the local heat transfer coefficient along the tube array was negligible within the present range of experimental conditions. For partial nucleate boiling, characterized by low heat fluxes, and low reduced pressures, the tube positioning shows a remarkable effect on the heat transfer coefficient. Based on these data, a general correlation for the prediction of the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal tubes under flooded conditions was proposed. According to this correlation, the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between the heat transfer coefficients of a given tube and the lowest tube in the array depends only on the tube row number, the reduced pressure and the heat flux. By using the proposed correlation, most of the experimental heat transfer coefficients obtained in the present study were predicted within {+-}15%. The new correlation compares reasonably well with independent data from the literature. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6453320"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat transfer to water from a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube bundle under natural-circulation conditions. [PWR; BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gruszczynski, M.J.; Viskanta, R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The natural circulation heat transfer data for longitudinal flow of water outside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rod bundle are needed for developing correlations which can be used in best estimate computer codes to model thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactor cores under accident or shutdown conditions. The heat transfer coefficient between the fuel rod surface and the coolant is the key parameter required to predict the fuel temperature. Because of the absence of the required heat transfer coefficient data base under natural circulation conditions, experiments have been performed in a natural circulation loop. A seven-tube bundle having a pitch-to-diameter <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 1.25 was used as a test heat exchanger. A circulating flow was established in the loop, because of buoyancy differences between its two <span class="hlt">vertical</span> legs. Steady-state and transient heat transfer measurements have been made over as wide a range of thermal conditions as possible with the system. Steady state heat transfer data were correlated in terms of relevant dimensionless parameters. Empirical correlations for the average Nusselt number, in terms of Reynolds number, Rayleigh number and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Grashof to Reynolds number are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.MV008Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Instability of settling non-spherical particle in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Dewei; Koch, Donald; Subramanian, Ganesh</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Two mechanisms are attributed to the cross-stream migration when fiber settles in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear flow. First, a particle may migrate toward streamlines of the imposed shear flow with smaller downward fluid velocities, due to relative translation of the particle and fluid, called the Saffman effect. Second, a non-spherical particle at finite Reynolds number will attempt to rotate with its long body along the horizontal direction due to inertial torque. On the other hand, the torque due to the imposed weak <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear flow rotates the non-spherical in the opposite direction. The dynamic balance between the two torques may lead to a small angle between the particle long body and horizontal plane and may drive the particle migrate toward the streamlines of the shear flow with the large downward fluid velocity. The second mechanism was recently proposed by Shin, Koch and Subramanian.A fiber with aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ?=2, 1.6, 1.2 1.1 and 0 is used to study the lateral migration. It is shown that at a given shear and aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, fiber lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on the Reynolds number. The simulation results identified the lateral migration phase diagram and confirm the second mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMT....50.1103E"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of various RANS eddy-viscosity models for turbulent natural convection in tall <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Moutaouakil, L.; Zrikem, Z.; Abdelbaki, A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The present study is dedicated to the identification of turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic for computing the natural air-flow and heat transfer by convection in tall cavities with differentially heated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls. The eddy-viscosity models (EVM) are among the simplest to implement and the most economical to treat this problem. This study evaluated the dynamic, thermal and computational performances of twenty EVM turbulence models with one, two or three-equation closure. All the models were first implemented in several in-house codes using the finite volume method. The predictions of the retained models in terms of profiles of velocity, temperature and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity fluctuations in the cavity have been compared with those of experimental or numerical studies. The obtained results were used to identify the turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic in predicting natural convection in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavities with a high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The EVM models with three-equation (v2-f and ?-f) provide the most accurate mean and fluctuating quantities, followed by the k-? RNG (ReNormalization Group) and k-? SST (Shear Stress Transport) models. The computing time of these four models is higher than that of the 2L (two-layer) and q-? models, which provide fairly accurate results especially for the mean heat transfer between the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> active walls. The other one-equation (Spalart and Allmaras model) and two-equation (k-?, k-? and hybrid models) turbulence models tested in this work, have a high computing time and/or predictions that are not sufficiently precise simultaneously for both velocity and temperature fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31B2782S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-CLVD Earthquakes - Evidence of Slip on Ring Faults?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuler, A. E.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>At Bárdarbunga and Nyiragongo volcanoes, moderate-sized <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are associated with volcanic unrest, and are explained using physical mechanisms consisting of dip-slip motion on ring faults triggered by the inflation and deflation of shallow magma chambers. In order to evaluate the relationship between this type of earthquake and active volcanic processes, and to determine whether a ring-faulting mechanism can explain <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes in general, we performed a systematic global search for additional examples of shallow, <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes located near active volcanoes. We identified 86 <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes with magnitudes 4.3 ? Mw ? 5.8. These earthquakes have longer-than-average source durations, and many are depleted in high-frequency energy. Although most <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are associated with stratovolcanoes and submarine volcanoes in subduction zones, we also observe <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes in continental rifts and in regions of hot-spot volcanism. Half of the studied <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are associated with the incremental caldera collapse of Miyakejima in 2000, and another 20% are linked to other types of documented volcanic unrest, ranging from anomalous volcanic earthquake swarms to effusive and explosive eruptions. Although physical mechanisms involving fluid flow and volumetric changes can also produce earthquakes with deviatoric <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD focal mechanisms, we find that only ring-faulting mechanisms can explain the source durations of <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes and the temporal relationships between these earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-CLVD earthquakes are most commonly associated with basaltic-to-andesitic volcanoes and volcanoes with calderas, which may suggest that both low-viscosity magmas and ring-fault structures are required to generate this type of earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17885594"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural correlates of the Pythagorean <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foss, Alexander H; Altschuler, Eric L; James, Karin H</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Millennia ago Pythagoras noted a simple but remarkably powerful rule for the aesthetics of tone combinations: pairs of tones--intervals--with simple <span class="hlt">ratios</span> such as an octave (<span class="hlt">ratio</span> 2 : 1) or a fifth (<span class="hlt">ratio</span> 3 : 2) were pleasant sounding (consonant), whereas intervals with complex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> such as the major seventh (<span class="hlt">ratio</span> 243 : 128) were harsh (dissonant). These Pythagorean <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rules are the building blocks of Western classical music; however, their neurophysiologic basis is not known. Using functional MRI we have found the neurophysiologic correlates of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rules. In musicians, the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and anterior cingulate respond with progressively more activation to perfect consonances, imperfect consonances and dissonances. In nonmusicians only the right inferior frontal gyrus follows this pattern. PMID:17885594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11614201O"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the CALIOP aerosol optical depth using combined MODIS-CALIOP observations and CALIOP integrated attenuated total color <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oo, Min; Holz, Robert</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This paper aims to evaluate CALIOP aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval using MODIS AOD with the goal of improving the CALIOP selection of the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> leveraging the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolved CALIOP and multispectral MODIS observations. Comparing the MODIS fine mode <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to CALIOP, we find that the CALIOP integrated attenuated total color <span class="hlt">ratio</span> provides sensitivity to the aerosol size and type. This finding can be used to better constrain the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and improve the CALIOP AOD independent from MODIS.To retrieve the aerosol optical depth from CALIOP requires knowledge of the aerosol lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> that varies significantly as a function of aerosol type. For most CALIOP retrievals the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is estimated by correlating CALIOP observables (depolarization and backscatter) with precomputed lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> climatologies. Applying a lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> not representative of the observed aerosols can result in significant AOD biases and is one of the primary sources of uncertainty in the current CALIOP AOD. We demonstrate that over ocean the MODIS sensitivity to the fine- and coarse-mode aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> provides additional constraints to the aerosol lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. When MODIS fine-mode retrievals are collocated with CALIOP, the improved lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> significantly reduces the CALIOP AOD mean biases from ?0.064? to ?0.020? when compared to MODIS. In addition, we demonstrate that the CALIOP integrated attenuated total color <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is correlated with the MODIS fine and coarse mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in marine environments. This finding suggests that for a CALIOP-only AOD retrieval the integrated attenuated total color <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be used to better constrain the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Using the CALIOP integrated attenuated total color <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the CALIOP-only AOD retrieval improves the AOD mean biases (?0.064? to ?0.007?) when compared to the MODIS AOD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.2201D"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal evolution of the tropospheric aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile in the central Mediterranean and role of desert dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Iorio, T.; di Sarra, A.; Sferlazzo, D. M.; Cacciani, M.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Fuã, D.; Fiocco, G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The seasonal evolution of the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution in the Central Mediterranean is studied using measurements made in the period 1999-2008 at Lampedusa with an aerosol Lidar and a multi filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR). Measurements show that the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution is largely influenced by Saharan dust, which produces a strong annual cycle both in aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> extension and optical depth. Dust layers are present in the profile in 38% of the cases throughout the year, and in 57% in summer. The dust top altitude peaks in late spring, up to 9 km. The monthly average optical depth at 500 nm for dust cases shows a main peak in July (0.38), and values exceeding 0.2 throughout March-September. Conversely, non-dust cases show a very limited seasonality, both in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution and aerosol optical depth. The monthly average optical depth for non-dust cases is smaller than 0.17 throughout the year. During winter, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution and optical depth are very similar for both dust and non-dust cases. The seasonal average extinction coefficient profiles for dust and non-dust cases show remarkable differences in spring and summer, when values of the extinction coefficient exceed 0.5 × 10-4 m-1 throughout the altitude range 0-4.5 km for dust cases, and 0-1 km altitude for non-dust cases, respectively. Estimates of the Lidar <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> are derived by combining Lidar and MFRSR measurements. The average Lidar <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> at 532 nm is about 30 sr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5078523"><span id="translatedtitle">The seasonal variation of water vapor and ozone in the upper mesosphere: Implications for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport and ozone photochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bevilacqua, R.M.; Summers, M.E. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Strobel, D.F. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Olivero, J.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Allen, M. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))</p> <p>1990-01-20</p> <p>Ground-based microwave techniques have supplied the only long-term measurements of water vapor in the mesosphere. The authors review the entire current data base, which consists of measurements obtained in three separate experiments over an 8-year period. The data from all three experiments indicate that the water vapor seasonal variation at mid-latitudes in the upper mesosphere is dominated by an annual component with low mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in winter and high mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in summer. This suggests that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of water vapor in the upper mesosphere (up to 80 km) is controlled by advective rather than diffusive processes. This consistent with the low mesospheric K{sub zz} values ({approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s) deduced from the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> gradient of the microwave water vapor measurements by Strobel et al. (1987). However, it is difficult to reconcile the predominantly annual water vapor variation with the semiannual variation in ozone at 78 km observed by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer. The authors perform a series of one-dimensional photochemical/<span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport model calculations which verify that (within the context of the hydrogen/oxygen chemistry considered in the model), the seasonal variation of water vapor cannot be the mechanism for the semiannual ozone variation. This variation is either a manifestation of some heretofore unknown ozone photochemical mechanism, or it could be driven by a seasonal variation in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport of atomic oxygen from the thermosphere. One possible <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport scenario for producing the semiannual ozone variation (while retaining the annual water vapor variation) is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2262L"><span id="translatedtitle">Reviving the Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over time and in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span>. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the <span class="hlt">vertical</span>. The traditional Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was demonstrated that direct exposure of the fiber optic cable to these high radiative conditions (max incoming short wave radiation = 900 w/m^2) had no noticeable effect on the evaporation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.7312Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal differences of ionospheric <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density distribution and equatorial electrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valladares, C. E.; Pfaff, R. F.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Accurate estimation of global <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> driving force. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian ˜37°E and 290°E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift and other independent drift observation, such as from VEFI onboard Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite and JULIA radar, is equally promising. The observations at different longitudes suggest that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift velocities and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> density distribution have significant longitudinal differences; especially the equatorial anomaly peaks expand to higher latitudes more in American sector than the African sector, indicating that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift in the American sector is stronger than the African sector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6607801"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamics of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic fracture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Narasimhan, T.N.</p> <p>1987-03-24</p> <p>We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......261P"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal influence on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pollutant partitioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peake, D.</p> <p></p> <p>Coastal outflow describes the horizontal ventilation of pollutants from the continental boundary layer (CBL) by advection above the shallower marine boundary layer. Passive tracers incorporated in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to simulate coastal outflow over the eastern United States for the summer of 2004. The results are interpreted with a simple box-model containing a diurnally varying CBL height and uniform wind flow. Ventilation by coastal outflow from the US occurs at the same magnitude as <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ventilation into the free troposphere for the eastern half of the US. The diurnal variability in coastal outflow is determined by the lifetime of the tracer and the cycle of CBL height. Over the diurnal cycle, pollutants with lifetimes less than 24 hours experience a maximum in the evening and a minimum in the mid-morning. Pollutants with lifetimes greater than 24 hours undergo continuous coastal outflow with little diurnal variability. The dominant parameters in this study are tracer lifetime ?, wind-speed U and width of emissions (i.e. land) L. The box-model indicates the presence of a critical threshold, ?U/L ? 10, above which increasing the cross-coastal wind speed decreases coastal out-flow by reducing the availability of tracer in the residual layer to undergo coastal outflow at night. Of tracer advected across the coast in the MetUM simulation, 65% and 67% of tracer with 3- and 24-hour lifetimes undergo coastal outflow respectively. For the 24-hour tracer, the box-model has the highest correlation with the MetUM simulation when the advection rate U/L? 2 x 10-5s-1. Given the observed wind speed the distance near the coast over which emissions significantly contribute to coastal outflow is ? 100-110km.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22306021"><span id="translatedtitle">Graphene <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hot-electron terahertz detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryzhii, V., E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Satou, A.; Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)</p> <p>2014-09-21</p> <p>We propose and analyze the concept of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366565"><span id="translatedtitle">Partial diel <span class="hlt">vertical</span> migrations in pelagic fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehner, Thomas; Kasprzak, Peter</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>1. Field studies on diel <span class="hlt">vertical</span> migration (DVM) usually report uniform behaviour with population-wide ascents and descents during crepuscular periods. This contrasts partial seasonal migrations of many animal populations, where individuals choose either the resident or the migrant strategy depending on population density, feeding opportunity and predation risk in the resident and migrant habitats. 2. We tested whether DVM of freshwater zooplanktivorous fish (Coregonus spp.) resembles partial migrations. Twenty-eight hydroacoustic surveys were performed in the deep Lake Stechlin (Germany) between 2000 and 2010, with samplings encompassing all months between March and December. Zooplankton samples were simultaneously taken in epilimnetic and hypolimnetic layers. Fish obtained from depth-stratified samplings by a midwater trawl were used to test for individual differences between residents and migrants. 3. We show for the first time that DVMs of freshwater fish resemble patterns of partial migrations often found in seasonal environments. Across all samplings, 7-33% of fish did not ascend at dusk, but exhibited the resident strategy. The proportion or residents increased at low zooplankton feeding rates in the daytime habitat and during months when the temperature difference between daytime and night-time habitats was minor. 4. Slightly larger size and higher caloric density of migrants over residents in one of the coexisting Coregonus species suggested that individual differences contributed to the migration strategy performed. However, these results were based on one sample only, and extrapolation to the entire data set is not possible. 5. Our results are indirect evidence that the balance between migrants and residents may primarily depend on the trade-off between feeding gains and metabolic and predation costs of migration. However, the results also suggest that the global fitness consequences for the resident and migrant strategies may not be identical, rendering the importance of individual traits in the 'decision to migrate' likely. PMID:21366565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA08786&hterms=Victoria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DVictoria"><span id="translatedtitle">'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (<span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Projection)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><p/> NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. <p/> The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right. <p/> Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission. <p/> This view is presented as a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> projection with geometric seam correction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11780&hterms=spending&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspending"><span id="translatedtitle">Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (<span class="hlt">Vertical</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><p/> NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. <p/> This view is presented as a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> projection with geometric seam correction. <p/> Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). <p/> Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. <p/> The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6526264"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tectonics for Big Horn Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stearns, D.W.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p>Referring to the tectonic style of the Big Horn Basin as either horizontal or <span class="hlt">vertical</span> is an oversimplification. However, these terms have come into vogue and the author supports <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tectonics. This term implies that on most structures the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> component of displacement is larger than the horizontal component of displacement. It does not imply that all faults are absolutely <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, nor does it preclude crustal shortening. If high-angle reverse faults (dips steeper than 45/sup 0/) dominate in a basin, a net shortening will result even in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tectonic domain. Furthermore, when applied to the Big Horn Basin, the expression <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tectonic style only characterizes behavior 10 to 15 km (6 to 9 mi) into the basement. It implies nothing concerning causative conditions in the lower crust or upper mantle. A given mantle stress condition can produce several different displacement fields in the upper crust depending upon the behavior of the crust. In accepting either horizontal or <span class="hlt">vertical</span> as the tectonic style of a region, all of the structures produced during the deformation episode should be considered together as opposed to examining one feature at a time. It is also important to separate second and third order features from primary features. Finally, if there is a governing style, it should be consistent with three-dimensional movements, not just individual cross sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038743&hterms=leech&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dleech"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Distributions of PH3 in Saturn from Observations of Its 1-0 and 3-2 Rotational Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orton, G. S.; Serabyn, E.; Lee, Y. T.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of the 1-0 and 3-2 PH3 transitions in Saturn's disk near 267 and 800 GHz (8.9 and 26.7/cm), respectively, were analyzed simultaneously to derive a global mean profile for the PH3 <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between 100 and 600 mbar total pressure. The far-infrared spectrum is relatively free from spectral interlopers, suffers minimal absorption or scattering by atmospheric particulates, and contains intrinsically weak PH3 lines that are sensitive to a range of atmospheric depths. The combined spectra are inconsistent with a uniform tropospheric mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, even with a stratospheric cut-off. They are consistent with a volume mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of PH3 that drops from 1.2 x 10(exp -5) at 645 mbar pressure to a value of 4.1 x 10(exp -7) at 150 mbar pressure, a decrease that is linear is log abundance vs log pressure. The mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> could drop even more quickly at atmospheric pressures below 150 mbar and still be consistent with the data. The mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> may well remain constant with depth for pressures above 630 mbar. The maximum PH3 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in this model is consistent with a [P]/[H] <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the deep atmosphere that is about a factor of 10 higher than solar composition. Such a model is consistent with rapid mixing up to the radiative-convective boundary and transport by, for example, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> waves just above this boundary. In the best fitting model, the eddy diffusion coefficient is approximately 10(exp 4) sq cm near 630 mbar, and it must increase with altitude. The predominant PH3 loss mechanisms are direct photolysis by UV radiation and scavenging by H atoms produced by the photolysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.112...54S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of effective building height to street width governs dispersion of local vehicle emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulte, Nico; Tan, Si; Venkatram, Akula</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Analysis of data collected in street canyons located in Hanover, Germany and Los Angeles, USA, suggests that street-level concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants can be estimated with a model that assumes that <span class="hlt">vertical</span> turbulent transport of emissions dominates the governing processes. The dispersion model relates surface concentrations to traffic flow rate, the effective aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the street, and roof level turbulence. The dispersion model indicates that magnification of concentrations relative to those in the absence of buildings is most sensitive to the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the street, which is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the effective height of the buildings on the street to the width of the street. This result can be useful in the design of transit oriented developments that increase building density to reduce emissions from transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.02048v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Moments of the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for the Laplacian on finite regular graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Timothy B. P. Clark; Adrian Del Maestro</p> <p>2015-06-05</p> <p>We investigate the first and second moments of the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (IPR) for all eigenvectors of the Laplacian on finite random regular graphs with $n$ <span class="hlt">vertices</span> and degree $z$. By exactly diagonalizing a large set of $z$-regular graphs, we find that as $n$ becomes large, the mean of the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on each graph, when averaged over a large ensemble of graphs, approaches the numerical value $3$. This universal number is understood as the large-$n$ limit of the average of the quartic polynomial corresponding to the IPR over an appropriate $(n-2)$-dimensional hypersphere of $\\mathbb{R}^n$. The graph ensemble mean variance of the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for all graph Laplacian eigenvectors deviates from its continuous hypersphere average due to large graph-to-graph fluctuations that arise from the existence of localized modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EPJC...67...25A"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with the OPERA detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agafonova, N.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; de Lellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; de Serio, M.; di Capua, F.; di Ferdinando, D.; di Giovanni, A.; di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Oldorf, C.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge <span class="hlt">ratio</span> R_{?}=N_{?+}/N_{?-} in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the R ? dependence on the primary composition. The measured R ? values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the “<span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface energy” ? ? cos ?. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge <span class="hlt">ratios</span> weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Nanot..19R5301F"><span id="translatedtitle">Solution chemistry approach to fabricate <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards <span class="hlt">vertically</span> integrated electronics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were <span class="hlt">vertically</span> immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future <span class="hlt">vertically</span> integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JMS....24..201D"><span id="translatedtitle">Steady-state single cell model simulations of photoacclimation in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> mixed layer: implications for biological tracer studies and primary productivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dusenberry, J. A.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>A numerical single-cell photoacclimation-diffusion model was constructed and used to develop criteria regarding the use of individual phytoplankton cells as tracers for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing and to illustrate how rates of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing might affect phytoplankton physiology. Both first-order and logistic representations of photoacclimation kinetics were used. Steady state was assumed for simplicity and to provide a starting point for further investigations. The modeled variance and higher moments (within a phytoplankton population) of a generic photoacclimative parameter all show trends, which are diagnostic of mixing rates and/or boundary effects. This allowed the establishment of criteria by which frequency distributions of phytoplankton physiological properties (e.g., cell fluorescence) might be used as indicators of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing. The same model can be used to predict the effects of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing on phytoplankton productivity and growth. Application of the model to both photosynthesis and carbon to chlorophyll <span class="hlt">ratios</span> suggested that a combination of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing and hysteresis (as represented in the logistic model of photoacclimation) in acclimation kinetics can enhance specific growth rates of phytoplankton. This enhanced growth occurred as a result of mixing-induced variation in carbon to chlorophyll <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and is in contrast to chlorophyll-specific productivity, which was maximal at low mixing rates. Differential rates of photoacclimation to upward vs. downward shifts in irradiance, may enable phytoplankton cells to better survive in a turbulent environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.01269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Project VeSElkA: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Stratification of Element Abundances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Khalack, Viktor</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new research project on spectral analysis that aims to characterize the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stratification of element abundances in stellar atmospheres of chemically peculiar (CP) stars is discussed in detail. Some results on detection of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> abundance stratification in several slowly rotating main sequence CP stars are presented and considered as an indicator of the effectiveness of the atomic diffusion mechanism responsible for the observed peculiarities of chemical abundances. This study is carried out in the frame of Project VeSElkA (<span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Stratification of Elements Abundance) for which 34 slowly rotating CP stars have been observed with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at CFHT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOE-PATENT-XML&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/6332938"><span id="translatedtitle">Sidewall containment of liquid metal with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.</p> <p>1988-06-17</p> <p>An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1618L"><span id="translatedtitle">Internal wave propagation sensitivity to model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate and resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Boyer, Arnaud; Lathuilière, Cyril; Pichon, Annick; Gouillon, Flavien</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Oceanic General Circulation Models (OGCM) can almost be solely defined by their <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate. The necessary discretization of the physical space to apply numerical methods can lead to a misrepresentation of some physical processes. This is particularly the case at small spatial scales where mixing is involved as OGCMs do not have a sufficient spatial resolution to represent these processes. This work focuses on the role of the model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolution on the Internal waves (IW) propagation and on the modal representation of IWs using idealized numerical experiments. We show how the model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolution and the choice of isopycnic or eulerian (i.e., geopotential or terrain following models) coordinate impact the IW propagation in an idealized context. The IW are generated over a continental slope and forced by an S2 barotropic tide in a two dimensions domain. Three different initial stratifications are used to allow for IW propagation: a two-layer ocean, a depth constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency (N) and a mixed layer above a depth constant N. Step stratifications can be challenging for OGCMs and any model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate inducing abrupt changes in the water masses properties. These changes would imply a modification of the IW characteristics with respect to time in eulerian coordinate ocean model. Despite a spurious diapycnal mixing associated with the fixed <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinates, we show that model solutions converge for high model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolution (~80 levels) and for all the stratifications. Coarser model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolutions (~40 levels) show that there is a wave phase lag and/or amplitude modulation between the isopycnic and eulerian <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinates. For these <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolutions, an isopycnic experiment using a time-evolving stratification from an eulerian coordinate simulation is ran as an initial conditions. Because there is no diapycnal mixing in a fully-isopycnic coordinate system, the changes in the IW wave field due to the spurious mixing is diagnosed. The actual model <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolutions are likely to induce biases in the internal wave field and their propagation thus inducing unrealistic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing rates in global/regional simulation. With this study, we aim to define a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> model resolution threshold for OGCMs below which, these biases could vanish or be negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOE-PATENT-XML&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/867624"><span id="translatedtitle">Sidewall containment of liquid metal with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23943552"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> on suicide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuroki, Masanori</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Whereas sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are likely to affect the likelihood of marriage, how sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> affect health and survival is underexplored. This study uses suicide as a measure of mental health and examines how suicides are affected by sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. As women tend to marry men older than themselves, shrinking populations will lead to higher sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (i.e., higher proportions of men) in the marriage market. Using data from Japan, I find that high sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, both early-life and current, are correlated with higher male suicide rates, whereas female suicide rates are generally not affected. The results of this study have important implications for public health in countries where imbalanced sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are a concern. PMID:23943552</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517922"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-voltage organic electronics based on a gate-tunable injection barrier in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> graphene-organic semiconductor heterostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hlaing, Htay; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Carta, Fabio; Nam, Chang-Yong; Barton, Rob A; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration of graphene with inorganic semiconductors, oxide semiconductors, and newly emerging layered materials has recently been demonstrated as a promising route toward novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report organic thin film transistors based on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> heterojunctions of graphene and organic semiconductors. In these thin heterostructure devices, current modulation is accomplished by tuning of the injection barriers at the semiconductor/graphene interface with the application of a gate voltage. N-channel devices fabricated with a thin layer of C60 show a room temperature on/off <span class="hlt">ratio</span> >10(4) and current density of up to 44 mAcm(-2). Because of the ultrashort channel intrinsic to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure, the device is fully operational at a driving voltage of 200 mV. A complementary p-channel device is also investigated, and a logic inverter based on two complementary transistors is demonstrated. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration of graphene with organic semiconductors via simple, scalable, and low-temperature fabrication processes opens up new opportunities to realize flexible, transparent organic electronic, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25517922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3167.photos.201901p/"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> LAPS ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/39886"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> hydrodynamic focusing in an isotropically etched glass microfluidic device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lin, Tony An-tong</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The development of microfluidic devices has enabled precision control of nanoliter-scale environments and reactions. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> hydrodynamic focusing is one possible way to improve the optical performance of these devices ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3177.photos.358549p/"><span id="translatedtitle">28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> SHAFT GOES TO ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="/scitech/disclaimer">Website Policies/Important Links</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>