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1

Crystal Growth and Characterization of CdTe Grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts by the unseeded vertical gradient freeze method. The quality of grown crystal were studied by various characterization techniques including Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT), chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and Hall measurements. The SWBXT images from various angles show nearly strain-free grains, grains with inhomogeneous strains, as well as twinning nucleated in the shoulder region of the boule. The GDMS chemical analysis shows the contamination of Ga at a level of 3900 ppb, atomic. The low temperature PL measurement exhibits the characteristic emissions of a Ga-doped sample. The Hall measurements show a resistivity of 1 x l0(exp 7) ohm-cm at room temperature to 3 x 10(exp 9) ohm-cm at 78K with the respective hole and electron concentration of 1.7 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -3) and 3.9 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3) at room temperature.

Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

2007-01-01

2

Flow modelling with relevance to vertical gradient freeze crystal growth under the influence of a travelling magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results on the experimental and numerical modelling of the melt flow typically observed in vertical gradient freeze (VGF) crystal growth with a travelling magnetic field (TMF) are presented. Particular attention is paid on the transition from a laminar to a time-dependent flow, which represents a crucial problem in VGF growth. Low-temperature model experiments at around 80°C were performed using a

K. Niemietz; V. Galindo; O. Pätzold; G. Gerbeth; M. Stelter

2011-01-01

3

Characterisation of vertical gradient freeze semi-insulating InP for use as a nuclear radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a nuclear radiation detector fabricated from Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) semi-insulating Fe-doped InP was investigated. Pulse height spectra were acquired when the detector was irradiated with alpha particles from 241Am, as a function of temperature and detector bias voltage. The spectroscopic performance of the detector was limited at room temperature due to the presence of a high

H. El-Abbassi; S. Rath; P. J. Sellin

2001-01-01

4

Synchrotron X-ray topographic study of dislocations in GaAs detector crystals grown by vertical gradient freeze technique  

SciTech Connect

Large area transmission and section topographs of semi-insulating gallium arsenide wafers grown by the gradient freeze technique are made with synchrotron radiation at HASYLAB in Hamburg and at ESRF in Grenoble. Several high-resolution images including stereo pairs are obtained on the same film at a time. A typical dislocation line is an arc of a circle which starts from one surface and ends at the same surface. From the disappearance of the dislocation image and using the g {center_dot} b = 0 criterion it is concluded that the Burgers vector b of the most common dislocations is parallel to <110>. Rather large volumes of the wafer are dislocation-free. Section topographs of epitaxial wafers show defects and strain fields at the interface between an n-type substrate and the epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. The results are compared with those obtained from detector performance measurements.

Tuomi, T.; Juvonen, M.; Rantamaeki, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Optoelectronics Lab.] [and others

1998-12-31

5

Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling  

SciTech Connect

A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

2014-10-01

6

Controlled Temperature Gradient Improves Freezing Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled gradient of temperature in advancing zone of solidification increases fatigue life of directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy. Improved solidification process eliminates, reduces, or controls microstructure of deleterious brittle phases, including carbides and gamma/gamma prime eutectic. Also reduces microsegregation and makes discrete carbides (if present) become fine and blocky. Expected to improve properties of other alloys, of both directionally-solidified polycrystalline and single-crystal forms.

Schmidt, Deborah; Alter, Wendy S.; Hamilton, William D.

1991-01-01

7

Critique of the vertical gradient of gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing interest in high precision studies of the Earth's gravitational field warrant a critical review of precision requirements to yield useful results. Several problems are now under consideration. All of these problems involve, more or less, the precise value of the vertical gradients of gravity. The principle conclusion from this review is that the essential absence of Free Air Vertical Gravity Gradient control and actual values of gravimeter calibrations require serious attention. Large errors in high topography on official published gravity maps also cannot be ignored.

Hammer, Sigmund

1989-01-01

8

Scaling of vertical temperature gradient spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of a formula derived for the cutoff wave number of vertical temperature gradient spectra, using data taken in the upper layers of the North Pacific, show encouraging results. To derive this formula, the cutoff wave number is assumed to be the Batchelor wave number, with kinetic energy dissipation calculated by combining a form used in the atmosphere for caLculating

D. R. Caldwell; T. M. Dillon; J. M. Brubaker; P. A. Newberger; C. A. Paulson

1980-01-01

9

Property price gradients: the vertical dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an empirical study on the pricing of two vertical property attributes: floor level and building height. Floor level\\u000a is the vertical location of a unit in a multi-storey building; the extra price paid for a higher floor level is labelled a\\u000a floor-level premium. Previous hedonic price studies unequivocally showed that the floor-level premium is positive, but they\\u000a were

S. K. Wong; K. W. Chau; Y. Yau; A. K. C. Cheung

2011-01-01

10

European deciduous trees exhibit similar safety margins against damage by spring freeze events along elevational gradients.  

PubMed

Minimum temperature is assumed to be an important driver of tree species range limits. We investigated during which period of the year trees are most vulnerable to freezing damage and whether the pressure of freezing events increases with increasing elevation. We assessed the course of freezing resistance of buds and leaves from winter to summer at the upper elevational limits of eight deciduous tree species in the Swiss Alps. By reconstructing the spring phenology of these species over the last eight decades using a thermal time model, we linked freezing resistance with long-term minimum temperature data along elevational gradients. Counter-intuitively, the pressure of freeze events does not increase with elevation, but deciduous temperate tree species exhibit a constant safety margin (5-8.5 K) against damage by spring freeze events along elevational gradients, as a result of the later flushing at higher elevation. Absolute minimum temperatures in winter and summer are unlikely to critically injure trees. Our study shows that freezing temperatures in spring are the main selective pressure controlling the timing of flushing, leading to a shorter growing season at higher elevation and potentially driving species distribution limits. Such mechanistic knowledge is important to improve predictions of tree species range limits. PMID:23952607

Lenz, Armando; Hoch, Günter; Vitasse, Yann; Körner, Christian

2013-12-01

11

Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

1989-01-01

12

Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

1988-01-01

13

Estimating Vertical Groundwater Velocities Using Groundwater Thermal Gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of vertical groundwater flow through unconsolidated deposits is a component for predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the saturated zone. Groundwater movement through heterogeneous glacial deposits common to northern Indiana (USA) provided a test setting for determining if measured vertical groundwater thermal gradients could aid in calculating vertical groundwater velocity estimates. Field procedure was conducted by collecting stratified groundwater temperatures from a series of cased monitoring wells previously advanced through glacial till and outwash sedimentary sequences. Groundwater thermal gradients (temperature-depth profiles) were plotted and matched using automated computer modeling software (Microsoft Excel Solver) with published type curves to derive a dimensionless parameter for estimating vertical groundwater velocities. Data results matched predictions, to include an increase in vertical groundwater velocities during the seasonally wetter Spring; and, higher calculated vertical groundwater velocities for the finer-grained till aquitards when compared to aquifers comprised of coarser-grained outwash deposits. This study shows promise and has gathered interest both in the scientific community and environmental consulting practice for estimating vertical migration rates of contaminants (specifically those affected by advection) within the saturated zone. Government agencies or consultants, for instance, could also potentially apply this estimation technique to measure and map localized recharge rates for developing more accurate wellhead protection zones.

Arriaga, M. A.; Leap, D. I.; Petruccione, J. L.

2007-05-01

14

Airship stresses due to vertical velocity gradients and atmospheric turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munk's potential flow method is used to calculate the resultant moment experienced by an ellipsoidal airship. This method is first used to calculate the moment arising from basic maneuvers considered by early designers, and then expended to calculate the moment arising from vertical velocity gradients and atmospheric turbulence. This resultant moment must be neutralized by the transverse force of the fins. The results show that vertical velocity gradients at a height of 6000 feet in thunderstorms produce a resultant moment approximately three to four times greater than the moment produced in still air by realistic values of pitch angle or steady turning. Realistic values of atmospheric turbulence produce a moment which is significantly less than the moment produced by maneuvers in still air.

Sheldon, D.

1975-01-01

15

A wet/wet differential pressure sensor for measuring vertical hydraulic gradient  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a new tool for measuring vertical hydraulic gradient in the hyporheic zone. It is essentially an electronic version of an established differential pressure measurement technique.

Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.

2008-12-13

16

Crystal Growth of CdTe by Gradient Freeze in Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the case of unsealed melt growth of an array of II-VI compounds, namely, CdTe, CdZnTe and ZnSe, there is a tremendous amount of experimental data describing the correlations between melt conditions and crystal quality. The results imply that the crystallinity quality can be improved if the melt was markedly superheated or long-time held before growth. It is speculated that after high superheating the associated complex dissociate and the spontaneous nucleation is retarded. In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts which have undergone different thermal history by the unseeded gradient freeze method using the Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC). The effects of melt conditions on the quality of grown crystal were studied by various characterization techniques, including Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWSXT), infrared microscopy, chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), electrical conductivity and Hall measurements.

Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Li, C.; Knuteson, D.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Barczy, P.

2004-01-01

17

Microclimate, freezing tolerance, and cold acclimation along an elevation gradient for seedlings of the Great Basin Desert shrub, Artemisia tridentata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation, microclimate, seedling frequency, freezing tolerance, and cold acclimation were compared for seedlings of Artemisia tridentata collected from 1775, 2175, and 2575 m elevation in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Data were used to test the hypothesis that ecotypic differences in stress physiology are important for seedling survival along gradients from desert to montane ecosystems. The vegetation canopy cover and

Michael E Loik; Sean P Redar

2003-01-01

18

Freezing mechanisms of aqueous binary solution on the oscillating vertical cooled plate  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and analytical study concerning the freezing characteristics of aqueous binary solution on the oscillating cooled wall was conducted for the purpose of establishment of the continuous production method of slush ice. Ethylene glycol solution was adopted as the test fluid and froze on a vertical cooled plate with an oscillation motion in a vessel. Experiments were carried out for a variety of conditions such as initial concentration of solution, oscillating acceleration, and stroke of the motion. As a result, it was found that the frozen layer being formed on the cooled plate continuously separated from it under the appropriate conditions. Furthermore, the condition range where the continuous production of slush ice may be available was well predicted by using the present analytical results. The experimental setup is depicted in Figure A-1. The essential components of the apparatus are the test section, a cooling brine circulation loop, and associated instrumentation. Figure A-2 presents the continuous production range of slush ice, in which the ordinate is the maximum acceleration of the cooled plate and the abscissa denotes the initial concentration of aqueous binary solution. It is evident from the figure that the tendency of the production range of slush ice obtained by the present analysis well predicts the experimental results.

Kawabe, Hiromichi; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko; Yanagida, Koki

1999-07-01

19

Shoot biomass growth is related to the vertical leaf nitrogen gradient in Salix canopies.  

PubMed

Plant canopy optimization models predict that leaf nitrogen (N) distribution in the canopy will parallel the vertical light gradient, and numerous studies with many species have confirmed this prediction. Further, it is predicted that for a given canopy leaf area, a low vertical light extinction coefficient will promote rapid growth. Therefore, the ideal canopy of fast-growing plants should combine high leaf area index with a low light extinction coefficient; the latter being reflected in a flat vertical leaf N gradient throughout the canopy. Based on data from an experimental Salix stand (six varieties) grown on agricultural land in central Sweden, we tested the hypothesis that shoot growth is correlated with vertical leaf N gradient in canopies of hybrid willows bred for biomass production, which could have implications for Salix breeding. Tree improvement research requires screening of growth-related traits in large numbers of plants, but assessment of canopy leaf N gradients by chemical analysis is expensive, time-consuming and destructive. An alternative to analytical methods is to estimate leaf N gradients nondestructively with an optical chlorophyll meter (SPAD method). Here we provide a specific calibration for interpreting SPAD data measured in hybrid willows grown in biomass plantations on fertile agricultural land. Based on SPAD measurements, a significant and inverse relationship (r(2) = 0.88) was found between shoot biomass growth and vertical leaf N gradient across canopies of six Salix varieties. PMID:17669744

Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästjung, Ann-Christin

2007-11-01

20

On the Scaling of Vertical Temperature Gradient Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical interpretation is proposed for the temperature gradient wave number scaling of Caldwell et al. (1980). It is shown that kc\\/k B = (5.5 AT )1\\/2, where A T is the turbulence activity parameter of Gibson (1980) used to classify fossil turbulence. A T = 1 corresponds to active tur- bulence in a stratified fluid where the largest eddies

Carl H. Gibson

1982-01-01

21

Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a frequency of 1 kHz are examined. The grown PMN-PT crystals show typical relaxor dielectric properties. Additionally, the thermal properties of the sample are tested. The results are in good agreement with those found in the literature and some are reported for the first time.

Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

2007-01-01

22

Importance of closely spaced vertical sampling in delineating chemical and microbiological gradients in groundwater studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in groundwater studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in ground-water studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.

Smith, R.L.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, D.R.

1991-01-01

23

Nonlinear Rock + Overburden Stress = Linear Anisotropy + Vertical Velocity Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in seismic velocity with depth is a common property of rock, one that can be encountered practically everywhere. Overburden pressure increases vertical stress, producing nonlinear elastic responses. Application of nonlinear theory to this problem leads to transverse isotropy, with relatively simple relationships between the nonlinear constants and anisotropy elastic coefficients. These relationships can be used in velocity 'depth trend' removal and in computing offset-dependent corrections for stacking and migration. This also implies that realistic tomography models should account for elastic anisotropy as a basic feature. A proper solution for overburden stress requires a full nonlinear solution for static stress distribution. It is quite likely that anisotropy resulting from overburden pressure is a common, basic property of underground rock. Accounting for anisotropy properties requires more complex computational and imaging tools than just isotropic models, which have generally been in use up to the present. On the other hand, seismic interpretation can arrive at additional imaging rock parameters (TOE constants), which can potentially be extracted from anisotropy measurements. Additionally, the overburden-induced anisotropy is strong enough to produce shear waves by an explosion.

Korneev, V. A.

2013-12-01

24

Overburden Pressure as a Cause of Vertical Velocity Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear effect of rocks stressed by the overburden pressure causes anisotropy. Evaluation shows that such anisotropy can be significant, reaching several tens of percent and probably more. This result is consistent with common practices, when stacking velocity needs extra corrections with a changing offset. This also implies that at field scales all the rocks are likely to be anisotropic, and this property needs to be accounted for during migration of data, tomography, AVO analysis etc. The laboratory velocity measurements need to be corrected for the nonlinear overburden effects, when applied to the field scales. Nonlinear rock coefficients can be determined from the special laboratory measurements. They also can be evaluated from observation of the nonlinear propagation effects, such as multiple frequency generation. Nonlinear coefficient for Berea sandstone turned out to be by an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from borehole data. This is likely due to low stiffness and low fluid saturation of the used sample. This also suggests possibility of very high velocity gradient at shallow depths in some rocks. An assumption that the amplitudes of the static strains well exceed those related to the dynamic field is not critical. It was made in order to simplify the derivations. If both components are comparable, then the solution would have an additional nonlinear component representing a multiple harmonic. The relations between the nonlinear elastic constants and the elastic constants of the effective TI medium are very simple and allow straightforward estimate of the medium anisotropy induced by an applied stress. There are other causes of anisotropy in rocks besides an applied stress. The rock can possibly be anisotropic on a microscopic (clays) and mesoscopic (sedimentary layering) levels. The combined contribution of all the causes can either reduce or increase the overall effect. Same rock at different depths might have different wave propagation properties. Proper geological interpretation of seismic velocity maps requires application of local depth corrections, which can remove the overburden pressure effects.verage velocity model for Los Angeles basin (blue line) and a least-squares fit (red line) using nonlinear theory.

Korneev, V. A.

2012-12-01

25

Vertical gradient correction for the oceanographic Atlas of the East Asian Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climatology around the East Asian Seas has been developed by an international collaboration between the National Oceanic Data Center and the Korea Oceanic Data Center. It provides reliable information on temperature and salinity climatological fields with high resolution (0.1° × 0.1° by 137 levels). However, there is a problem around near-bottom areas where topographic change is steep and observations are not available near the bottom. This study resolves this problem using a vertical gradient correction method when the profile is statically unstable. The stability is determined based on the Brunt-Väisälä frequency with individual temperature and salinity profiles. Topographic-following mapping technique employing the potential vorticity constraint term is used to construct a vertical gradient database for the temperature and salinity at every grid point. The results show that the correction is effective for eliminating large erroneous vertical gradients around near-bottom areas. In addition, we show the importance of the optimal length scale to construct a precise vertical gradient database in a particular area such as the northern shelf of Taiwan. We expect that our revised high-resolution climatological mean fields will serve as important data for relevant studies around the East Asian Seas.

Chang, You-Soon; Shin, Hong-Ryeol

2014-08-01

26

Bulk Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Organic Materials Using Inverted Vertical Gradient Freeze Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new process for producing large bulk single crystals of benzil (C6H5COCOC6H5) is reported in this paper. Good quality crystals have been successfully grown using this approach to crystal growth. This method seems to be very promising for other thermally stable NLO organic materials also. The entire contents vycor crucible 1.5 inch in diameter and 2 inch deep was converted to single crystal. Purity of the starting growth material is also an important factor in the final quality of the grown crystals. The entire crystal can be very easily taken out of the crucible by simple maneuvering. Initial characterization of the grown crystals indicated that the crystals are as good as other crystals grown by conventional Bridgman Stockbarger technique.

Choi, J.; Cruz, Magda; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

1998-01-01

27

Characteristics of high resolution hydraulic head profiles and vertical gradients in fractured sedimentary rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately identifying the position of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) contrasts is critical to the delineation of hydrogeologic units that serve as the basis for conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. High resolution head profiles have identified the position and thickness of Kv contrasts in clayey aquitards but this potential has not yet been thoroughly evaluated in sedimentary rocks. This paper describes an experiment in which head profiles with the highest, technically feasible resolution were obtained using Westbay® multilevel systems (MLS) installed in 15 cored holes at three sedimentary rock research sites with contrasting geologic and flow system conditions. MLSs were installed to maximum depths between 90 and 260 m with 2-5 monitoring zones per 10 m. Head profiles were measured over multiyear periods. The vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) was calculated for each pair of adjacent monitoring intervals in every MLS and then categorized based on its repeatability to facilitate interpretation of Kv contrasts and comparisons within boreholes, between boreholes at the same site, and between sites. The head and vertical gradient profiles from all three sites display systematic (i.e., simple, geometric) shapes defined by repeatable intervals of no to minimal vertical gradient, indicating relatively high Kv units, bounded by shorter depth intervals with large (up to -50 m/m) vertical gradients, indicating relatively low Kv units. The systematic nature of the profiles suggests flow in regular and interconnected fracture networks rather than dominated by a few key fractures with irregular orientations. The low Kv units were typically thin, with their positions and thicknesses not predicted by lithostratigraphy or detailed lithologic, geophysical, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity data. Hence, the position and thickness of units with contrasting Kv would not be evident if MLSs with the conventional number of monitoring zones had been used. Furthermore, the detailed profiles can be strongly diagnostic of hydrogeologic unit boundaries or layers and can be used to improve the quantitative assessment of flow system conditions that is foundational to understanding contaminant plume migration.

Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

2014-09-01

28

Diversity and vertical distribution of magnetotactic bacteria along chemical gradients in freshwater microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of magnetotactic bacteria along various physico-chemical gradients in freshwater microcosms was analyzed by a combined approach of viable cell counts, 16S rRNA gene analysis, microsensor profiling and biogeochemical methods. The occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria was restricted to a narrow sediment layer overlapping or closely below the maximum oxygen and nitrate penetration depth. Different species showed different preferences

Christine B. Flies; Henk M. Jonkers; Dirk de Beer; Katja Bosselmann; Michael E. Böttcher; Dirk Schüler

2005-01-01

29

Particle surface area dependence of mineral dust in immersion freezing mode: investigations with freely suspended drops in an acoustic levitator and a vertical wind tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of supercooled drops were measured using an acoustic levitator. This technique allows one to freely suspend single drops in the air without any wall contact. Heterogeneous nucleation by two types of illite (illite IMt1 and illite NX) and a montmorillonite sample was investigated in the immersion mode. Drops of 1 mm in radius were monitored by a video camera while cooled down to -28 °C to simulate freezing within the tropospheric temperature range. The surface temperature of the drops was contact-free, determined with an infrared thermometer; the onset of freezing was indicated by a sudden increase of the drop surface temperature. For comparison, measurements with one particle type (illite NX) were additionally performed in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with drops of 340 ?m radius freely suspended. Immersion freezing was observed in a temperature range between -13 and -26 °C as a function of particle type and particle surface area immersed in the drops. Isothermal experiments in the wind tunnel indicated that after the cooling stage freezing still proceeds, at least during the investigated time period of 30 s. The results were evaluated by applying two descriptions of heterogeneous freezing, the stochastic and the singular model. Although the wind tunnel results do not support the time-independence of the freezing process both models are applicable for comparing the results from the two experimental techniques.

Diehl, K.; Debertshäuser, M.; Eppers, O.; Schmithüsen, H.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

2014-11-01

30

Formation of the Galactic bulge from a two-component stellar disk: Explaining cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient  

E-print Network

Recent observational studies have revealed that the Galactic bulge has cylindrical rotation and a steeper vertical metallicity gradient. We adopt two representative models for the bulge formation and thereby investigate whether the two models can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient in a self-consistent manner. One is the "pure disk scenario" (PDS) in which the bulge is formed from a pure thin stellar disk through spontaneous bar instability. The other is the "two-component disk scenario" (TCDS) in which the bulge is formed from a disk composed of thin and thick disks through bar instability. Our numerical simulations show that although PDS can reproduce the cylindrical rotation, it shows a rather flatter vertical metallicity gradient that is inconsistent with observations. The derived flatter metallicity gradient is due to the vertical mixing of stars with different initial metallicities by the stellar bar. This result implies that the bulge can not be simply forme...

Bekki, Kenji

2011-01-01

31

Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment characteristics largely govern tidal flat morphologic evolution; however, conventional methods of investigating spatial variability in lithology on tidal flats are difficult to employ in these highly dynamic regions. In response, a series of laboratory experiments was designed to investigate the use of temperature diffusion toward sediment characterization. A vertical thermistor array was used to quantify temperature gradients in simulated tidal flat sediments of varying compositions. Thermal conductivity estimates derived from these arrays were similar to measurements from a standard heated needle probe, which substantiates the thermistor methodology. While the thermal diffusivities of dry homogeneous sediments were similar, diffusivities for saturated homogeneous sediments ranged approximately one order of magnitude. The thermal diffusivity of saturated sand was five times the thermal diffusivity of saturated kaolin and more than eight times the thermal diffusivity of saturated bentonite. This suggests that vertical temperature gradients can be used for distinguishing homogeneous saturated sands from homogeneous saturated clays and perhaps even between homogeneous saturated clay types. However, experiments with more realistic tidal flat mixtures were less discriminating. Relationships between thermal diffusivity and percent fines for saturated mixtures varied depending upon clay composition, indicating that clay hydration and/or water content controls thermal gradients. Furthermore, existing models for the bulk conductivity of sediment mixtures were improved only through the use of calibrated estimates of homogeneous end-member conductivity and water content values. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed observations of water content and thermal diffusivity could only be used to qualitatively estimate tidal flat sediment characteristics.

Miselis, Jennifer L.; Holland, K. Todd; Reed, Allen H.; Abelev, Andrei

2012-01-01

32

Vertical distribution of larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), in relation to manure pat temperature gradients  

E-print Network

VERTICAL DISTRISUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by PHILIP ANDERSON MARCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AijM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Entomology VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS...

March, Philip Anderson

1981-01-01

33

Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients under the influence of SDS surfactant  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase gas/liquid flows in vertical pipes have been systematically investigated. Water and SDS surfactant solutions at various concentrations were used as the working fluids. In particular, we focus our work on the influence of surfactant addition on the flow regimes, the corresponding pressure gradients, and the bubble sizes and velocity. Adding the surfactant lowers the air critical Reynolds numbers for the bubble-slug flow and the slug flow transitions. The pressure gradients of SDS solutions are lower than those of pure water especially in the slug flow and the slug-churn flow regimes, implying turbulent drag reduction. At low Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the surfactant solution are lower than those of pure water due to the increase in viscosity. With increasing and at high Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the SDS solution become greater than those of pure water which is attributed to the effect of surface tension. (author)

Duangprasert, Tanabordee; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wilkes, James O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

2008-01-15

34

Structural gradients in an intertidal hard-bottom community: examining vertical, horizontal, and taxonomic clines in zoobenthic biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of biodiversity along environmental gradients have long been the focus of marine ecological research. However, a general lack of comparability between studies and under-appreciation of co-occurring, less obvious clines has often undermined any general conclusions. Latitudinal, vertical, horizontal, and taxonomic gradients in intertidal biodiversity were assessed directly and indirectly using a large data set from one locality in southwest

I. C. Davidson

2005-01-01

35

A SPATIALLY RESOLVED VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IN THE HD 163296 DISK  

SciTech Connect

We analyze sensitive, sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA science verification observations of CO emission lines in the protoplanetary disk hosted by the young, isolated Ae star HD 163296. The observed spatial morphology of the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission line is asymmetric across the major axis of the disk; the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 line features a much less pronounced, but similar, asymmetry. The J = 2-1 emission from {sup 12}CO and its main isotopologues have no resolved spatial asymmetry. We associate this behavior with the direct signature of a vertical temperature gradient and layered molecular structure in the disk. This is demonstrated using both toy models and more sophisticated calculations assuming non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. A model disk structure is developed to reproduce both the distinctive spatial morphology of the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 line as well as the J = 2-1 emission from the CO isotopologues assuming relative abundances consistent with the interstellar medium. This model disk structure has {tau} = 1 emitting surfaces for the {sup 12}CO emission lines that make an angle of {approx}15 Degree-Sign with respect to the disk midplane. Furthermore, we show that the spatial and spectral sensitivity of these data can distinguish between models that have sub-Keplerian gas velocities due to the vertical extent of the disk and its associated radial pressure gradient (a fractional difference in the bulk gas velocity field of {approx}> 5%)

Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Qi, Chunhua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

2013-09-01

36

Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.  

PubMed

Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy. PMID:25039211

Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

2014-06-01

37

Impacts of freezing and thawing dynamics on foliar litter carbon release in alpine/subalpine forests along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon (C) release from foliar litter is a primary component in C exchange among the atmosphere, vegetation, soil and water from respiration and leaching, but little information is currently related to the effects of freezing and thawing dynamics on C release of foliar litter in cold regions. A 2-year field litter decomposition experiment was conducted along an altitudinal gradient (~ 2700 to ~ 3600 m) to mimic temperature increases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. C release was investigated for fresh foliar litter of spruce, fir and birch. The onset of the frozen stage, deep frozen stage and thawing stage was partitioned according to changes in the freezing and thawing dynamics of each winter. More rapid 2-year C released from fresh foliar litter at upper elevations compared to lower elevations in the alpine/subalpine region. However, high C release was observed at low altitudes during winter stages, but high altitudes exhibited high C release during growing season stages. The deep frozen stage showed higher rates of C release than other stages in the second year of decomposition. Negative-degree days showing freezing degrees were correlated to C release rates for the deep frozen stages in both years, and this relationship continued for the duration of the experiment, indicating that changes in freezing can directly modify C release from foliar litter. The results suggested that the changed freezing and thawing dynamics could delay the onset of C release in fresh litter in this cold region in the scenario of climate warming.

Fuzhong, W.; Changhui, P.; Jianxiao, Z.; Jian, Z.; Bo, T.; Wanqin, Y.

2014-11-01

38

Vertical gradients of mineral elements in Pinus sylvestris crown in alkalised soil.  

PubMed

Alkalisation of soil has been assumed to be the principal cause of changes in vertical gradients of nutrients in Pinus sylvestris crown. The long-term influence of alkaline dust pollution (pHH2O 12.3-12.6) emitted from a cement plant on the element composition of soil and needles of Scots pine in different canopy layers was studied. In the polluted area, the pH of soils was >7, and high amounts of Ca, K and Mg were measured in the upper layers of soil (0-30 cm), while the mobility and solubility of some contaminants have decreased, nutrition processes have become complicated, and imbalance of mineral composition of trees was revealed. Reduced N and increased K, Ca and Mg concentrations in needles were observed in the heavily polluted area. Vertical gradients of elements and their ratios in canopies varied depending on the alkalisation level of soil. Needles on the upper-crown shoots had higher concentrations of N, C, Ca and Mg and lower concentrations of P and K compared to the lower layer of the crown. In the unpolluted area, higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca were found in lower-crown needles and of C and Mg in needles at the top of the canopy. The P/N ratio below 0.125 indicated P deficiency in pines. The ratios N/Ca, N/Mg and N/K had significantly decreased, while the ratios Ca/Mg, K/Mg and K/Ca had a tendency to increase in heavily polluted sample plots. Magnitude of changes of element ratios indicates on the disbalances of availability and translocation of nutrients in the crown of trees. PMID:19015943

Mandre, Malle

2009-12-01

39

Numerical simulation of supercritical heat transfer under severe axial density gradient in a narrow vertical tube  

SciTech Connect

A number of computational works have been performed so far for the simulation of heat transfer in a supercritical fluid. The simulations, however, faced a lot of difficulties when heat transfer deteriorates due either to buoyancy or by acceleration. When the bulk temperature approaches the pseudo-critical temperature the fluid experiences a severe axial density gradient on top of a severe radial one. Earlier numerical calculations showed, without exception, unrealistic over-predictions, as soon as the bulk temperature exceeded the pseudo-critical temperature. The over-predictions might have been resulted from an inapplicability of widely-used turbulence models. One of the major causes for the difficulties may probably be an assumption of a constant turbulent Prandtl number. Recent research, both numerical and experimental, indicates that the turbulent Prandtl number is never a constant when the gradient of physical properties is significant. This paper describes the applicability of a variable turbulent Prandtl number to the numerical simulation of heat transfer in supercritical fluids flowing in narrow vertical tubes. (authors)

Bae, Y. Y.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 1045 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

40

Impact of changes in freezing and thawing on foliar litter carbon release in alpine/subalpine forests along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon (C) release from foliar litter is a primary component in C exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, but little information is currently related to the effects of freezing and thawing dynamics on C release of foliar litter in cold regions. A two-year field litter decomposition experiment was conducted along an altitudinal gradient (∼2700 m to ∼3600 m) to mimic temperature increases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. C release was investigated for fresh foliar litter of spruce, fir and birch. The onset of the frozen stage, deep frozen stage, and thawing stage were partitioned according to changes in freezing and thawing dynamics of each winter. High C release was observed in lower altitudes during winter stages, but higher altitudes exhibited high C release during growing season stages. The deep frozen stage showed higher rates of C release than other stages in the second year of decomposition. Negative degree-days showing freezing degree were correlated to C release rates for the deep frozen stages in both years, and this relationship continued for the duration of the experiment, indicating that changes in freezing can directly modify C release from foliar litter. The results suggested that climate warming could delay the onset of C release in fresh litter in this cold region.

Wu, F.; Peng, C.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Tan, B.; Yang, W.

2014-06-01

41

Formation of the Galactic bulge from a two-component stellar disc: explaining cylindrical rotation and a vertical metallicity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observational studies have revealed that the Galactic bulge has cylindrical rotation and a steeper vertical metallicity gradient. We adopt two representative models for the bulge formation and thereby investigate whether the two models can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient in a self-consistent manner. One is the 'pure disc scenario' (PDS) in which the bulge is formed from a pure thin stellar disc through spontaneous bar instability. The other is the 'two-component disc scenario' (TCDS) in which the bulge is formed from a disc composed of thin and thick discs through bar instability. Our numerical simulations show that although the PDS can reproduce the cylindrical rotation, it shows a rather flatter vertical metallicity gradient that is inconsistent with observations. The derived flatter metallicity gradient is due to the vertical mixing of stars with different initial metallicities by the stellar bar. This result implies that the bulge cannot be simply formed from a pure thin stellar disc. On the other hand, the bulge formed from the two-component disc in the TCDS can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient of the Galactic bulge reasonably well. In the TCDS, more metal-poor stars at higher |z| (vertical distance), which originate from the already dynamically hotter thick disc, cannot be strongly influenced by vertical mixing of the bar so that they can stay in situ for longer time-scales and thus keep the lower metallicity at higher |z|. Consequently, the vertical metallicity gradient of the bulge composed of initially thin and thick disc stars cannot be so flattened, even if the gradient of the thin disc can be flattened significantly by the bar in the TCDS. We therefore suggest that a significant fraction of the present Galactic bulge is composed of stars initially in the inner part of the thick disc and thus that these bulge stars and the thick disc have a common origin. We also suggest that the Galaxy might well have experienced some merger events that could dynamically heat up its inner regions until ˜10 Gyr ago.

Bekki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Takuji

2011-09-01

42

Vertical distribution of the soil microbiota along a successional gradient in a glacier forefield.  

PubMed

Spatial patterns of microbial communities have been extensively surveyed in well-developed soils, but few studies investigated the vertical distribution of micro-organisms in newly developed soils after glacier retreat. We used 454-pyrosequencing to assess whether bacterial and fungal community structures differed between stages of soil development (SSD) characterized by an increasing vegetation cover from barren (vegetation cover: 0%/age: 10 years), sparsely vegetated (13%/60 years), transient (60%/80 years) to vegetated (95%/110 years) and depths (surface, 5 and 20 cm) along the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland). The SSD significantly influenced the bacterial and fungal communities. Based on indicator species analyses, metabolically versatile bacteria (e.g. Geobacter) and psychrophilic yeasts (e.g. Mrakia) characterized the barren soils. Vegetated soils with higher C, N and root biomass consisted of bacteria able to degrade complex organic compounds (e.g. Candidatus Solibacter), lignocellulolytic Ascomycota (e.g. Geoglossum) and ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota (e.g. Laccaria). Soil depth only influenced bacterial and fungal communities in barren and sparsely vegetated soils. These changes were partly due to more silt and higher soil moisture in the surface. In both soil ages, the surface was characterized by OTUs affiliated to Phormidium and Sphingobacteriales. In lower depths, however, bacterial and fungal communities differed between SSD. Lower depths of sparsely vegetated soils consisted of OTUs affiliated to Acidobacteria and Geoglossum, whereas depths of barren soils were characterized by OTUs related to Gemmatimonadetes. Overall, plant establishment drives the soil microbiota along the successional gradient but does not influence the vertical distribution of microbiota in recently deglaciated soils. PMID:25533315

Rime, Thomas; Hartmann, Martin; Brunner, Ivano; Widmer, Franco; Zeyer, Josef; Frey, Beat

2015-03-01

43

Simulation of vertical concentration gradient of influenza viruses in dust resuspended by walking.  

PubMed

Particles are resuspended from the floor by walking and are subject to turbulent transport in the human aerodynamic wake. These processes may generate a vertical concentration gradient of particles. To estimate the magnitude of turbulence generated by walking, we measured the velocity field in the wake from floor to ceiling at 10-cm intervals with a sonic anemometer. The resulting eddy diffusion coefficients varied between 0.06 and 0.20 m(2) /s and were maximal at ~0.75-1 m above the floor, approximately the height of the swinging hand. We applied the eddy diffusion coefficients in an atmospheric transport model to predict concentrations of resuspended influenza virus as a function of the carrier particle size, height in the room, and relative humidity, which affects the resuspension rate coefficient and virus viability. Results indicated that the concentration of resuspended viruses at 1 m above the floor was up to 40% higher than at 2 m, depending on particle size. For exposure to total resuspended viruses, the difference at 1 vs. 2 m was 11-14%. It is possible that shorter people are exposed to higher concentrations of resuspended dust, including pathogens, although experimental evidence is needed to verify this proposition. PMID:25208212

Khare, P; Marr, L C

2014-09-10

44

Journal of Crystal Growth 193 (1998) 219--229 Visualization of convection in a simulated gradient freeze cell  

E-print Network

freeze cell during centrifugation Peter V. Skudarnov, Liya L. Regel*, William R. Wilcox International- imum in convection observed in centrifuge experiments [1--6]. Recently, Wilcox et al. [7] compared configuration, the flow patterns developed in a low Prandtl number liquids (e.g. semiconductor melts

Regel, Liya L.

45

Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data - III. Radial and vertical metallicity gradients based on red clump stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate radial and vertical metallicity gradients for a sample of red clump stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 3. We select a total of 6781 stars, using a selection of colour, surface gravity and uncertainty in the derived space motion, and calculate for each star a probabilistic (kinematic) population assignment to a thin or thick disc using space motion and additionally another (dynamical) assignment using stellar vertical orbital eccentricity. We derive almost equal metallicity gradients as a function of the Galactocentric distance for the high-probability thin-disc stars and for stars with vertical orbital eccentricities consistent with being dynamically young, ev? 0.07, i.e. d[M/H]/dRm=-0.041 ± 0.003 and d[M/H]/dRm=-0.041 ± 0.007 dex kpc-1. Metallicity gradients as a function of the distance from the Galactic plane for the same populations are steeper, i.e. d[M/H]/dzmax=-0.109 ± 0.008 and d[M/H]/dzmax=-0.260 ± 0.031 dex kpc-1, respectively. Rm and zmax are the arithmetic mean of the perigalactic and apogalactic distances, and the maximum distance to the Galactic plane, respectively. Samples including more thick-disc red clump giant stars show systematically shallower abundance gradients. These findings can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of the thick and thin discs.

Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Ak, S.; Önal, Ö.; Da?tekin, N. D.; Yontan, T.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G. M.

2012-04-01

46

Large Vertical Gradient of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides in the Boundary Layer: Modeling Analysis of DISCOVER-AQ Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An often-used assumption of air pollution studies is the well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL), in which pollutants are evenly distributed. Because of the difficulty in obtaining vertically-resolved measurements, the validity of the assumption has not been thoroughly established. In this study, we use more than 200 vertical profiles observed in the DISCOVER-AQ aircraft campaign in 2011 to examine the vertical distributions of air pollutants over the Baltimore area during the summer. Contrary to the well-mixed profile, the observed median vertical profile of NOx, an important ozone precursor, shows a sharp negative gradient in the PBL. Our analysis suggests that the magnitude of NOx gradients is highly sensitive to atmospheric stability. Using a 1-D chemical transport model (REAM), we are able to reproduce the vertical profiles under different PBL stability conditions, classified based on the potential temperature gradient and the PBL height. To investigate how the parameterizations of the PBL and surface processes impact vertical profiles in 3-D chemical transport models, we test PBL mixing properties using two PBL schemes (Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ)) and two land-surface schemes (Noah and RUC) in the WRF model. Comparisons reveal that the YSU scheme performs better in turbulent and high PBL height conditions while the MYJ scheme performs better in less turbulent conditions. Results also show that the land-surface schemes in WRF do not have as large an influence as the PBL mixing schemes. Using the model results, we evaluate the impact of NOx gradient in the PBL on the calculation of the ozone production rate and satellite NO2 retrieval. We show that using the surface measurements and the well-mixed PBL assumption result in a ~30% high bias in the PBL ozone production rate. Our results also show that biases in the PBL height and the NOx gradient lead to a moderate bias (about 5%) in the retrieval of NO2 tropospheric vertical columns. In addition, we diagnose the isoprene emission flux in the 1-D model, which is constrained by in situ observations of NOx, O3, and VOCs including isoprene, and find it in good agreement with that calculated in the MEGAN model.

Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Smeltzer, C.; Liu, Z.; Crawford, J. H.; Olson, J. R.; Szykman, J.

2013-12-01

47

Weak vertical canopy gradients of photosynthetic capacities and stomatal responses in a fertile Norway spruce stand.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of carbon (C) assimilation to within-canopy nitrogen (N) allocation and of stomatal conductance (g s) to environmental variables were investigated along a vertical canopy gradient in a fertile Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand. Maximum rates of ribulose bisphosphate-saturated carboxylation (V (cmax)) and electron transport (J (max)) exhibited weak relationships with needle N content. Using these relationships together with a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model, it was found that the sensitivity of C assimilation of 12 1-year old shoots to within-canopy N allocation pattern was very weak. Modelled C assimilation based on optimal compared to observed N allocation pattern increased by only 1-2 %, and altering total needle N content by ± 30 % resulted in a 2-4 % change in modelled C assimilation. C assimilation was more sensitive to water use and changed by 8-12 % in response to ± 30 % altered stomatal conductance. No indications of significant limitations of photosynthesis by other nutrients or non-optimal within-canopy allocation of water were detected. The sensitivity of g s to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was found to be stronger in the lower canopy, while no significant within-canopy variation was observed in light-saturated g( s) or stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The results of this study show that, at this N rich site, photosynthesis integrated for shoots at different canopy positions is only marginally affected by N allocation pattern and that increased stand-scale N availability would only be truly beneficial to canopy photosynthesis if it resulted in increased leaf area. PMID:23797410

Tarvainen, Lasse; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan

2013-12-01

48

Vertical GPS ground motion rates in the Euro-Mediterranean region: new evidence of vertical velocity gradients at different spatial scales along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use 2.5 to 14 years long position time-series from ~1000 continuous GPS stations to study vertical ground motions in the Euro-Mediterranean region and provide a first synoptic view of the vertical velocity field along the broad Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. By estimating and removing common mode errors in position time-series from the results of a principal component analysis, we obtain a significant gain in the signal-to-noise ratio of the displacements data. Following the results of a maximum likelihood estimation analysis, which gives a mean spectral index ~-0.7, we adopt a power-law + white noise stochastic model in estimating the final vertical rates, and find 95% of the velocities within ×2 mm/yr in the study area, with uncertainties from filtered time-series ~40% smaller than from the unfiltered ones. We evaluate the contribute of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signal to the vertical velocity budget using two different global models, characterized by distinct rheological layering of the Earth's mantle and different descriptions of the time-history of the mass of continental ice sheets since the Last Glacial Maximum. The analysis carried out allows us to highlight, for the first time, the presence of statistically significant, and spatially coherent, velocity gradients where a higher density of stations is available. We find undulations of the vertical velocity field occurring at different spatial scales both in regions characterized by tectonic activity, like eastern Alps, Apennines and eastern Mediterranean, and regions characterized by low to null tectonic activity, like central Iberia and western Alps. Correcting the observed velocities for GIA, although the two models used predict different GIA velocities and patterns, doesn't change significantly the velocity gradients. A correlation between smooth vertical velocities and topographic features is apparent in many sectors of the study area. GIA and weathering processes cannot completely explain the measured rates, and a combination of active tectonics and deep-seated geodynamic processes must be used to explain our observations. Excluding areas where more localized processes are likely, or where subduction/delamination processes may be active, mantle dynamics is the most likely process, but regional mantle modeling is required for a better understanding.

Serpelloni, E.; Faccenna, C.; Spada, G.; Dong, D.; Williams, S. D.

2013-12-01

49

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

50

Freeze drying method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

51

Influence of SiC pedestal in the growth of 50 mm CZT by Vertical gradient freeze method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the structural, optical, and electronic properties of bulk CZT remains a topic of great interest for producing high quality nuclear imaging material. Consideration must be given to the thermal environment under which crystal growth is carried out. It is important that the furnace and insulation elements are chosen and arranged to promote a convex solid liquid interface. Results are presented for 50 mm CZT ingots grown using furnace elements, which have been shown to be conducive to a convex SLI.

Crocco, J.; Bensalah, H.; Zheng, Q.; Carcelén, V.; Diéguez, E.

2012-12-01

52

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized.

Izuka, S.K.; Gingerich, S.B.

1998-01-01

53

Thermosolutal bifurcation phenomena in porous enclosures subject to vertical temperature and concentration gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximations is used to study double-diffusive instability in a horizontal rectangular porous enclosure subject to two sources of buoyancy. The two vertical walls of the cavity are impermeable and adiabatic while Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on temperature and solute are imposed on the horizontal walls. The onset and development of convection are first

M. Mamou; P. Vasseur

1999-01-01

54

Natural convection in binary gases driven by combined horizontal thermal and vertical solutal gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of natural convection is presented to examine the influence of a horizontal temperature gradient and a concentration gradient occurring from the bottom to the cold wall in a cavity. As the solutal buoyancy force changes from augmenting to opposing the thermal buoyancy force, the fluid motion switches from unicellular to multicellular flow (fluid motion is up the cold wall and down the hot wall for the bottom counterrotating flow cell). Qualitatively, the agreement between predicted streamlines and smoke flow patterns is generally good. In contrast, agreement between measured and predicted temperature and concentration distributions ranges from fair to poor. Part of the discrepancy can be attributed to experimental error. However, there remains considerable discrepancy between data and predictions due to the idealizations of the mathematical model, which examines only first-order physical effects. An unsteady flow, variable thermophysical properties, conjugate effects, species interdiffusion, and radiation were not accounted for in the model.

Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, Raymond

1992-01-01

55

Variation in Community Structure across Vertical Intertidal Stress Gradients: How Does It Compare with Horizontal Variation at Different Scales?  

PubMed Central

In rocky intertidal habitats, the pronounced increase in environmental stress from low to high elevations greatly affects community structure, that is, the combined measure of species identity and their relative abundance. Recent studies have shown that ecological variation also occurs along the coastline at a variety of spatial scales. Little is known, however, on how vertical variation compares with horizontal variation measured at increasing spatial scales (in terms of sampling interval). Because broad-scale processes can generate geographical patterns in community structure, we tested the hypothesis that vertical ecological variation is higher than fine-scale horizontal variation but lower than broad-scale horizontal variation. To test this prediction, we compared the variation in community structure across intertidal elevations on rocky shores of Helgoland Island with independent estimates of horizontal variation measured at the scale of patches (quadrats separated by 10s of cm), sites (quadrats separated by a few m), and shores (quadrats separated by 100s to 1000s of m). The multivariate analyses done on community structure supported our prediction. Specifically, vertical variation was significantly higher than patch- and site-scale horizontal variation but lower than shore-scale horizontal variation. Similar patterns were found for the variation in abundance of foundation taxa such as Fucus spp. and Mastocarpus stellatus, suggesting that the effects of these canopy-forming algae, known to function as ecosystem engineers, may explain part of the observed variability in community structure. Our findings suggest that broad-scale processes affecting species performance increase ecological variability relative to the pervasive fine-scale patchiness already described for marine coasts and the well known variation caused by vertical stress gradients. Our results also indicate that experimental research aiming to understand community structure on marine shores should benefit from applying a multi-scale approach. PMID:21887371

Valdivia, Nelson; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Molis, Markus; Knox, Amanda S.

2011-01-01

56

Denitrification in nitrate-contaminated groundwater: Occurrence in steep vertical geochemical gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A relatively narrow vertical zone (5-6 m thick) of NO3- containing groundwater was identified using multilevel sampling devices in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, USA. The aquifer has been chronically contaminated by surface disposal of treated sewage 0.3 km upgradient from the study area. The NO3- zone was anoxic and contained high concentrations of N2O (16.5 ??M), suggesting that it was a zone of active denitrification. Denitrifying activity was confirmed with direct measurement using acetylene block incubations with aquifer core material; the peak rate was 2.4 nmol N reduced (g sed)-1 day-1. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and N2 were close to atmospheric equilibrium in uncontaminated groundwater, but were more than 2 times higher within the contaminant plume. Excess CO2 and N2 suggested in situ formation with a stoichiometry of C and N mineralized via denitrification of 0.8 (C/N). Denitrification within the aquifer resulted in an increase in the natural ??15N of NO3- (from +13.6 to +42.0%.) and the N2 produced, with an isotopic enrichment factor, ??{lunate}, of -13.9%.. Vertical profiles of NH4+ and ??15N of NH4+ indicated that dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to NH4+ was also occurring but mass balance calculations indicated that denitrification was the predominant process. These results demonstrate that a combination approach using field mass balance, stable isotope analysis, and laboratory incubations yields useful insight as to the significance of denitrification in aquifer sediments and that closely spaced vertical sampling is necessary to adequately quantify the processes controlling C and N transport and transformation within these environments. ?? 1991.

Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Duff, J.H.

1991-01-01

57

Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment  

SciTech Connect

Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

2008-05-15

58

Anisotropy gradients from QL surface waves: Evidence for vertically coherent deformation in the Tibet region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The India-Eurasia continental collision has not only caused the high uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, but also created a broad diffuse deformation zone in Central Asia. We relate the well-constrained extent of crustal deformation in the Tibet region with underlying mantle deformation by interpreting the quasi-Love (QL) surface wave scattering in the legacy data of Tibet. QL waves are waveform anomalies generated from cross-mode coupling of Earth's free oscillations, mainly through azimuthal anisotropy. Over 50 events with QL observations are identified using recordings in Tibet. The predominant frequency content of the QL waves is near 10 mHz, and reflects peak sensitivity of anisotropy at 150 km depth in the mantle assuming horizontally-oriented symmetry axes. By calculating the delay times between the QL waves and the main Love waves, we back-project the scatterers to cluster in areas like SE Tibet, Sayan Mountain and Iran. Noticeably the spatial distribution of these scatterers borders the crustal deformation pattern quite well, especially at the deformation limits of Central Asia. This linkage suggests a vertically coherent boundary condition through the crust and the upper mantle for the India-Eurasia continental collision in Central Asia.

Chen, Xiaojun; Park, Jeffrey

2013-11-01

59

A refined model of sedimentary rock cover in the southeastern part of the Congo basin from GOCE gravity and vertical gravity gradient observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to interpret the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient of the GOCE-GRACE combined gravity model over the southeastern part of the Congo basin to refine the published model of sedimentary rock cover. We use the GOCO03S gravity model and evaluate its spherical harmonic representation at or near the Earth's surface. In this case, the gradiometry signals are enhanced as compared to the original measured GOCE gradients at satellite height and better emphasize the spatial pattern of sedimentary geology. To avoid aliasing, the omission error of the modelled gravity induced by the sedimentary rocks is adjusted to that of the GOCO03S gravity model. The mass-density Green's functions derived for the a priori structure of the sediments show a slightly greater sensitivity to the GOCO03S vertical gravity gradient than to the vertical gravity. Hence, the refinement of the sedimentary model is carried out for the vertical gravity gradient over the basin, such that a few anomalous values of the GOCO03S-derived vertical gravity gradient are adjusted by refining the model. We apply the 5-parameter Helmert's transformation, defined by 2 translations, 1 rotation and 2 scale parameters that are searched for by the steepest descent method. The refined sedimentary model is only slightly changed with respect to the original map, but it significantly improves the fit of the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient over the basin. However, there are still spatial features in the gravity and gradiometric data that remain unfitted by the refined model. These may be due to lateral density variation that is not contained in the model, a density contrast at the Moho discontinuity, lithospheric density stratifications or mantle convection. In a second step, the refined sedimentary model is used to find the vertical density stratification of sedimentary rocks. Although the gravity data can be interpreted by a constant sedimentary density, such a model does not correspond to the gravitational compaction of sedimentary rocks. Therefore, the density model is extended by including a linear increase in density with depth. Subsequent L2 and L? norm minimization procedures are applied to find the density parameters by adjusting both the vertical gravity and the vertical gravity gradient. We found that including the vertical gravity gradient in the interpretation of the GOCO03S-derived data reduces the non-uniqueness of the inverse gradiometric problem for density determination. The density structure of the sedimentary formations that provide the optimum predictions of the GOCO03S-derived gravity and vertical gradient of gravity consists of a surface density contrast with respect to surrounding rocks of 0.24-0.28 g/cm3 and its decrease with depth of 0.05-0.25 g/cm3 per 10 km. Moreover, the case where the sedimentary rocks are gravitationally completely compacted in the deepest parts of the basin is supported by L? norm minimization. However, this minimization also allows a remaining density contrast at the deepest parts of the sedimentary basin of about 0.1 g/cm3.

Martinec, Zden?k; Fullea, Javier

2015-03-01

60

Freezing Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about freezing point. The probe is designed to find out whether students recognize that water freezes at the same time independent of the volume of water.

Francis Eberle

2007-01-01

61

Fine-scale horizontal and vertical micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae along a narrow Fen/Bog gradient.  

PubMed

The ecology of peatland testate amoebae is well studied along broad gradient from very wet (pool) to dry (hummock) micro-sites where testate amoebae are often found to respond primarily to the depth to water table (DWT). Much less is known on their responses to finer-scale gradients, and nothing is known of their possible response to phenolic compounds, which play a key role in carbon storage in peatlands. We studied the vertical (0-3, 3-6, and 6-9 cm sampling depths) micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae in the same microhabitat (Sphagnum fallax lawn) along a narrow ecological gradient between a poor fen with an almost flat and homogeneous Sphagnum carpet (fen) and a "young bog" (bog) with more marked micro-topography and mosaic of poor fen and bog vegetation. We analyzed the relationships between the testate amoeba data and three sets of variables (1) "chemical" (pH, Eh potential, and conductivity), (2) "physical" (water temperature, altitude, i.e., Sphagnum mat micro-topography, and DWT), and (3) phenolic compounds in/from Sphagnum (water-soluble and primarily bound phenolics) as well as the habitat (fen/bog) and the sampling depth. Testate amoeba Shannon H' diversity, equitability J of communities, and total density peaked in lower parts of Sphagnum, but the patterns differed between the fen and bog micro-sites. Redundancy analyses revealed that testate amoeba communities differed significantly in relation to Eh, conductivity, water temperature, altitude, water-soluble phenolics, habitat, and sampling depth, but not to DWT, pH, or primarily bound phenolics. The sensitivity of testate amoebae to weak environmental gradients makes them particularly good integrators of micro-environmental variations and has implications for their use in paleoecology and environmental monitoring. The correlation between testate amoeba communities and the concentration of water-soluble phenolic suggests direct (e.g., physiological) and/or indirect (e.g., through impact on prey organisms) effects on testate amoebae, which requires further research. PMID:20938656

Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Mitchell, Edward A D; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

2011-02-01

62

Spatio-temporal distribution of the timing of start and end of growing season along vertical and horizontal gradients in Japan.  

PubMed

We detected the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of start (SGS) and end of growing season (EGS) in Japan from 2003 to 2012 by analyzing satellite-observed daily green-red vegetation index with a 500-m spatial resolution. We also examined the characteristics of SGS and EGS timing in deciduous broadleaf and needleleaf forests along vertical and horizontal gradients and then evaluated the relationship between their timing and daily mean air temperature. We found that for the timing of SGS and EGS, changes along the vertical gradient in deciduous broadleaf forest tended to be larger than those in deciduous needleleaf forest. For both forest types, changes along the vertical and horizontal gradients in the timing of EGS tended to be smaller than those of SGS. Finally, in both forest types, the sensitivity of the timing of EGS to air temperature was much less than that of SGS. These results suggest that the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of SGS and EGS detected by satellite data, which may be correlated with leaf traits, photosynthetic capacity, and environment conditions, provide useful ground-truthing information along vertical and horizontal gradients. PMID:24781316

Nagai, Shin; Saitoh, Taku M; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Suzuki, Rikie

2015-01-01

63

Spatio-temporal distribution of the timing of start and end of growing season along vertical and horizontal gradients in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We detected the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of start (SGS) and end of growing season (EGS) in Japan from 2003 to 2012 by analyzing satellite-observed daily green-red vegetation index with a 500-m spatial resolution. We also examined the characteristics of SGS and EGS timing in deciduous broadleaf and needleleaf forests along vertical and horizontal gradients and then evaluated the relationship between their timing and daily mean air temperature. We found that for the timing of SGS and EGS, changes along the vertical gradient in deciduous broadleaf forest tended to be larger than those in deciduous needleleaf forest. For both forest types, changes along the vertical and horizontal gradients in the timing of EGS tended to be smaller than those of SGS. Finally, in both forest types, the sensitivity of the timing of EGS to air temperature was much less than that of SGS. These results suggest that the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of SGS and EGS detected by satellite data, which may be correlated with leaf traits, photosynthetic capacity, and environment conditions, provide useful ground-truthing information along vertical and horizontal gradients.

Nagai, Shin; Saitoh, Taku M.; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Suzuki, Rikie

2015-01-01

64

An electromagnetic sounding experiment in Germany using the vertical gradient of geomagnetic variations observed in a deep borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recorded for 13 d, geomagnetic variations simultaneously on the Earth's surface and in a borehole at 832 m depth straight below, with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. In addition, geoelectric variations were observed at the same site near Bad Königshofen in Frankonia, Germany. The penetrated moderately conductive Triassic sediments lie above highly resistive Permian deposits. A presumably crystalline basement begins at 1500-1900 m depth. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the skin effect of geomagnetic variations and to derive from it the equivalent to the magnetotelluric (MT) surface impedance, using the vertical gradient (VG) method of electromagnetic (EM) sounding. In this way, we were able to reproduce all four elements of the MT impedance tensor, except for an unexplained but consistent downward shift of VG phases against MT phases by roughly 15° for the two off-diagonal elements. Hence, our tensor evaluation goes beyond the common practice, to express the skin effect by a single VG transfer function in response to a layered structure. The otherwise good agreement of VG and MT results implies that at our test site, the MT impedance tensor is largely distortion-free and that, for example, its pronounced anisotropy should be regarded as a genuine characteristic of the EM response for a laterally non-uniform or possibly anisotropic deep structure. The drilling site lies within the range of a widespread induction anomaly. We have observed the resulting variations of the vertical magnetic component at the surface and in the borehole and found them to be identical. The thus established absence of a skin effect for the vertical component allows us to treat the sedimentary layer down to the depth of the borehole instrument as a thin sheet, and the pertinent thin-sheet approximation for EM induction forms the basis of our analysis. We have derived the required estimate of conductance from the skin effect of horizontal components, noting that this estimate has to be real valued and the same for all frequencies. We were unable, however, to verify the resulting value of 76 S with independent geoelectric direct current (DC) measurements in the borehole and at the Earth's surface. A model study shows that the thin-sheet conductance, which is relevant for the skin effect, may be substantially higher than the depth-integrated conductivity from DC data. Robust estimates of transfer functions were derived for 20 frequencies from 5.625 to 0.007 cpm, which corresponds to periods from 10 to 10000 s. Squared skin effect coherencies are above 0.9 for periods longer than 20 s and thereby comparable to MT coherencies.

Schmucker, Ulrich; Spitzer, Klaus; Steveling, Erich

2009-09-01

65

Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite in sediments of Permian age by ground water was the likely source of calcium, sulfate, sodium, and chloride in those waters. Calcium-sodium-sulfate waters dominated, and concentrations of dissolved solids were as large as 4,916 mg/L near the water table in the area of downward leakage. Dissolution of minerals in sedimentary deposits of marine origin in upstream areas of the Arkansas River drainage were the likely sources of calcium, sodium, and sulfate in those waters. Nitrate was detected throughout the aquifer and the background concentration was estimated to be 2.45 mg/L as N. The largest nitrate concentrations (8.28, 22, and 54.4 mg/L as N) occurred in recently recharged water collected adjacent to irrigated fields. Three pesticides (atrazine, metolachlor, simazine) and five pesticide degradation products (alachlor ethanesulfonic acid, alachlor oxanilic acid, deethylatrazine, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid) were detected in recently recharged water from six water-table wells. Five of the six wells were adjacent to irrigated fields. These data indicate that concentrations of nitrate and pesticides increased over time in some areas of the aquifer as a result of agricultural activities. Results from this study indicate that vertical gradients in water chemistry existed in the central High Plains aquifer. The chemical gradients resulted from chemical inputs to the aquifer from underlying sediments of Permian age, from the Arkansas River, and from agricultural activities. In areas where those chemical inputs occurred, water quality in the aquifer was impaired and may not have been suitable for some intended uses.

McMahon, Peter B.

2001-01-01

66

[FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA  

PubMed Central

The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Swanson, Kevin D.; Howells, Alta E.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Meuser, Jonathan E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Peters, John W.

2014-01-01

67

[FeFe]-hydrogenase abundance and diversity along a vertical redox gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA.  

PubMed

The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Swanson, Kevin D; Howells, Alta E; Baxter, Bonnie K; Meuser, Jonathan E; Posewitz, Matthew C; Peters, John W

2014-01-01

68

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des gradients verticaux de charge à partir des mesures de niveau piézométrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilisé pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette méthode à un système eau douce - eau salée simulé numériquement montre que la méthode est la plus précise lorsque le gradient est mesuré dans un puits pénétrant profondément dans l'aquifère. Même en utilisant un puits peu profond, la méthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de précision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqué. L'application de la méthode à des données de terrain montre que la foration, les méthodes de mesure de niveau et les hétérogénéités au sein de l'aquifère peuvent être la cause de difficultés, mais que les effets de ces difficultés peuvent être réduits. Resumen Para la estimación de la productividad de pozos en acuíferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimación precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz teórica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relación de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimación de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropía del acuífero. En este artículo se presenta un método para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforación de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicación del método a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numéricamente muestra que el método es más preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el método permite una estimación más precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz que la aplicación de la fórmula de Ghyben-Herzberg, en los casos en l

Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

69

Nocturnal Vertical Gradients of O3, NO2, NO3, HONO, HCHO, and SO2 in Los Angeles, CA, during CalNex 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nocturnal chemistry, through the conversion and removal of air pollutants, plays an important role in determining the initial condition for photochemistry during the following day. In the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) the interplay between suppressed vertical mixing and surface emissions of NOx and VOCs can result in pronounced vertical trace gas profiles. The resulting altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry makes the interpretation of ground observations challenging. In particular, the quantification of the nocturnal loss of NOx, due to NO3 and N2O5 chemistry, requires observations throughout the entire vertical extent of the NBL. The formation of daytime radical precursors, such as HONO, is also altitude dependent. An accurate assessment of their impact on daytime chemistry requires measurements of their profiles during the night and morning. Here we present observations from the CalNex-LA experiment, which took place from May 15 to June 15, 2010 on the east side of the Los Angeles Basin, CA. A Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (LP-DOAS) was set up on the roof of the Millikan library (265 m asl, 35m agl) on the campus of the California Institute of Technology. Four retroreflector arrays were mounted about 5 -7 km North-East of the instrument at 310m, 353m, 487m and 788 m asl. The vertical profiles of NO3, HONO, NO2, O3, HCHO, and SO2 were retrieved at altitude intervals of 35-78m, 78-121m, 121-255m and 255-556m above the ground. During many nights vertical gradients were observed, with elevated NO2 and HONO concentrations near the surface and larger ozone and NO3 concentrations aloft. Simultaneous ceilometer observations of the NBL structure show the impact of meteorology on the vertical trace gas distributions. We will discuss the consequences of trace gases gradients on the nocturnal NOx budget.

Tsai, J.; Pikelnaya, O.; Hurlock, S. C.; Wong, K.; Cheung, R.; Haman, C. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Stutz, J.

2010-12-01

70

Freezing lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finite difference solution to mixed conduction-convection limited freezing of a 10 cm thick pool of water, with benchmark against analytical timescales. Requisite software: Gnumeric or Excel to open spreadsheets in source directory.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2005-02-23

71

When hot water freezes before cold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is due to freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. The solutes are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reducing the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reducing the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the freezing front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

Katz, J. I.

2009-01-01

72

Vertical distribution of zooplankton in subalpine and alpine lakes: Ultraviolet radiation, fish predation, and the transparency-gradient hypothesis  

E-print Network

as a proxy for fish predation), temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and zooplanktonVertical distribution of zooplankton in subalpine and alpine lakes: Ultraviolet radiation, fish) is a primary determinant of the vertical distribution of zooplankton in transparent lakes with fewer fish

Williamson, Craig E.

73

Acclimation of Leaf Nitrogen to Vertical Light Gradient at Anthesis in Wheat Is a Whole-Plant Process That Scales with the Size of the Canopy1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vertical leaf nitrogen (N) gradient within a canopy is classically considered as a key adaptation to the local light environment that would tend to maximize canopy photosynthesis. We studied the vertical leaf N gradient with respect to the light gradient for wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopies with the aims of quantifying its modulation by crop N status and genetic variability and analyzing its ecophysiological determinants. The vertical distribution of leaf N and light was analyzed at anthesis for 16 cultivars grown in the field in two consecutive seasons under two levels of N. The N extinction coefficient with respect to light (b) varied with N supply and cultivar. Interestingly, a scaling relationship was observed between b and the size of the canopy for all the cultivars in the different environmental conditions. The scaling coefficient of the b-green area index relationship differed among cultivars, suggesting that cultivars could be more or less adapted to low-productivity environments. We conclude that the acclimation of the leaf N gradient to the light gradient is a whole-plant process that depends on canopy size. This study demonstrates that modeling leaf N distribution and canopy expansion based on the assumption that leaf N distribution parallels that of the light is inappropriate. We provide a robust relationship accounting for vertical leaf N gradient with respect to vertical light gradient as a function of canopy size. PMID:22984122

Moreau, Delphine; Allard, Vincent; Gaju, Oorbessy; Le Gouis, Jacques; Foulkes, M. John; Martre, Pierre

2012-01-01

74

Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs  

E-print Network

Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

2000-01-01

75

Optimization of SPRT measurements of freezing in a zinc fixed-point cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of solute and heat transport in extremely pure materials is described. Its purpose is to characterize the effect of impurities on the freezing curves of metals containing impurities at the level of less than 1 part per million. It is used to simulate experiments performed using a commercially available zinc fixed-point cell for SPRT calibrations. The aim is to determine the effect of different vertical temperature gradients on the freezing curve and to find out whether a range of conditions could be determined where there was a good fit between theory and experiment. For this fixed-point cell, agreement between the model and experiment improves as the distribution coefficient k ? 0. It is found that the model only agrees with the measured freezing curves over the entire freeze for a narrow range of furnace settings where the temperature profile is most uniform. We suggest that this is because if the furnace settings are not optimized, the solid does not grow uniformly, and freezing may continue in regions remote from the SPRT after the material in the vicinity of the SPRT has finished freezing, so distorting the freezing curve. This effect is not present in the model and so the method presented here enables optimization of the furnace to ensure the SPRT is surrounded by a liquid-solid interface over the entire freezing range. We find that the optimum thermal environment is extremely sensitive to the furnace settings; the optimum thermal environment is found when the temperature is slightly cooler at the top of the cell, as measured in the re-entrant well of the cell. We note that optimizing the freezing process is a necessary step towards using a thermal analysis to correct for the effects of impurities in the sample.

Pearce, J. V.; Veltcheva, R. I.; Lowe, D. H.; Malik, Z.; Hunt, J. D.

2012-06-01

76

Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Soil Macroarthropods Along a Spatio-Temporal Moisture Gradient in Subtropical Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributions of soil macroarthropods were studied monthly for 1 yr (February 2001 to January 2002) in three depth strata (0 Ð 8, 8 Ð16, and 16 Ð24 cm) at six sampling sites along a moisture gradient stretching from the shore of Lake Yale, central Florida, to an upland hammock. Annual mean density of total soil macroarthropods at these sites varied

Jan Frouz; Arshad Ali; Jaroslava Frouzova; Richard J. Lobinske

2004-01-01

77

Lagrangian Stochastic Modelling of Dispersion in the Convective Boundary Layer with Skewed Turbulence Conditions and a Vertical Density Gradient: Formulation and Implementation in the FLEXPART Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A correction for the vertical gradient of air density has been incorporated into a skewed probability density function formulation for turbulence in the convective boundary layer. The related drift term for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion modelling has been derived based on the well-mixed condition. Furthermore, the formulation has been extended to include unsteady turbulence statistics and the related additional component of the drift term obtained. These formulations are an extension of the drift formulation reported by Luhar et al. (Atmos Environ 30:1407-1418, 1996) following the well-mixed condition proposed by Thomson (J Fluid Mech 180:529-556, 1987). Comprehensive tests were carried out to validate the formulations including consistency between forward and backward simulations and preservation of a well-mixed state with unsteady conditions. The stationary state CBL drift term with density correction was incorporated into the FLEXPART and FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian models, and included the use of an ad hoc transition function that modulates the third moment of the vertical velocity based on stability parameters. Due to the current implementation of the FLEXPART models, only a steady-state horizontally homogeneous drift term could be included. To avoid numerical instability, in the presence of non-stationary and horizontally inhomogeneous conditions, a re-initialization procedure for particle velocity was used. The criteria for re-initialization and resulting errors were assessed for the case of non-stationary conditions by comparing a reference numerical solution in simplified unsteady conditions, obtained using the non-stationary drift term, and a solution based on the steady drift with re-initialization. Two examples of "real-world" numerical simulations were performed under different convective conditions to demonstrate the effect of the vertical gradient in density on the particle dispersion in the CBL.

Cassiani, Massimo; Stohl, Andreas; Brioude, Jerome

2015-03-01

78

Large vertical ?13CDIC gradients in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton: Implications for oceanographic changes related to Siberian Traps volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical gradients in the ?13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (??13CDIC) can be estimated for paleomarine systems based on ?13Ccarb data from sections representing a range of depositional water depths. An analysis of eight Lower Triassic sections from the northern Yangtze Platform and Nanpanjiang Basin, representing water depths of ~ 50 to 500 m, allowed reconstruction of ??13CDIC in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton for seven time slices representing four negative (N) and three positive (P) carbon-isotope excursions: 8.5‰ (N1), 5.8‰ (P1), 3.5‰ (N2), 6.5‰ (P2), 7.8‰ (N3), - 1.9‰ (P3), and 2.2‰ (N4). These values are much larger than vertical ?13CDIC gradients in the modern ocean (~ 1-3‰) due to intensified stratification and reduced vertical mixing in Early Triassic seas. Peaks in ??13CDIC around the PTB (N1) and in the early to mid-Smithian (P2-N3) coincided with episodes of strong climatic warming, reduced marine productivity, and expanded ocean anoxia. The Dienerian-Smithian boundary marks the onset of a major mid-Early Triassic disturbance, commencing ~ 1 Myr after the latest Permian mass extinction, that we link to a second eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps. Inhospitable oceanic conditions generally persisted until the early Spathian, when strong climatic cooling caused re-invigoration of global-ocean circulation, leading to an interval of negative ??13CDIC values and a sharp increase in ?13Ccarb driven by upwelling of nutrient-rich deepwaters. These developments marked the end of the main eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps.

Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Horacek, Micha; Qiu, Haiou; Song, Haijun; Tian, Li; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

2013-06-01

79

The replacement of arborescent cactus species along a climatic gradient in the southern Chihuahuan Desert: competitive hierarchies and response to freezing temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern region of the southern Chihuahuan Desert three common species of arborescent cacti are distributed over a north-west to south-east climatic gradient; Opuntia leucotricha, O. streptacantha, and Myrtillocactus geometrizans. In general, O. leucotricha is more abundant in the colder north-west section; M. geometrizans in the warmer south-east zone, not occurring in the north-west; and O. streptacantha reaches its

J.-L Flores F; R. I Yeaton

2003-01-01

80

Eddy covariance fluxes and vertical concentration gradient measurements of NO and NO2 over a ponderosa pine ecosystem: observational evidence for within-canopy chemical removal of NOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exchange of NOx (NO+NO2) between the atmosphere and biosphere is important for air quality, climate change, and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. There are few direct ecosystem-scale measurements of the direction and rate of atmosphere-biosphere exchange of NOx. As a result, a complete description of the processes affecting NOx following emission from soils and/or plants as they transit from within the plant/forest canopy to the free atmosphere remains poorly constrained and debated. Here, we describe measurements of NO and NO2 fluxes and vertical concentration gradients made during the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2009. In general, during daytime we observe upward fluxes of NO and NO2 with counter-gradient fluxes of NO. We find that NOx fluxes from the forest canopy are smaller than calculated using observed flux-gradient relationships for conserved tracers and also smaller than measured soil NO emissions. We interpret these differences as primarily due to chemistry converting NOx to higher nitrogen oxides within the forest canopy, which might be part of a mechanistic explanation for the "canopy reduction factor" applied to soil NOx emissions in large-scale models.

Min, K.-E.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Cohen, R. C.

2014-06-01

81

When hot water freezes before cold  

E-print Network

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

J. I. Katz

2006-04-27

82

When hot water freezes before cold  

E-print Network

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

Katz, J I

2006-01-01

83

Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590  

SciTech Connect

Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)] [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden); Lindberg, Maria [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2013-07-01

84

Liquid entrainment, droplet concentration and pressure gradient at the onset of annular flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a dearth of data on flow parameters in the transition region between churn and annular flow. To address this deficiency, adiabatic air–water experiments were carried out in a vertical test section (31.8 mm internal diameter, 10.8 m long) in which an isokinetic probe was employed to measure the local mass fluxes of gas and of entrained liquid droplets

J. R. Barbosa; G. F. Hewitt; G. König; S. M. Richardson

2002-01-01

85

Leaf water potential and stomatal conductance in Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests: vertical gradients and response to environmental factors.  

PubMed

Two permanent sampling sites were selected at the two extremes of a rainfall gradient in natural forests of Quercus pyrenaica Willd. located in the Sierra de Gata (Salamanca Province, Spain). During 1991 and 1992, diurnal courses of transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf water potential (Psi(l)) were studied at different levels in the tree canopy. Leaf water potential fell from a high value in the early morning to a minimum at midday and then increased again in the afternoon. Values of Psi(l) in the early morning and at midday were lower at Fuenteguinaldo (dry site) than at Navasfrías (wet site) and were related to soil water availability. Stomatal conductance increased during the morning and maximum g(s) occurred about 3 h before Psi(l) was at its lowest value. The highest values of g(s) were found at Navasfrías during July. The lowest Psi(l) values were found in the upper parts of the canopy and differences among canopy levels were greatest when soil water availability was low. In August, minimum values of Psi(l) differed among canopy levels by 1.0 MPa at Navasfrías and by 0.8 MPa at Fuenteguinaldo. The maximum difference in g(s) among canopy levels was about 150 mmol m(-2) s(-1) at Navasfrías and about 300 mmol m(-2) s(-1) at Fuenteguinaldo. The results indicate a nonconservative pattern of water use in Quercus pyrenaica. PMID:14967668

Gallego, H. A.; Rico, M.; Moreno, G.; Santa Regina, I.

1994-01-01

86

Vertical physico-chemical gradients with distinct microbial communities in the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu (Sovata, Romania).  

PubMed

The effect of vertical physico-chemical stratification on the planktonic microbial community composition of the deep, hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu (Sovata, Romania) was examined in this study. On site and laboratory measurements were performed to determine the physical and chemical variables of the lake water, and culture-based and cultivation-independent techniques were applied to identify the members of microbial communities. The surface of the lake was characterized by a low salinity water layer while the deepest region was extremely saline (up to 300 g/L salinity). Many parameters (e.g. photosynthetically active radiation, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, redox potential) changed dramatically from 2 to 4 m below the water surface in conjunction with the increasing salinity values. The water temperature reached a maximum at this depth. At around 3 m depth, there was a water layer with high (bacterio) chlorophyll content dominated by Prosthecochloris vibrioformis, a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium. Characteristic microbial communities with various prokaryotic taxa were identified along the different environmental parameters present in the different water layers. Some of these bacteria were known to be heterotrophic and therefore may be involved in the decomposition of lake organic material (e.g. Halomonas, Idiomarina and Pseudoalteromonas) while others in the transformation of sulfur compounds (e.g. Prosthecochloris). Eukaryotic microorganisms identified by molecular methods in the lake water belonged to genera of green algae (Mantionella and Picochlorum), and were restricted mainly to the upper layers. PMID:24531691

Máthé, István; Borsodi, Andrea K; Tóth, Erika M; Felföldi, Tamás; Jurecska, Laura; Krett, Gergely; Kelemen, Zsolt; Elekes, Erzsébet; Barkács, Katalin; Márialigeti, Károly

2014-05-01

87

Effect of freeze/thaw cycles on several biomarkers in urine from patients with kidney disease.  

PubMed

Urine samples were collected from eleven randomly selected patients with kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy, chronic nephritis, and nephritic syndrome. Urine samples were treated with one of four protocols for freezing and thawing: freeze directly and thaw directly; freeze directly and thaw by temperature gradient; freeze by temperature gradient and thaw directly; and freeze by temperature gradient and thaw by temperature gradient. After one to six freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C or -80°C, different biomarkers showed differential stabilities. The concentrations of total protein, calcium, and potassium did not change significantly after five freeze/thaw cycles at either -20°C or -80°C. Albumin could only sustain three freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C before it started to degrade. We recommend that urine be stored at -80°C as albumin and the organic ions could sustain five and six freeze/thaw cycles, respectively, using the simple "direct freeze and direct thaw" protocol. Furthermore, in most cases, gradient freeze/thaw cycles are not necessary for urine sample storage. PMID:25880475

Zhang, Yinan; Luo, Yi; Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Niansong; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Wang, Congrong; Jia, Weiping

2015-04-01

88

Freezing in confined geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1992-01-01

89

Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing  

PubMed Central

In this study, we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing. Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots: non-frozen, rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing. Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<0.01) after the first, second and third cycles of freezing/thawing, but there was no difference in morphology. In the second experiment, rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects. The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay. DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing, but to a level that was not clinically important. In the third experiment, rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects, until no motile sperm were observed after thawing. The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range: 5–8, mean: 6.8). In conclusion, we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing. This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23064685

Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Lattiwongsakorn, Worashorn; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn; Samchimchom, Sudarat

2012-01-01

90

The Freezing Bomb  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

Mills, Allan

2010-01-01

91

Improved freezing level retrieval  

E-print Network

TRMM Microwave Imager(TMI)-based passive microwave retrieval techniques result in biased estimates of the freezing level and rainfall over the east Pacific in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Passive microwave rainfall estimates...

Hong, Sungwook

2002-01-01

92

Transformations between aeromagnetic gradients in frequency domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromagnetic gradients are often used to enhance details or add new insights for interpretation. The gradients may be measured\\u000a or derived from the total field or from transformation between horizontal and vertical gradients. At present, vertical, horizontal,\\u000a and triaxial aeromagnetic gradiometers are in operation throughout the world, while the first two are used more widely. Transformations\\u000a between horizontal and vertical

Haixia Li; Shizhe Xu; Hailong Yu; Wei Wei; Jiangqi Fang

2010-01-01

93

Percolation with Constant Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and study a model of percolation with constant freezing ( PCF) where edges open at constant rate , and clusters freeze at rate independently of their size. Our main result is that the infinite volume process can be constructed on any amenable vertex transitive graph. This is in sharp contrast to models of percolation with freezing previously introduced, where the limit is known not to exist. Our interest is in the study of the percolative properties of the final configuration as a function of . We also obtain more precise results in the case of trees. Surprisingly the algebraic exponent for the cluster size depends on the degree, suggesting that there is no lower critical dimension for the model. Moreover, even for , it is shown that finite clusters have algebraic tail decay, which is a signature of self organised criticality. Partial results are obtained on , and many open questions are discussed.

Mottram, Edward

2014-06-01

94

A study on the vertical profile of bacterial DNA structure in the Puruogangri (Tibetan Plateau) ice core using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bacterial DNA structures at different depths in the Puruogangri (Tibetan Plateau) ice core (83.45 m) were investigated by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) DNA fingerprinting technique. DGGE profiles indicated that the bacterial species diversity in glacial ice is high, and indigenous species represented by common bands in all samples may grow on the glacial surface. Bacterial diversity, as estimated by Shannon indices (mean 2.91; SD 0.25; n = 13), was comparable to that of soil habitats and had a positive correlation with Ca2+ concentration (R = 0.71; P < 0.01), a good proxy of dust. This suggested that the soil ecosystem was the main source of bacteria in this glacier. The low similarity indices (0-43%) were found between the ice-core samples, which corresponded to the episodic deposition under defined climatic conditions and low activity of microorganisms in glacial ice. The profiles of bacterial species composition in glacial ice may be a bioindicator of climatic changes or dating.

Zhang, Xinfang; Yao, Tandong; An, Lizhe; Tian, Lide; Xu, Shijian

95

Freezing Poultry for Home Use  

E-print Network

Purchasing fresh poultry in large packages and freezing it in quantities suitable for individual meals can stretch time and food dollars. Topics include packaging needs, cutting, storing and thawing instructions, and freezing pre-cooked meals....

Davis, Michael

2006-08-31

96

Animal Anti-Freeze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor winter activity, learners search for and create hibernation sites that will protect gelatin "animals" from freezing. Learners come to understand that hibernating animals need to take care in selecting a sleeping spot that will provide protection from the winter cold.

2012-06-26

97

Freeze Branding Horses  

E-print Network

, simpli- f_ied drawing of one hair shaft with its color (pigment) producing follicle (CF) and its growth follicle (GF), both shown below the skin. Doug Householder 1 , Gary Webb 2 , Sam Wigington 3 and Jason Bruemmer 4 Freeze Branding Horses Figure 1. Hair...

Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

2001-06-29

98

Modeling Soil Freezing Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permeability of the soil. This is aggravated by the tendency of water

G. N. Flerchinger; M. S. Seyfried; S. P. Hardegree

2002-01-01

99

Modeling soil freezing dynamics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permea...

100

FREEZING WATER CLEANING A POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENT IN SRF CAVITY RINSING*  

E-print Network

method of high pressure rinsing - freezing water cleaning - consists in preliminary cooling down to further increase accelerating gradients do not cease. Dry ice cleaning [2, 3] is a prominent example the traditional HPR are at hand in any SRF lab, a simple cooling down of the cavity before rinsing can

101

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing requirements as set forth in §...

2011-01-01

102

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing requirements as set forth in §...

2013-01-01

103

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing requirements as set forth in §...

2012-01-01

104

7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low...

2011-01-01

105

7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low...

2012-01-01

106

7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low...

2013-01-01

107

7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low...

2014-01-01

108

7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low...

2010-01-01

109

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing requirements as set forth in §...

2014-01-01

110

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing requirements as set forth in §...

2010-01-01

111

Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea  

PubMed Central

Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity. PMID:22068319

Marshall, Diane L.; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T.

2013-01-01

112

Influence of freezing rate oscillations and convection on eutectic microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As discussed in our review paper (Wilcox, W. R. and Regel, L. L., Microgravity Quarterly, 1994, 4, 147-156), the influence of microgravity on eutectic microstructure has been rather erratic and largely unexplained. Directional solidification in microgravity sometimes coarsened the structure, sometimes made it finer, and sometimes, even on the same system, had no measurable effect. Theoretical models predicted no influence of the weak buoyancy-driven convection that occurs in the vertical Bridgman technique on earth. Thus, we hypothesized that freezing rate fluctuations due to irregular convection might be responsible. For example, with a fibrous microstructure an increase in freezing rate must cause new fibers to form, either by branching or by nucleation. A decrease in freezing rate would cause fibers to terminate by overgrowth of the matrix phase. If the kinetics of fiber formation differs from that for fiber termination, an oscillatory freezing rate would cause the average fiber spacing to deviate from that at a steady freezing rate. We have been investigating this hypothesis both experimentally and theoretically. Vertical Bridgman experiments were performed on the MnBi-Bi eutectic with freezing rate oscillations caused by periodic electric current pulses passed through the material. With increased current amplitude, more and more grains exhibited irregular microstructures. Of the grains with continued quasi-regular rod structure, the microstructure became finer. This result was contrary to that expected from our hypothesis for this system. Numerical modeling also predicted that an oscillatory freezing rate should yield a finer microstructure. It was also predicted that freezing interface oscillations should cause the average melt composition at the freezing rate to deviate from the eutectic. This results in the formation of a composition boundary layer of sufficient thickness that it would become sensitive to convection. Hence we have arrived at a revised hypothesis. On earth, irregular convection causes freezing rate fluctuations that change the interfacial melt composition, leading to a thick composition boundary layer. Convection interacts with this boundary layer to change the interfacial melt composition, thereby altering the response of the system to freezing rate fluctuations.

L. Regel, Liya; R. Wilcox, William; Popov, Dimitri; Li, Fengcui

113

Split-sample comparison of directional and liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method on post-thaw semen quality in white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum simum and Ceratotherium simum cottoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the quality of cryopreserved sperm in white rhinoceros, the liquid nitrogen vapour (LN vapour) freezing and the multi-thermal gradient directional freezing methods were compared. Sixteen white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum sp.) were electro-ejaculated. Semen samples were diluted with cryoextender (Tris, lactose, egg-yolk, DMSO) and aliquoted into straws for LN vapour freezing, and glass hollow tubes for directional freezing. The

C. E. Reid; R. Hermes; S. Blottner; F. Goeritz; G. Wibbelt; C. Walzer; B. R. Bryant; T. J. Portas; W. J. Streich; T. B. Hildebrandt

2009-01-01

114

Competitive freezing in gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the freezing of gold nanoparticles in a size range of N = 309-923 gold atoms and find the clusters freeze to a variety of structures, including icosahedra, decahedra and face-centered cubic type structures. Measurements of the rate of freezing for the different structures reveal that the icosahedral clusters form an order ofmagnitude faster than the remaining structures over the entire range of cluster sizes studied. An analysis of the structural evolution of the icosahedral and decahedral clusters during freezing events suggests that, despite the vast difference in freezing rates, the two structures both initially form the same five-fold symmetric cap, constructed from tetrahedral sub-units of face-centered cubic packed atoms. The slow rate of decahedron freezing may be caused introduction of strain into the structure as it grows along the five-fold symmetric axis of the cluster and the need to form high energy <100> facets.

Asuquo, Cletus C.; Bowles, Richard K.

2013-05-01

115

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

116

Eddy covariance emission and deposition flux measurements using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS): comparison with PTR-MS measured vertical gradients and fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer 2010, a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and a standard proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were deployed simultaneously for one month in an orange orchard in the Central Valley of California to collect continuous data suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux calculations. The high time resolution (5 Hz) and high mass resolution (up to 5000 m ? m-1) data from the PTR-TOF-MS provided the basis for calculating the concentration and flux for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Throughout the campaign, 664 mass peaks were detected in mass-to-charge ratios between 10 and 1278. Here we present PTR-TOF-MS EC fluxes of the 27 ion species for which the vertical gradient was simultaneously measured by PTR-MS. These EC flux data were validated through spectral analysis (i.e. co-spectrum, normalized co-spectrum, and ogive). Based on inter-comparison of the two PTR instruments, no significant instrumental biases were found in either mixing ratios or fluxes, and the data showed agreement within 5% on average for methanol and acetone. For the measured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), the EC fluxes from PTR-TOF-MS were in agreement with the qualitatively inferred flux directions from vertical gradient measurements by PTR-MS. For the 27 selected ion species reported here, the PTR-TOF-MS measured total (24 h) mean net flux of 299 ?g C m-2 h-1. The dominant BVOC emissions from this site were monoterpenes (m/z 81.070 + m/z 137.131 + m/z 95.086, 34%, 102 ?g C m-2 h-1) and methanol (m/z 33.032, 18%, 72 ?g C m-2 h-1). The next largest fluxes were detected at the following masses (attribution in parenthesis): m/z 59.048 (mostly acetone, 12.2%, 36.5 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 61.027 (mostly acetic acid, 11.9%, 35.7 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 93.069 (para-cymene + toluene, 4.1%, 12.2 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 45.033 (acetaldehyde, 3.8%, 11.5 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 71.048 (methylvinylketone + methacrolein, 2.4%, 7.1 ?g C m-2 h-1), and m/z 69.071 (isoprene + 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol, 1.8%, 5.3 ?g C m-2 h-1). Low levels of emission and/or deposition (<1.6% for each, 5.8% in total flux) were observed for the additional reported masses. Overall, our results show that EC flux measurements using PTR-TOF-MS is a powerful new tool for characterizing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange including both emission and deposition for a large range of BVOC and their oxidation products.

Park, J.-H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Timkovsky, J.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J.; Holzinger, R.

2012-08-01

117

Eddy covariance emission and deposition flux measurements using proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS): comparison with PTR-MS measured vertical gradients and fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer 2010, a proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and a quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were deployed simultaneously for one month in an orange orchard in the Central Valley of California to collect continuous data suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux calculations. The high time resolution (5 Hz) and high mass resolution (up to 5000 m/?m) data from the PTR-TOF-MS provided the basis for calculating the concentration and flux for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Throughout the campaign, 664 mass peaks were detected in mass-to-charge ratios between 10 and 1278. Here we present PTR-TOF-MS EC fluxes of the 27 ion species for which the vertical gradient was simultaneously measured by PTR-MS. These EC flux data were validated through spectral analysis (i.e., co-spectrum, normalized co-spectrum, and ogive). Based on inter-comparison of the two PTR instruments, no significant instrumental biases were found in either mixing ratios or fluxes, and the data showed agreement within 5% on average for methanol and acetone. For the measured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), the EC fluxes from PTR-TOF-MS were in agreement with the qualitatively inferred flux directions from vertical gradient measurements by PTR-MS. For the 27 selected ion species reported here, the PTR-TOF-MS measured total (24 h) mean net flux of 299 ?g C m-2 h-1. The dominant BVOC emissions from this site were monoterpenes (m/z 81.070 + m/z 137.131 + m/z 95.086, 34%, 102 ?g C m-2 h-1) and methanol (m/z 33.032, 18%, 72 ?g C m-2 h-1). The next largest fluxes were detected at the following masses (attribution in parenthesis): m/z 59.048 (mostly acetone, 12.2%, 36.5 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 61.027 (mostly acetic acid, 11.9%, 35.7 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 93.069 (para-cymene + toluene, 4.1%, 12.2 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 45.033 (acetaldehyde, 3.8%, 11.5 ?g C m-2 h-1), m/z 71.048 (methylvinylketone + methacrolein, 2.4%, 7.1 ?g C m-2 h-1), and m/z 69.071 (isoprene + 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol, 1.8%, 5.3 ?g C m-2 h-1). Low levels of emission and/or deposition (<1.6% for each, 5.8% in total flux) were observed for the additional reported masses. Overall, our results show that EC flux measurements using PTR-TOF-MS is a powerful new tool for characterizing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange including both emission and deposition for a large range of BVOC and their oxidation products.

Park, J.-H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Timkovsky, J.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J.; Holzinger, R.

2013-02-01

118

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...containers. (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean...by organoleptic examination after freezing to determine their...

2011-01-01

119

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...containers. (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean...by organoleptic examination after freezing to determine their...

2013-01-01

120

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...containers. (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean...by organoleptic examination after freezing to determine their...

2014-01-01

121

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...containers. (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean...by organoleptic examination after freezing to determine their...

2010-01-01

122

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...containers. (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean...by organoleptic examination after freezing to determine their...

2012-01-01

123

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

124

Understanding Slag Freeze Linings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slag freeze linings, the formation of protective deposit layers on the inner walls of furnaces and reactors, are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to ensure that furnace integrity is maintained in these aggressive, high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat transfer considerations. These thermal models have assumed that the interface between the stationary frozen layer and the agitated molten bath at steady-state deposit thickness consists of the primary phase, which stays in contact with the bulk liquid at the liquidus temperature. Recent experimental studies, however, have clearly demonstrated that the temperature of the deposit/liquid bath interface can be lower than the liquidus temperature of the bulk liquid. A conceptual framework has been proposed to explain the observations and the factors influencing the microstructure and the temperature of the interface at steady-state conditions. The observations are consistent with a dynamic steady state that is a balance between (I) the rate of nucleation and growth of solids on detached crystals in a subliquidus layer as this fluid material moves toward the stagnant deposit interface and (II) the dissolution of these detached crystals as they are transported away from the interface by turbulent eddies. It is argued that the assumption that the interface temperature is the liquidus of the bulk material represents only a limiting condition, and that the interface temperature can be between T liquidus and T solidus depending on the process conditions and bath chemistry. These findings have implications for the modeling approach and boundary conditions required to accurately describe these systems. They also indicate the opportunity to integrate considerations of heat and mass flows with the selection of melt chemistries in the design of future high temperature industrial reactors.

Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

2014-09-01

125

FREEZING RESISTANCE OF NEW ZEALAND TREES AND SHRUBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Forty-two native woody species were selected to represent the range of temperature-related ecological gradients in New Zealand. Twigs collected in July (mid-winter) were sent by air to Sapporo, Japan, where they were artificially hardened and then tested for freezing resistance. Although only one plant of each species was sampled from each site in anyone year, results were consistent from

A. SAKAI; P. WARDLE

126

7.NS Comparing Freezing Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ocean water freezes at about $-2 \\frac12 ^\\circ C$. Fresh water freezes at $0 ^\\circ C$. Antifreeze, a liquid used in the radiators of cars, freezes at...

127

Nuclear freeze: myths and realities  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear freeze would create serious problems for US strategic and political interests, and would not achieve the professed goal of a lower probability of nuclear war. It could increase strategic instability and reinforce the morally questionable Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) approach of using civilian populations as hostages. Compliance would not be verifiable, and Soviet compliance would be doubtful. A review of the strategic and political implications and the basic assumptions of freeze advocates suggests that the movement has proved useful in forcing advocates of other positions to sharpen and refine their arguments. The challenge for freeze opponents is to make it clear to the public that the proposed freeze would benefit the Soviets and to offer viable alternatives for nuclear policy. 15 references.

Weinrod, W.B.

1983-03-03

128

Freeze concentration of fruit juices.  

PubMed

Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

1984-01-01

129

Fundamentals of freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction--the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature dependence of glass transition-associated mobili

Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

2002-01-01

130

THE VERTICAL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

1994-01-01

131

Thermal gradient-hydro generation cycle \\/TGUC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The described thermal gradient utilization cycle (TGUC) makes use of the vertical atmospheric temperature difference. TGUC is a closed loop system. Thermal vapor is pumped to higher elevations where condensation occurs, and power is derived by a conventional hydro-prime mover along with a conventional regenerative Rankine cycle. TGUC and ocean thermal energy conversion are contrasted; in oceans the thermal gradient

S. A. Parker

1978-01-01

132

Ultrafast microfluidic mixer and freeze-quenching device.  

PubMed

The freeze-quenching technique is extremely useful for trapping meta-stable intermediates populated during fast chemical or biochemical reactions. The application of this technique, however, is limited by the long mixing time of conventional solution mixers and the slow freezing time of cryogenic fluids. To overcome these problems, we have designed and tested a novel microfluidic silicon mixer equipped with a new freeze-quenching device, with which reactions can be followed down to 50 micros. In the microfluidic silicon mixer, seven 10-microm-diameter vertical pillars are arranged perpendicular to the flow direction and in a staggered fashion in the 450-pL mixing chamber to enhance turbulent mixing. The mixed-solution jet, with a cross section of 10 microm x 100 microm, exits from the microfluidic silicon mixer with a linear flow velocity of 20 m/s. It instantaneously freezes on one of two rotating copper wheels maintained at 77 K and is subsequently ground into an ultrafine powder. The ultrafine frozen powder exhibits excellent spectral quality and high packing factor and can be readily transferred between spectroscopic observation cells. The microfluidic mixer was tested by the reaction between azide and myoglobin at pH 5.0. It was found that complete mixing was achieved within the mixing dead time of the mixer (20 micros), and the first observable point for this coupled device was determined to be 50 micros, which is approximately 2 orders of magnitude faster than commercially available instruments. PMID:14710815

Lin, Yu; Gerfen, Gary J; Rousseau, Denis L; Yeh, Syun-Ru

2003-10-15

133

Heat freezes niche evolution.  

PubMed

Climate change is altering phenology and distributions of many species and further changes are projected. Can species physiologically adapt to climate warming? We analyse thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm (n = 697), endotherm (n = 227) and plant (n = 1816) species worldwide, and show that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species. This pattern, previously documented for ectotherms, is apparent for this group and for endotherms and plants, challenging the longstanding view that physiological tolerances of species change continuously across climatic gradients. An alternative view is proposed in which the thermal component of climatic niches would overlap across species more than expected. We argue that hard physiological boundaries exist that constrain evolution of tolerances of terrestrial organisms to high temperatures. In contrast, evolution of tolerances to cold should be more frequent. One consequence of conservatism of upper thermal tolerances is that estimated niches for cold-adapted species will tend to underestimate their upper thermal limits, thereby potentially inflating assessments of risk from climate change. In contrast, species whose climatic preferences are close to their upper thermal limits will unlikely evolve physiological tolerances to increased heat, thereby being predictably more affected by warming. PMID:23869696

Araújo, Miguel B; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Marquet, Pablo A; Valladares, Fernando; Chown, Steven L

2013-09-01

134

Freeze-in through portals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popular freeze-out paradigm for Dark Matter (DM) production, relies on DM-baryon couplings of the order of the weak interactions. However, different search strategies for DM have failed to provide a conclusive evidence of such (non-gravitational) interactions, while greatly reducing the parameter space of many representative models. This motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for DM genesis. In the freeze-in framework, the DM is slowly populated from the thermal bath while never reaching equilibrium. In this work, we analyse in detail the possibility of producing a frozen-in DM via a mediator particle which acts as a portal. We give analytical estimates of different freeze-in regimes and support them with full numerical analyses, taking into account the proper distribution functions of bath particles. Finally, we constrain the parameter space of generic models by requiring agreement with DM relic abundance observations.

Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martínez, Enrique; Zaldívar, Bryan

2014-01-01

135

Freezing of a Liquid Marble  

E-print Network

In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

2012-07-03

136

Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.  

PubMed

Winter survival for many kinds of animals involves freeze tolerance, the ability to endure the conversion of about 65% of total body water into extracellular ice and the consequences that freezing imposes including interruption of vital processes (e.g., heartbeat and breathing), cell shrinkage, elevated osmolality, anoxia/ischemia, and potential physical damage from ice. Freeze-tolerant animals include various terrestrially hibernating amphibians and reptiles, many species of insects, and numerous other invertebrates inhabiting both terrestrial and intertidal environments. Well-known strategies of freezing survival include accumulation of low molecular mass carbohydrate cryoprotectants (e.g., glycerol), use of ice nucleating agents/proteins for controlled triggering of ice growth and of antifreeze proteins that inhibit ice recrystallization, and good tolerance of anoxia and dehydration. The present article focuses on more recent advances in our knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved. Important roles have been identified for aquaporins and transmembrane channels that move cryoprotectants, heat shock proteins and other chaperones, antioxidant defenses, and metabolic rate depression. Genome and proteome screening has revealed many new potential targets that respond to freezing, in particular implicating cytoskeleton remodeling as a necessary facet of low temperature and/or cell volume adaptation. Key regulatory mechanisms include reversible phosphorylation control of metabolic enzymes and microRNA control of gene transcript expression. These help to remodel metabolism to preserve core functions while suppressing energy expensive metabolic activities such as the cell cycle. All of these advances are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state. PMID:23897687

Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

2013-07-01

137

The orientation of liquid crystals by temperature gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has been known for some time that the molecular orientation of liquid crystals can be affected by the presence of a temperature gradient.Stewart reported in 1936 that, whenp-azoxyanisol was placed in a vertical temperature gradient, the orientation adopted was vertical when the higher temperature was at the bottom and horizontal when the higher temperature was at the top.

P. K. Currie

1973-01-01

138

Barium titanate-polymer composites produced via directional freezing.  

PubMed

In this study, we use a freeze casting technique to construct ceramic-polymer composites in which the 2 phases are arranged in an electrically parallel configuration. By doing so, the composites exhibit dielectric constant (K) up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of composites with ceramic particles randomly dispersed in a polymer matrix. In this technique, an aqueous ceramic slurry was frozen unidirectionally to form ice platelets and ceramic aggregates that were aligned in the temperature gradient direction. Upon freeze-drying, the ice platelets sublimed and left the lamellar ceramic structure intact. The green ceramic body was fired to retain the microstructure, and then the space between ceramic lamellae was infiltrated with a polymer material. The finished composites exhibit the high dielectric constant (1000) of ferroelectric ceramics while maintaining the unique properties of polymer materials such as graceful failure, low dielectric loss, and high dielectric breakdown. PMID:19686976

Gorzkowski, Edward P; Pan, Ming-Jen

2009-08-01

139

Transverse freezing of thin liquid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of coupled non-linear partial differential equations is derived using lubrication theory that govern the morphology of a thin, liquid film of a pure and a binary metal alloy, bounded by the liquid's solid phase and a passive gas phase. The analysis is motivated by the directional freezing of metallic foams, and is a first attempt to model transverse freezing in thin films that form in foam networks, but also applies to thin film layers in general. Both the no-slip crystal-melt and the free melt-gas interfaces are deformable. The governing pair of non-linear differential equations for the most general case incorporate crystal-melt and melt-gas surface tension, latent heat, heat transfer, volume change, molecular interactions, thermocapillary and dilute phase concentration effects. Linear analysis of a uniform film reveals a variety of instabilities. A unique wavenumber is selected at the onset of instability in the case of an applied temperature gradient with vanishing crystal-melt surface tension. This system reproduces the isothermal result for a rigid solid-liquid interface in which a band of wavenumbers is unstable. A new long-wave instability has been identified, for the case with CM surface tension, that is due to the coupling of the interfaces. Numerical solutions of the fully non-linear system provide film evolution and rupture times, and show that, near the critical conditions, rupture can occur by the growth of standing or traveling waves. The numerics also reveals complex non-linear interactions between unstable modes. It is found that for most unstable initial conditions, the crystal-melt interface retreats by melting away from the tip region of the encroaching melt-gas interface due to a rise in heat flux as the film thins near the rupture point.

Beerman, Michael

140

Geothermal Gradients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set the students use two different equations to calculate a conductive geothermal gradient using a spreadsheet program like Excel. Once they have the geothermal gradient plotted, they are asked to experiment with and comment on the model by changing parameters (e.g. mantle heat flow, thermal conductivity). There is a mix of specific, fill in the blank questions and open-ended questions. This problem set helps develop quantitative problem solving skills using a spreadsheet as a tool, and forces students to think about thermal constraints during igneous and metamorphic processes.

Cameron Davidson

141

The role of the geothermal gradient in the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the mechanisms by which ground ice is emplaced, removed, and potentially replenished, are critical to understanding the climatic and hydrologic behavior of water on Mars, as well as the morphologic evolution of its surface. Because of the strong temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure of H2O, the atmospheric emplacement or replenishment of ground ice is prohibited below the depth at which crustal temperatures begin to monotonically increase due to geothermal heating. In contrast, the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice from reservoirs of H2O residing deep within the crust can occur by at least three different thermally-driven processes, involving all three phases of water. In this regard, Clifford has discussed how the presence of a geothermal gradient as small as 15 K/km can give rise to a corresponding vapor pressure gradient sufficient to drive the vertical transport of 1 km of water from a reservoir of ground water at depth to the base of the cryosphere every 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) years. This abstract expands on this earlier treatment by considering the influence of thermal gradients on the transport of H2O at temperatures below the freezing point.

Clifford, Stephen M.

1993-01-01

142

Nachweis von Feature Freezes durch Clustering Nachweis von Feature Freezes durch Clustering  

E-print Network

Nachweis von Feature Freezes durch Clustering Nachweis von Feature Freezes durch Clustering Steen von Feature Freezes durch Clustering (1/21) #12;Nachweis von Feature Freezes durch Clustering �berblick Einführung Grundlagen Metriken Maschinelles Lernen Sammeln von Metrikdaten Anwendung des k

Grabowski, Jens

143

Strategies for exploration of freeze responsive gene expression: advances in vertebrate freeze toleranceq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter survival for many cold-blooded species involves freeze tolerance, the capacity to endure the freezing of a high percentage of total body water as extracellular ice. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is the primary model animal used for studies of vertebrate freeze tolerance and current studies in my lab are focused on the freeze-induced changes in gene expression that support

Kenneth B. Storey

144

Freeze\\/thaw power system. [water expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A freeze-thaw power cycle is described that includes a piston driven by the expansion power of a fluid such as water in a cyclinder on freezing and the thawing thereof with alternate, rapid freezing and thawing of the fluid by low and high temperature means with heat transfer rates facilitated by the use of heat pipes or tubes or other

1978-01-01

145

When hot water freezes before cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is due to freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. The solutes are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been

J. I. Katz

2009-01-01

146

When hot water freezes before cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the

J. I. Katz

2006-01-01

147

Vertical Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

148

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

149

Optimal Freeze Cycle Length for Renal Cryotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To our knowledge the optimal freeze cycle length in renal cryotherapy is unknown. Ten-minute time based freeze cycles were compared to temperature based freeze cycles to ?20C. Materials and Methods Laparoscopic renal cryotherapy was performed on 16 swine. Time based trials consisted of a double 10-minute freeze separated by a 5-minute thaw. Temperature based trials were double cycles of 1, 5 or 10-minute freeze initiated after 1 of 4 sensors indicated ?20C. A 5-minute active thaw was used between freeze cycles. Control trials consisted of cryoneedle placement for 25 minutes without freeze or thaw. Viability staining and histological analysis were done. Results There was no difference in cellular necrosis between any of the temperature based freeze cycles (p = 0.1). Time based freeze cycles showed more nuclear pyknosis, indicative of necrosis, than the 3 experimental freeze cycles for the renal cortex (p = 0.05) but not for the renal medulla (p = 0.61). Mean time to ?20C for freeze cycle 1 was 19 minutes 10 seconds (range 9 to 46 minutes). In 4 of 21 trials (19%) ?20C was never attained despite freezing for 25 to 63 minutes. Conclusions There was no difference in immediate cellular necrosis among double 1, 5 or 10-minute freeze cycles. Cellular necrosis was evident on histological analysis for trials in which ?20C was attained and in freeze cycles based on time alone. With a standard 10-minute cryoablation period most treated parenchyma 1 cm from the probe never attained ?20C. Cell death appeared to occur at temperatures warmer than ?20C during renal cryotherapy. PMID:21600606

Young, Jennifer Lee; Khanifar, Elham; Narula, Navneet; Ortiz-Vanderdys, Cervando Gerardo; Kolla, Surendra Babu; Pick, Donald Lowell; Sountoulides, Petros George; Kaufmann, Oskar Grau; Osann, Kathryn Elizabeth; Huynh, Victor Buu; Kaplan, Adam Geoffrey; Andrade, Lorena Aurora; Louie, Michael Ken; McDougall, Elspeth Marguerita; Clayman, Ralph Victor

2014-01-01

150

METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS  

SciTech Connect

We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-12-01

151

Contact freezing: a review of experimental studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript compiles both theoretical and experimental information on contact freezing with the aim to better understand this potentially important but still not well quantified heterogeneous freezing mode. There is no complete theory that describes contact freezing and how the energy barrier has to be overcome to nucleate an ice crystal by contact freezing. Experiments on contact freezing conducted using the cold plate technique indicate that it can initiate ice formation at warmer temperatures than immersion freezing. Additionally, a qualitative difference in the freezing temperatures between contact and immersion freezing has been found using different instrumentation and different ice nuclei. There is a lack of data on collision rates in most of the reported data, which inhibits a quantitative calculation of the freezing efficiencies. Thus, new or modified instrumentation to study contact nucleation in the laboratory and in the field are needed to identify the conditions at which contact nucleation could occur in the atmosphere. Important questions concerning contact freezing and its potential role for ice cloud formation and climate are also summarized.

Ladino Moreno, L. A.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

2013-10-01

152

Irradiance gradients  

SciTech Connect

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

Ward, G.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Heckbert, P.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)

1992-04-01

153

Osmotic Adjustment and the Development of Freezing Resistance in Fragaria virginiana.  

PubMed

Cold temperature acclimation in strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) leaves apparently involves the alteration of cellular osmotic properties. Alterations in leaf osmotic potential were closely correlated with alterations in soluble carbohydrate content of the leaf tissue and changing temperatures. Leaf starch content was inversely related to soluble carbohydrate levels, suggesting that starch is a partial source of osmoticum during osmotic adjustment associated with cold temperature stress. Free amino acid changes were more closely linked to senescence and growth processes while changes in ion content suggested a rapid mobilization of solutes at the onset of freezing temperatures. This was supported by changes in whole plant gradients in leaf osmotic potential before and after exposure to freezing temperatures. In terms of freezing resistance and the role of osmotic adjustment in the development of resistance, it was found that of all leaves undergoing osmotic adjustment only the younger leaves survived, suggesting an age-dependent component to freezing resistance in leaves. Freezing resistance appears to involve alterations in several cellular properties that act in concert to confer a hardy state of the tissue. Although osmotic adjustment may be an important component of the final combination of cellular properties, this study indicates that solute accumulation does not function alone to confer freezing resistance. PMID:16663142

O'neill, S D

1983-08-01

154

The response of Anisakis larvae to freezing.  

PubMed

Anisakis third stage larvae utilize a variety of fish as intermediate hosts. Uncooked fish are rendered safe for human consumption by freezing. Larvae freeze by inoculative freezing from the surrounding medium but can survive freezing at temperatures down to -10 degrees C. This ability may be aided by the production of trehalose, which can act as a cryoprotectant, but does not involve recrystallization inhibition. Monitoring of fish freezing in commercial blast freezers and under conditions which simulate those of a domestic freezer, indicate that it can take a long time for all parts of the fish to reach a temperature that will kill the larvae. This, and the moderate freezing tolerance of larvae, emphasizes the need for fish to be frozen at a low enough temperature and for a sufficient time to ensure that fish are safe for consumption. PMID:12498643

Wharton, D A; Aalders, O

2002-12-01

155

Rotary replication for freeze-etching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotary replication has been adapted to freeze-etching and evaluated using T4 polyheads, erythrocyte ghosts, and chloroplast membranes. Conventional elec- tron microscopy, electron diffraction, and optical diffraction and filtering indicate that platinum-carbon rotary replication renders radially symmetrical contrast and 25 A resolution to freeze-etched specimens so as to clarify subunit structure not normally evident in unidirectional shadow replicas. Freeze-etching has exposed

LUKAS H. MARGARITIS; ARNLJOT ELGSAETER; DANIEL BRANTON

1977-01-01

156

Initial freezing point of Mozzarella cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial freezing point in unsalted fresh Mozzarella cheese was measured. The influence of the water-soluble solids on the freezing point depression of unsalted Mozzarella cheese was analyzed. Central temperature profiles and the initial freezing point of unsalted cylindrical cheese samples (1cm radius; 3cm height) were determined. A lyophilized aqueous extract of the soluble solids at pH 4.6 was obtained

Gustavo G. Ribero; Amelia C. Rubiolo; Susana E. Zorrilla

2007-01-01

157

The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability?  

SciTech Connect

Reflectivity data from Doppler radars are used to construct vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) of convective cells in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in three different environmental regimes. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CP-3 and CP-4 radars are used to calculate median VPRR for MCSs in the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central in 1985. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere radar in Darwin, Australia, is used to calculate VPRR for MCSs observed both in oceanic, monsoon regimes and in continental, break period regimes during the wet seasons of 1987/88 and 1988/89. The midlatitude and tropical continental VPRRs both exhibit maximum reflectivity somewhat above the surface and have a gradual decrease in reflectivity with height above the freezing level. In sharp contrast, the tropical oceanic profile has a maximum reflectivity at the lowest level and a very rapid decrease in reflectivity with height beginning just above the freezing level. The tropical oceanic profile in the Darwin area is almost the same shape as that for two other tropical oceanic regimes, leading to the conclustion that it is characteristic. The absolute values of reflectivity in the 0 to 20 C range are compared with values in the literature thought to represent a threshold for rapid storm electrification leading to lightning, about 40 dBZ at -10 C. The large negative vertical gradient of reflectivity in this temperature range for oceanic storms is hypothesized to be a direct result of the characteristically weaker vertical velocities observed in MCSs over tropical oceans..

Zipser, E.J.; Lutz, K.R. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-08-01

158

The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectivity data from Doppler radars are used to construct vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) of convective cells in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in three different environmental regimes. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CP-3 and CP-4 radars are used to calculate median VPRR for MCSs in the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central in 1985. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere radar in Darwin, Australia, is used to calculate VPRR for MCSs observed both in oceanic, monsoon regimes and in continental, break period regimes during the wet seasons of 1987/88 and 1988/89. The midlatitude and tropical continental VPRRs both exhibit maximum reflectivity somewhat above the surface and have a gradual decrease in reflectivity with height above the freezing level. In sharp contrast, the tropical oceanic profile has a maximum reflectivity at the lowest level and a very rapid decrease in reflectivity with height beginning just above the freezing level. The tropical oceanic profile in the Darwin area is almost the same shape as that for two other tropical oceanic regimes, leading to the conclustion that it is characteristic. The absolute values of reflectivity in the 0 to 20 C range are compared with values in the literature thought to represent a threshold for rapid storm electrification leading to lightning, about 40 dBZ at -10 C. The large negative vertical gradient of reflectivity in this temperature range for oceanic storms is hypothesized to be a direct result of the characteristically weaker vertical velocities observed in MCSs over tropical oceans. It is proposed, as a necessary condition for rapid electrification, that a convective cell must have its updraft speed exceed some threshold value. Based upon field program data, a tentative estimate for the magnitude of this threshold is 6-7 m/s for mean speed and 10-12 m/s for peak speed.

Zipser, Edward J.; Lutz, Kurt R.

1994-01-01

159

Reptile freeze tolerance: metabolism and gene expression.  

PubMed

Terrestrially hibernating reptiles that live in seasonally cold climates need effective strategies of cold hardiness to survive the winter. Use of thermally buffered hibernacula is very important but when exposure to temperatures below 0 degrees C cannot be avoided, either freeze avoidance (supercooling) or freeze tolerance strategies can be employed, sometimes by the same species depending on environmental conditions. Several reptile species display ecologically relevant freeze tolerance, surviving for extended times with 50% or more of their total body water frozen. The use of colligative cryoprotectants by reptiles is poorly developed but metabolic and enzymatic adaptations providing anoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense are important aids to freezing survival. New studies using DNA array screening are examining the role of freeze-responsive gene expression. Three categories of freeze responsive genes have been identified from recent screenings of liver and heart from freeze-exposed (5h post-nucleation at -2.5 degrees C) hatchling painted turtles, Chrysemys picta marginata. These genes encode (a) proteins involved in iron binding, (b) enzymes of antioxidant defense, and (c) serine protease inhibitors. The same genes were up-regulated by anoxia exposure (4 h of N2 gas exposure at 5 degrees C) of the hatchlings which suggests that these defenses for freeze tolerance are aimed at counteracting the injurious effects of the ischemia imposed by plasma freezing. PMID:16321368

Storey, Kenneth B

2006-02-01

160

Influence of chemical and freezing fixation methods in the freeze-fracture of stratum corneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between two fixation techniques for freeze-fracture was established. Stratum corneum (SC) samples from pig epidermis were fixed using high-pressure freezing (HPF) and using plunging in propane freezing; the latter after chemical fixation. Then, frozen samples were freeze-fractured, coated with platinum–carbon, and visualized using a high-resolution low-temperature scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Our results indicate that

O López; C López-Iglesias; M Cócera; P Walther; J. L Parra; A de la Maza

2004-01-01

161

Identification, analysis and monitoring of risks of freezing affecting aircraft flying over the Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freezing is one of the main causes of aircraft accidents registered over the last few decades. This means it is very important to be able to predict this situation so that aircraft can change their routes to avoid freezing risk areas. Also, by using satellites it is possible to observe changes in the horizontal and vertical extension of cloud cover likely to cause freezing in real time as well as microphysical changes in the clouds. The METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) makes it possible to create different red-green-blue (RGB) compositions that provide a large amount of information associated with the microphysics of clouds, in order to identify super-cooled water clouds that pose a high risk of freezing to aircraft. During the winter of 2011/12 in the Guadarrama Mountains, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, a series of scientific flights (conducted by INTA) were organised in order to study the cloud systems that affected this region during the winter. On the flight of the 1st of February 2012, the aircraft was affected by freezing after crossing over a mountain ridge with supercooled large drops (SLD). Although freezing was not expected during that day's flight, the orography caused a series of mesoscale factors that led to the appearance of localised freezing conditions. By analysing this case, we have been able to conclude that the use of satellite images makes it possible to monitor the risk of freezing, especially under specific mesoscale circumstances. Acknowledgements S. Fernández-González acknowledges the grant supported from the FPU program (AP 2010-2093). This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the INTA for its scientific flights.

Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo

2014-05-01

162

Strategies for exploration of freeze responsive gene expression: advances in vertebrate freeze toleranceq  

E-print Network

of the prominent features of wood frog freeze tolerance is the production of huge amounts of glucose 2003 Abstract Winter survival for many cold-blooded species involves freeze tolerance, the capacity sylvatica) is the primary model animal used for studies of vertebrate freeze tolerance and current studies

Storey, Kenneth B.

163

Freezing of aqueous solution in a simple apparatus designed for measuring freezing point  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing point depression (FPD) measurement can be used as a fast means of determining solute concentration of an aqueous solution in the laboratory and the data are useful in the process design of low temperature operations, e.g. freeze concentration and freeze drying, etc. It is desirable to have a cost-effective device for FPD measurement. Here, we describe a simple device

Xiao Dong Chen; Ping Chen

1996-01-01

164

Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

1976-01-01

165

Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

1987-01-01

166

FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION OF VARIOUS ICE SLURRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal solutions with equal molar concentration have an equal freezing point. The properties that determine heat and mass transfer processes encountered in a secondary cooling cycle are however determined by the mass fraction of solutes. Generally for aqueous solutions, the more freezing point depressant added, the less efficient heat and mass transfer properties. Therefore substances with low molecular weight are

J. W. Meewisse; C. A. Infante Ferreira

167

Split-sample comparison of directional and liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method on post-thaw semen quality in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum and Ceratotherium simum cottoni).  

PubMed

To increase the quality of cryopreserved sperm in white rhinoceros, the liquid nitrogen vapour (LN vapour) freezing and the multi-thermal gradient directional freezing methods were compared. Sixteen white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum sp.) were electro-ejaculated. Semen samples were diluted with cryoextender (Tris, lactose, egg-yolk, DMSO) and aliquoted into straws for LN vapour freezing, and glass hollow tubes for directional freezing. The sperm quality was evaluated before and after freezing by assessing the following parameters: motility, morphologic state, acrosomal integrity and plasma membrane function and integrity (i.e. sperm viability) as defined by the hypo-osmotic swelling. Directional freezing improved the sperm viability by 5.6% (p<0.005), progressive motility score by 34.7% and sperm motility index (SMI) by 8.1% (p<0.005) versus LN vapour freezing. When data was categorized into groups of low (<19%), moderate (20-39%) and high (>40%) percentages of morphologically normal, directional freezing (DF) resulted in 31.4% less abnormal acrosomes for the low quality group as well as 18.7% increase in intact acrosomes and 10.9% increase in motility for the high quality group compared to LN vapour freezing (LN) (p<0.01, p<0.03, p<0.01, respectively). LN showed a significant reduction in sperm head volume (5.7%, p<0.05) compared to the prefreeze; whereas, no significant reduction in head volume was demonstrated after DF. Several additives (xanthenuric acid, cytochalasin D, potassium, EDTA) to the basic cryoextender provided no significant improvement in spermatozoal survival after directional freezing. In conclusion, directional freezing proved to facilitate higher gamete survival compared to LN vapour freezing. This is especially effective in ejaculates of low sperm quality and is important in endangered species where high quality semen donors are often not accessible. These results suggest that directional freezing could be valuable particularly for species with limited freezability of spermatozoa. PMID:18775559

Reid, C E; Hermes, R; Blottner, S; Goeritz, F; Wibbelt, G; Walzer, C; Bryant, B R; Portas, T J; Streich, W J; Hildebrandt, T B

2009-01-15

168

7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section... Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

2013-01-01

169

7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section... Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

2014-01-01

170

7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section... Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

2012-01-01

171

7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section... Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

2011-01-01

172

7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze treatment requirements. Quick freeze...

2013-01-01

173

7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze treatment requirements. Quick freeze...

2011-01-01

174

7 CFR 305.18 - Quick freeze treatment schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment schedule. 305.18 Section 305.18 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Quick Freeze Treatments § 305.18 Quick freeze treatment...

2010-01-01

175

7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze treatment requirements. Quick freeze...

2012-01-01

176

7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze treatment requirements. Quick freeze...

2014-01-01

177

Fish With Nature's Anti-freeze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this material, students will discover that under special experimental conditions, fish have been observed functioning in ice-free cold salt water at a temperature of -6 degrees Centigrade. Research has found that these fish have eight types of anti-freeze molecules which bathe the interior surface of their skin, acting as a barrier to ice propagating in from outside. When the anti-freeze molecules are not present, ice filters through their skin at these temperatures and crystallizes (freezes) their blood and tissues. Students will experiment with lowering the freezing point of a substance, thus causing it to remain liquid at a temperature when it is normally solid. Students will compare their findings with facts about Antarctic ice-fish, which have bodily fluids that remain liquid at temperatures below freezing.

178

Mesoscale monitoring of the soil freeze/thaw boundary from orbital microwave radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed for mapping the spatial extent of frozen soils from the spectral characteristics of the 10.7 to 37 GHz radiobrightness. Through computational models for the spectral radiobrightness of diurnally heated freesing soils, a distinctive radiobrightness signature was identified for frozen soils, and the signature was cast as a discriminant for unsupervised classification. In addition to large area images, local area spatial averages of radiobrightness were calculated for each radiobrightness channel at 7 meteorologic sites within the test region. Local area averages at the meteorologic sites were used to define the preliminary boundaries in the Freeze Indicator discriminate. Freeze Indicator images based upon Nimbus 7, Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data effectively map temporal variations in the freeze/thaw pattern for the northern Great Plains at the time scale of days. Diurnal thermal gradients have a small but measurable effect upon the SMMR spectral gradient. Scale-space filtering can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a freeze/thaw classified image.

Dobson, Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Zuerndorfer, Brian; England, Anthony W.

1990-01-01

179

Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores. PMID:25687012

Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

2015-04-01

180

Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2012-12-01

181

Evaluation of anti-freeze viscosity modifier for potential external tank applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscosity modifiers and gelling agents were evaluated in combination with ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide water eutectics. Pectin and agarose are found to gel these eutectics effectively in low concentration, but the anti-freeze protection afforded by these compositions is found to be marginal in simulations of the intended applications. Oxygen vent shutters and vertical metallic surfaces were simulated, with water supplied as a spray, dropwise, and by condensation from the air.

Lynn, R. O. L.

1981-01-01

182

Freeze Denaturation of Fish Muscle Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the freeze denaturation of fish muscle proteins were reviewed with emphasis given to changes in their physicochemical and biochemical properties during frozen storage. Denaturation of actomyosin commonly occurs during frozen storage and side-to-side aggregation of myosin molecules apppears to major role in this reaction. The author's group performed freezing studies with isolated preparations of proteins from carp muscle, namely actomyosin, myosin, H-meromyosin, L-meromyosin, and actin. Freeze denaturation occurred with indvidual proteins as well as with their subunits. Not only aggregation but also some conformational changes were observed. Denaturation was inhibited in the presence of added glutamate.

Tsuchiya, Takahide

183

Freezing precipitation in the Southeastern United States  

E-print Network

'un?I. . . . 2. Developmsnt. , 3. I, ocaticn of freezing prsci. pitation areas. '? ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ? 26 ?5 25 30 32 32 33 36 38 38 39 43 44 46 47 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page IVr ANALYSI S OF P~ERS FOR SELECTED STORMS a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 52 Ai... farms) over a range of 850-mb temperature. s ('C) . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ 63 Th number of occurrences of freezing pre ipita- tion (varicrus forms) over a range of 850-mb dcw points {'0). ~ 64 25 The number of occur ences of freezing precipita...

Young, William Robert

1978-01-01

184

RRab Lyrae metallicity gradient in the Galactic bulge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We revisit the presence and significance of the Galactic bulge metallicity gradients, using the OGlE-III RR Lyrae sample. Methods: We implemented a Monte Carlo simulation to account for observational uncertainties and systematic errors to test the presence, significance, and spatial variation of RR Lyr photometric metallicity gradients within the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, we take special consideration to identify and account for possible observational and statistical biases, which may introduce an apparent metallicity gradient into the sample. Results: We find a mean Galactic bulge RRab metallicity of -0.97 ± 0.29 dex, a global radial metallicity gradient of -0.016 ± 0.008 dex Kpc-1, and a global vertical metallicity gradient of -0.063 ± 0.013 dex Kpc-1. Furthermore, neither the global radial nor vertical gradients can be explained by random chance, unjustified extrapolation of the metallicity calibration law, or induced by a Malmquist bias.

Sans Fuentes, S. A.; De Ridder, J.

2014-11-01

185

VERTICAL ELECTROPOLISHING NIOBIUM CAVITIES , C. Crawford, H. Padamsee, A. Seaman  

E-print Network

VERTICAL ELECTROPOLISHING NIOBIUM CAVITIES R.L. Geng ¡ , C. Crawford, H. Padamsee, A. Seaman LEPP Superconductivity, July 10-15, 2005, Ithaca, NY, USA. SRF060419-02 Abstract Vertical electropolishing niobium-gradient superconducting niobium cavities [1]. Many labs now have acquired the ca- pability of EP multi-cell cavities

Geng, Rong-Li

186

Freeze concentration beats the heat  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on freeze concentration (FC) which saves energy and money in packaging, shipping, and storing food products. FC---in contrast to existing heat-evaporation processes---retains volatile flavor and aroma compounds in food products so that no additives are required to restore the taste and smell of the original product. In recent tests on orange, grapefruit, and pineapple juices, reconstituted FC juices were found to be superior in taste to juices produced by evaporation and similar to the original pasteurized juices. The dairy industry, which is the largest user of energy for concentration in the food sector, is looking to FC for new products such as frozen concentrated milk as well as better use of the milk by-products of cheese production. The biggest potential for new FC applications is in those industries that consume large amounts of energy for separation processing, according to a 1987 report prepared for EPRI. In the food industry, this includes milk, vinegar, and beer producers. Potential applications also abound in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, chemical, and petroleum industries. FC separates substances via crystallization at substantial energy savings.

Rosen, J.

1990-12-01

187

Effective anisotropy gradient in pressure graded [Co/Pd] multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used polarized neutron reflectometry to show that controlled variation of growth pressure during deposition of Co/Pd multilayers can be used to achieve a significant vertical gradient in the effective anisotropy. This gradient is strongly dependent on deposition order (low to high pressure or vice versa), and is accompanied by a corresponding gradient in saturation magnetization. These results demonstrate pressure-grading as an attractively simple technique for tailoring the anisotropy profile of magnetic media.

Kirby, B. J.; Greene, P. K.; Maranville, B. B.; Davies, J. E.; Liu, Kai

2015-02-01

188

Supercooling and Freezing in Winter Dormant Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a manual for instructing students in a laboratory exercise examining the effects of winter-time supercooling and freezing on animals. This lab would be a suitable supplement to animal physiology or physiological ecology courses.

William D. Schmid (University of Minnesota; )

1988-01-01

189

Freeze Crystallization Processes: Efficiency by Flexibility  

E-print Network

Energy consumption in fractionating solutions by distillation and evaporation can be reduced by 70% to 90% by using freeze crystallization processes. The thermodynamic bases for the substantially lower energy requirements include: 1) The phase...

Heist, J. A.; Barron, T. S.

1983-01-01

190

Surface freezing of n-octane nanodroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface freezing, at temperatures up to a few degrees above the equilibrium melting point, has been observed for intermediate chain length (16? i? 50) n-alkanes [B. M. Ocko, X. Z. Wu, E. B. Sirota, S. K. Sinha, O. Gang and M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55, 3164-3182]. Our recent experimental results suggest that surface freezing is also the first step when highly supercooled nanodroplets of n-octane crystallize. Our data yield surface and bulk nucleation rates on the order of ˜1015/cm2.s and ˜1022/cm3.s, respectively. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations also show that the surface of the droplet freezes almost immediately, and freezing of the remainder of the droplet progresses in a layer-by-layer manner.

Modak, Viraj; Pathak, Harshad; Thayer, Mitchell; Singer, Sherwin; Wyslouzil, Barbara

2013-05-01

191

Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.  

PubMed

Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation between seedlot hardiness and rate of germination. Germination rate and freezing tolerance of Douglas-fir and western red cedar seedlots was negatively correlated. There was a significant correlation between LT50 after 10 days in the growth chamber and minimum spring temperature at the location of seedlot origin for interior spruce and three seedlots of western red cedar, but no relationship was apparent for lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. PMID:14652223

Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

2003-12-01

192

Solutions : FreezePtDepression (20 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It takes 6.86 kg of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) to decrease the freezing point of 6.50 kg of water to -25.0 o F (-31.7 o C). How much sodium chloride (NaCl) would it take to decrease the freezing point of 6.50 kg of water to -25.0 o F? (Assuming all the salt will dissolve in that amount of water.)

193

Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots  

E-print Network

~ order interactions for the attributes mentioned above. From these ~ interactions and correlation coefficients it is evident that some compromises must be made during processing to obtain a quality freese- ' ~ dried compressed carrot bar. The most... LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Triple point of water Compressed freeze-dried carrot bars Compression cell 12 13 Score card for sensory evaluation of freeze-dried carrot bars . 17 First order interaction of sugar x moisture and shedding time...

Macphearson, Bruce Alan

1973-01-01

194

Freezing and Thawing Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lia Kent, of Stemgent's Research and Development team, has created this video to demonstrate "the proper technique for rapidly thawing hES cells from liquid nitrogen stocks, plating them on mouse embryonic feeder cells, and slowly freezing them for long-term storage." The video is also accompanied by protocols for thawing and freezing hES cells, discussion, materials, references, a forum for comments, and a PDF of the full text.

Kent, Lia

195

Freezing Characteristics of Rigid Plant Tissues (Development of Cell Tension during Extracellular Freezing).  

PubMed Central

The freezing characteristics and development of cell tension during extracellular freezing were examined in supercooling stem tissues of riverbank grapes (Vitis riparia) and cold-hardened leaves of live oak (Quercus virginiana) and mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Dormant stem xylem and pith tissues of river-bank grapes were resistant to freeze-induced dehydration above the homogeneous nucleation temperature, and they developed cell tension reaching a maximum of 27 MPa. Similarly, extracellular freezing induced cell tension in the leaves of live oak and mountain cranberry. Maximum cell tension in the leaves of live oak was 16.8 MPa and 8.3 MPa in the leaves of mountain cranberry. Following peak tensions in the leaves, a decline in the pressure was observed with progressive freezing. The results suggest that resistance to cell deformation during extracellular freezing due to cell-wall rigidity can lead to reduced cell dehydration and increased cell tension. A relationship to predict freezing behavior in plant tissues based on cell rigidity is presented. Based on cell-water relations and ice nucleation rates, cell-wall rigidity has been shown to effect the freezing characteristics of plant tissues, including freeze-induced dehydration, supercooling, and homogeneous nucleation temperatures. PMID:12226313

Rajashekar, C. B.; Burke, M. J.

1996-01-01

196

Historical recollections of freeze-drying.  

PubMed

The history of freeze-drying is surprisingly recent. Although Altmann used freeze-drying for the preparation of histological sections as early as 1890, his technique went unnoticed for over 40 years. Shackell independently rediscovered the technique in 1909 for the preservation of biologicals. The industrial applications of freeze-drying do not appear to have been appreciated prior to the patients of Tival in 1927 and Elser in 1934, rapidly followed by the important contributions of Flosdorf in the United States and Greaves in England who were largely responsible for making large scale applications of freeze-drying possible. Stimulated particularly by a series of symposia in England and the United States and the renowned courses on freeze-drying organized by Rey in France, the atmosphere in the 1950s and early 60s was one of optimism for the future of freeze-drying, particularly in its application to food stuffs. Many of the dreams of that time remain unfulfilled, largely because of the higher costs of quality processing. Nevertheless, although the optimism may have somewhat dimmed, the promise remains, and economic changes in the future may well stimulate another surge in development. PMID:801137

Meryman, H T

1976-10-01

197

Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications.  

PubMed

Cells can endure storage at low temperatures such as--196 degrees C for centuries. The challenge is to determine how they can survive both the cooling to such temperatures and the subsequent return to physiological conditions. A major factor is whether they freeze intracellularly. They do so if cooling is too rapid, because with rapid cooling insufficient cell water is removed osmotically to eliminate supercooling. Equations have been developed that describe the kinetics of this water loss and permit one to predict the likelihood of intracellular freezing as a function of cooling rate. Such predictions agree well with observations. Although the avoidance of intracellular freezing is usually necessary for survival, it is not sufficient. Slow freezing itself can be injurious. As ice forms outside the cell, the residual unfrozen medium forms channels of decreasing size and increasing solute concentration. The cells lie in the channels and shrink in osmotic response to the rising solute concentration. Prior theories have ascribed slow freezing injury to the concentration of solutes or the cell shrinkage. Recent experiments, however, indicate that the damage is due more to the decrease in the size of the unfrozen channels. This new view of the mechanism of slow freezing injury ought to facilitate the development of procedures for the preservation of complex assemblages of cells of biological, medical, and agricultural significance. PMID:6383068

Mazur, P

1984-09-01

198

Theory of freezing in simple systems  

SciTech Connect

The transition parameters for the freezing of two one-component liquids into crystalline solids are evaluated by two theoretical approaches. The first system considered is liquid sodium which crystallizes into a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice; the second system is the freezing of adhesive hard spheres into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Two related theoretical techniques are used in this evaluation: One is based upon a recently developed bifurcation analysis; the other is based upon the theory of freezing developed by Ramakrishnan and Yussouff. For liquid sodium, where experimental information is available, the predictions of the two theories agree well with experiment and each other. The adhesive-hard-sphere system, which displays a triple point and can be used to fit some liquids accurately, shows a temperature dependence of the freezing parameters which is similar to Lennard-Jones systems. At very low temperature, the fractional density change on freezing shows a dramatic increase as a function of temperature indicating the importance of all the contributions due to the triplet direction correlation function. Also, we consider the freezing of a one-component liquid into a simple-cubic (sc) lattice by bifurcation analysis and show that this transition is highly unfavorable, independent of interatomic potential choice. The bifurcation diagrams for the three lattices considered are compared and found to be strikingly different. Finally, a new stability analysis of the bifurcation diagrams is presented.

Cerjan, C.; Bagchi, B.

1985-03-01

199

Shadowgraph Study of Gradient Driven Fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluid or fluid mixture, subjected to a vertical temperature and/or concentration gradient in a gravitational field, exhibits greatly enhanced light scattering at small angles. This effect is caused by coupling between the vertical velocity fluctuations due to thermal energy and the vertically varying refractive index. Physically, small upward or downward moving regions will be displaced into fluid having a refractive index different from that of the moving region, thus giving rise to the enhanced scattering. The scattered intensity is predicted to vary with scattering wave vector q, as q(sup -4), for sufficiently large q, but the divergence is quenched by gravity at small q. In the absence of gravity, the long wavelength fluctuations responsible for the enhanced scattering are predicted to grow until limited by the sample dimensions. It is thus of interest to measure the mean-squared amplitude of such fluctuations in the microgravity environment for comparison with existing theory and ground based measurements. The relevant wave vectors are extremely small, making traditional low-angle light scattering difficult or impossible because of stray elastically scattered light generated by optical surfaces. An alternative technique is offered by the shadowgraph method, which is normally used to visualize fluid flows, but which can also serve as a quantitative tool to measure fluctuations. A somewhat novel shadowgraph apparatus and the necessary data analysis methods will be described. The apparatus uses a spatially coherent, but temporally incoherent, light source consisting of a super-luminescent diode coupled to a single-mode optical fiber in order to achieve extremely high spatial resolution, while avoiding effects caused by interference of light reflected from the various optical surfaces that are present when using laser sources. Results obtained for a critical mixture of aniline and cyclohexane subjected to a vertical temperature gradient will be presented. The sample was confined between two horizontal parallel sapphire plates with a vertical spacing of 1 mm. The temperatures of the sapphire plates were controlled by independent circulating water loops that used Peltier devices to add or remove heat from the room air as required. For a mixture with a temperature gradient, two effects are involved in generating the vertical refractive index gradient, namely thermal expansion and the Soret effect, which generates a concentration gradient in response to the applied temperature gradient. For the aniline/cyclohexane system, the denser component (aniline) migrates toward the colder surface. Consequently, when heating from above, both effects result in the sample density decreasing with altitude and are stabilizing in the sense that no convective motion occurs regardless of the magnitude of the applied temperature gradient. The Soret effect is strong near a binary liquid critical point, and thus the dominant effect is due to the induced concentration gradient. The results clearly show the divergence at low q and the predicted gravitational quenching. Results obtained for different applied temperature gradients at varying temperature differences from the critical temperature, clearly demonstrate the predicted divergence of the thermal diffusion ratio. Thus, the more closely the critical point is approached, the smaller becomes the temperature gradient required to generate the same signal. Two different methods have been used to generate pure concentration gradients. In the first, a sample cell was filled with a single fluid, ethylene glycol, and a denser miscible fluid, water, was added from below thus establishing a sharp interface to begin the experiment. As time went on the two fluids diffused into each other, and large amplitude fluctuations were clearly observed at low q. The effects of gravitational quenching were also evident. In the second method, the aniline/cyclohexane sample was used, and after applying a vertical temperature gradient for several hours, the top and bottom temperatures were set equal and the thermal

Cannell, David; Nikolaenko, Gennady; Giglio, Marzio; Vailati, Alberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Meyer, William

2002-01-01

200

Vertical distribution of larval fish in pelagic waters of southwest Lake Michigan: Implications for growth, survival, and dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to variability in biotic and abiotic conditions along a vertical gradient within aquatic systems, the vertical distribution of larval fish can profoundly affect their growth and survival. In large systems such as the Great Lakes, vertical distribution patterns also can influence dispersal and ultimately settlement events. The objective was to describe the diel vertical distribution of the larval fish

Benjamin T. Martin; Sergiusz J. Czesny; David H. Wahl

2011-01-01

201

Freeze Tolerance of Nine Zoysiagrass Cultivars Using Natural Cold Acclimation and Freeze Chambers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter hardiness of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars is an important attribute throughout the biogeographical transition zone, thus the inability to withstand freezing temperatures may limit the use of these cultivars. The objective of this research was to determine the freeze tolerance (LT50) of...

202

Freezing Models For Heterogeneous Drop Freezing In Immersion and Contact Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements showed that supercooled liquid water drops and frozen drops can coexist in tropospheric clouds at temperatures down to -40 C with an incidence of ice particles already at -4 C. The freezing behaviour of water drops depends on their sizes, on their content of soluble particles (freezing point depression) and of insoluble particles (potential immersion ice nuclei) as

K. Diehl; S. Wurzler

2002-01-01

203

Temperature gradients, not food resource gradients, affect growth rate of migrating Daphnia mendotae in Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

production plays a critical role in the Great Lakes ecosystem, and vertical migration, which is exhibited The production of zooplankton is important to Great Lakes eco- systems, as zooplankton serve as a critical food of a day which can in turn affect zooplankton production. Gradients in water temperature and food resources

Peacor, Scott

204

Monitoring active layer thaw and freeze-back in four different periglacial landforms in Svalbard using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thawing and freezing of the active layer has an important impact on the underlying permafrost through latent heat effects and changes in effective thermal conductivity and mechanisms of heat transport. Information on the active layer freeze/thaw dynamics is therefore important to understand the permafrost response to climate variability. In addition, active layer deepening may be an early sign of permafrost degradation, making monitoring programs such as the CALM network important. Active layer depths are traditionally measured by mechanical probing in fine-grained sediments or by vertical arrays of ground temperature sensors. The first technique prevents measurements to be made in stony sediments, while the latter technique gives only a point value of the active layer depth. In this study we have tested Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) as a tool to measure and monitor active layer depth and freeze/thaw dynamics. The electrical resistivity of the ground is largely dependent on the unfrozen water content, making resistivity monitoring a potentially valuable tool to delineate freeze and thaw extent, and patterns in soil moisture. The results presented here are part of the IPY 2007-2009 research project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard' (TSP NORWAY) and the IPA periglacial working group project on 'High-Resolution Periglacial Climate Indicators'. Electrode arrays were installed permanently in four different periglacial landforms in the Adventdalen valley area in central Svalbard; a solifluction slope in May 2007, a loess terrace (the UNISCALM site) in September 2007, and a mudboil site and ice-wedge site in June 2009 (Watanabe et al., submitted). The arrays were 16m long, giving maximum profile depths of 2m, and electrodes were installed with 0.2m spacing. Measurements were made with irregular but approximately two- to four-week time intervals, depending on weather conditions and instrument availability. Data are available until autumn 2009 for all sites, and until autumn 2010 for the mudboil and ice-wedge sites. Ground temperature and soil moisture is monitored at all four sites, and mechanical probing of thaw depth progression was performed along with the resistivity measurements for parts of the period. The apparent resistivity raw data error is low in the summer, but in the wintertime 40 to 50% of the data was excluded in the worst cases. The errors are higher in the dry loess site also in the summer, compared to the other three relatively wet sites. After inverting the raw data to give subsurface models of the specific resistivity, depth of investigation mapping was made to identify model areas that were not well constrained by the data. The models show good reliability except at the model edges, in some cases of steep resistivity gradients and at local resistivity extremes. Preliminary results of this study have been presented (Juliussen et al 2010, Oswald 2010), but here the aim is to (1) quantify the accuracy of ERT-based thaw depth estimates as compared to the probed depths, and (2) to analyze the resistivity values with respect to soil moisture and temperature data and ground ice content obtained from coring.

Juliussen, H.; Oswald, A.; Watanabe, T.; Christiansen, H. H.; Matsuoka, N.

2012-04-01

205

High-speed Imaging of Freezing Drops: Investigating the Role of Point-like Contact in Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of ice by contact nucleation remains enigmatic and the possible role of the three-phase boundary (i.e., liquid water-ice-aerosol contact line) is still undetermined. Because aerosol size, surface area, composition and exact region of contact remain difficult to measure, we examine a simpler geometry with a spherical cap droplet resting on a substrate. In this configuration, the droplet simultaneously experiences a two-phase immersion region and a three phase contact region around the perimeter of the droplet. Utilizing high speed imaging of the droplet-substrate plane, we are able to identify nucleation sites in individual droplets. This technique allows for a spatial distribution of freezing sites in addition to a freezing temperature distribution. Our initial study indicated no preference for nucleation originating at the three phase boundary for an atomically smooth homogenous substrate [1]. The nucleation site distribution agreed well with the stochastic view in that the germ sites are distributed uniformly over the surface area. In that study we minimized the thermal variation (?T) across a droplet during cooling to prevent biased observations. We also compared ?T for several experiments in literature using a simple formulation of droplet size (r) and cooling rate (?). Large variations in some experiments could possibly explain observed 'contact nucleation' events in the laboratory as artifacts of radial thermal variations during droplet cooling. As a continuation of this study, we redesigned our system to enable much greater substrate cooling rates, but these experiments too revealed no preference for nucleation in the contact mode. Thermal modeling of the new system confirmed that while a vertical thermal gradient does develop within the droplet, no horizontal gradient is induced in the drop near the substrate. This result argues against a thermodynamic bias toward contact nucleation in substrate cooled geometries. Another possible explanation for this contact phenomenon comes in a lowering of the energy barrier for nucleation due to the existence of a line tension at the point of contact. A scale analysis of the line and surface energy values available in the literature suggests that line tension may become dominant below length scales of ~10 nm [1]. From this simple result we postulate that 'point-like' surface features might play an important role at the three phase boundary. To mimic these features on substrates we introduce chemical and mechanical processes to enhance substrate surface roughness. Using these new substrates we repeat our experimental procedure to compare effectiveness of the immersion (two phase) and contact (three phase) regions for a variety of surface topologies. Here we report the initial findings from this work. 1. Gurganus, C.; Kostinski, A. B.; Shaw, R. A., Fast Imaging of Freezing Drops: No Preference for Nucleation at the Contact Line. J Phys Chem Lett 2011, 2 (12) Identifying nucleation sites with two high speed cameras.

Gurganus, C.; Charnawskas, J.; Shaw, R. A.; Kostinski, A. B.

2013-12-01

206

Eddy-Driven Buoyancy Gradients on Eastern Boundaries and Their Role in the Thermocline  

E-print Network

Eddy-Driven Buoyancy Gradients on Eastern Boundaries and Their Role in the Thermocline PAOLA CESSI that eddy fluxes of buoyancy at the eastern and western boundaries maintain alongshore buoyancy gradients buoyancy gradients normal to the boundary are strong. The eddy fluxes are accompanied by mean vertical

Cessi, Paola

207

Seismic velocity gradients in the upper mantle  

SciTech Connect

The radial velocity gradients for P- and S- waves in the upper mantle are of considerable interest for petrological studies of the upper mantle but are difficult to constrain directly. Comparison of three different styles of velocity model, constructed within a common parameterization to give a good fit to the travel times of P- and S-waves to 30{degree}, provide a useful framework for constructing bounds on the radial gradients. For depths from 250-1,000 km a somewhat subjective set of bounds are suggested for the velocity gradients and velocity contrasts at the major discontinuities in an average mantle. One of the most significant factors affecting the estimation of radial gradients is the presence of small-scale heterogeneity in the mantle. Modest heterogeneity, around 1 percent perturbations on scale lengths of about 300 km, can give rise to horizontal velocity gradients which can overwhelm the radial gradients in the shallower parts of the mantle and still be a quarter of the size of the radial gradients at greater depths. However such scales of heterogeneity are unlikely to simulate the presence of additional upper mantle discontinuities for ray paths travelling near vertical.

Kennett, B.L.N.

1991-06-01

208

Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery. PMID:25428024

Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

2015-01-01

209

Freezing of Lennard-Jones-type fluids  

SciTech Connect

We put forward an approximate method to locate the fluid-solid (freezing) phase transition in systems of classical particles interacting via a wide range of Lennard-Jones-type potentials. This method is based on the constancy of the properly normalized second derivative of the interaction potential (freezing indicator) along the freezing curve. As demonstrated recently it yields remarkably good agreement with previous numerical simulation studies of the conventional 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid [S.A.Khrapak, M.Chaudhuri, G.E.Morfill, Phys. Rev. B 134, 052101 (2010)]. In this paper, we test this approach using a wide range of the LJ-type potentials, including LJ n-6 and exp-6 models, and find that it remains sufficiently accurate and reliable in reproducing the corresponding freezing curves, down to the triple-point temperatures. One of the possible application of the method--estimation of the freezing conditions in complex (dusty) plasmas with ''tunable'' interactions--is briefly discussed.

Khrapak, Sergey A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chaudhuri, Manis; Morfill, Gregor E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

2011-02-07

210

Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the response of soil macroaggregate dynamics to soil temperature modification along a spatial gradient located\\u000a on a forested north-facing slope in the southern French Alps, simulating long-term adjustment of soil–plant interactions to\\u000a absence or occurrence of soil frost. Soil macroaggregate (>250 ?m) content of Ah horizons was strongly depleted (72%) in colder\\u000a plots affected by freeze-thaw events, compared to

Lauric Cécillon; Nilvania A. de Mello; Sébastien De Danieli; Jean-Jacques Brun

2010-01-01

211

A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Protection of the functional integrity of mononuclear cells stored in liquid N2 requires careful control of the freezing procedure. Consequently, optimal quality of cryopreserved cells is usually assured by freezing according to a specified time-temperature gradient generated by computer-controlled freezing devices. While such equipment offers large capacity and secures maximum survival and functional integrity of the lymphocytes upon thawing, it is quite costly and strictly stationary. We have previously developed and tested an alternative, manual device for controlled-gradient lymphocyte freezing, which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface and the neck in an ordinary liquid N2 refrigerator. The lymphocyte samples are placed in a small elevator, which is moved through the N2 gas phase by a stepper motor. Time and temperature are measured at regular intervals, and the position of the samples adjusted to ensure that the actual measurements closely match encoded ideal values. Results of assays of the functional integrity and phenotypic composition of human mononuclear cells frozen by the new system were comparable to those obtained when using cells frozen by a commercially available, stationary cell-freezing equipment, or fresh autologous cell samples tested in parallel. Furthermore, there was a good correlation between functional and phenotypic data obtained using frozen and autologous fresh samples of mononuclear cells. The equipment described is low weight and has low N2 consumption, and is thus suitable for the collection and cryopreservation of lymphocytes under field conditions. Furthermore, the technique provides an inexpensive alternative for researchers with a limited requirement for the simultaneous freezing of large quantities of cells. PMID:8423356

Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B; Theander, T G; Talbot, A

1993-01-01

212

Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

Howard, F. S.

1973-01-01

213

UltraViolet freeze-in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If dark matter is thermally decoupled from the visible sector, the observed relic density can potentially be obtained via freeze-in production of dark matter. Typically in such models it is assumed that the dark matter is connected to the thermal bath through feeble renormalisable interactions. Here, rather, we consider the case in which the hidden and visible sectors are coupled only via non-renormalisable operators. This is arguably a more generic realisation of the dark matter freeze-in scenario, as it does not require the introduction of diminutive renormalisable couplings. We examine general aspects of freeze-in via non-renormalisable operators in a number of toy models and present several motivated implementations in the context of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics. Specifically, we study models related to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and Z ' portals.

Elahi, Fatemeh; Kolda, Christopher; Unwin, James

2015-03-01

214

Freeze verification: time for a fresh approach  

SciTech Connect

The administration's claim that some elements of a comprehensive nuclear freeze are unverifiable does not specify the nature of those elements and whether they represent a real threat to national security if we trusted the USSR to comply. The author contends that clandestine development of new weapons will have little strategic effect since both sides already have total destructive power. The risks of noncompliance are largely political and less than the risks of continued arms buildup. Since the USSR would also want the US to be bound by freeze terms, deterrence would come from mutual benefit. Hardliners argue that cheating is easier in a closed society; that our democracy would tend to relax and the USSR would move ahead with its plans for world domination. The author argues that, over time, a freeze would diminish Soviet confidence in its nuclear war fighting capabilities and that adequate verification is possible with monitoring and warning arrangements. (DCK)

Paine, C.

1983-01-01

215

Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.  

PubMed

Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K). PMID:23812315

Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

2013-01-01

216

TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND GLACIATION  

E-print Network

TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND GLACIATION Chris Brierley & Alexey Fedorov #12;Outline Recap on the warm gradients Heat Transfer Process Meridional SST Grad Zonal SST Grad Surface Temperature -3.2 oC -0.8 oC Water early Pliocene (as we have reconstructed it) Methodology to compare meridional SST gradient impacts

Jones, Peter JS

217

Vertical Map Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

Perry, Joanne M.

1982-01-01

218

Physiological responses to freezing in hatchlings of freeze-tolerant and -intolerant turtles.  

PubMed

Freeze tolerance is a complex cold-hardiness adaptation that has independently evolved in a diverse group of organisms, including several ectothermic vertebrates. Because little is known about the mechanistic basis for freeze tolerance in reptiles, we compared responses to experimental freezing in winter-acclimatized hatchlings representing nine taxa of temperate North American turtles, including ones that tolerated freezing and others that did not. Viability rates of hatchlings frozen to -3 degrees C for 72 h ranged from 0 to 100%. Tolerance to freezing was poor in Sternotherus odoratus, Graptemys geographica and Trachemys scripta, intermediate in Chelydra serpentina, and high in Emydoidea blandingii, Chrysemys picta bellii, C. p. marginata, Malaclemys terrapin, and Terrapene ornata, and generally reflected the winter thermal ecology of each taxon. Plasma activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a novel in vivo index of freeze/thaw damage, corroborated viability assessments and demonstrated that cryoinjury occurred even in surviving turtles. Irrespective of taxon, cryoinjury tended to be higher in smaller individuals and in those having relatively low water contents; however, bases for these associations were not apparent. Screening for certain organic osmolytes that might promote freezing survival by colligatively reducing ice content and limiting cell dehydration showed that the plasma of unfrozen (control) turtles contained small quantities of glucose (1.3-5.8 mmol l(-1)) and lactate (0.6-3.2 mmol l(-1)) and modest amounts of urea (range of mean values for all taxa 8.2-52.3 mmol l(-1)). Frozen/thawed turtles of all taxa accumulated modest amounts of glucose and lactate that jointly raised the plasma solute concentration by 30-100 mmol l(-1). We conclude that organic osmolytes accumulated both before and during freezing may promote survival in species that have evolved a tolerance to freezing, but are not necessarily accumulated for that purpose. PMID:16758216

Costanzo, Jon P; Baker, Patrick J; Lee, Richard E

2006-09-01

219

Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

Cross, Rod

2007-11-01

220

Vertical axis wind turbines  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

2011-03-08

221

The vertical thermohaline structure in the Argentine basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical thermohaline structure in the central Argentine basin is investigated on the basis of high-resolution hydrographic data. Emphasis is placed on fronts, their horizontal gradients, vertical stability and associated fine structure. Horizontal thermohaline gradients vary strongly with depth, regions of strong gradients alternating with those of weak gradients. The strongest gradients occur often at depths below the upper mixed layer. The salinity gradient maximum occurs above the temperature gradient maximum. Enhanced gradients are found where warm, salty water moves over cooler, fresher water such as between the subtropical water (STW) and antarctic intermediate water (AAIW) and between the North Atlantic deep water (NADW) and the antarctic bottom water (AABW). Temperature, salinity, and density fronts do not always coexist. Density-compensating temperature and salinity fronts occur in the surface layer of the subantarctic and at abyssal depth below 3500 m. Vertical profiles of the Väisälä frequency indicate much reduced hydrostatic stabilities in the Brazil current and subantarctic frontal zones. Potential vorticity minima indicate the formation of subantarctic mode water just north of the subantarctic front and its subsequent northward and upward spread across isopycnals. The thermohaline fine structure is vertically intermittent. The amplitude variances between the enhanced and quiet regions vary by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Enhanced fine structure amplitudes are found near the STW-AAIW and NADW-AABW interfaces, where large horizontal thermohaline gradients occur and the hydrostatic stability is low. The temperature and salinity fine structures are largely density compensating. The coherence between the temperature and salinity fine structure is strongly depth dependent and is highest in regions where warm, salty water moves over cooler, fresher water.

Roden, Gunnar I.

1989-01-01

222

Nucleation Pathways For Freezing Of Two Grades Of Zirconium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses classical nucleation theory of freezing and describes experimental study of nucleation mechanisms that predominate during freezing of spherical specimens of initially molten zirconium levitated electrostatically in vacuum.

Rhim, Won-Kyu; Rulison, Aaron; Bayuzick, Robert; Hofmeister, William; Morton, Craig

1996-01-01

223

7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...638 Freezing the mix. After the...

2010-01-01

224

Rupture of Cylindrical Ice Model and Tuna Fish during Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gape and heave produced on the surface of tuna fish during freezing were confirmed by rupture of cylindrical type ice model. The results of experiment were shown as summarized below; 1) in case of restraining the progress of ice formation of model during freezing,any rupture was produced at not only slow freezing but also quick freezing. It was the same as tuna fish; 2) in case of closing surface of ice model covered perfectly by outside shell ice during slow freezing,it was not ruptured at not only ice model but also tuna fish. On the contrary it was cracked at quick freezing not only ice model but also tuna fish; 3) therefore it was confirmed that the rupture of tuna fish during freezing had been easy to produce at quick freezing.

Ogawa, Yutaka; Uno, Mitsuyo

225

Device and method for determining freezing points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

1986-01-01

226

FUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR CALIFORNIA: FREEZING ISOCLINES,  

E-print Network

of the desert and Central Valley regions may experience expanding and novel climates, while conditions alongFUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR CALIFORNIA: FREEZING ISOCLINES, NOVEL CLIMATES, AND CLIMATIC Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC-500-2012-022 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by

227

Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

228

Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic

Monwhea Jeng

2005-01-01

229

Hiring Freeze Exception Request Form Position Title  

E-print Network

Hiring Freeze Exception Request Form Page 1 Position Title: Position Number: Department: Division Delivery of essential University services Courses necessary for timely graduation Position is critical to of this position and the direct impact on core and essential business operations. Explain the negative impact

Weston, Ken

230

A Fast Hadron Freeze-out Generator  

E-print Network

We have developed a fast Monte Carlo procedure of hadron generation allowing one to study and analyze various observables for stable hadrons and hadron resonances produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Particle multiplicities are determined based on the concept of chemical freeze-out. Particles can be generated on the chemical or thermal freeze-out hypersurface represented by a parameterization or a numerical solution of relativistic hydrodynamics with given initial conditions and equation of state. Besides standard space-like sectors associated with the volume decay, the hypersurface may also include non-space-like sectors related to the emission from the surface of expanding system. For comparison with other models and experimental data we demonstrate the results based on the standard parameterizations of the hadron freeze-out hypersurface and flow velocity profile under the assumption of a common chemical and thermal freeze-out. The C++ generator code is written under the ROOT framework and is available for public use at http://uhkm.jinr.ru/.

N. S. Amelin; R. Lednicky; T. A. Pocheptsov; I. P. Lokhtin; L. V. Malinina; A. M. Snigirev; Iu. A. Karpenko; Yu. M. Sinyukov

2006-10-13

231

Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Snow and Ice Data Center provide these data showing the "cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius." Two data files, one each for the freezing and thaw data, and a readme file are available. A Fortran program is provided in the data documentation to read the data that are in flat binary format.

232

The SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Gene, Required for Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, Encodes a ?-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

The sensitive to freezing2-1 (sfr2-1) mutation causes freezing sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. By mapping, transgenic complementation, and sequencing, sfr2-1 was revealed to be a mutation in gene At3g06510. A new knockout allele was obtained, and its identical freezing-sensitive phenotype confirmed that the SFR2 gene product is essential for freezing tolerance. Transcription of SFR2 was observed to be constitutive rather than stress inducible and was distributed throughout most aerial tissues. SFR2 encodes a protein homologous to family 1 glycosyl hydrolases (?-glycosidases), but the predicted AtSFR2 protein is divergent from all other family 1 ?-glycosidases of Arabidopsis, showing closer homology to the sequences of several ?-glycosidases from thermophilic archea and bacteria. After purification from a heterologous expression system, AtSFR2 displayed a specific hydrolytic activity against ?-d-glucosides. PMID:15258268

Thorlby, Glenn; Fourrier, Nicolas; Warren, Gareth

2004-01-01

233

A timescale investigation of volatile chemical retention during hydrometeor freezing: Nonrime freezing  

E-print Network

disagreement found in the studies. The theory-based analysis and methodology presented in this paper can] Collision of supercooled water with ice and subse- quent freezing to form graupel and hail is an important

Jacobson, Mark

234

Freezing and anoxia tolerance of slugs: a metabolic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing survival was assessed in three species of terrestrial slugs, a holarctic but native North American species, Deroceras laeve, and two species introduced from Europe, D. reticulatum and Arion\\u000a circumscriptus. The introduced species showed very poor freezing survival. Supercooling points of the introduced species were quite high\\u000a (??3°C) and their freezing survival was very poor, limited to short-term freezing at

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey; Thomas A. Churchill

2007-01-01

235

New Type of Freezing-Point Apparatus. Freezing Points of Dilute Lanthanum Chloride Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of freezing-point apparatus is described that reduces the errors of previous types. The freezing-point depressions of aqueous lanthanum chloride solutions up to 0.04 m are adequately expressed by the Debye-Hu¨ckel approximation for ions with a=6.15 A plus a very small linear term. The ``higher terms'' are computed by combining the equations of Mayer and Kirkwood, using the

G. Scatchard; B. Vonnegut; D. W. Beaumont

1960-01-01

236

Monitoring freeze-thaw cycles along north-south Alaskan transects using ERS-1 SAR  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring freeze-thaw cycles of high latitude terrestrial ecosystems is useful for estimating the length of the growing season and annual productivity in the tundra and in boreal forests, for estimating potential damage to living plants due to frost drought, and for evaluating major changes in heat fluxes between land and atmosphere. At microwave frequencies, freezing results in a dramatic decrease of the dielectric constant of soil and vegetation, which significantly alters their radar scattering properties. In this article the authors investigate the possibility of monitoring freeze-thaw cycles of terrestrial ecosystems using C-band frequency (5.3 GHz), vertical transmit and receive polarization, synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data gathered by the European Space Agency's Earth Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1). Repeat-pass SAR images are mosaicked together along a north-south transect across Alaska, coregistered, and analyzed using a change detection algorithm that determines when the landscape freezes based on a decrease in radar backscatter greater than 3 dB relative to a known thawed, wet state of the landscape. Air-temperature recordings from seven airport weather stations and in situ observations from three monitored forest stands in interior Alaska concur to indicate SAR accurately maps frozen areas across the entire state. The technique does not apply to open water areas because calm water and frozen water are confused. Elsewhere, ERS-1 SAR could monitor thaw/freeze transitions of terrestrial ecosystems at the regional scale, at a spatial resolution of several tens of meters and independent of cloud cover and vegetation type.

Rignot, E.; Way, J.B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

237

VISUALIZATION OF FREEZING PROGRESSION IN TURFGRASSES USING INFRARED VIDEO THERMOGRAPHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Freezing injury can be a significant problem in turfgrasses. Understanding how freezing develops and ramifies throughout the plant could assist in the development of improved management or screening processes for cultivar improvemen. The development of freezing injury is not well understand due pa...

238

Foliar applied urea improves freezing protection to avocado and peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of foliar applied urea on freeze hardiness was evaluated under orchard and laboratory conditions. Freezing injury and senescence of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. ‘Hass’ leaves in the orchard was inversely correlated to N content. Three foliar applications of 2% low-biuret urea caused a 26% nitrogen enrichment of leaves. Consequently, leaf freezing hardiness was increased and senescence retarded.

S. Zilkah; Z. Wiesmann; I. Klein; I. David

1996-01-01

239

STABILIZATION OF THE PHOSPHATE RATIO OF SEA WATER BY FREEZING  

E-print Network

STABILIZATION OF THE PHOSPHATE RATIO OF SEA WATER BY FREEZING BY ALBERT W. COLLIER AND KENNETH T, Director STABILIZATION OF THE PHOSPHATE RATIO OF SEA WATER BY FREEZING By ALBERT W. COLLIER and KENNETH T_________________________________________________ 76 u #12;STABILIZATION OF THE PHOSPHATE RATIO OF SEA WATER BY FREEZING By ALBERT W. COLLIER, Fishery

240

Interspecific analysis of xylem freezing responses in Acer and Betula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperate woody plants have evolved two methods for coping with seasonal exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Supercooling is a freeze-avoidance strategy where cells are able to resist the freezing of intracellular water below sub-zero temperatures. Non-supercooling is a freeze-tolerance strategy wh...

241

FREEZING-STRESS-RESPONSIVE GENES AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Injury of barley plants by spring freezing is a major cause of crop loss, but most cold tolerance research has focused on cold acclimation, which confers freezing tolerance upon exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. In order to address freezing tolerance per se, we have chosen a cold sensitive ...

242

High-Rayleigh-Number Convection in a Vertical Channel M. Gibert,* H. Pabiou, F. Chilla`, and B. Castaing  

E-print Network

High-Rayleigh-Number Convection in a Vertical Channel M. Gibert,* H. Pabiou, F. Chilla`, and B between convective heat flux and temperature gradient in a vertical channel filled with water, the average of the temperature gradient. Consequently, inertial processes should control the convection, with poor influence

Boyer, Edmond

243

Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

2002-01-01

244

Impact of DNA extraction method on bacterial community composition measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of DNA extraction protocol on soil DNA yield and bacterial community composition was evaluated. Three different procedures to physically disrupt cells were compared: sonication, grinding–freezing–thawing, and bead beating. The three protocols were applied to three different topsoils. For all soils, we found that each DNA extraction method resulted in unique community patterns as measured by denaturing gradient gel

Julia R. de Lipthay; Christiane Enzinger; Kaare Johnsen; Jens Aamand; Søren J. Sørensen

2004-01-01

245

Influence of heterogeneous freezing on the microphysical and radiative properties of orographic cirrus clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of heterogeneous freezing on the microphysical and optical properties of orographic cirrus clouds has been simulated with the large eddy simulation model EULAG. Idealised simulations with different concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) in a dynamically dominated regime with high vertical velocities have been performed. Furthermore the temperature at cloud formation as well as the critical supersaturation for initiation of heterogenous freezing have been varied. The shortwave, longwave and net cloud forcing has been calculated under the assumption that the clouds form between 06:00 and 12:00 local time (LT) or between 12:00 and 18:00 LT. In general it can be seen that the onset of homogeneous freezing is shifted in time depending on the IN concentration, as part of the available water vapour is depleted before the critical threshold for homogeneous freezing is reached. Although the high vertical velocities in an orographic gravity wave lead to a strong adiabatic cooling followed by high ice supersaturations, even a small number concentration of IN of the order of 5 L-1 is able to strongly decrease the simulated ice crystal number burden (ICNB), ice water path (IWP) and optical depth of the cloud. In general, the ICNB, IWP and optical depth strongly decrease when the IN concentrations are increased from 0 to 50 L-1. The absolute values of the shortwave, longwave and net cloud forcing are also reduced with increasing IN concentrations. A cloud will produce a net warming or cooling depending on the IN concentration, the temperature and the time of day when the cloud forms. The clouds that form between 06:00 and 12:00 LT are mainly cooling, whereas the clouds with the same microphysical properties can lead to a warming when they form between 12:00 and 18:00 LT. In order to predict the radiative forcing of cirrus clouds it is therefore necessary to take the correct dynamical and thermodynamical processes as well as the possible existence and freezing threshold of heterogeneous IN into account, not only for low vertical velocities but also for dynamically dominated regimes like orographic cirrus.

Joos, H.; Spichtinger, P.; Reutter, P.; Fusina, F.

2014-07-01

246

Modelling the Bicoid gradient  

PubMed Central

Morphogen gradients provide embryonic tissues with positional information by inducing target genes at different concentration thresholds and thus at different positions. The Bicoid morphogen gradient in Drosophila melanogaster embryos has recently been analysed quantitatively, yet how it forms remains a matter of controversy. Several biophysical models that rely on production, diffusion and degradation have been formulated to account for the observed dynamics of the Bicoid gradient, but no one model can account for all its characteristics. Here, we discuss how existing data on this gradient fit the various proposed models and what aspects of gradient formation these models fail to explain. We suggest that knowing a few additional parameters, such as the lifetime of Bicoid, would help to identify and develop better models of Bicoid gradient formation. PMID:20570935

Grimm, Oliver; Coppey, Mathieu; Wieschaus, Eric

2010-01-01

247

Offset vertical radar profiling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

Witten, A.; Lane, J.

2003-01-01

248

Optimization in gradient networks.  

PubMed

Gradient networks can be used to model the dominant structure of complex networks. Previous work has focused on random gradient networks. Here we study gradient networks that minimize jamming on substrate networks with scale-free and Erdos-Renyi structure. We introduce structural correlations and strongly reduce congestion occurring on the network by using a Monte Carlo optimization scheme. This optimization alters the degree distribution and other structural properties of the resulting gradient networks. These results are expected to be relevant for transport and other dynamical processes in real network systems. PMID:17614692

Gulbahce, Natali

2007-06-01

249

Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1996-12-31

250

Mapping of solution components, pH changes, protein stability and the elimination of protein precipitation during freeze-thawing of fibroblast growth factor 20.  

PubMed

This study discusses the effect of key factors like containers, buffers and the freeze (controlled vs. flash freezing) and thawing processes on the stability of a therapeutic protein fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20). The freezing profiles monitored by 15 temperature probes located at different regions in a 2-L bottle during freezing can be grouped into three categories. A rapid drop in temperature was observed at the bottom followed by the top and middle center of the bottle. The freeze-thawing behavior in a 50 ml tube is considerably uniform, as expected. Among phosphate, HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine ethanesulfonic acid), citrate and histidine (each containing 0.5 M arginine-sulfate) buffer systems, a minimum pH change (0.4 pH unit vs. approximately 1.7 pH unit) was observed for the phosphate buffer system. Thawing in a 50 ml tube at room temperature standing resulted in a significant phase separation in citrate, histidine and HEPES buffers; however, phase separation was least in the phosphate buffer system. These phase separations were found to be temperature dependent. No effect of Polysorbate 80 on freeze-thawing of FGF-20 was observed. Significant concentration gradients in major buffer components and protein concentration were observed during freeze-thawing in a 2-L bottle. The segregation patterns of the various components were similar with the top and bottom layers containing lowest and highest concentrations, respectively. In the formulation buffer no pH gradient was formed, and the precipitation of FGF-20 during thawing at the top layer was related to an insufficient amount of arginine-sulfate and the precipitation at the bottom layer was due to a salting out effect. The precipitate generated during thawing goes into solution easily upon mixing whole solution of the bottle and the various gradient formations do not cause any irreversible change in structure, stability and isoform distribution of FGF-20. Comparison of slow freezing and flash freezing data suggests that the gradients in excipient and protein concentrations are mainly formed during thawing. PMID:19505546

Maity, Haripada; Karkaria, Cyrus; Davagnino, Juan

2009-08-13

251

Hibernation physiology, freezing adaptation and extreme freeze tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog.  

PubMed

We investigated hibernation physiology and freeze tolerance in a population of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, indigenous to Interior Alaska, USA, near the northernmost limit of the species' range. Winter acclimatization responses included a 233% increase in the hepatic glycogen depot that was subsidized by fat body and skeletal muscle catabolism, and a rise in plasma osmolality that reflected accrual of urea (to 106±10 ?mol ml(-1)) and an unidentified solute (to ~73 ?mol ml(-1)). In contrast, frogs from a cool-temperate population (southern Ohio, USA) amassed much less glycogen, had a lower uremia (28±5 ?mol ml(-1)) and apparently lacked the unidentified solute. Alaskan frogs survived freezing at temperatures as low as -16°C, some 10-13°C below those tolerated by southern conspecifics, and endured a 2-month bout of freezing at -4°C. The profound freeze tolerance is presumably due to their high levels of organic osmolytes and bound water, which limits ice formation. Adaptive responses to freezing (-2.5°C for 48 h) and subsequent thawing (4°C) included synthesis of the cryoprotectants urea and glucose, and dehydration of certain tissues. Alaskan frogs differed from Ohioan frogs in retaining a substantial reserve capacity for glucose synthesis, accumulating high levels of cryoprotectants in brain tissue, and remaining hyperglycemic long after thawing. The northern phenotype also incurred less stress during freezing/thawing, as indicated by limited cryohemolysis and lactate accumulation. Post-glacial colonization of high latitudes by R. sylvatica required a substantial increase in freeze tolerance that was at least partly achieved by enhancing their cryoprotectant system. PMID:23966588

Costanzo, Jon P; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

2013-09-15

252

To freeze or not to: Quantum correlations under local decoherence  

E-print Network

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for freezing of quantum correlations as measured by the quantum discord and the quantum work deficit in the case of bipartite as well as multipartite states subjected to local noisy channels. We recognize that inhomogeneity of the magnetizations of the shared quantum states plays an important role in the freezing phenomena. We show that the frozen value of the quantum correlation and the time interval for freezing follow a complementarity relation. For states which do not exhibit freezing properties, but can be frozen effectively by suitable tuning of the state parameters, we introduce an index -- the freezing index -- to quantify the goodness of freezing. We find that the freezing index can be used to detect quantum phase transitions and discuss the corresponding scaling behavior.

Titas Chanda; Amit Kumar Pal; Anindya Biswas; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

2014-09-07

253

Study of Transient Nuclei near Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molasses tail in dense hard core fluids is investigated by extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulation through the orientational autocorrelation functions. Near the fluid- solid phase transition, there exist three regimes in the relaxation of the pair orientational autocorrelation function, namely the kinetic, molasses (stretched exponential), and diffusional power decay. The density dependence of both the molasses and diffusional power regimes are evaluated and the latter compares with theoretical predictions in three dimensions. The largest cluster at the freezing density of only a few sphere diameter in size persist for only about 30 picoseconds (˜2.8 x10-11[s]). The most striking observation through the bond orientatinal order parameter is the dramatic increase of the cluster size as the freezing density is approached.

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2011-03-01

254

Study of Transient Nuclei near Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molasses tail in dense hard core fluids is investigated by extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulation through the orientational autocorrelation functions. Near the fluid-solid phase transition, there exist three regimes in the relaxation of the pair orientational autocorrelation function, namely the kinetic, molasses (stretched exponential), and diffusional power decay. The density dependence of both the molasses and diffusional power regimes are evaluated and the latter compares with theoretical predictions in three dimensions. The largest cluster at the freezing density of only a few sphere diameter in size persist for only about 30 picoseconds (˜ 2.8 × 10(-11) [s]). The most striking observation through the bond orientatinal order parameter is the dramatic increase of the cluster size as the freezing density is approached.

Isobe, M.; Alder, B. J.

255

Freeze-branding to permanently mark bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effectiveness of freeze-branding as a permanent marking technique on 4 species of bats: Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendil), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and western small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum). Small copper branding irons (9.3 g and 15.6 g) were cooled in a mixture of dry ice and ethyl alcohol and applied to

Richard E. Sherwin; Shauna Haymond; Rebeccah Olsen

256

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

SciTech Connect

Among seawater desalination processes the absorption freezing based on the thermal heat pump, the AF-VC/sup t/, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low grade (exergy) solar heat. The novel feature in this system involves a use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydro-phobic intermediate heat transfer material. 13 refs.

Kvajic, G.

1981-01-01

257

Improve online freeze and cloud point control  

SciTech Connect

To improve financial performance, petroleum refiners want tighter control on individual processing units. Consequently, modern refineries are moving product-quality analytical functions closer to process. Historically, processing units sent product samples to the laboratory and made adjustments based on analytical results. In some cases, the lag time between sample procurement an data return could be several hours. During this time, the unit could be producing off-spec product or operating in a nonoptimized mode while waiting on lab results. Under these conditions, the cost to the refinery could mean the difference between a profit or loss. Many quality requirements are associated with the refined products. Some are regulatory mandates, others are market or seasonally driven and some are driven by yield and process optimization objectives. For example, freeze and cloud point are process control parameters that can increase yields and improve financial performance. Opting to use online analyzers to monitor/control freeze and cloud point specifications has potential economical advantages. The paper discusses freeze and cloud point data, common problems with analyzers, and two case histories of monitoring petroleum refinery streams.

Davidson, F.; Tsang, C. [Phase Technology, Richmond, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-01-01

258

Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less.  

PubMed

Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells. PMID:21827481

McDonald, K L; Webb, R I

2011-09-01

259

GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) satellite gravity mission to determine the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivers gravity gradients, a new type of satellite data. We study how these data can improve modeling of the Earth's lithosphere. We discuss the use of the original GOCE gravity gradients versus the use of gravity gradients in grids at satellite altitude or close the Earth's surface and conclude that grids are easier to handle than the original data because one does not have to deal with very different error characteristics of the different gradients, given in a rotating frame at varying heights. The downward continuation to the surface enhances signal and better reflects the near-surface geology. But this does not outweigh the amplification of noise and omission errors, which is why we recommend using the field at mean satellite altitude for lithospheric modeling. The North-East Atlantic region is ideal to analyze the additional value of GOCE gravity gradients because it is a well-studied region in terms of regional geophysics. We calculated the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model. This reveals that especially interfaces with large density contrasts have a distinct signal in the gravity gradients, but that they are quite insensitive to intra-crustal density sources, which can have quite a large effect on surface gravity data. We also show that the satellite gradients have a depth sensitivity well suited to study the upper mantle density structure, making them complementary to gravity and seismic tomography. In the underexplored Rub'al-Khali area the GOCE vertical gradient was used to invert for crustal thickness. The updated Moho model gives a good fit to four of the six gradients and independent depths from seismic stations. The Moho model was used to update the heat flow model and source rock maturity maps, which are generally consistent with known source rock maturity trends in the surrounding regions. GOCE gradients are therefore useful to map crustal thickness and deep regional structures for frontier areas. In combination with other data, heat flow can be modeled which is essential for basin maturity evaluation.

Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Meekes, Sjef; Abdul Fattah, Rader; Fuchs, Martin; Gradmann, Sofie; Haagmans, Roger; Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

2015-03-01

260

Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first toroidal, gyrokinetic, electromagnetic simulations of small scale plasma turbulence are presented. The turbulence considered is driven by gradients in the electron temperature. It is found that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence can induce experimentally relevant thermal losses in magnetic confinement fusion devices. For typical tokamak parameters, the transport is essentially electrostatic in character. The simulation results are qualitatively

W. Dorland; F. Jenko; M. Kotschenreuther; B. N. Rogers

2000-01-01

261

Multilayer Gradient Coil Design  

PubMed

In standard cylindrical gradient coils consisting of wires wound in a single layer, the rapid increase in coil resistance with efficiency is the limiting factor in achieving very large magnetic field gradients. This behavior results from the decrease in the maximum usable wire diameter as the number of turns is increased. By adopting a multilayer design in which the coil wires are allowed to spread out into multiple layers wound at increasing radii, a more favorable scaling of resistance with efficiency is achieved, thus allowing the design of more powerful gradient coils with acceptable resistance values. By extending the theory used to design standard cylindrical gradient coils, we have developed mathematical expressions which allow the design of multilayer coils, and the evaluation of their performance. These expressions have been used to design a four-layer, z-gradient coil of 8 mm inner diameter, which has an efficiency of 1.73 Tm-1 A-1, a resistance of 1.8 Omega, and an inductance of 50 µH. This coil produces a gradient which deviates from linearity by less than 5% within a central cylindrical region of 4.5 mm length and 4.5 mm diameter. A coil has been constructed from this design and tested in simple imaging and pulsed gradient spin echo experiments. The resulting data verify the predicted coil performance, thus demonstrating the advantages of using multilayer coils for experiments requiring very large magnetic field gradients. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9571104

Bowtell; Robyr

1998-04-01

262

Gradient index metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with tailored electromagnetic response---can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the deflection of a microwave beam

D. R. Smith; J. J. Mock; A. F. Starr; D. Schurig

2005-01-01

263

Random gradient index metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a broadband reflectionless gradient random medium design and experimental implementation by using metamaterial technology. This gradient random medium matches the impedance of the air and gradually change its refraction index randomly, creating a puzzle for wave propagation in front of a metal conductor. Thus, such type of coating is expected to diffuse the reflection waves from a conductor

Ruopeng Liu; Chunlin Ji; J. J. Mock; Tiejun Cui; David R. Smith

2008-01-01

264

Response of New zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum to freezing and near freezing fluctuating water temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We explored the resilience of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to fluctuating winter freezing and near-freezing temperature cycles in laboratory tests. Our goal was to provide data to confirm field observations of mortality and presumed mortality in stream habitats with fluctuating freezing to near-freezing temperatures. We tested individuals from 2 locations with distinctly different thermal regimes and population densities. One location had low snail densities and water temperatures with strong diel and seasonal water variation. The other location had high snail densities and nearly constant water temperatures. Groups of individuals from both locations were tested in each of 3 laboratory-created diel thermal cycles around nominal temperatures of 0, 2, or 4°C. Mortality occurred in cycles around 0°C in both populations, and little to no mortality occurred at temperatures >0°C. Individuals from both sources held in diel 0°C cycles for 72 h showed 100% mortality. Our findings support observations from published field studies that survival was limited in infested habitats subject to freezing temperatures.

Moffitt, Christine M.; James, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

265

Fundamental technical elements of freeze-fracture/freeze-etch in biological electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to ultrarapid freezing rates, often in the presence of cryoprotective agents to limit ice crystal formation, with subsequent fracturing of the specimen at liquid nitrogen cooled temperatures under high vacuum. The resultant fractured surface is replicated and stabilized by evaporation of carbon and platinum from an angle that confers surface three-dimensional detail to the cast. This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. In this report, we survey the instrument requirements and technical protocol for performing freeze-fracture, the associated nomenclature and characteristics of fracture planes, variations on the conventional procedure, and criteria for interpretation of freeze-fracture images. This technique has been widely used for ultrastructural investigation in many areas of cell biology and holds promise as an emerging imaging technique for molecular, nanotechnology, and materials science studies. PMID:25285532

Carson, Johnny L

2014-01-01

266

Population structure of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Cirripedia, Thoracica), across intertidal environmental stress gradients in northern Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe spatial trends in population structure of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, across gradients of environmental stress on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. In the early summer of 2006, we examined vertical gradients of intertidal elevation and horizontal gradients of exposure to wave action and winter ice scour. Recruits were considerably less abundant than adults

Elizabeth A. Macpherson; Ricardo Scrosati

2008-01-01

267

A Four-Zone Furnace for Realization of Silver and Gold Freezing Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Thermocouple Calibration Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has used sodium heat-pipe furnaces for the realization of ITS-90 freezing points of aluminum, silver, and gold. When using a fixed-point cell mounted in a long silica-glass tube that extends to ambient temperature at the top of the furnace, we have observed significant thermal gradients along the well of the fixed-point cell, with the top of the well up to 0.1 K colder than the bottom. Furthermore, the heat-pipe lifetime is limited when used at the gold point (1064.18 °C) for more than a few hundred hours. To address these problems, we have designed and built a four-zone furnace based on a temperature-controlled, graphite isothermal block, suspended inside a three-zone tube furnace. The three-zone furnace is of a commercial design. The graphite block is enclosed in an alloy 600 (Inconel) can, allowing the graphite to be maintained in an argon atmosphere. The argon pressure is maintained at one atmosphere at all temperatures, thereby greatly reducing the stress on the can. Heaters in intimate contact with the can allow temperature control of the fourth inner zone to high accuracy. In this paper, the measured thermal stability and uniformity achieved with this furnace are presented. We also give results of test freezes of a silver freezing-point cell.

Ripple, D. C.; Garrity, K. M.; Meyer, C. W.

2003-09-01

268

Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.  

PubMed

Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken. PMID:24999176

McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

2014-11-15

269

Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10 m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

McMillan, Lindsay A.; Rivett, Michael O.; Tellam, John H.; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

2014-11-01

270

Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).

Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

1989-01-01

271

Gradient Driven Fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have worked with our collaborators at the University of Milan (Professor Marzio Giglio and his group-supported by ASI) to define the science required to measure gradient driven fluctuations in the microgravity environment. Such a study would provide an accurate test of the extent to which the theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be used to predict the properties of fluids maintained in a stressed, non-equilibrium state. As mentioned above, the results should also provide direct visual insight into the behavior of a variety of fluid systems containing gradients or interfaces, when placed in the microgravity environment. With support from the current grant, we have identified three key systems for detailed investigation. These three systems are: 1) A single-component fluid to be studied in the presence of a temperature gradient; 2) A mixture of two organic liquids to be studied both in the presence of a temperature gradient, which induces a steady-state concentration gradient, and with the temperature gradient removed, but while the concentration gradient is dying by means of diffusion; 3) Various pairs of liquids undergoing free diffusion, including a proteidbuffer solution and pairs of mixtures having different concentrations, to allow us to vary the differences in fluid properties in a controlled manner.

Cannell, David

2005-01-01

272

Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2011-05-24

273

Horizontal and vertical disparity, eye position, and stereoscopic slant perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slant of a stereoscopically defined surface cannot be determined solely from horizontal disparities or from derived quantities such as horizontal size ratio (HSR). There are four other signals that, in combination with horizontal disparity, could in principle allow an unambiguous estimate of slant: the vergence and version of the eyes, the vertical size ratio (VSR), and the horizontal gradient

Benjamin T. Backus; Martin S. Banks; Raymond van Ee; James A. Crowell

1999-01-01

274

Natural convection in a long vertical cylinder under gravity modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset of convection in differentially heated cylinders under gravity modulation is examined, with special consideration given to the case of a vertical cylinder of infinite length, when a negative temperature gradient is maintained in the upward direction. The effect of modulation on the stability limits given by linear theory in the standard steady case is analyzed. A method based

M. Wadih; B. Roux

1988-01-01

275

Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers  

SciTech Connect

Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.

Wang Ziren; Han Yilong [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Alsayed, Ahmed M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Complex Assemblies of Soft Matter, CNRS/UPENN/Rhodia UMI 3254, Bristol, Pennsylvania 19007 (United States); Yodh, Arjun G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-04-21

276

Depth-Related Gradients of Viral Activity in Lake Pavin  

PubMed Central

High-resolution vertical sampling and determination of viral and prokaryotic parameters in a deep volcanic lake shows that in the absence of thermal stratification but within light, oxygen, and chlorophyll gradients, host availability empirically is prevalent over the physical and chemical environments and favors lytic over lysogenic “viral life cycles.” PMID:16751565

Colombet, J.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Cauchie, H. M.; Fonty, G.; Hoffmann, L.; Demeure, G.

2006-01-01

277

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

278

Temperature-gradient oven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tubular oven operates on principle of lengthwise linear temperature gradient of homogeneous conductive rod in absence of radiative or convective heat loss. Oven can be applied to controlled heating or cooling of test specimens.

Jue, S.

1979-01-01

279

Accelerated gradient projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A version of the gradient projection algorithm is proposed for use with nonlinear constraints. Compatibility with the Davidon\\u000a process is examined and arguments on terminal phase convergence are given.

Henry J. Kelley; Jason L. Speyer

280

Fine-Tuning Two-Particle Interferometry I: Effects from Temperature Gradients in the Source  

E-print Network

A comprehensive model study of Bose-Einstein correlation radii in heavy ion collisions is presented. The starting point is a longitudinally and transversally expanding fireball, represented at freeze-out by an azimuthally symmetric emission function. The freeze-out temperature is allowed to feature transverse and temporal gradients. Their effects on the correlation radii are studied. In particular, we evaluate numerically their dependence on the transverse mass of the particle pairs and check a recent suggestion, based on analytical approximations, that for certain reasonable source parameters all three correlation radii satisfy simultaneously a 1/\\sqrt{M_\\perp} scaling.

Boris Tomasik; Ulrich Heinz

1998-05-07

281

Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, the importance of pollen for atmospheric ice nucleation was considered to be minor, as they are too large to stay in the atmosphere for a long time. But as recent investigations have shown, not the pollen grains themselves are responsible for freezing, but easily suspendable macromolecules on their surfaces (Pummer et al., 2012). Due to the bursting of pollen grains these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules could be numerous in the atmosphere. In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011). For this, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. Immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was observed at temperatures higher than -20 °C for both samples. The main difference between the Northern and the Southern birch pollen was the temperature dependence of the immersion freezing process. Our results suggest that the ice nucleating potential of the Southern birch is controlled by a single type of INA macromolecule, while the Northern birch pollen seem to feature two distinctively different types of INA macromolecules. We determined the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and thereby consistently describe the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water. Furthermore we will suggest a theoretical framework for describing e.g. single INA macromolecule related ice nucleation in atmospheric models. References: Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S. and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2541-2550, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2541-2012, 2012. Hartmann, S., Niedermeier, D., Voigtländer, J., Clauss, T., Shaw, R. A., Wex, H., Kiselev, A., and Stratmann, F.: Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation at LACIS: operating principle and theoretical studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1753-1767, doi:10.5194/acp-11-1753-2011, 2011.

Augustin, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich; Niedermeier, Dennis; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Tomsche, Laura; Wex, Heike; Stratmann, Frank

2013-04-01

282

Spray Irrigation Effects on Surface-Layer Stability in an Experimental Citrus Orchard during Winter Freezes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Gainesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface-layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. It was found that surface-layer lapse rates were lower during irrigation periods than under similar conditions when irrigation was not occurring, indicating a greater degree of vertical mixing of surface-layer air with air from above treetops, as a result of local convective overturning induced by the condensation heating of water vapor released at the nozzles of the sprinklers. This provides an additional explanation to the well-accepted heat of fusion release effect, of how undertree irrigation of a citrus orchard during a freeze period helps protect crops against frost damage.

Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Martsolf, J. David

1997-02-01

283

Arabidopsis ESK1 encodes a novel regulator of freezing tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The eskimo1 (esk1) mutation of Arabidopsis resulted in a 5.5? C improvement in freezing tolerance in the absence of cold acclimation. Here we show that the increase in freezing tolerance is not associated with any increase in the ability to survive drought or salt stresses, which are similar to freezing in their induction of cellular dehydration. Genome-wide comparisons of

Zhanguo Xin; Ajin Mandaokar; Junping Chen; Robert L. Last; John Browse

2007-01-01

284

Effects of Electric and Magnetic Field on Freezing and Possible Relevance in Freeze Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of an electric or magnetic field can significantly affect the freezing characteristics of water. A DC electric field will tend to induce ice nucleation at a lower degree of supercooling, and there is evidence to show that an AC electric field delays the onset of ice nucleation. Industrial research has shown that a magnetic field can be used to

M. W. Woo; A. S. Mujumdar

2010-01-01

285

Long-Term Preservation of Mouse Spermatozoa after Freeze-Drying and Freezing Without Cryoprotection1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread production of mice with transgenes, disrupt- ed genes and mutant genes, has strained the resources available for maintaining these mouse lines as live populations, and de- pendable methods for gamete and embryo preservation in these lines are needed. Here we report the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with spermatozoa freeze-dried or frozen without a cryoprotectant after storage

Monika A. Ward; Takehito Kaneko; Hirokazu Kusakabe; John D. Biggers; David G. Whittingham; Ryuzo Yanagimachi

286

Optical coherence tomography-based freeze-drying microscopy  

PubMed Central

A new type of freeze-drying microscope based upon time-domain optical coherence tomography is presented here (OCT-FDM). The microscope allows for real-time, in situ 3D imaging of pharmaceutical formulations in vials relevant for manufacturing processes with a lateral resolution of <7 ?m and an axial resolution of <5 ?m. Correlation of volumetric structural imaging with product temperature measured during the freeze-drying cycle allowed investigation of structural changes in the product and determination of the temperature at which the freeze-dried cake collapses. This critical temperature is the most important parameter in designing freeze-drying processes of pharmaceutical products. PMID:22254168

Mujat, Mircea; Greco, Kristyn; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Mulhall, Phillip; Sharma, Puneet; Pikal, Michael J.; Kessler, William J.

2011-01-01

287

Anoxia tolerance and freeze tolerance in hatchling turtles.  

PubMed

Freezing survival in hatchling turtles may be limited by ischemic anoxia in frozen tissues and the associated accumulation of lactate and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether mechanisms for coping with anoxia are also important in freeze tolerance, we examined the association between capacities for freezing survival and anoxia tolerance in hatchlings of seven species of turtles. Tolerance to freezing (-2.5 degrees C) was high in Emydoidea blandingii, Chrysemys picta, Terrapene ornata, and Malaclemys terrapin and low in Graptemys geographica, Chelydra serpentina, and Trachemys scripta. Hatchlings survived in a N(2) atmosphere at 4 degrees C for periods ranging from 17 d (M. terrapin) to 50 d (G. geographica), but survival time was not associated with freeze tolerance. Lactate accumulated during both stresses, but plasma levels in frozen/thawed turtles were well below those found in anoxia-exposed animals. Activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in liver increased markedly with anoxia exposure in most species, but increased with freezing/thawing only in species with low freeze tolerance. Our results suggest that whereas oxygen deprivation occurs during somatic freezing, freeze tolerance is not limited by anoxia tolerance in hatchling turtles. PMID:15739066

Dinkelacker, S A; Costanzo, J P; Lee, R E

2005-04-01

288

Experimental quantification of contact freezing in an electrodynamic balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous nucleation of ice in a supercooled water droplet induced by external contact with a dry aerosol particle has long been known to be more effective than freezing induced by the same nucleus immersed in the droplet. However, the experimental quantification of contact freezing is challenging. Here we report an experimental method to determine the temperature-dependent ice nucleation probability of size-selected aerosol particles. The method is based on the suspension of supercooled charged water droplets in a laminar flow of air containing aerosol particles as contact freezing nuclei. The rate of droplet-particle collisions is calculated numerically with account for Coulomb attraction, drag force and induced dipole interaction between charged droplet and aerosol particles. The calculation is verified by direct counting of aerosol particles collected by a levitated droplet. By repeating the experiment on individual droplets for a sufficient number of times, we are able to reproduce the statistical freezing behavior of a large ensemble of supercooled droplets and measure the average rate of freezing events. The freezing rate is equal to the product of the droplet-particle collision rate and the probability of freezing on a single contact, the latter being a function of temperature, size and composition of the contact ice nuclei. Based on these observations, we show that for the types of particles investigated so far, contact freezing is the dominating freezing mechanism on the timescale of our experiment.

Hoffmann, N.; Kiselev, A.; Rzesanke, D.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2013-09-01

289

Experimental quantification of contact freezing in an electrodynamic balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous nucleation of ice in a supercooled water droplet induced by an external contact with a dry aerosol particle has long been known to be more effective than freezing induced by the same nucleus immersed in the droplet. However, the experimental quantification of contact freezing is challenging. Here we report an experimental method allowing to determine the temperature dependent ice nucleation probability of size selected aerosol particles. The method uses supercooled charged water droplets suspended in a laminar flow of air containing aerosol particles as contact freezing nuclei. The rate of droplet-particle collisions is calculated numerically with account for Coulomb attraction, drag force and induced dipole interaction between charged droplet and aerosol particles. The calculation is verified by direct counting of aerosol particles collected by a levitated droplet. By repeating the experiment on individual droplets for a sufficient number of times, we are able to reproduce the statistical freezing behavior of a large ensemble of supercooled droplets and measure the average rate of freezing events. The freezing rate is equal to the product of the droplet-particle collision rate and the probability of freezing on a single contact, the latter being a function of temperature, size and composition of the contact ice nuclei. Based on these observations, we show that for the types of particles investigated so far, contact freezing is the dominating freezing mechanism on the time scale of our experiment.

Hoffmann, N.; Kiselev, A.; Rzesanke, D.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2013-04-01

290

Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.  

PubMed Central

Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

1995-01-01

291

Design of a blood-freezing system for leukemia research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leukemia research involves the use of cryogenic freezing and storage equipment. In a program being carried out at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), bone marrow (white blood cells) was frozen using a standard cryogenic biological freezer. With this system, it is difficult to maintain the desired rate of freezing and repeatability from sample to sample. A freezing system was developed that satisfies the requirements for a repeatable, constant freezing rate. The system was delivered to NIC and is now operational. This report describes the design of the major subsystems, the analyses, the operating procedure, and final system test results.

Williams, T. E.; Cygnarowicz, T. A.

1978-01-01

292

Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates.  

PubMed

Ectothermic vertebrates have colonized regions that are seasonally or perpetually cold, and some species, particularly terrestrial hibernators, must cope with temperatures that fall substantially below 0°C. Survival of such excursions depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Supercooling, a metastable state in which body fluids remain liquid below the equilibrium freezing/melting point, is promoted by physiological responses that protect against chilling injury and by anatomical and behavioral traits that limit risk of inoculative freezing by environmental ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance evolved from responses to fundamental stresses to permit survival of the freezing of a substantial amount of body water under thermal and temporal conditions of ecological relevance. Survival of freezing is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical and physiological responses that limit cell death from excessive shrinkage, damage to macromolecules and membranes, metabolic perturbation and oxidative stress. Although freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance generally are mutually exclusive strategies, a few species can switch between them, the mode used in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions. PMID:23678097

Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

2013-06-01

293

Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data - II. Radial metallicity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate radial metallicity gradients for a sample of dwarf stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 3 (DR3). We select a total of approximately 17 000 F-type and G-type dwarfs, using a selection of colour, log g and uncertainty in the derived space motion, and calculate for each star a probabilistic (kinematic) population assignment to a thick or thin disc using space motion and additionally another (dynamical) assignment using stellar vertical orbital eccentricity. We additionally subsample by colour, to provide samples biased toward young thin-disc and older thin-disc stars. We derive a metallicity gradient as a function of Galactocentric radial distance, i.e. d[M/H]/dRm=-0.051 ± 0.005 dex kpc-1, for the youngest sample, F-type stars with vertical orbital eccentricities ev? 0.04. Samples biased toward older thin-disc stars show systematically shallower abundance gradients.

Co?kuno?Lu, B.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Önal, Ö.; Yaz, E.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G. M.

2012-02-01

294

Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

Anderson, N.L.

1983-11-10

295

Automated in-situ monitoring of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations and gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automated system measuring C2–C6 hydrocarbon concentrations and vertical gradients was installed at Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, using a gas chromatograph with dual flame ionization detectors and cryogenic sample preconcentration. Measurements were made simultaneously at two heights above the forest canopy at forty five minute intervals, continuously from July 1992 to the present. Data for concentration gradients were

A. H. Goldstein; B. C. Daube; J. W. Munger; S. C. Wofsy

1995-01-01

296

Monitoring of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in a unicyanobacterial biofilm, grown in benthic gradient chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the role of cyanobacteria in the formation and dynamics of microenvironments in microbial mats, we studied an experimental biofilm of a benthic, halotolerant strain, belonging to the Halothece cluster of cyanobacteria. The 12-week-old biofilm developed in a sand core incubated in a benthic gradient chamber under opposing oxygen and sulfide vertical concentration gradients. At the biofilm

Olivier Pringault; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2000-01-01

297

Dynamics of gravity-induced gradients in soap film thicknesses G. Ropars,a  

E-print Network

Dynamics of gravity-induced gradients in soap film thicknesses G. Ropars,a D. Chauvat, and A. Le demonstrate a direct measurement of thickness gradients in vertical soap films with a resonant differential tool for such investigations. It is well known that when a soap film drains from its support under

Boyd, Robert W.

298

Enhancement of Rossby Wave Breaking by Steep Potential Vorticity Gradients in the Winter Stratosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the extent to which potential vorticity gradients affect the vertical propagation of planetary-scale Rossby waves on the edge of a stratospheric polar vortex and their eventual nonlinear saturation and breaking. Using two different numerical modeling approaches, it is shown that wave propagation and wave breaking are significantly reduced when the potential vorticity gradients at the vortex edge

R. K. Scott; D. G. Dritschel; L. M. Polvani; D. W. Waugh

2004-01-01

299

Ultrastructure of the echinoderm cuticle after fast-freezing/freeze substitution and conventional chemical fixations.  

PubMed

The cuticles of the pedicellaria primordia in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and of the tube foot disk in the sea star Asterias rubens were preserved by different methods, viz., glutaraldehyde fixation followed by osmium tetroxide postfixation, glutaraldehyde-ruthenium red fixation followed by osmium tetroxide-ruthenium red postfixation, and two fast freezing / freeze substitution methods (FF/FS). The gross ultrastructure of the cuticle as well as the influence of the preservation method on this ultrastructure were identical for the two tissues studied. The cuticle ultrastructure was poorly preserved after glutaraldehyde fixation / osmium tetroxide postfixation. Its preservation was improved after ruthenium red was added in the fixative and postfixative, but the best preservation was consistently achieved using FF/FS. Both low-pressure freezing (plunge freezing) and high-pressure freezing were tested, the latter giving seemingly better results. With these methods, the cuticle appeared to be composed of a proximal lower cuticle, an intermediate upper cuticle, and a distal fuzzy coat. In particular, cryoimmobilization methods emphasized or revealed the occurrence of a well-developed fibrillar lower cuticle in the pedicellaria, the complexity of the upper cuticle which consisted of several zones, and the importance of the usually poorly preserved fuzzy coat that is actually the thickest layer of the cuticle. These observations bring new insights on the functions of the cuticle, and particularly of the fuzzy coat. According to its preservation characteristics, the fuzzy coat presumably consists mostly of proteoglycans. This composition could give it shock absorption and antifouling properties. Furthermore, its important thickness also implies that molecules detected by the short sensory cilia must diffuse through and could be selected by the fuzzy coat. PMID:10738319

Ameye, L; Hermann, R; DuBois, P; Flammang, P

2000-03-15

300

Freezing efficiency of Silver Iodide, ATD and Kaolinite in the contact freezing mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation via contact freezing is one of the open questions in the atmospheric science community. In our laboratory, we built the Collision Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH) (Ladino et al. 2011) in which falling cloud droplets can collide with aerosol particles. In this study, contact freezing experiments are conducted to investigate the ice nucleation ability of silver iodide (AgI), kaolinite and Arizona Test Dust (ATD). Silver iodide has been known for its ice nucleation ability since 1940s (Vonnegut 1947) while kaolinite is a clay mineral and known to be a moderate ice nucleus. ATD is a commercial dust sample used by many groups to compare different setups. In CLINCH, size selected aerosol particles collide with water droplets of 80 µm diameter. With the extension in chamber length it is possible to vary the interaction time of ice nuclei and the droplets. Our experiments are performed between -10 to -36 ºC for various concentrations of ice nuclei and different interaction times. The frozen fraction of the droplets is determined using the custom-made depolarization detector IODE (Nicolet et al., 2010). Depolarization of linearly polarized incident laser light is used to determine the ratio of frozen droplets to all droplets. Frozen fractions of the three particle types with different residence times from CLINCH will be presented in this study. The number of collisions between a single droplet and several aerosol particles can be calculated by accounting for the theoretical collision efficiency at the experimental conditions in order to obtain the freezing efficiency (frozen fraction/number of collisions). Nucleation efficiency is compared with other contact freezing studies and with immersion freezing

Nagare, Baban; Marcolli, Claudia; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

2014-05-01

301

To Freeze or Not to Freeze? An Evolutionary Perspective on the Cold?Hardiness Strategies of Overwintering Ectotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question of whether freeze-tolerance, freeze-avoidance, or mixed strategy represents the best adaptation for overwintering ectotherms to endure severe winter. To this end, we develop an optimization fitness model that takes into account different physiological parameters such as energetic level, the phys- iological stress associated with each strategy, and climatic variables. The results show that the freeze-tolerance strategy

Yann Voituron; Nicolas Mouquet; Claire de Mazancourt; Jean Clobert

2002-01-01

302

Freeze Extrusion Fabrication In a freeze extrusion fabrication process a ceramic slurry is extruded through a syringe. A stepper  

E-print Network

Freeze Extrusion Fabrication QUESTION 1 In a freeze extrusion fabrication process a ceramic slurry to determine an average mass flow rate. For the data in Table 1, Use the least squares method to determine 2.167 19 3.100 20 3.017 21 3.183 22 3.067 #12;Freeze Extrusion Fabrication 23 3.317 24 4.017 25 4

Landers, Robert G.

303

Freeze–thaw cycle amplitude and freezing rate effects on extractable nitrogen in a temperate old field soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze–thaw cycles can promote soil N losses as a result of microbial and root cell lysis; however, minimal freeze–thaw effects\\u000a have typically been observed in studies that have imposed moderate temperature cycles. We conducted laboratory incubations\\u000a on surface soil (top 3 cm) collected in a temperate old field from late fall through mid-winter to examine how variation in\\u000a freeze–thaw amplitude, number,

Amy C. Elliott; Hugh A. L. Henry

2009-01-01

304

NOL-ring based evaluation of freeze and freeze–thaw exposure effects on FRP composite column wrap systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite column wrap systems are evaluated for durability after exposure to freeze (?15°F) and freeze–thaw conditions. Response and failure mechanisms are characterized through Naval Ordinance Laboratory-ring burst tests, short-beam-shear tests, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and microscopy. It is shown that freeze–thaw exposure after salt soak can have a significant detrimental effect and results in

S Zhang; V. M Karbhari; D Reynaud

2001-01-01

305

Effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on geographically different populations of the freeze-tolerant worm Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).  

PubMed

Freeze-tolerant organisms survive internal ice formation; however, the adaptations to repeated freeze-thaw cycles are often not well investigated. Here we report how three geographically different populations of Enchytraeus albidus (Germany, Iceland and Svalbard) respond to three temperature treatments - constant thawed (0°C), constant freezing (-5°C) and fluctuating temperature (0 to -5°C) - over a period of 42 days. Survival varied between treatments and populations such that enchytraeids from arctic locations had a higher survival following prolonged freeze periods compared with temperate populations. However, enchytraeids from temperate locations had the same survival rate as arctic populations when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events. Across all populations, metabolic rate decreased markedly in frozen animals (-5°C) compared with thawed controls (0°C). This decrease is likely due to the lower temperature of frozen animals, but also to the transition to the frozen state per se. Animals exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events had an intermediate metabolic rate and freeze-thaw events were not associated with pronounced excess energetic costs. Overwintering under either condition was not associated with a decrease in lipid content; however, during exposure to constant freezing and repeated freeze-thaw events there was a noticeable decrease in carbohydrate stores over time. Thus, animals exposed to constant freezing showed a decrease in glycogen stores, while both glucose and glycogen content decreased over time when the organisms were exposed to repeated freezing. The results therefore suggest that carbohydrate resources are important as a fuel for E. albidus during freezing whereas lipid resources are of marginal importance. PMID:25214492

Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes

2014-11-01

306

Time-dependent freezing rate parcel model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent freezing rate (TDFR) model here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period in time when the parcel remains stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles under isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to three-fold variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple model framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud models. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in models.

Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.

2015-02-01

307

Entropy Budgets in Oscillating and Freezing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting spontaneously oscillating system was demonstrated some decades ago by Welander : an open-topped water tank supplied with a continuous supply of heat is exposed to chilled air. A layer of ice forms, as one might expect. However, the ice retards the loss of heat to the air, and the water temperature rises until eventually the ice melts. The enhanced heat loss allows the system to cool again to the point where ice can form, and the cycle repeats. The oscillating behaviour is counterintuitive (like another freezing phenomenon, the Mpemba effect, wherein a warm liquid will begin freezing before a cool one), but is in full accord with the laws of thermodynamics and can be demonstrated in the laboratory and with numerical models. Oscillations occur in specific regions of parameter space (heating rate, heat transfer coefficients etc) - smooth variation, e.g. of the ice:air heat transfer coefficient yields a smooth variation of entropy production, except for a jump to increased entropy production when oscillations begin. A geophysical system where similar oscillations may occur is the icy Jovian satellite Europa, which appears to have a young crust. More generally, where a system is subject to a varying excitation (such as diurnal or seasonal forcing of the climate of Earth or Mars) the presence of phase changes such as melting of water or the condensation of carbon dioxide as frost have an important impact on the entropy budget of the system.

Lorenz, R. D.

2005-12-01

308

Fundamental Boiling and RP-1 Freezing Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes results from experiments performed to help understand certain aspects of the MC-1 engine prestart thermal conditioning procedure. The procedure was constrained by the fact that the engine must chill long enough to get quality LOX at the LOX pump inlet but must be short enough to prevent freezing of RP-1 in the fuel pump. A chill test of an MC-1 LOX impeller was performed in LN2 to obtain data on film boiling, transition boiling and impeller temperature histories. The transition boiling data was important to the chill time so a subsequent experiment was performed chilling simple steel plates in LOX to obtain similar data for LOX. To address the fuel freezing concern, two experiments were performed. First, fuel was frozen in a tray and its physical characteristics were observed and temperatures of the fuel were measured. The result was physical characteristics as a function of temperature. Second was an attempt to measure the frozen thickness of RP-1 on a cold wall submerged in warm RP-1 and to develop a method for calculating that thickness for other conditions.

Goode, Brian; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

309

Freeze-drying today and tomorrow.  

PubMed

The freeze-drying process and equipment have been improved over the years; the cycle times have shortened and the dried products have improved as a result. This talk will deal with these improvements and how we have progressed from the early systems to where we are today. Such areas of discussion will include: vacuum pumping systems, how they are sized and designed to meet the needs for general and special applications; heat transfer systems, and their use in maintaining the drying profile; condensing surface design, and what is best for certain types of dryers; controls and instrumentation, and how these have played a big part in the drying process and have made it possible to get repeatability; refrigeration systems, and the part they play in the performance of freeze-drying; and lastly the effect of internal stoppering, bottomless trays, and other items such as these have had on the present state of the art. It goes without saying that there have been many changes and there will continue to be changes and we shall endeavor to look into the future--as to what might well bo some of these changes. Included in the talk will be a number of slides and illustrations to point out the various items as they are discussed. PMID:1030422

Leary, J H; Stanford, E A

1976-10-01

310

The Soret effect on convection in a horizontal porous domain under cross temperature and concentration gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convection with Soret effect in a binary fluid saturating a shallow horizontal porous layer is studied both numerically and analytically. The vertical walls of the enclosure are heated and cooled by uniform heat fluxes and a solutal gradient is imposed vertically. In the formulation of the problem, we use the Darcy model and the density variation is taken into

R. Bennacer; A. Mahidjiba; P. Vasseur; H. Beji; R. Duval

2003-01-01

311

Simultaneous measurements of wind shear and temperature gradient spectra in the stratosphere  

SciTech Connect

The authors present in this paper the first high resolution analysis of wind shears and temperature gradient measured over 25 m in the low stratosphere. Their power spectral densities deduced by two different methods show that for vertical wavelengths greater than 500 m the behaviors of the temperature and vertical velocity fluctuating field are significantly different from the saturated wave model predictions.

Barat, J.; Cot, C. (Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson (France))

1989-10-01

312

Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones—200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several models—non-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybrid—were explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200°C. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.

Ammon Williams

2012-05-01

313

Probability of freezing in the freeze-avoiding beetle larvae Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) from interior Alaska.  

PubMed

Freeze-avoiding insects must resist freezing or die. A suite of adaptations to low temperatures, including the production of antifreeze proteins, colligative antifreezes (polyols), and dehydration allows most individuals to prevent freezing below the lowest ambient temperatures experienced in situ; however, there can be a wide variance in the minimum temperatures that individuals of freeze-avoiding species reach before freezing. We used logistic regression to explore factors that affect this variance and to estimate the probability of freezing in larvae of the freeze-avoiding beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus. We hypothesized that water content ?0.5 mg mg(-1) dry mass would lead to deep supercooling (avoidance of freezing below -58°C). We found a significant interaction between water content and ambient below-snow temperature and a significant difference between individuals collected from two locations in Alaska: Wiseman and Fairbanks. Individuals collected in Wiseman deep supercooled with greater water content and to a greater range of ambient temperatures than individuals collected in Fairbanks, leading to significantly different lethal water contents associated with 50% probability of freezing. PMID:21550349

Sformo, T; McIntyre, J; Walters, K R; Barnes, B M; Duman, J

2011-08-01

314

Ponds Freeze in Winter -- Why Doesn't the Ocean?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how salt water freezes in comparison to fresh water. Use this experiment to consider how pond animals survive cold winters in comparison to animals that live in the ocean. This resource includes information about freezing points as well as examples of how different animals respond to the winter cold.

New England Aquarium

2011-01-01

315

Using infrared thermography to study freezing in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Factors that determine when and to what extent a plant will freeze are complex. While thermocouples have served as the main method of monitoring the freezing process in plants, infrared thermography offers distinct advantages, and the use of this latter technology has provided new insights on the p...

316

Increasing Freezing Tolerance: Kinase Regulation of ICE1.  

PubMed

Cold temperatures trigger the ICE1-CBF-COR transcriptional cascade in plants, which reprograms gene expression to increase freezing tolerance. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ding et al. (2015) report that cold stress activates the protein kinase OST1 to phosphorylate and thereby stabilize and stimulate ICE1. This enhances plant tolerance to freezing temperatures. PMID:25669879

Zhan, Xiangqiang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Lang, Zhaobo

2015-02-01

317

In Vivo Detection of Membrane Injury at Freezing Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The release of hydrogen cyanide from Amelanchier alnifolia was monitored at 30 C and ?10 C following lethal freezing at both slow and fast rates. Assuming that hydrogen cyanide release indicates membrane damage, it was concluded that during a fatal freeze-thaw cycle membrane damage occurred during cell contraction and, therefore, was not dependent upon membrane area expansion during thawing. PMID:16661397

Stout, Darryl G.; Majak, Walter; Reaney, Martin

1980-01-01

318

In vivo detection of membrane injury at freezing temperatures.  

PubMed

The release of hydrogen cyanide from Amelanchier alnifolia was monitored at 30 C and -10 C following lethal freezing at both slow and fast rates. Assuming that hydrogen cyanide release indicates membrane damage, it was concluded that during a fatal freeze-thaw cycle membrane damage occurred during cell contraction and, therefore, was not dependent upon membrane area expansion during thawing. PMID:16661397

Stout, D G; Majak, W; Reaney, M

1980-07-01

319

SFT: a consistent checkpointing algorithm with shorter freezing time  

Microsoft Academic Search

SFT algorithm, a consistent checkpointing algorithm with shorter freezing time, is presented in this paper. SFT is able to implement fault-tolerance in distributed systems. The features of the algorithm include shorter freezing time, lower overhead, and simple roll backing. To reduce checkpointing time, a special control message (Munblock) is used to ensure that at any given time a process can

Xiaohui Wei; Jiubin Ju

1998-01-01

320

Understanding freeze stress in biological tissues: thermodynamics of interfacial water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thermodynamic approach to distinguish forms of freeze energy that injure plants as the temperature decreases is developed. The pattern resulting from this analysis dictated the sequence of thermal requirements for water to exist as an independent state. Improvement of freezing tolerance in biolo...

321

Freeze movement on the local level: prospects for success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the findings and observations of two past studies of social movements to assess the chances of success of a local Freeze organization. Past studies show that movement organizations with certain types of goals, tactics, organizational characteristics, and membership-recruitment techniques experience above-average rates of success. After summarizing these findings, the local Freeze organization is described along the relevant

Wernette

1985-01-01

322

Prediction of the freezing point of multicomponent liquid refrigerant solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freezing point is one of the most critical properties required to complete the mathematical formulation related to the transport phenomena involved in the immersion chilling and freezing (ICF) of foods. Unfortunately, data for ternary and higher order systems are scarce. The aim of this work was to verify the validity of an excess Gibbs energy model for predicting the

Héctor A. Tello Alonso; Juan M. Peralta; Amelia C. Rubiolo; Susana E. Zorrilla

2011-01-01

323

Observation of a freezing drizzle episode: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 February 2012 an episode of freezing precipitation took place in the Guadarrama Mountains, at the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This precipitation affected high elevations, where temperatures remained below freezing because of snow cover that had accumulated from snowfall during the previous days. The case study was recorded by surface synoptic observations (SYNOP) at Navacerrada Pass meteorological observatory (belonging to the National Weather Service of Spain). To study winter cloud systems during the TEcoAgua project, a multichannel ground-based microwave radiometer (MMWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), and isothermal cloud chamber were installed in the study area, thus permitting the monitoring of the freezing precipitation event. Analysis using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and observations permitted the determination of factors that triggered the freezing precipitation event. Freezing drizzle was interspersed with the passage of a warm and cold front. During frontal passage, mid-level clouds inhibited the generation of freezing drizzle, with snowfall recorded in the study area. However, during the period between the two fronts, an absence of mid-level clouds permitted low-level orographic clouds to persist upwind of the mountain system, producing freezing drizzle at the surface. The decisive factors for the generation of freezing drizzle were high humidity at low levels, weak mesoscale updrafts caused by the topography, stability at mid levels, cloud-top temperatures warmer than - 15 °C, and low concentrations of ice nuclei.

Fernández-González, S.; Valero, F.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Gascón, E.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

2014-11-01

324

Effects of freezes on survival of Diaphorina citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus in Florida is occasionally subjected to freezing temperatures. No information was available on the effect of freezing temperatures on mortality of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida. Studies were therefore initiated to assess mortality rates of D. citri eggs, nymphs and adults...

325

Cytoplasmic actomyosin fibrils after preservation with high pressure freezing.  

PubMed

The fine structure of the actomyosin system of Physarum polycephalum was investigated in vitrified specimens after applying a pressure of greater than 2.1 kbar and freezing rates of 500 to 5,000 degrees C/s. The frozen specimens were either freeze-substituted or freeze-fractured and compared with material processed according to conventional methods of freeze-etching preparation. Artifactual alterations, as seen in the form of destroyed areas of the cytoplasm after chemical fixation, were not observed after freeze-substitution. However, small ice crystals formed by recrystallization within most of the cytoplasmic actomyosin fibrils prevented a fine structural analysis. Such a destruction of the fibrillar fine structure was not found after freeze-etching. In replicas of deep-etched objects 10 nm-thick filaments were localized, which could be conclusively identified as F-actin. The actin filaments are located randomly in the peripheral cytoplasm forming the cell cortex. By the process of parallel aggregation, the filaments can be differentiated to fibrils. Thick myosin filaments were not observed. However, structures resembling cross bridges between single actin filaments suggest the existence of oligomeric myosin. The present investigation shows that, in addition to biomembranes, other cytoplasmic differentiations such as components of the groundplasm can be successfully demonstrated employing the deep-etching technique when the freezing methods are improved by avoiding freeze-protection pretreatments. PMID:7195774

Wolf, K V; Stockem, W; Wohlfarth-Bottermann, K E

1981-01-01

326

Thermosiphon solar water heater having freeze rupture protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermosiphon solar water heating system is described, having passive protection against freeze rupture during periods when insufficient solar energy exists for the system to generate heating and ambient air temperature conditions drop to the freezing point of water. It has a solar energy collector for generating heat, including cover for exposure to solar energy and ambient air. A water

1986-01-01

327

Stopping biological time: The freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental physical-chemical events that occur during the freezing and thawing of cells are outlined and the manner in which cell permeability determines the response of the cell to freezing is discussed both in terms of physical response and in terms of survival. 40 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1987-01-01

328

Prospective Primary School Teachers' Perceptions on Boiling and Freezing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of prospective primary school teachers on the physical state of water during the processes of boiling and freezing. There were three stages in the investigation: First, open-ended questions concerning the boiling and freezing of water were given to two groups of prospective primary school…

Senocak, Erdal

2009-01-01

329

16B.2 VERTICAL PROFILES OF TROPICAL CONVECTION AS OBSERVED BY THE TRMM SATELLITE Walter A. Petersen  

E-print Network

regions are at approximately the same latitude, covered by dense tropical rain-forest, and bordered on one (above) the freezing level (~5 km). The predominance of warm-rain processes over the tropical ocean16B.2 VERTICAL PROFILES OF TROPICAL CONVECTION AS OBSERVED BY THE TRMM SATELLITE Walter A. Petersen

Rutledge, Steven

330

Gradient enhanced spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a brief overview of the personal recollections of the authors regarding their contributions to the introduction of shielded gradient technology into NMR spectroscopy during the late 1980s and early 1990s. It provides some background into early probe design and details some of the early technical progress with the use of shielded magnetic field gradients for coherence selection in high resolution NMR and describes the developments at General Electric, the National Institutes of Health, Georgetown University and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine that ultimately led to this technology becoming commonplace in modern NMR spectroscopy. Most of this early technical work was published in the Journal of Magnetic Resonance.

van Zijl, Peter C.; Hurd, Ralph E.

2011-12-01

331

High gradient superconducting quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed.

Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

1987-07-01

332

Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

1982-01-01

333

Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer of energy and moisture in frozen soil, and hence the active layer depth, are strongly influenced by the soil freezing curve which specifies liquid moisture content as a function of temperature. However, the curve is typically not represented in global land surface models, with less physically-based approximations being used instead. In this work, we develop a physically accurate model of soil freeze-thaw processes, suitable for use in a global land surface scheme. We incorporated soil freeze-thaw processes into an existing detailed model for the transfer of heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils, including isotope diagnostics - Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI, Haverd & Cuntz 2010), which has been used successfully for water and carbon balances of the Australian continent (Haverd et al. 2013). A unique feature of SLI is that fluxes of energy and moisture are coupled using a single system of linear equations. The extension to include freeze-thaw processes and snow maintains this elegant coupling, requiring only coefficients in the linear equations to be modified. No impedance factor for hydraulic conductivity is needed because of the formulation by matric flux potential rather than pressure head. Iterations are avoided which results in the same computational speed as without freezing. The extended model is evaluated extensively in stand-alone mode (against theoretical predictions, lab experiments and field data) and as part of the CABLE global land surface scheme. SLI accurately solves the classical Stefan problem of a homogeneous medium undergoing a phase change. The model also accurately reproduces the freezing front, which is observed in laboratory experiments (Hansson et al. 2004). SLI was further tested against observations at a permafrost site in Tibet (Weismüller et al. 2011). It reproduces seasonal thawing and freezing of the active layer to within 3 K of the observed soil temperature and to within 10% of the observed volumetric liquid soil moisture. Model-data fusion suggests that model performance is improved when the relatively high thermal conductivity of the ice phase is accounted for. However, the permafrost site is very gravelly so that the model equations for thermal conductivity are at the edge of applicability. The freezing-soil formulation is tested in the presence of snow, using measurements at an orchard site in Idaho. The model reproduces well observed snow-water equivalents and soil temperatures. However, it is highly sensitive to snow emissivity and maximum liquid content of the snow, leading both to modified refreezing of melted water. It is possible that the model would benefit from 1-2 more snow layers to permit simulation of density and temperature gradients in the snow-pack. SLI was run globally on 1x1 degree grid as the soil part of the land surface scheme CABLE. We could therefore demonstrate that this detailed and physically-realistic formulation is fast enough to be a feasible alternative to the much simpler default soil-scheme in CABLE. References Hansson et al. (2004) Vadose Zone J 3, 693ff Haverd & Cuntz (2010) J Hydro 388, 434ff Haverd et al. (2013) Biogeosci 10, 2011ff Weismüller et al. (2011) The Cryosphere 5, 741ff

Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.

2013-12-01

334

Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer of energy and moisture in frozen soil, and hence the active layer depth, are strongly influenced by the soil freezing curve which specifies liquid moisture content as a function of temperature. However, the curve is typically not represented in global land surface models, with less physically-based approximations being used instead. In this work, we develop a physically accurate model of soil freeze-thaw processes, suitable for use in a global land surface scheme. We incorporated soil freeze-thaw processes into an existing detailed model for the transfer of heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils, including isotope diagnostics - Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI, Haverd & Cuntz 2010), which has been used successfully for water and carbon balances of the Australian continent (Haverd et al. 2013). A unique feature of SLI is that fluxes of energy and moisture are coupled using a single system of linear equations. The extension to include freeze-thaw processes and snow maintains this elegant coupling, requiring only coefficients in the linear equations to be modified. No impedance factor for hydraulic conductivity is needed because of the formulation by matric flux potential rather than pressure head. Iterations are avoided which results in the same computational speed as without freezing. The extended model is evaluated extensively in stand-alone mode (against theoretical predictions, lab experiments and field data) and as part of the CABLE global land surface scheme. SLI accurately solves the classical Stefan problem of a homogeneous medium undergoing a phase change. The model also accurately reproduces the freezing front, which is observed in laboratory experiments (Hansson et al. 2004). SLI was further tested against observations at a permafrost site in Tibet (Weismüller et al. 2011). It reproduces seasonal thawing and freezing of the active layer to within 3 K of the observed soil temperature and to within 10% of the observed volumetric liquid soil moisture. Model-data fusion suggests that model performance is improved when the relatively high thermal conductivity of the ice phase is accounted for. However, the permafrost site is very gravelly so that the model equations for thermal conductivity are at the edge of applicability. The freezing-soil formulation is tested in the presence of snow, using measurements at an orchard site in Idaho. The model reproduces well observed snow-water equivalents and soil temperatures. However, it is highly sensitive to snow emissivity and maximum liquid content of the snow, leading both to modified refreezing of melted water. It is possible that the model would benefit from 1-2 more snow layers to permit simulation of density and temperature gradients in the snow-pack. SLI was run globally on 1°x1° grid as the soil part of the land surface scheme CABLE. We could therefore demonstrate that this detailed and physically-realistic formulation is fast enough to be a feasible alternative to the much simpler default soil-scheme in CABLE. References Hansson et al. (2004) Vadose Zone J 3, 693ff Haverd & Cuntz (2010) J Hydro 388, 434ff Haverd et al. (2013) Biogeosci 10, 2011ff Weismüller et al. (2011) The Cryosphere 5, 741ff

Cuntz, Matthias; Haverd, Vanessa

2014-05-01

335

29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148...and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities....

2013-07-01

336

29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148...and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities....

2010-07-01

337

29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148...and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities....

2011-07-01

338

3 CFR - Freezing Federal Employee Pay Schedules and Rates That Are Set By Administrative Discretion  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing Federal Employee Pay Schedules and Rates... Memorandum of December 22, 2010 Freezing Federal Employee Pay Schedules and Rates...correspondingly reduced to reflect the freezing of the employees' base pay...

2011-01-01

339

29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148...and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities....

2012-07-01

340

29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148...and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities....

2014-07-01

341

14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

2011-01-01

342

14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

2012-01-01

343

14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

2014-01-01

344

14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

2013-01-01

345

14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

2010-01-01

346

A search for the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes faster then cold water  

E-print Network

An explanation for why hot water will sometime freeze more rapidly than cold water is offered. Two specimens of water from the same source will often have different spontaneous freezing temperatures; that is, the temperature at which freezing begins. When both specimens supercool and the spontaneous freezing temperature of the hot water is higher than that of the cold water, then the hot water will usually freeze first, if all other conditions are equal and remain so during cooling. The probability that the hot water will freeze first if it has the higher spontaneous freezing temperature will be larger for a larger difference in spontaneous freezing temperature. Heating the water may lower, raise or not change the spontaneous freezing temperature. The keys to observing hot water freezing before cold water are supercooling the water and having a significant difference in the spontaneous freezing temperature of the two water specimens. We observed hot water freezing before cold water 28 times in 28 attempts und...

Brownridge, James D

2010-01-01

347

Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photomicrographic technique for investigating eupercooled. water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of eupercooled. water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets. The effect of size on the spontaneous freezing temperature was particularly marked below 60 microns. Frequency-distribution curves of the spontaneous freezing temperatures observed for droplets of a given size were obtained. Although no droplet froze at a temperature above 20 0 F, all droplets melted at 32 F. Results obtained with a copper support did not differ essentially from those obtained with a platinum surface.

Dorsch, R. G.; Hacker, P. T.

1950-01-01

348

STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program  

SciTech Connect

STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

Frank, M.V.

1980-09-01

349

Heat pump with freeze-up prevention  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01

350

Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?  

E-print Network

We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more ...

Jeng, M

2005-01-01

351

Freezing of Martian streams under climatic conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The valley networks of Mars are widely believed to have formed at a time when climatic conditions on the planet were significantly different from those that currently prevail. This view arises from the following observations: (1) the valleys form integrated branching networks which suggests fluid drainage, and water is the most plausible fluid, (2) the present atmosphere contains only minute amounts of water, (3) the networks appear to be more akin to terrestrial valleys that are eroded by streams of modest discharges than features that form by catastrophic floods, and (4) small streams of water will rapidly freeze under present climatic conditions. Climatic conditions at the time of formation of the valleys are studied based on the assumption that they were cut by running water.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

352

Free-energy functional for freezing transitions: Hard sphere systems freezing into crystalline and amorphous structures  

E-print Network

A free-energy functional that contains both the symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function has been used to investigate the freezing of a system of hard spheres into crystalline and amorphous structures. The freezing parameters for fluid-crystal transition have been found to be in very good agreement with the results found from simulations. We considered amorphous structures found from the molecular dynamics simulations at packing fractions $\\eta$ lower than the glass close packing fraction $\\eta_{J}$ and investigated their stability compared to that of a homogeneous fluid. The existence of free-energy minimum corresponding to a density distribution of overlapping Gaussians centered around an amorphous lattice depicts the deeply supercooled state with a heterogeneous density profile.

Swarn Lata Singh; Atul S. Bharadwaj; Yashwant Singh

2011-01-31

353

What happens in freezing bodies? Experimental study of histological tissue change caused by freezing injuries.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate histological features of freezing damages to human tissue after death, we froze samples of liver and heart tissue to temperatures of -12 degrees C, -28 degrees C and -80 degrees C, and stored them for 24 and 72 h, respectively, at those temperatures. After thawing and routine preparation for histology, the samples were evaluated both by microscope and with an electronic image analyzer. In all cases, we found extended extracellular spaces and shrunken cells resulting from the freeze-thaw cycle. These features were more pronounced in tissues stored for longer durations. Such findings seem to be typical of tissue that has been frozen prior to examination. Two cases of dead bodies found outdoors at subzero temperatures demonstrate that formerly frozen and unfrozen tissues can be distinguished histologically. The findings are examined in relation to the fundamental laws of cryobiology. PMID:10464930

Schäfer, A T; Kaufmann, J D

1999-06-28

354

Freezing and anoxia tolerance of slugs: a metabolic perspective.  

PubMed

Freezing survival was assessed in three species of terrestrial slugs, a holarctic but native North American species, Deroceras laeve, and two species introduced from Europe, D. reticulatum and Arion circumscriptus. The introduced species showed very poor freezing survival. Supercooling points of the introduced species were quite high ( approximately -3 degrees C) and their freezing survival was very poor, limited to short-term freezing at -1.2 to -1.5 degrees C and low ice contents (23-44%). D. laeve showed a significant elevation of supercooling point between slugs collected in the autumn (-4.8 degrees C +/- 0.5) and those collected early in the spring (-3.1 degrees C +/- 0.4). This species also showed substantial freezing survival which was greater for spring-collected slugs (100% survival of 1 h freezing at -2 degrees C with an ice content of 65%) than for autumn animals (100% survival for 1 h at -1 degrees C with approximately 40% ice). Carbohydrate and amino acid responses to freezing and anoxia exposures were compared in the two Deroceras species. D. laeve showed a strong hyperglycemic response to freezing, a 100-fold increase in glucose levels that suggested that glucose may have a cryoprotective function in this species. D. reticulatum did not accumulate glucose and neither species produced glycerol or lactate. Both species showed typical responses to anoxia (aspartate and glutamate catabolism, alanine and succinate accumulation) and D. laeve also showed this pattern during freezing, suggesting a natural switch to anaerobiosis to support freezing survival. PMID:17628806

Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M; Churchill, Thomas A

2007-11-01

355

Evaluation and Validation of the Messinger Freezing Fraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important non-dimensional parameters used in ice-accretion modeling and scaling studies is the freezing fraction defined by the heat-balance analysis of Messinger. For fifty years this parameter has been used to indicate how rapidly freezing takes place when super-cooled water strikes a solid body. The value ranges from 0 (no freezing) to 1 (water freezes immediately on impact), and the magnitude has been shown to play a major role in determining the physical appearance of the accreted ice. Because of its importance to ice shape, this parameter and the physics underlying the expressions used to calculate it have been questioned from time to time. Until now, there has been no strong evidence either validating or casting doubt on the current expressions. This paper presents experimental measurements of the leading-edge thickness of a number of ice shapes for a variety of test conditions with nominal freezing fractions from 0.3 to 1.0. From these thickness measurements, experimental freezing fractions were calculated and compared with values found from the Messinger analysis as applied by Ruff. Within the experimental uncertainty of measuring the leading-edge thickness, agreement of the experimental and analytical freezing fraction was very good. It is also shown that values of analytical freezing fraction were entirely consistent with observed ice shapes at and near rime conditions: At an analytical freezing fraction of unity, experimental ice shapes displayed the classic rime shape, while for conditions producing analytical freezing fractions slightly lower than unity, glaze features started to appear.

Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

2005-01-01

356

Investigation of the stabilizing effects of hydroxyethyl cellulose on LDH during freeze drying and freeze thawing cycles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate both the cryoprotective and lyoprotective effects of the polymer hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) on the model protein lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during freeze thawing and freeze drying cycles. The effect of annealing on both protein stability and the physical state of HEC was evaluated. HEC was used as a sole excipient in the protein formulations, and its stabilizing was compared to that of other excipients which are commonly used in freeze dried protein formulations. Furthermore, other quality aspects of the freeze dried samples containing solely HEC were investigated, such as, reconstitution time and product elegance. Protein stability was evaluated functionally by measuring the activity recovery of the model protein LDH. The physical state of HEC after freeze drying was investigated and compared to this of other studied solutes using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. HEC showed superior cryoprotective effects on LDH during freeze thawing, and considerable lyoprotective effects during the freeze drying process. Annealing had limited influence on the stabilizing effect of HEC. The extensive reconstitution times of the HEC lyophilisates could be greatly improved by incorporation of the surfactant Tween 80 into the formulations prior to freeze drying. PMID:24286265

Al-Hussein, Anas; Gieseler, Henning

2015-01-01

357

Mesophyll freezing and effects of freeze dehydration visualized by simultaneous measurement of IDTA and differential imaging chlorophyll fluorescence.  

PubMed

Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) and differential imaging chlorophyll fluorescence (DIF) were employed simultaneously to study the two-dimensional pattern of ice propagation in leaves and mesophyll freeze dehydration as detected by a significant increase of basic chlorophyll fluorescence (F(0)). IDTA and DIF technique gave different insights into the freezing process of leaves that was highly species-specific. IDTA clearly visualized the freezing process consisting of an initial fast spread of ice throughout the vascular system followed by mesophyll freezing. While mesophyll freezing was homogeneously in Poa alpina, Rhododendron ferrugineum and Senecio incanus as determined by IDTA, DIF showed a distinct pattern only in S. incanus, with the leaf tips being affected earlier. In Cinnamomum camphora, a mottled freezing pattern of small mesophyll compartments was observed by both methods. In IDTA images, a random pattern predominated, while in DIF images, compartments closer to lower order veins were affected earlier. The increase of F(0) following mesophyll freezing started after a species-specific time lag of up to 26 min. The start of the F(0) increase and its slope were significantly enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggest a higher strain on mesophyll protoplasts when freezing occurs at lower temperatures. PMID:18761699

Hacker, Jürgen; Spindelböck, Joachim Paul; Neuner, Gilbert

2008-11-01

358

Magnetic shielding for the Fermilab Vertical Cavity Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

A superconducting RF cavity has to be shielded from magnetic fields present during cool down below the critical temperature to avoid freezing in the magnetic flux at localized impurities, thereby degrading the cavity intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}. The magnetic shielding designed for the Fermilab vertical cavity test facility (VCTF), a facility for CW RF vertical testing of bare ILC 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF cavities, was recently completed. For the magnetic shielding design, we used two cylindrical layers: a room temperature 'outer' shield of Amumetal (80% Ni alloy), and a 2K 'inner' shield of Cryoperm 10. The magnetic and mechanical design of the magnetic shielding and measurement of the remanent magnetic field inside the shielding are described.

Ginsburg, Camille M.; Reid, Clark; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

2008-09-01

359

Feasibility of high pressure freezing with freeze substitution after long-term storage in chemical fixatives.  

PubMed

Fixation of biological samples is an important process especially related to histological and ultrastructural studies. Chemical fixation was the primary method of fixing tissue for transmission electron microscopy for many years, as it provides adequate preservation of the morphology of cells and organelles. High pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) is a newer alternative method that rapidly freezes non-cryoprotected samples that are then slowly heated in the FS medium, allowing penetration of the tissue to insure adequate fixation. This study addresses several issues related to tissue preservation for electron microscopy. Using mice liver tissue as model the difference between samples fixed chemically or with HPF immediately after excision, or stored before chemical or HPF fixation were tested with specific focus on the nuclear membrane. Findings are that immediate HPF is the method of choice compared to chemical fixation. Of the chemical fixatives, immediate fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde (GA)/formaldehyde (FA) is the best in preserving membrane morphology, 2.5% GA can be used as alternative for stored and then chemically processed samples, with 10% formalin being suitable as a storage medium only if followed by HPF fixation. Overall, storage leads to lower ultrastructural preservation, but HPF with FS can minimize these artifacts relative to other processing protocols. PMID:23818457

Venter, Chantelle; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan Frederick; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Bester, Megan Jean; Taute, Helena

2013-09-01

360

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

361

Vertical Integration and Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many possible motives for vertical integration, the one emphasized here is uncertainty in the supply of the upstream good and the consequent need for information by downstream firms. The basic conclusion is that, even when the initial conditions are of the type usually thought of as competitive, the upshot will be a tendency to imperfect competition.

Kenneth J. Arrow

1975-01-01

362

Nappe emplacement under lateral pressure gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New thin viscous approximation is under development specifically targeted to model spontaneous initiation and tens of kilometers horizontal displacement of tectonic nappes. Nappes are few kilometers thing and tens of kilometers long rock units trusted towards foreland often preserving internal lithological consistency and laying at near horizontal position at the end of the emplacement. Significant shear stresses and deviation of principal stresses from vertical is required to explain this very peculiar strain localization style from mechanical point of view. There is also a need for the explanation of their common appearances in most collisional settings. Both pure shear thin sheet and flexural models kinematically eliminate nappes formation. Spreading viscous sheet models, such as used to model glaciers, are also not applicable as the direction of motion is upward, against gravity. The reason for this discrepancy is the hydrostatic pressure approximation of the gravity-driven spreading models. Actually, the thin sheet approximation is not sensitive to the assumptions made on pressure profile. Lateral non-lithostatic pressure gradient-driven viscous sheet model is appropriate for modeling of nappes. In turn, significant non-lithostatic pressure must be supported by flexural rigidity of overlying and underlying units. Lateral gradients of this non-lithostatic pressure are responsible for the significant shear stress and, therefore, deviation of principal stress from vertical.

Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefan

2014-05-01

363

Manipulating the Gradient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

Gaze, Eric C.

2005-01-01

364

Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

Morton, N.

1984-01-01

365

Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for estrus synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

1988-12-01

366

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF 15 ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN JIWEILING FREEZE-DRIED POWDER BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative characterization and quantitative analysis of 15 bioactive constituents in Jiweiling freeze-dried powder (JWL) have been achieved by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, including five flavonoids and ten ginsenosides. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 HPLC column, with gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as mobile phase.

Minyan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Jiming Jia; Xiaowei Shi; Jian Song; Hongtao Wang; Yingfeng Du; Lantong Zhang

2010-01-01

367

Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained Concrete  

PubMed Central

One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to “the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete” GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results. PMID:23576906

Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

2013-01-01

368

Freeze-thaw durability of air-entrained concrete.  

PubMed

One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to "the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete" GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results. PMID:23576906

Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

2013-01-01

369

Levodopa changes the severity of freezing in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Oral levodopa has been proposed to be one of the more effective medications to alleviate freezing of gait, but there is limited data on its efficacy. We evaluated the gait phenomenology of 20 Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait before and 60 min after a standardized levodopa dose using a rating scale based on the assumption that festination and akinetic freezing share a common pathophysiology. Levodopa abolished festination and freezing in 20% of patients (p < 0.0001), and reduced the freezing sum score from a median of 15 (IQR 6.75-27.5) to 3.5 (1-11.25), p < 0.001) in all but one of the remainder. Pre-dose ratings correlated with post-dose ratings, in that those patients with lower pre-dose item-scores also showed lower post-dose outcome scores. Levodopa's effect on both festination and akinetic freezing was linear, thereby supporting the concept that festination and freezing are variants on a continuity of episodic gait disorders in PD. PMID:23642712

Fietzek, Urban M; Zwosta, Jens; Schroeteler, Frauke E; Ziegler, Kerstin; Ceballos-Baumann, Andres O

2013-10-01

370

Metabolic Changes in Avena sativa Crowns Recovering from Freezing  

PubMed Central

Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants. PMID:24675792

Henson, Cynthia A.; Duke, Stanley H.; Livingston, David P.

2014-01-01

371

Immersion freezing on mineral dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust is considered to play a major role in ice cloud nucleation in the troposphere. More than 1.000 Tg of mineral dust are aerosolized from the ground every year, 1-10% of these reach the upper troposphere [1]. At an altitude of about 8 km ice residual particle analysis has shown that about 50% of all ice nuclei (IN) are mineral dust[2]. In principle, natural occurring dusts may either be IN-active themselves or are carriers of organic and/or biological IN. Up to now the ice nucleation, i.e. cloud glaciation, has not been quantized. However, different authors report a high IN-activity for many mineral dust samples, although a systematic comparison between different minerals is still missing. Therefore, we studied selected mineral dust samples which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy before use. Oil immersion measurements were performed on the most common minerals, clay materials and volcanic ash. The median freezing temperatures range from -21°C up to homogenous freezing at 38°C. Even though quite a few dust samples show a reasonable high IN-activity, their median freezing temperatures are low compared to biological samples [3, 4]. Furthermore, heat treatment of the dusts was applied in order to decompose and to denaturize organic and/or biological surfactants. Finally, some dust samples had a high loss of activity and thus were subjects of further experiments. These mineral dust particles were suspended in water and after an incubation time were removed. In some cases the washing water had become IN-active, but lost its activity after enzymatic treatment. The observed high IN-activity can thus be explained by adsorbed biological materials. The results suggest that some mineral dusts are IN-active, and if it is not intrinsic they may even enhance IN-activity of organic and biological IN if these are adsorbed on the dust particle surface. A relatively high IN-activity of the pure mineral dusts was only observed in quartz, clays, and mixed natural dusts (ATD), which are mainly composed of SiO2 and clays. References. [1] C. S. Zender, R. L. Miller and I. Tegen, Eos Trans. AGU, 2004,85, 509. [2] K. A. Pratt, P. J. DeMott, J. R. French, Z. Wang, D. L. Westphal, A. J. Heymsfield, C. H. Twohy, A. J. Prenni, K. A. Prather, Nat. Geosci., 2009, 2, 397-400. [3] B. Pummer, H. Bauer, J. Bernardi, S. Bleicher and H. Grothe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2012, 12, 2541-2550. [4] V. T. J. Phillips, C. Andronache, B. Christner, C. E. Morris, D. C. Sands, A. Bansemer, A. Lauer, C. McNaughton and C. Seman, Biogeosciences, 2009, 6, 987-1014.

Zolles, Tobias; Grothe, Hinrich; Pummer, Bernhard

2013-04-01

372

Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect

Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

Hancock, David, W.

2012-02-14

373

Strong gradients for spatially resolved diffusion measurements.  

PubMed

A new multilayer approach to gradient coil design, which allows the production of very strong gradient coils with reasonable resistance and consequent power dissipation, has been developed. Using this approach we have designed and built a strong z-gradient coil that will accommodate vertically mounted samples contained in 5-mm nuclear magnetic resonance tubes. The coil has an efficiency of 1.73 Tm-1A-1, an inductance of 49 microH, and a resistance of 1.8 omega, with a homogeneous volume consisting of a central cylinder of 4.5-mm length and diameter. This coil has been used to monitor the diffusion of water in Nylon 6.6 at room temperature, during desorption. This system is difficult to monitor via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), because the diffusion coefficients are typically less than 10(-13) m2s-1, while the T2 relaxation time is less than 1 ms even when the sample is fully saturated. The resulting measurements show a strong concentration dependence of the T2 relaxation time and self-diffusion coefficient of the absorbed water. The measured concentration profiles are consistent with a Fickian diffusion process with a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. The measured self-diffusion values are in reasonable agreement with those inferred from the variation of the concentration profiles as a function of time, using the one-dimensional Fickian diffusion equation. PMID:9803915

Snaar, J E; Robyr, P; Bowtell, R

1998-01-01

374

Exploring Human Freeze Responses to a Threat Stressor  

PubMed Central

Despite the fundamental nature of tonic immobility in anxiety responses, surprisingly little empirical research has focused on the “freeze” response in humans. The present report evaluated frequency and predictors of a freeze response in the context of a biological challenge. A nonclinical sample (N = 404) underwent a 20-sec inhalation of 20% CO2/balance O2. Perceptions of immobility in the context of the challenge were reported in 13% of the sample, compared to 20% reporting a significant desire to flee. Subjective anxiety and panic during the challenge were associated with the freeze response, as were a number of anxiety symptom dimensions. PMID:17880916

Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Maner, Jon K.

2008-01-01

375

Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Porous Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of porous ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species involved in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally porous ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.

Sofie, Stephen W.

2007-01-01

376

Theory of freezing: The inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a new freezing theory based on the inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equation. The new theory is nonperturbative, in the sense that crystal and liquid are treated at the same level of approximation. This is in contrast to the popular density functional theory of freezing, which uses the liquid as a reference state for perturbation theory. Due to the the demanding nature of the numerical method, preliminary calculations are presented for a model problem-which, in the strictest sense, is unphysical-namely, the freezing of hard disks in two dimensions. They also explore a generalized Percus-Yevick closure appropriate for the crystal.

McCoy, J.D.; Haymet, A.D.J.

1989-01-01

377

Freezing resistance of HPC with nano-SiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test of fast-freezing method is employed to research the freezing resistance of C60 and C80 high-performance concrete\\u000a with nanometer-SiO2, and XRD and SEM are employed to analyze the mechanism of its influence. The experimental results show that the freezing\\u000a resistance of high-performance concrete has been effectively improved. The compressive strength of C60, C70 and C80 high-performance\\u000a concrete added with

Baomin Wang; Lijiu Wang; F. C. Lai

2008-01-01

378

Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried\\u000a human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization\\u000a buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de\\u000a Boer (GAB) equations. There were

Meng-jie Xu; Guang-ming Chen; Ju-li Fan; Jin-hui Liu; Xian-guo Xu; Shao-zhi Zhang

2011-01-01

379

Freezing and Melting, Precipitation Type, and Numerical Weather Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast is based on a COMET classroom presentation by Dr. Gary Lackmann at the 2nd MSC Winter Weather Course held in Boulder, Colorado on 22 February 2002. Dr. Lackmann reviews the basic thermodynamics of freezing and melting and how operational models represent these processes. He also touches upon the biases that occur in the models by looking at examples of melting snow aloft, melting snow at the surface, freezing aloft (ice pellets), and freezing rain. Dr. Lackmann is a faculty member in the Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences at North Carolina State University.

2014-09-14

380

Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere. PMID:20542360

Gao, Y; Wu, S C; Yu, X Z; Wong, M H

2010-08-01

381

Chemical gradients in the Milky Way from the RAVE data. II. Giant stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We provide new constraints on the chemo-dynamical models of the Milky Way by measuring the radial and vertical chemical gradients for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Ti, and Fe in the Galactic disc and the gradient variations as a function of the distance from the Galactic plane (Z). Methods: We selected a sample of giant stars from the RAVE database using the gravity criterium 1.7 gradients and the vertical gradients as a function of the distance from the Galactic plane Z to study their variation across the Galactic disc. Results: The RAVE sample exhibits a negative radial gradient of d[Fe/H]/dR = -0.054 dex kpc-1 close to the Galactic plane (| Z | < 0.4 kpc) that becomes flatter for larger | Z |. Other elements follow the same trend although with some variations from element to element. The mock sample has radial gradients in fair agreement with the observed data. The variation of the gradients with Z shows that the Fe radial gradient of the RAVE sample has little change in the range | Z | ? 0.6 kpc and then flattens. The iron vertical gradient of the RAVE sample is slightly negative close to the Galactic plane and steepens with | Z |. The mock sample exhibits an iron vertical gradient that is always steeper than the RAVE sample. The mock sample also shows an excess of metal-poor stars in the [Fe/H] distributions with respect to the observed data. These discrepancies can be reduced by decreasing the number of thick disc stars and increasing their average metallicity in the Besançon model.

Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Piffl, T.; Just, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Sharma, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Chiappini, C.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

2014-08-01

382

Stress-gradient plasticity  

PubMed Central

A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

2011-01-01

383

Gradient Particle Magnetohydrodynamics  

E-print Network

We introduce Gradient Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (GPM), a new Lagrangian method for magnetohydrodynamics based on gradients corrected for the locally disordered particle distribution. The development of a numerical code for MHD simulation using the GPM algorithm is outlined. Validation tests simulating linear and nonlinear sound waves, linear MHD waves, advection of magnetic fields in a magnetized vortex, hydrodynamical shocks, and three-dimensional collapse are presented, demonstrating the viability of an MHD code using GPM. The characteristics of a GPM code are discussed and possible avenues for further development and refinement are mentioned. We conclude with a view of how GPM may complement other methods currently in development for the next generation of computational astrophysics.

Jason L. Maron; Gregory G. Howes

2001-07-24

384

Vertical variations of boundary layer chemistry in the urban environment of Boston  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layer chemistry in urban areas is often strongly influenced by surface emissions of NOx and VOCs. Vertical mixing in combination with chemical transformations leads to distinctive vertical profiles of reactive trace gases. Chemistry, therefore, varies with altitude in the lowest 50 m, in particular in the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The influence of vertical mixing on chemistry in the lowest part of the boundary layer is often not accurately described, and a better understanding is needed to improve our ability to model urban air pollution. During the NEAQS/NAOPEX field campaign in July-August, 2002, vertical distributions of NO2, O3, HONO, HCHO, NO3, and several other trace gases were measured in the lowest 10 - 50 m of the atmosphere with a long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument in a residential area in Boston, MA. Various meteorological parameters were also monitored at the same location. Clear vertical trace gas concentration gradients were observed. In particular, during nights with strong stabilities, nocturnal boundary layer chemistry was clearly altitude dependent. Positive gradients of O3 and NO3 developed as a result of the fast chemical reactions with NO emitted at the surface. Negative NO2 and HONO gradients point to the vertical variation of the heterogeneous NO2-HONO conversion process, suggesting the importance of heterogeneous chemistry at the ground and building walls. With the transition from the stable boundary layer to a convective layer after sunrise, the vertical profiles regressed. However, vertical gradients of HCHO and O3 were observed in the afternoon on most days of this study. The observations suggest that ground-based emissions and fast photochemistry can lead to vertical profiles of trace gases in an urban boundary layer even during daytime. The vertical stratification of boundary layer chemistry, which depends on many factors including mixing strength, fast photochemistry and the emission strength, will be discussed.

Wang, S.; Geyer, A.; Stutz, J.

2003-12-01

385

Large ion concentration gradients below the equatorial F peak.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large vertical and longitudinal gradients in the ion concentrations are observed below the F peak near the magnetic equator with the retarding potential analyzer on Ogo 6. Ion concentration 'bite outs' of up to a factor of 1000 are observed above 400 km. They appear to be associated with the bottomside of the nighttime F layer. The ion composition in the minima may contain large fractions of ions heavier than O(+) (e.g., NO(+) and Fe(+)). It is suggested that convective electric fields associated with spread F steepen the bottomside of the F layer and also introduce longitudinal irregularities in the vertical ion concentration profiles.

Hanson, W. B.; Sanatani, S.

1973-01-01

386

Characterization of a laboratory-scale container for freezing protein solutions with detailed evaluation of a freezing process simulation.  

PubMed

A 300-mL stainless steel freeze container was constructed to enable QbD (Quality by Design)-compliant investigations and the optimization of freezing and thawing (F/T) processes of protein pharmaceuticals at moderate volumes. A characterization of the freezing performance was conducted with respect to freezing kinetics, temperature profiling, cryoconcentration, and stability of the frozen protein. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of temperature and phase transition were established to facilitate process scaling and process analytics as well as customization of future freeze containers. Protein cryoconcentration was determined from ice-core samples using bovine serum albumin. Activity, aggregation, and structural perturbation were studied in frozen rabbit muscle l-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) solution. CFD simulations provided good qualitative and quantitative agreement with highly resolved experimental measurements of temperature and phase transition, allowing also the estimation of spatial cryoconcentration patterns. LDH exhibited stability against freezing in the laboratory-scale system, suggesting a protective effect of cryoconcentration at certain conditions. The combination of the laboratory-scale freeze container with accurate CFD modeling will allow deeper investigations of F/T processes at advanced scale and thus represents an important step towards a better process understanding. PMID:24338205

Roessl, Ulrich; Jajcevic, Dalibor; Leitgeb, Stefan; Khinast, Johannes G; Nidetzky, Bernd

2014-02-01

387

Inner ear tissue preservation by rapid freezing: Improving fixation by high-pressure freezing and hybrid methods  

PubMed Central

In the preservation of tissues in as ‘close to life’ state as possible, rapid freeze fixation has many benefits over conventional chemical fixation. One technique by which rapid freeze-fixation can be achieved, high pressure freezing (HPF), has been shown to enable ice crystal artefact-free freezing and tissue preservation to greater depths (more than 40 ?m) than other quick-freezing methods. Despite increasingly becoming routine in electron microscopy, the use of HPF for the fixation of inner ear tissue has been limited. Assessment of the quality of preservation showed routine HPF techniques were suitable for preparation of inner ear tissues in a variety of species. Good preservation throughout the depth of sensory epithelia was achievable. Comparison to chemically fixed tissue indicated that fresh frozen preparations exhibited overall superior structural preservation of cells. However, HPF fixation caused characteristic artefacts in stereocilia that suggested poor quality freezing of the actin bundles. The hybrid technique of pre-fixation and high pressure freezing was shown to produce cellular preservation throughout the tissue, similar to that seen in HPF alone. Pre-fixation HPF produced consistent high quality preservation of stereociliary actin bundles. Optimising the preparation of samples with minimal artefact formation allows analysis of the links between ultrastructure and function in inner ear tissues. PMID:25016142

Bullen, A.; Taylor, R.R.; Kachar, B.; Moores, C.; Fleck, R.A.; Forge, A.

2014-01-01

388

Freeze Shoe Sampler for the Collection of Hyporheic Zone Sediments and Porewater.  

PubMed

The Starr and Ingleton (1992) drive point piston sampler (DPPS) design was modified by fitting it with a Murphy and Herkelrath (1996) type sample-freezing drive shoe (SFDS), which uses liquid carbon dioxide as a cryogen. Liquid carbon dioxide was used to freeze sediments in the lower 0.1?m of the core and the drive-point piston sealed the core at the top preserving the reductive-oxidation (redox) sensitive sediments from the atmosphere and maintaining natural stratigraphy. The use of nitrogen gas to provide positive pressure on the gas system blocked the ingress of water which froze on contact with the cryogen thus blocking the gas lines with ice. With this adaptation to the gas system cores could be collected at greater depths beneath the static water level. This tool was used to collect intact saturated sediment cores from the hyporheic zone of the tidally influenced Fraser River in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada where steep geochemical and microbial gradients develop within the interface between discharging anaerobic groundwater and recharging aerobic river water. In total, 25 cores driven through a 1.5?m sampling interval were collected from the river bed with a mean core recovery of 75%. The ability to deploy this method from a fishing vessel makes the tool more cost effective than traditional marine-based drilling operations which often use barges, tug boats, and drilling rigs. PMID:24825508

Bianchin, M; Smith, L; Beckie, R

2015-03-01

389

Freezing Stress Response in Woody Tissues Observed Using Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy and Freeze Substitution Techniques 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of the current research was to examine the response of woody plant tissues to freezing stress by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nonsupercooling species red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera Michx.), weeping willow (Salix babylonica L.), and corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana Koidz. f. tortuosa Rehd.) survived freezing stress as low as ?60°C. Cell collapse of ray parenchyma cells of these species was expected but did not occur. It was concluded that ray parenchyma cells of these species do not fit into either the supercooling or extracellular freezing classifications. Tissues from flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv “Starking III”), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muench.), and red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) were confirmed as supercooling species, and did not survive exposures below ?40°C. Ray parenchyma cells of these species did not collapse in response to freezing stress, as was expected. Cell collapse along the margins of voids were observed in bark of all seven species. Voids were the result of extracellular ice crystals formed in the bark during exposure to freezing stress. Tissues prepared by freeze substitution techniques were found to be adequately preserved when compared to those prepared by conventional fixation and low temperature SEM techniques. A freezing protocol for imposing freezing stress at temperatures lower than experienced naturally in the area where the study was conducted was developed that produced responses comparable to those observed in specimens collected in the field during natural freezing events. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16668066

Malone, Stephen R.; Ashworth, Edward N.

1991-01-01

390

Spray irrigation effects on surface-layer stability in an experimental citrus orchard during winter freezes  

SciTech Connect

Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Ginesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Cooper, H.J.; Smith, E.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Martsolf, J.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-02-01

391

Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze  

PubMed Central

Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

2013-01-01

392

GPR utilization in artificial freezing engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) in artificial freezing engineering (AFE), the electromagnetic parameters (EMP) of frozen soil were measured using a vector network analyser, which showed that the dielectric permittivity and electric conductivity change abruptly at the boundary between the frozen and the non-frozen soil. Then similarity criteria of GPR model experiments were deduced, and GPR laboratory model experiments and field explorations of AFE were carried out. It was found that for AFE, the GPR travel time and profile characters of anomalies in model experiments were similar to those in field explorations, while the amplitude of GPR signals in laboratory model experiments were much stronger than those in field explorations. Numerical simulations were also implemented to analyse the relationship between model experiments and field explorations, which further told us why we could easily find the targets by GPR in the laboratory but not in field explorations. The outputs showed that GPR could be used to detect the thickness of the frozen wall and to find unfrozen soil defects, even though the amplitude of the reflective signals were much weaker than those of laboratory experiments. The research findings have an important theoretical value for AFE and permafrost region engineering, and the deduced GPR similarity criteria could be widely used in other GPR model experiments.

Song, Lei; Yang, Weihao; Huang, Jiahui; Li, Haipeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

2013-06-01

393

Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?  

E-print Network

We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes are also described.

Monwhea Jeng

2005-12-29

394

The 630 nm MIG and the vertical neutral wind in the low latitude nighttime thermosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that large negative divergences (gradients) in the horizontal neutral wind in the equatorial thermosphere can support downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. With attention to the meridional and vertical winds only, the pressure tendency equation is used to derive the expression U(sub z0) approximately equals (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y)H for the vertical wind U(sub z0) at the reference altitude for the pressure tendency equation; H is the atmospheric density scale height, and (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y) is the meridional wind gradient. The velocity gradient associated with the Meridional Intensity Gradient (MIG) of the O((sup 1)D) emission (630 nm) at low latitudes is used to estimate the vertical neutral wind in the MIG region. Velocity gradients derived from MIG data are about 0.5 (m/s)/km) or more, indicating that the MIG region may contain downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. Though direct measurements of the vertical wind are scarce, Fabry-Perot interferometer data of the equatorial F-region above Natal, Brazil, showed downward winds of 30 m/s occurring during a strong meridional wind convergence in 1982. In-situ measurements with the WATS instrument on the DE-2 satellite also show large vertical neutral winds in the equatorial region.

Herrero, F. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

395

Vertical heterogeneity in predation pressure in a temperate forest canopy  

PubMed Central

The forest canopy offers a vertical gradient across which variation in predation pressure implies variation in refuge quality for arthropods. Direct and indirect experimental approaches were combined to assess whether canopy strata differ in ability to offer refuge to various arthropod groups. Vertical heterogeneity in impact of avian predators was quantified using exclosure cages in the understory, lower, mid, and upper canopy of a north-temperate deciduous forest near Montreal, Quebec. Bait trials were completed in the same strata to investigate the effects of invertebrate predators. Exclusion of birds yielded higher arthropod densities across all strata, although treatment effects were small for some taxa. Observed gradients in predation pressure were similar for both birds and invertebrate predators; the highest predation pressure was observed in the understory and decreased with height. Our findings support a view of the forest canopy that is heterogeneous with respect to arthropod refuge from natural enemies. PMID:24010017

Aikens, Kathleen R.; Buddle, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

396

Biotechnological applications of plant freezing associated Ghislain Breton1  

E-print Network

freezing in deep water or soil while those that live at the surface adopt different mechanisms. Some try been used to produce transgenic plants. These studies have revealed the potential capacity of different

Sarhan, Fathey

397

Fast hadron freeze-out generator, part II: noncentral collisions  

E-print Network

The fast Monte Carlo procedure of hadron generation developed in our previous work is extended to describe noncentral collisions of nuclei. We consider different possibilities to introduce appropriate asymmetry of the freeze-out hyper-surface and flow velocity profile. For comparison with other models and experimental data we demonstrate the results based on the standard parametrizations of the hadron freeze-out hyper-surface and flow velocity profile assuming either a common chemical and thermal freeze-out or the chemically frozen evolution from chemical to thermal freeze-out. The C++ generator code is written under the ROOT framework and is available for public use at http://uhkm.jinr.ru/

N. S. Amelin; R. Lednicky; I. P. Lokhtin; L. V. Malinina; A. M. Snigirev; Iu. A. Karpenko; Yu. M. Sinyukov; I. Arsene; L. Bravina

2007-12-13

398

40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1135 Regulation for parking freeze. (a...Reserved] (m) On or before January 30, 1975, the Massachusetts Port Authority (“Massport”) shall prepare...

2012-07-01

399

40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1135 Regulation for parking freeze. (a...Reserved] (m) On or before January 30, 1975, the Massachusetts Port Authority (“Massport”) shall prepare...

2013-07-01

400

40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1135 Regulation for parking freeze. (a...Reserved] (m) On or before January 30, 1975, the Massachusetts Port Authority (“Massport”) shall prepare...

2014-07-01

401

40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1135 Regulation for parking freeze. (a...Reserved] (m) On or before January 30, 1975, the Massachusetts Port Authority (“Massport”) shall prepare...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1135 Regulation for parking freeze. (a...Reserved] (m) On or before January 30, 1975, the Massachusetts Port Authority (“Massport”) shall prepare...

2010-07-01

403

Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

2005-05-01

404

ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tech...

405

ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

406

Universality of Tip Singularity Formation in Freezing Water Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A drop of water deposited on a cold plate freezes into an ice drop with a pointy tip. While this phenomenon clearly finds its origin in the expansion of water upon freezing, a quantitative description of the tip singularity has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how the geometry of the freezing front, determined by heat transfer considerations, is crucial for the tip formation. We perform systematic measurements of the angles of the conical tip, and reveal the dynamics of the solidification front in a Hele-Shaw geometry. It is found that the cone angle is independent of substrate temperature and wetting angle, suggesting a universal, self-similar mechanism that does not depend on the rate of solidification. We propose a model for the freezing front and derive resulting tip angles analytically, in good agreement with the experiments.

Marín, A. G.; Enríquez, O. R.; Brunet, P.; Colinet, P.; Snoeijer, J. H.

2014-08-01

407

The Hazards of Debt: Rollover Freezes, Incentives, and Bailouts  

E-print Network

We investigate the trade-off between incentive provision and inefficient rollover freezes for a firm financed with short-term debt. First, debt maturity that is too short-term is inefficient, even with incentive provision. ...

Cheng, Ing-Haw

408

19. FIRST FLOOR LEVEL BELOW ICE FREEZING TANKS AND LOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. FIRST FLOOR LEVEL BELOW ICE FREEZING TANKS AND LOWER LEVEL OF ICE DUMP AND LIFT WHERE FROZEN ICE IS BROUGHT INTO STORAGE. - Atlantic Ice & Coal Company, 135 Prince Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

409

Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops.  

PubMed

A drop of water deposited on a cold plate freezes into an ice drop with a pointy tip. While this phenomenon clearly finds its origin in the expansion of water upon freezing, a quantitative description of the tip singularity has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how the geometry of the freezing front, determined by heat transfer considerations, is crucial for the tip formation. We perform systematic measurements of the angles of the conical tip, and reveal the dynamics of the solidification front in a Hele-Shaw geometry. It is found that the cone angle is independent of substrate temperature and wetting angle, suggesting a universal, self-similar mechanism that does not depend on the rate of solidification. We propose a model for the freezing front and derive resulting tip angles analytically, in good agreement with the experiments. PMID:25126922

Marín, A G; Enríquez, O R; Brunet, P; Colinet, P; Snoeijer, J H

2014-08-01

410

Florida Harvester Ant Nest Architecture, Nest Relocation and Soil Carbon Dioxide Gradients  

PubMed Central

Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed. PMID:23555829

Tschinkel, Walter R.

2013-01-01

411

Effect of temperature on plasma freezing under industrial conditions.  

PubMed

The European Pharmacopoeia monograph on Human plasma for fractionation does not define the freezing process time but does define the freezing temperature (- 30 degrees C or below). Initial freezing conditions are crucial for the quality of plasma. These conditions were intended to preserve labile proteins such as fVIIl, but they can also be considered favourable for the plasma quality in general. This study evaluates the way the industrial plasma freezing affects labile coagulation factors. We have studied the freezing of plasma in industrial-size chambers at temperatures close to - 30 degrees C, - 25 degrees C and - 20 degrees C, and the possible differences between performing the freezing process in a chamber or in a freezer, in order to elucidate whether or not these parameters affect the quality of plasma. For this study, plasma bottles were frozen in industrial chambers set at - 30 degrees C, - 25 degrees C and - 20 degrees C, and in a freezer set at - 20 degrees C. The freezing rates were followed by means of probes in plasma control bottles. From this plasma, coagulation factors (fVIII, fIX and fibrinogen) were analysed before and after freezing, and cryoprecipitate was obtained in some cases. Statistically significant differences exist in fVIII:C recovery in thawed plasma between freezing at - 30 degrees C and at - 20 degrees C (n = 11; 85.4 +/- 4.3 % versus 74.6 +/- 6.0 % (chamber) or 79.3 +/- 6.3 % (freezer)). There is no difference between - 30 degrees C and - 25 degrees C, or between freezing at - 20 degrees C in a chamber or in a freezer. No significant loss of activity in thawed plasma is observed for fIX and fibrinogen at - 25 degrees C or - 20 degrees C versus - 30 degrees C. The fVIII and vWF recovery in cryoprecipitates does not show differences (464.2 IU fVIII/ml at - 30 degrees C, 446.7 IU fVIII/ml at - 25 degrees C, and 475.8 IU fVIII/ml at - 20 degrees C). The results obtained from this study support that plasma might also be frozen at - 25 degrees C or below without any impact on its quality, and that sporadic and short term deviations, from - 30 degrees C or below up to - 25 degrees C, in the currently required freezing temperature, would not have an effect on the labile factors recovery. PMID:17694644

Bravo, M I; Grancha, S; Jorquera, J I

2006-08-01

412

Volatility of apples during air and freeze drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatility of some representative aroma compounds during the freeze and convective drying of apples was analysed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Among the 36 aroma compounds identified by GC–MS, three representative components of the apple flavor, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate and methyl anthranilate, were examined in detail. The retention of the above compounds and moisture content retention during freeze

M. K. Krokida; C. Philippopoulos

2006-01-01

413

Dynamical Interpretation of Chemical Freeze-Out Parameters  

E-print Network

It is shown that the condition for chemical freeze-out, average energy per hadron approximately 1 GeV, selects the softest point of the equation of state, namely the point where the pressure divided by the energy density has a minimum. The sensitivity to the equation of state used is discussed. The previously proposed mixed phase model, which is consistent with lattice QCD data naturally leads to the chemical freeze-out condition.

V. D. Toneev; J. Cleymans; E. G. Nikonov; K. Redlich; A. A. Shanenko

1999-04-17

414

Reliable determination of freeze-concentration using DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the feature of a DSC endotherm that can be most reliably used to determine the composition of a freeze-concentrate. Samples (3–10mg) of sucrose in water (0–60%, w\\/v) were frozen and then heated (at 0.2–2.0°C\\/min) on a DSC. The peak (Tpeak) and offset (Toffset) temperatures were obtained from the melt endotherms. A freezing

Bakul S. Bhatnagar; Stephane Cardon; Michael J. Pikal; Robin H. Bogner

2005-01-01

415

Freeze concentration for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progressive freeze concentration process, unidirectional downward freezing (UDF), was investigated for removal of five commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, acetylsalicylic acid, metoprolol and sulfamethoxazole) in water. The feed water with the pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) at concentrations from ng\\/L to mg\\/L range was frozen at ?7 and ?15°C. The separation efficiency of PhACs in the single stage and two-stage

W. Gao; Y. Shao

2009-01-01

416

Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

1993-09-01

417

Freezing behavior of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) tubers in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer potatoes are a major weed problem in potato rotations in regions with mild winter soil temperatures. Freezing dynamics\\u000a of potato tubers in air have been previously reported, but freezing dynamics of tubers in soil may differ due to ice nucleation\\u000a sites and soil water associated with soil. Laboratory experiments conducted in hydrated and dry soil columns and field experiments

R. A. Boydston; M. D. Seymour; C. R. Brown; A. K. Alva

2006-01-01

418

Successful pregnancies with directional freezing of large volume buck semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed buck semen shows variable results which depend on many factors related to semen quality and the cryopreservation processing. We conducted experiments based on a new freezing method, directional freezing, of large volumes (8ml). In the first experiment semen from three Saanen bucks, ages 1–2-years-old and genetically selected for milk improvement, was frozen individually. Two to three-years-old

H. Gacitua; A. Arav

2005-01-01

419

Preventing livestock water from freezing. Forest Service project record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available equipment for, and approaches to, preventing livestock water from freezing were surveyed in terms of water circulation, mass insulation, heat pipes, and solar energy. Use of insulated covers and applying insulation to the sides of stock tanks should be considered for ice-free stock water tanks. The propane bubbler seems the most simple and cost-effective freeze-prevention technique in climates that

D. W. McKenzie; T. J. Kashuba; D. Waddington; C. M. Leboeuf; E. K. May

1983-01-01

420

Correlation estimates ethane plant's carbon-dioxide freezing pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new correlation model which allows quick calculation of the expected COâ freezing pressure in a turboexpander ethane extraction plant. It presents a program for use with the TI-58 calculator which incorporates the correlation equations. If the recommended 2,750 kPa minimum COâ freezing pressure is applied, then 73% ethane recovery is the maximum level that could safely

Trebble

1983-01-01

421

Biphasic Investigation of Tissue Mechanical Response During Freezing Front Propagation  

PubMed Central

Cryopreservation of engineered tissue (ET) has achieved limited success due to limited understanding of freezing-induced biophysical phenomena in ETs, especially fluid-matrix interaction within ETs. To further our understanding of the freezing-induced fluid-matrix interaction, we have developed a biphasic model formulation that simulates the transient heat transfer and volumetric expansion during freezing, its resulting fluid movement in the ET, elastic deformation of the solid matrix and the corresponding pressure redistribution within. Treated as a biphasic material, the ET consists of a porous solid matrix fully saturated with interstitial fluid. Temperature-dependent material properties were employed and phase change was included by incorporating the latent heat of phase change into an effective specific heat term. Model-predicted temperature distribution, the location of the moving freezing front, and the ET deformation rates through the time course compare reasonably well with experiments reported previously. Results from our theoretical model show that behind the marching freezing front, the ET undergoes expansion due to phase change of its fluid contents. It compresses the region preceding the freezing front leading to its fluid expulsion and reduced regional fluid volume fractions. The expelled fluid is forced forward and upward into the region further ahead of the compression zone causing a secondary expansion zone; which then compresses the region further downstream with much reduced intensity. Overall, it forms an alternating expansion-compression pattern which moves with the marching freezing front. The present biphasic model helps us to gain insights into some facets of the freezing process and cryopreservation treatment that could not be gleaned experimentally. Its resulting understanding will ultimately be useful to design and improve cryopreservation protocols for ETs. PMID:22757502

Wright, Jamie; Han, Bumsoo; Chuong, Cheng-Jen

2012-01-01

422

Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [improved quality of freeze-dried foods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for improving the quality of freeze-dried foods were investigated. Areas discussed include: (1) microstructure of freeze-dried systems, (2) structural changes in freeze-dried systems, (3) artificial food matrices, and (4) osmotic preconcentration to yield improved freeze-dried products.

Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

1978-01-01

423

Xylem cavitation caused by drought and freezing stress in four co-occurring Juniperus species  

E-print Network

Xylem cavitation caused by drought and freezing stress in four co-occurring Juniperus species induced by drought but in many cases, not by freezing. Rarely have vulnerability to drought and freezing and distribution of plants in many regions of the world. We studied vulnerability to drought- and freezing- induced

Jackson, Robert B.

424

A search for the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes faster then cold water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explanation for why hot water will sometime freeze more rapidly than cold water is offered. Two specimens of water from the same source will often have different spontaneous freezing temperatures; that is, the temperature at which freezing begins. When both specimens supercool and the spontaneous freezing temperature of the hot water is higher than that of the cold water,

James D. Brownridge

2010-01-01

425

Tissue triage and freezing for models of skeletal muscle disease.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease. PMID:25078247

Meng, Hui; Janssen, Paul M L; Grange, Robert W; Yang, Lin; Beggs, Alan H; Swanson, Lindsay C; Cossette, Stacy A; Frase, Alison; Childers, Martin K; Granzier, Henk; Gussoni, Emanuela; Lawlor, Michael W

2014-01-01

426

Florida Citrus Freezes and Polar Anticyclones in the Great Plains.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe Florida citrus freezes since 1880 are identified and described in terms of the horticultural damage, overall frequency of occurrence, and association with polar anticyclone outbreaks in the plains of southern Canada and the United States. The most severe `advective' freezes are associated with strong cold anticyclones having tracks southward across the plains to Texas with subsequent northeastward movement. Other anticyclones move in a track somewhat east of this and ultimately pass over Florida or the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Over 80% of the worst Florida citrus freezes are associated with anticyclones with central pressures in excess of 1045 mb moving along these paths. However, anticyclones of similar intensity with more zonally oriented paths across higher latitudes are associated with minor citrus damage. The major freezes tend to be clustered in time in the 1890s and since 1977. On interdecadal time scales, the recent freezes are not linked to higher winter mean pressure in the northern plains, and there has not been an unusually high frequency of strong anticyclones in recent decades, compared to earlier this century. Compared to the freeze-free period of 1948-57, the winters of 1977-86 are characterized by a more amplified 500-mb mean standing wave pattern across North America. This is linked to changes in the Pacific/North American upper-air teleconnection pattern, the index for which had much lower values (characterized by zonal flow) prior to 1958.

Rogers, Jeffrey C.; Rohli, Robert V.

1991-11-01

427

Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease. PMID:25078247

Meng, Hui; Janssen, Paul M.L.; Grange, Robert W.; Yang, Lin; Beggs, Alan H.; Swanson, Lindsay C.; Cossette, Stacy A.; Frase, Alison; Childers, Martin K.; Granzier, Henk; Gussoni, Emanuela; Lawlor, Michael W.

2014-01-01

428

Viability of freeze dried microencapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Encapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 has been successfully used in experimental cell therapy of retinal degenerations and Parkinson's disease, but the long-term storage of encapsulated cells is still an unresolved question. Reconstitution of viable encapsulated cells from dry form would benefit the development of cell therapy products. We freeze dried and reconstituted microencapsulated ARPE19 and ARPE19-SEAP cells. Cross-linked alginate matrix with polycation (poly-l-lysine, cationic starch) coating was used for microencapsulation. Cell viability was assessed with fluorescence microscopy and oxygen consumption of the cells. Freeze dried and reconstituted cell microcapsules were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). We show partial viability of microencapsulated cells after freeze-drying. Unlike poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, cationic starch supported microcapsule shape and cell viability during freeze-drying. Trehalose pre-treatment augmented cell viability. Likewise, some lyoprotectants (trehalose, glycerol) enabled preservation of cell viability. Upon reconstitution the freeze dried cell microcapsules rapidly regained their original spherical shape. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that microencapsulated cells can retain their viability during freeze-drying. Therefore, this approach can be further optimized for the benefit of cell therapy product development. PMID:22820032

Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Nevala, Laura; Räikkönen, Johanna; Heljo, Petteri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

2012-09-29

429

Cryo-fixation by self-pressurized rapid freezing.  

PubMed

High-pressure freeze fixation is the method of choice to arrest instantly all dynamic and physiological processes inside cells, tissues, and small organisms. Embedded in vitreous ice, such samples can be further processed by freeze substitution or directly analyzed in their fully hydrated state by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) to explore cellular ultrastructure as close as possible to the native state. Here, we describe the procedure of self-pressurized rapid freezing as fast, easy-to-use, and low-cost freeze fixation method, avoiding the usage of a high-pressure freezing (HPF) apparatus. Cells or small organisms are placed in capillary metal tubes, which are tightly closed and plunged directly into liquid ethane cooled by liquid nitrogen. In parts of the tube, crystalline ice is formed and builds up pressure sufficient for the liquid-glass transition of the remaining specimen. The quality of samples is equivalent to preparations by conventional HPF apparatus, allowing for high-resolution cryo-EM applications or for freeze substitution and plastic embedding. PMID:24357364

Grabenbauer, Markus; Han, Hong-Mei; Huebinger, Jan

2014-01-01

430

Determining effects of freezing on pasta filata and non-pasta filata mozzarella cheeses by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The formation of ice during freezing of pasta filata and non-pasta filata Mozzarella cheeses, and the spatial redistribution of water T2 relaxation time and the changes of water self-diffusion coefficient (D) within the unfrozen and frozen-stored cheese samples were observed by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Images of water spin number density and water T2 relaxation time were obtained using spin-echo imaging pulse sequence. The water self-diffusion coefficient was measured by pulsed-field gradient spin-echo technique. The ice formation was accompanied by loss of signal intensity in the affected areas of the cheese sample. There was a significant change in T2 and D values of water following freezing-thawing, which can be used to characterize the effect of freezing on cheeses. The D values of the frozen-stored pasta filata Mozzarella cheese samples were higher than those for the unfrozen samples. Such a difference was not observed for the non-pasta filata Mozzarella cheese samples. The T2 distributions of frozen-stored pasta filata Mozzarella cheese samples were narrower, and those for the non-pasta filata Mozzarella cheese samples were broader T2. This may be attributed to the microstructure differences between the two cheeses. PMID:12939076

Kuo, M I; Anderson, M E; Gunasekaran, S

2003-08-01

431

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

432

Vertical solar louver project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal network analysis computer program MICROPAS was used to analyze Vertical Solar Louvers and other reference solar designs in eight selected climates. The results have been used to generate a set of correlation coefficients for use in performance predictions by the Solar Load Ratio method. At low mass VSL were shown to be superior to ordinary direct gain and equal to the trombe wall systems in energy savings. The energy savings advantage of VSL over direct gain disappears in comparable systems of high mass. Identical solar water tanks of oval cross section were compared in the water wall and VSL configurations.

Bier, C. J.

1984-09-01

433

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

434

Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro by Rapid Freezing/Freeze Substitution Transmission Electron Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent publications questioned the validity of endothelial cell (EC) culture studies of glycocalyx (GCX) function, due to findings that GCX in vitro may be substantially thinner than in vivo. The assessment of thickness differences is complicated by GCX collapse during dehydration for traditional electron microscopy. We measured in vitro GCX thickness using rapid freezing/freeze substitution transmission electron microscopy (RF/FS-TEM), taking advantage of high spatial resolution provided by TEM and the capability to stably preserve the GCX in its hydrated configuration by RF/FS. Methods and Results Bovine aortic and rat fat pad endothelial cells (BAEC and RFPEC) were subjected to conventional- or RF/FS-TEM. Conventionally preserved BAEC GCX was ~0.040 ?m in thickness. RF/FS-TEM revealed impressively thick BAEC GCX of ~11 ?m and RFPEC GCX of ~5 ?m. RF/FS-TEM also discerned GCX structure and thickness variations due to heparinase III enzyme treatment and extracellular protein removal, respectively. Immunoconfocal studies confirmed that the in vitro GCX is several microns thick and is comprised of extensive and well integrated heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and protein layers. Conclusions New observations by RF/FS-TEM reveal substantial GCX layers on cultured EC, supporting their continued use for fundamental studies of GCX and its function in the vasculature. PMID:21474821

Ebong, Eno E; Macaluso, Frank P; Spray, David C; Tarbell, John M

2011-01-01

435

Fast Imaging of Freezing Drops: Investigating Contact Nucleation at the Triple Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous nucleation of cloud droplets is important for understanding cloud microphysical processes, but the relevant roles of the primary nucleation pathways remains an open question. The contact and immersion modes are two of the primary pathways in the troposphere. An interpretation of difference between the contact and immersion modes is based on the energy barrier for nucleation at a three-phase and two-phase interface, respectively. Previous laboratory experiments have noted a preference for nucleation in the contact mode, with freezing temperatures 2-5K warmer than in the immersion mode. However, our recent study [1] shows no preference for nucleation in the contact mode. This surprising null result may indicate the importance of other, non-thermodynamic factors for contact nucleation. We employ high speed imaging of supercooled water drops, to determine nucleation site spatial statistics. Our geometry avoids the "point-like contact" associated with seed particles by providing a simple, symmetric contact line (triple line defined by the substrate-liquid-air interface) for a drop resting on a homogeneous silicon substrate. Furthermore, the imaging configuration localizes nucleation sites in the horizontal plane. Initial tests used low cooling rates to minimize temperature variation within the water drop. The freezing events display nearly perfect spatial uniformity in the immersed (liquid-substrate) region and, thereby, no preference for nucleation at the triple line [1]. Using a related technique, but relying on a rapid cooling rate, Suzuki et al. [2] note preferential nucleation at the triple line, contrasting with our observations and possibly indicating a thermodynamic preference for contact nucleation. Aside from differences in imaging techniques, our experiment was utilized a very slow cooling system, so as to ensure equal opportunity for freezing throughout the water volume. A simple calculation of the rate of thermal diffusion in a rapidly cooled system shows the possible importance of temperature gradients within a supercooled droplet that may bias nucleation mechanisms. This presents a possible explanation for our seemingly contrary result. With a new apparatus, we have investigated the importance of cooling rates for nucleation mechanisms. Using a solid state cooling element, we are able to replicate the rapid substrate cooling rates of previous experiments, as well as the weak, uniform cooling rates of our prior study. [1] Gurganus, C.; Kostinski, A. B. ; Shaw, R. A. ; J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2011, 2 (12), pp 1449-1454 [2] Suzuki, S.; et al. ; Freezing of water droplets on silicon surfaces coated with various silanes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2007, 445, 37-41.

Gurganus, C.

2011-12-01

436

Inhibition, Executive Function, and Freezing of Gait  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that freezing of gait (FoG) in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with declines in executive function (EF). However, EF is multi-faceted, including three dissociable components: inhibiting prepotent responses, switching between task sets, and updating working memory. Objective This study investigated which aspect of EF is most strongly associated with FoG in PD. Method Three groups were studied: adults with PD (with and without FoG) and age-matched, healthy adults. All participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks previously shown to discriminate among the three EF components. Participants also completed a turning-in-place task that was scored for FoG by neurologists blind to subjects’ self-reported FoG. Results Compared to both other groups, participants with FoG showed significant performance deficits in tasks associated with inhibitory control, even after accounting for differences in disease severity, but no significant deficits in task-switching or updating working memory. Surprisingly, the strongest effect was an intermittent tendency of participants with FoG to hesitate, and thus miss the response window, on go trials in the Go-Nogo task. The FoG group also made slower responses in the conflict condition of the Stroop task. Physician-rated FoG scores were correlated both with failures to respond on go trials and with failures to inhibit responses on nogo trials in the Go-Nogo task. Conclusion These results suggest that FoG is associated with a specific inability to appropriately engage and release inhibition, rather than with a general executive deficit. PMID:24496099

Cohen, Rajal G.; Klein, Krystal A.; Nomura, Mariko; Fleming, Michael; Mancini, Martina; Giladi, Nir; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

2014-01-01

437

Surfactant-induced gradients in the three-dimensional Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.  

PubMed

Scroll waves are prominent patterns formed in three-dimensional excitable media, and they are frequently considered highly relevant for some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Experimentally, scroll wave dynamics is often studied by optical tomography in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, which produces CO(2) as an undesired product. Addition of small concentrations of a surfactant to the reaction medium is a popular method to suppress or retard CO(2) bubble formation. We show that in closed reactors even these low concentrations of surfactants are sufficient to generate vertical gradients of excitability which are due to gradients in CO(2) concentration. In reactors open to the atmosphere such gradients can be avoided. The gradients induce a twist on vertically oriented scroll waves, while a twist is absent in scroll waves in a gradient-free medium. The effects of the CO(2) gradients are reproduced by a numerical study, where we extend the Oregonator model to account for the production of CO(2) and for its advection against the direction of gravity. The numerical simulations confirm the role of solubilized CO(2) as the source of the vertical gradient of excitability in reactors closed to the atmosphere. PMID:22181487

Kupitz, Dennis; Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Hauser, Marcus J B

2011-11-01

438

Monitoring of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in a unicyanobacterial bio¢lm, grown in benthic gradient chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the role of cyanobacteria in the formation and dynamics of microenvironments in microbial mats, we studied an experimental biofilm of a benthic, halotolerant strain, belonging to the Halothece cluster of cyanobacteria. The 12-week-old biofilm developed in a sand core incubated in a benthic gradient chamber under opposing oxygen and sulfide vertical concentration gradients. At the biofilm

Olivier Pringault; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2000-01-01

439

Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 expression responds to freezing, anoxia, and dehydration stresses in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural freezing survival by wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) involves multiple organ- specific changes in gene expression. Screening of a cDNA library made from brain of frozen frogs revealed freeze-responsive up-regulation of the glycolytic enzyme, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). Northern blots showed an approximately two-fold increase in pgk1 transcripts in brain of frozen frogs whereas PGK1 protein levels rose by three-

Shaobo Wu; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

2009-01-01

440

TIME-AVERAGED TURBULENT MIXING AND VERTICAL CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-DENSITY SUSPENSIONS FORMED UNDER WAVES  

E-print Network

the phenomena of HDS, which showed that there existed an obvious vertical concentration gradient even though1 TIME-AVERAGED TURBULENT MIXING AND VERTICAL CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-averaged suspended sediment concentration model for HDS was developed. To avoid the stability problems

441

Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. {yields} It altered Ca{sup 2+} distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. {yields} Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca{sup 2+} gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca{sup 2+} distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca{sup 2+} gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca{sup 2+} gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca{sup 2+} flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} gradient.

Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya [Pola Chemical Industries Inc., 560 Kashio-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244-0812 (Japan)] [Pola Chemical Industries Inc., 560 Kashio-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244-0812 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: sasakih@jikei.ac.jp [Division of Fine Morphology, Core Research Facilities, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan) [Division of Fine Morphology, Core Research Facilities, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Infomatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-03-25

442

HIF-1? involvement in low temperature and anoxia survival by a freeze tolerant insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter survival for many insect species relies on the ability to endure the freezing of extracellular body fluids. Because\\u000a freezing impedes oxygen delivery to tissues, one component of natural freeze tolerance is a well-developed anoxia\\/ischemia\\u000a resistance. The present study explores the responses of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) to cold, freezing and anoxia\\u000a exposures in the freeze tolerant goldenrod gall fly

Pier Morin; David C. McMullen; Kenneth B. Storey

2005-01-01

443

FROST - FReezing Of coated and uncoated duST particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2008, the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of coated and uncoated duST particles) was conducted at the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - the European NeTwork of excellence) infrastructure site LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator). During the campaign, size selected coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles were characterized with respect to shape, chemical composition, hygroscopic growth and activation, and their ability to act as IN (Ice Nuclei). The ATD particles were dispersed by means of a fluidized bed generator. Coatings were applied in different furnaces, operated at different temperatures. The coatings were either succinic acid, sulphuric acid, or ammonium sulphate. A DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) was used for selecting particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. The following measurements were done: Three AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, e.g. Schneider et al. (2005) and references therein) were used to determine particle composition. Particles were collected on grids for subsequent TEM (Transmission Electron Micoscropy) analysis. Hygroscopic growth factors were determined by means of a HH-TDMA (High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) that measured up to relative humidities (RH) of 98% (Hennig et al. (2005)). The critical super-saturations needed for the activation of the investigated particles into cloud droplets were measured with a continuous flow CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter) from DMT (Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes (2005)). The LACIS flow tube was extended to a length of 8 m, so LACIS could be used to examine the immersion freezing behaviour of the coated and uncoated ATD particles. By a bulk analysis and by the AMS measurements, the ATD particles were found to contain water soluble material, however in small quantities. By means of the online AMS measurements, it was possible to distinguish between thin and thick H2S