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1

Theoretical and experimental analysis of vertical, concentric-tube ground-coupled heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical project to study the design of vertical, concentric-tube ground-coupled heat exchangers for use in heat pump applications is described. A mathematical model was developed and converted into a computer program to simulate the operation of the ground-coupled heat exchanger. The experimental apparatus consisted of a concentric configuration of two 47.2-m (155-ft) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes (sealed

V. C. Mei; S. K. Fischer

1984-01-01

2

A Reference Model for Ground Coupled Heat Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently completed extension to IEA BESTEST includes further work on tests suitable for the validation of ground coupled heat transfer modules within building energy simulation software. The model described here forms part of this work. A finite difference model was prepared and applied to ground coupled heat transfer in the environs of a building for a range of geometries

Michael Crowley

2009-01-01

3

Cooperative Heat Transfer and Ground Coupled Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally ma...

P. D. Metz

1979-01-01

4

Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system  

DOEpatents

A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

1982-01-01

5

International Energy Agency BESTEST for Ground Coupled Heat Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to assess the accuracy of building energy analysis tools that have incorporated detailed models for predicting ground-coupled heat transfer related to floor slab and basement constructions. An executive summary is to be found in the main report.

Joel Neymark; Ron Judkoff; Michael Crowley

2008-01-01

6

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A GROUND-COUPLED HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A municipality water reticulation R22 ground-coupled reversible heat pump, was investigated as an alternative to conventional air source systems. The investigation was conducted by developing analytical models that were used for the design of a ground-coupled reversible heat pump and a conventional, also reversible air-to-air system. The models were verified with a commercially available computer program as well as with

S. Oerder; J. P. Meyer

7

Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

Younger, Paul L.

2008-01-01

8

Whole-Building Energy Simulation with a Three-Dimensional Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Model: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, finite-element, heat-transfer computer program was developed to study ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings. It was used in conjunction with the SUNREL whole-building energy simulation program to analyze ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings, and the results were compared with the simple ground-coupled heat transfer models used in whole-building energy simulation programs. The detailed model provides another method of testing

M. Deru; R. Judkoff; J. Neymark

2002-01-01

9

Analysis and field evaluation of an advanced ground-coupled heat pump system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump (WSHP) package designed expressly for such systems for a northern climate. The research objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost (LCC) of a...

V. D. Baxter M. A. Catan H. M. Hughes P. J. Hughes R. A. O'Neil

1986-01-01

10

Ground-coupled heat pumps projects Austin Independent School District  

SciTech Connect

Austin Independent School District was introduced to the closed loop concept in 1985 during or after the time that Goodnight Junior High School in San Marcos geothermal heat pump system was installed. The first project was a joint effort of an equipment manufacturer, a pipe extruder, a distributor, an HVAC contractor and the school district. This was a trial for this new system. The two leading factors which contributed to the decision to go geothermal, were that the tower on the building was already at capacity and a reduced price was offered on the first installation. The school district owns every type, make, model, configuration, style and paint color of heating and cooling equipment made. They were ready for anything that would give them relief.

Cadwallader, R.A. [Loop Tech International, Huntsville, TX (United States)

1994-03-01

11

A new approach to compute heat transfer of ground-coupled envelope in building thermal simulation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new approach to compute the heat transfer of ground-coupled envelope quickly and correctly which is suitable for implementation into building thermal simulation software. The heat transfer process is decomposed into three processes which are controlled by ground-coupled envelope surface temperature, outdoor ground surface temperature and the temperature difference of ground-coupled envelope surfaces. The three processes are

Xiaona Xie; Yi Jiang; Jianjun Xia

2008-01-01

12

The use of serpentine earth coils in ground coupled heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has studied ground coupling, i.e., the use of the earth as a heat source\\/sink or storage medium for solar-assisted and stand-alone heat pump systems. As part of this research program, five serpentine earth coil experiments were operated between December 1978 and September 1981. Heat was added to or removed from the earth

P. D. Metz

1984-01-01

13

Second generation ground coupled solar assisted heat pump systems. Six month progress report  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on an investigation of the technical and commercial viability of a novel ground coupled, solar assisted heat pump system for residential space heating and cooling applications. Specific areas of study are solar collector/heat rejector performance, flat plate earth heat exchanger performance, system performance simulations, and commercialization and marketing analysis. Collector/rejector performance, determined by various thermal experiments, is discussed. The design and construction of an experimental site to study ground coupling is discussed. Theoretical analysis is also presented. The performance of the GCSAHP system and conventional alternatives, as determined by simple computer models, is presented and discussed. Finally, the commercial viability of this unique space conditioning system is examined.

Rhodes, G W; Backlund, J C; Helm, J M

1981-01-01

14

Whole-Building Energy Simulation with a Three-Dimensional Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Model: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional, finite-element, heat-transfer computer program was developed to study ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings. It was used in conjunction with the SUNREL whole-building energy simulation program to analyze ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings, and the results were compared with the simple ground-coupled heat transfer models used in whole-building energy simulation programs. The detailed model provides another method of testing and refining the simple models and analyzing complex problems. This work is part of an effort to improve the analysis of the ground-coupled heat transfer in building energy simulation programs. The output from this detailed model and several others will form a set of reference results for use with the BESTEST diagnostic procedure. We anticipate that the results from the work will be incorporated into ANSI/ASHRAE 140-2001, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs.

Deru, M.; Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

2002-08-01

15

Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV\\/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic\\/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept, consisting of 25m2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS.

M. Bakker; H. A. Zondag; M. J. Elswijk; K. J. Strootman; M. J. M. Jong

2005-01-01

16

Use of ground coupled tanks in solar assisted heat pump systems. 1: Comparison of experimental and computer model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground coupling (the use of the Earth as a heat source sink or storage element) for solar assisted heat pump systems was studied. Four buried tank experiments were operated between December, 1978 and March 1981 in order to determine the feasibility of ground coupled tanks in these systems. Heat was added to or removed from the tanks according to a weekly schedule derived from computer simulations of solar heat pump systems in the local (New York) climate. Each tank was operated according to a different control strategy. Experimental results from these tank experiments for this period are presented and these results are compared to those generated by a computer model. The model is found to be valid, for the most part, using undisturbed soil thermal properties which provide the best fit to the data most of the time. Its results are very sensitive to soil thermal conductivity during periods of large heat addition to the tanks. A ground coupled tank is found to be desirable in series solar assisted heat pump systems. However, no important carry over of summer collected heat to winter was observed.

Metz, P. D.

1982-02-01

17

Soil and rock classification according to thermal conductivity: Design of ground-coupled heat pump systems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the ranges of values of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the various soils and rocks in the United States and provides this information in a form that can be used in the design of ground-coupled heat pump systems. It presents a simple classification system for use in the identification of soils and rocks by persons not trained in soil mechanics or petrology. This technical document is given practical application in a companion field manual for the identification and classification of thermal conductivity of the various soils and rocks that can be encountered in the United States. The field manual, supported by EPRI, was published by the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association. The soil study provides a correlation between thermal resistivity and moisture content. It examines temporal behavior of ambient soil moisture and influence of environmental factors on soil moisture content. It cites factors known to influence soil moisture content, and the National Soil Moisture Study, which provided ambient soil moisture data for a four- to six-year period in six states. It discusses limit states of soil moisture content (field capacity and wilting point) and use of these states to define approximate extremes of ambient soil moisture levels. It proposes a new method of normalization of soil moisture content by its limit states -- the thermal moisture index -- and investigates some of its properties. It uses a mathematical simulator of soil/water hydraulics -- the EPIC model -- to illustrate effects of soil texture, precipitation, and soil temperature on soil moisture under more controlled conditions and with greater geographic coverage than is obtainable from National Soil Moisture Study data. Results of this study demonstrate that four general soil groups can be used to determine earth-loop size (pipe length) for ground-coupled heat pump systems. 48 refs., 162 figs., 26 tabs.

Salomone, L.A.; Marlowe, J.I.

1989-08-01

18

Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

2010-05-01

19

The thermal response of an infinite line of open loop wells for ground coupled heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground thermal energy storage is a means of storing thermal energy underground during the summer and utilizing it during the winter. The main use of such a technology is in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning sector where the ground provides a stable temperature reservoir for a heat pump system. Heat pumps are mechanical systems that provide heating to a

Kevin Woods; Alfonso Ortega

2011-01-01

20

Experimental Results from the First Year of Operation of the Solar Ground Coupling Research Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the first year of operation of the solar ground coupling research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are presented. Nine experiments which are first generation ground coupled heat transfer and storage devices for a solar source ...

P. D. Meta

1979-01-01

21

Vertical integration of thermally activated heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

Many thermally activated heat pump systems are being developed along technology lines, such as, engine-driven and absorption heat pumps. Their thermal performances are temperature dependent. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of heat pump cycle performance and the energy cascading idea, the concept of vertically integrating various thermally activated heat pump technologies to maximize resources utilization is explored. Based on a preliminary analysis, it is found that integrating a desiccant dehumidification subsystem to an engine-driven heat pump could improve its cooling performance by 36% and integrating an ejector to it could improve its cooling performance by 20%. The added advantage of an ejector-coupled engine-driven heat pump is its system simplicity which should result in equipment cost savings.

Chen, F.C.

1985-01-01

22

Thermal performance of ground-coupled desert buildings  

SciTech Connect

Results of a computer simulation study of ground-coupled buildings in desert regions are presented. Using finite difference models, the computer program SPICE was used to analyze two-dimensional thermal networks when various parameters of the system were varied. The 150-m/sup 2/ building's annual performance was found to be sensitive to the fenestration amount and orientation, to the depth of soil around the building, and to the insulation amount and placement. However, varying the soil's thermal properties and berming as opposed to burying the building to the same depth had little influence on the annual performance. In order to trace the performance trends in more detail, soil isotherms and monthly heat balances were computer to compare the behavior of a high-mass above-grade building that is well-insulated to a high-mass ground-coupled structure that has only roof insulation.

Bircher, T.L.

1981-07-01

23

Conjugate forced convection–conduction heat transfer analysis of a heat generating vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugate heat transfer by forced convection over a vertical cylinder without heat generation has been a subject of many investigations in the recent past. In the present work, the radial heat conduction along with heat generation in a vertical cylinder is considered for analysis. The steady two-dimensional conduction equation for the heat generating cylinder and steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer

G Jilani; S Jayaraj; M Adeel Ahmad

2002-01-01

24

Computational model for a ground coupled space cooling system with an underground energy storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational model for determining annual periodic performance of a cooling system utilizing a ground coupled chiller and a spherical underground thermal energy storage tank is developed. An analytical solution for the transient heat transfer problem outside the storage tank is obtained by the application of complex finite Fourier transform (CFFT) technique. Analytical expressions for heat gain to the space

Recep Yumruta?; Mehmet Kano?lu; Ali Bolatturk; Mehmet ?irin Bedir

2005-01-01

25

Upflow turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in vertical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the results of an experimental investigation on heat transfer in water cooled vertical pipes, for thermal–hydraulic conditions ranging from forced convective flow to mixed convective flow. The flow of water in the pipe is upwards.Experimental data confirm the reduction in the heat transfer rate for mixed convection in upward heat flow, mainly due to the

Gian Piero Celata; Francesco Dannibale; Andrea Chiaradia; Maurizio Cumo

1998-01-01

26

Computer simulation of ground-coupled liquid desiccant air conditioner for sub-tropical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer model for a novel ground-coupled liquid desiccant air conditioner (GCLDAC) was developed in which a liquid desiccant cycle selectively operated in parallel with a conventional ground-source heat pump cycle by employing just a single compressor. Reverse cycle operation was incorporated to provide heating in winter. Dynamic simulation was carried out for a single-zone sample building at two occupancy levels

C. K. Lee; H. N. Lam

2009-01-01

27

Study of contact melting inside isothermally heated vertical cylindrical capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-contact melting processes of phase change material (PCM) inside vertical cylindrical capsule are studied. PCM are heated by the capsule isothermally at the bottom and side. The theoretical formulas of the melting rate and thickness of liquid layer during the heat transfer process are obtained by analysis, which are convenient for engineering predictions. Finally, the factors that affect melting are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

Chen, Wenzhen; Cheng, Shangmo; Luo, Zhen; Gu, Wangmin

1993-09-01

28

Forced Convection Film Boiling Heat Transfer Over a Vertical Cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of subcooled film boiling heat transfer is important as the basis of understanding the reflooding phenomenon during emergency cooling in a nuclear reactor under a loss-of-coolant accident. In this study, forced convection film boiling heat transfer from a vertical cylinder in Freon-113 flowing upward along the cylinder was measured for the flow velocities ranging from 0 to 1.3

Q. S. Liu; K. Fukuda; M. Shiotsu

2011-01-01

29

Pool boiling heat transfer in vertical annular crevices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of vertical annuli on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of water at atmospheric pressure have been obtained experimentally. Experiments were performed for annuli with a height of 570 mm and gap sizes of 3.9 and 15 mm. Through the tests, tube bottom confinement (open or closed) has been investigated, too, and the whole results are compared with a single

Myeong-Gie Kang

2002-01-01

30

Single thermal plume in locally heated vertical soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertical soap film is maintained by injection of a soap solution from the top. The film is then locally heated. Thermal plumes may be observed to rise in the film, depending on the magnitude of the heating and injected flows. The nearly two-dimensional nature of the system allows to visualize the motion of the plumes using an infrared camera. A model is proposed to describe the growth, emergence, and stationarity of the plumes in the film by taking into account both magnitudes of the heating ?T and injected flow Q.

Adami, N.; Dorbolo, S.; Caps, H.

2011-10-01

31

Single thermal plume in locally heated vertical soap films.  

PubMed

A vertical soap film is maintained by injection of a soap solution from the top. The film is then locally heated. Thermal plumes may be observed to rise in the film, depending on the magnitude of the heating and injected flows. The nearly two-dimensional nature of the system allows to visualize the motion of the plumes using an infrared camera. A model is proposed to describe the growth, emergence, and stationarity of the plumes in the film by taking into account both magnitudes of the heating ?T and injected flow Q. PMID:22181270

Adami, N; Dorbolo, S; Caps, H

2011-10-19

32

Thermal plumes in locally heated vertical soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertical soap film is maintained by injection of a soap solution from the top. The film is then locally heated. Thermal plumes may be observed to rise in the film, depending on the magnitude of the heating and injected flows. The nearly-2D nature of the system allows to visualize the motion of the plumes using an infrared camera. A model is proposed to describe the growth, emergence, and stationarity of the plumes in the film by taking into account both magnitudes of the heating ?T and injected flow Q. Oscillatory behaviors of both the full-grown plumes size and direction with respect to the vertical direction may also be observed. Particular soap film thickness dynamics shows to be the origin of those phenomena.

Adami, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Caps, Hervé.

2012-02-01

33

Pr<1 intrusion flow induced by a vertical heated wall.  

PubMed

A horizontal flow induced by a vertical heated wall with a low Prandtl number (e.g., Pr<1 for air and liquid metals) is common in nature and industry. In this paper, a Pr<1 intrusion flow induced by a vertical heated boundary of an open sided cavity (that is, a cavity with one heated wall and open at the other end) is investigated by a scaling analysis and direct numerical simulations. The scaling analysis of the intrusion flow reveals that there are four possible flow regimes dependent on the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. In a typical case, the intrusion flow could travel under different dynamical and thermal processes such as unsteady (or steady) conduction-viscous, conduction-inertial, and convection-inertial dominance. Proper scaling relations have been presented to quantify these flows under different flow regimes. Furthermore, corresponding numerical simulations have verified the scaling results. PMID:20866916

Xu, Feng; Patterson, John C; Lei, Chengwang

2010-08-26

34

Natural convection heat transfer from a thermal heat source located in a vertical plate fin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state conjugate conduction–convection investigation is performed on vertical plate fin in which a small heat source is located. Heat from the fin surface is transferred to the surroundings by laminar natural convection. The governing equations for the problem are the heat conduction equation for the fin and the boundary layer equations, which are continuity, momentum and energy equations,

Moghtada Mobedi; Bengt Sunden

2006-01-01

35

Critical heat flux in uniformly heated vertical tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations on critical heat flux have been performed in circular tubes of different diameters ranging from 2 to 16 mm. The model fluid Freon-12 was used as working fluid due to its low latent heat, low critical pressure and well-known properties. About 1700 data points have been obtained in a large range of parameters: pressure 1.0–3.0 MPa, mass flux

F. G. Pang

1997-01-01

36

Heat transfer analysis of boreholes in vertical ground heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from\\/into the ground. Bearing strong impact on GHE performance, the borehole thermal resistance is defined by the thermal properties of the construction materials and the arrangement of flow channels of the GHEs. Taking the fluid axial convective heat transfer and thermal “short-circuiting” among U-tube legs into

Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

2003-01-01

37

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat

J. L. Warner; J. D. Lutz

2006-01-01

38

Melting heat transfer of liquid ice in a rectangular cavity with a heated vertical wall  

SciTech Connect

The melting characteristics of liquid ice in a rectangular cavity were studied experimentally. The liquid ice, mixture of ice particles and ethylene-glycol aqueous solution, was heated from one of the vertical walls of the cavity. The shape of the mush-liquid interface, melting rate, and local/mean heat-transfer coefficient at the heated vertical wall were observed and measured under a variety of conditions of heat flux and initial concentration of the aqueous binary solution. It was found that the formation of double-diffusive layers based on the thermal and solutal buoyancy forces exerted a great influence on the melting process of the liquid ice.

Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko; Kim, Myounghwan (Hokkaido Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-12-01

39

Heat transfer during melting around an isothermal vertical cylinder  

SciTech Connect

Research on alternative energy resources has intensified during the past few decades as a consequence of the alarming increase in energy cost. Effective thermal energy storage systems have become a true necessity, especially in solar energy applications. Using the phase change of some materials in thermal energy storage systems is advantageous in various ways. For example, the heat capacity of the storage reservoir is tremendously increased (on a unit volume basis), since latent heat of fusion is involved. In addition, there are advantages as far as heat transfer from and to the reservoir is concerned. Until recently, most papers on phase change dealt exclusively with conduction heat transfer, although it has been known for some time that natural convection may play a key role during melting and freezing. Lately, however, several studies (Viskanta, 1983) considering buoyancy effects on phase-change heat transfer have been reported. The present paper reports on experimental measurements undertaken to investigate outward melting around a vertical cylinder embedded in a solid initially at its fusion temperature. The cylinder is maintained at a uniform temperature that exceeds the fusion temperature. The top and bottom of the phase-change material are adiabatic, and a small air gap provides a slip boundary condition at the top. The main objective of the research reported here was to obtain experimental data for the above mentioned configuration. It is remarkable that, although the isothermal boundary condition at the heat source has been extensively studied experimentally for melting to a vertical plate (e.g., Ho and Viskanta, 1984; Okada, 1983), there are very few experimental data available for melting to an isothermal cylinder positioned vertically.

Souza Mendes, P.R.; Pinho Brasil, A.C. Jr. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1987-11-01

40

An experiment on thermosyphon boiling in uniformly heated vertical tube and asymmetrically heated vertical channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing efforts to achieve increased circuit performance in electronic package have resulted in higher power density at\\u000a chip and module level. As a result, the thermal management of electronic package has been important in maintaining or improving\\u000a the reliability of the component. An experimental investigation of thermosyphonic boiling in vertical tube and channel made\\u000a by two parallel rectangular plates was

Jin-Seok Jeon; Jung Hee Na; Hong Chul Park; Ho-Young Kwak

2001-01-01

41

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Natural Convection around Heated Vertical Cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convective flows of water induced around heated vertical cylinders have been investigated experimentally. Special interests were paid to the influences of cylinder diameter on the turbulent transition and also on the local heat transfer characteristics of the cylinders. The diameters of the cylinders were varied systematically from 10 to 165mm. Visualizations of the flows around the cylinder and of

Fumiyoshi Kimura; Tatsuo Tachibana; Kenzo Kitamura; Tsutomu Hosokawa

2004-01-01

42

Retrieving Latent Heat Vertical Structure Using Precipitation and Cloud Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latent heat (LH) released from tropical precipitation plays a critical role in driving regional and global atmosphere circulation. However, the vertical distribution of LH is one of most difficult parameters to be measured and has a large uncertainty in both residual diagnostic products and satellite retrievals. Most of current satellite LH products use limited observational information of precipitation and cloud profiles and highly depend on cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. Our novel approach, distinguishing from existing schemes, is directly using observable precipitation and cloud profiles in combination with phase change partition parameterization of various kinds from the CRM simulations to produce the latent heating profiles. This hybrid latent heat algorithm separately deals with the condensation-evaporation heating (LHc_e), the deposition-sublimation heating (LHd_s) and the freezing-melting heating (LHf_m) for convective rain, stratiform rain, and shallow warm rain. Each component is based on physical processes, such as nucleation and auto conversion, by combining observable precipitation and cloud profiles. Although the proposed algorithm utilizes microphysical parameterizations from a specific CRM, the general LH vertical structure is primarily determined by the precipitation and cloud profiles observable from cloud and precipitation radars available at ground sites or from satellite platforms, and less sensitive to the specific CRM. The self consistency tests of this algorithm show good agreements with the CRM simulated LH at different spatial and temporal scales, even at simultaneous and pixel level. The applications of this algorithm are expected to provide new information for understanding the heating budget in the atmosphere and its impacts on the atmosphere circulations at various spatial and temporal scales.

Li, R.; Min, Q.; Wu, X.

2011-12-01

43

Heat transfer in vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Convection effects on heat transfer are analyzed in low temperature and vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems. This is performed by detailed temperature measurements in the phase change material (PCM) in eighteen locations forming a grid of six radial and three axial positions. The system constitutes a double pipe configuration, where commercial grade paraffin wax is stored in the annular space between the two pipes and water flows inside the inner pipe. Vertical alignment of the system allowed for reverse of the flow direction of the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which is water. Therefore, the PCM is heated from the bottom for HTF flow from bottom to top and from the top as the HTF flow direction is reversed. For the former case, natural convection affects the melting process. Collected data are used to study variations in the transient temperature distribution at axial and radial positions as well as for the two-dimensional temperature field. The data are used to calculate the PCM heat transfer coefficient and to develop correlations for the melting Fourier number. Results indicate that the PCM heat transfer coefficient is higher for the case of PCM heating from bottom to top. Nusselt number correlations are developed as a function of Rayleigh, Stefan, and Fourier numbers for the HTF flow from bottom to top and as a function of Stefan and Fourier numbers for HTF flow from top to bottom. The enhancement ratio for heat transfer caused by natural convection increases and then levels off as the inlet temperature of the HTF is increased.

El-Dessouky, H.T.; Bouhamra, W.S.; Ettouney, H.M.; Akbar, M. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-01

44

Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study.  

PubMed

The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice. PMID:21962859

Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim

2011-09-21

45

Spray cooling heat-transfer with subcooled trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon-113) for vertical constant heat flux surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were done using subcooled Freon-113 sprayed vertically downward. Local and average heat transfers were investigated fro Freon-113 sprays with 40 C subcooling, droplet sizes 200-1250{mu}m, and droplet breakup velocities 5-29 m/s. Full-cone type nozzles were used to generate the spray. Test assemblies consisted of 1 to 6 7.62 cm vertical constant heat flux surfaces parallel with each other and aligned horizontally. Distance between heated surfaces was varied from 6.35 to 76.2 mm. Steady state heat fluxes as high as 13 W/cm{sup 2} were achieved. Dependence on the surface distance from axial centerline of the spray was found. For surfaces sufficiently removed from centerline, local and average heat transfers were identical and correlated by a power relation of the form seen for normal-impact sprays which involves the Weber number, a nondimensionalized temperature difference, and a mass flux parameter. For surfaces closer to centerline, the local heat transfer depended on vertical location on the surface while the average heat transfer was described by a semi-log correlation involving the same parameters. The heat transfer was independent of the distance (gap) between the heated surfaces for the gaps investigated.

Kendall, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Holman, J.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-06

46

Efficient Energy Supply from Ground Coupled Heat Transfer Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The increasing demands of Energy for industrial production and urban facilities, asks for new strategies for Energy sources.\\u000a In recent years an important problem is to have some energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill\\u000a some environment friendly expectations. Much more attention has been recently devoted to renewable energies [1]. Among them\\u000a energy production from geothermal sources has

Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci

2010-01-01

47

Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in narrow vertical rectangular channel heated from both sides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer characteristics of the natural convection regime through a vertical rectangular channel simulating a cooling channel of typical material testing reactor have been experimentally investigated. Experiments are performed on demineralized water as coolant passing under atmospheric pressure through narrow rectangular channel of 80cm length, 7cm width and 2.7mm gap thickness under different heat fluxes ranging from 2.7kW\\/m2 to

Salah El-Din El-Morshedy; Adel Alyan; Loula Shouman

48

Experimental Study of Natural Convection from Electrically Heated Vertical Cylinders Immersed in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of laminar steady-state natural convection heat transfer from electrically heated vertical cylinders immersed in air has been undertaken. Three stainless steel (316 SS) test sections of different slenderness ratios were employed. Surface temperature profiles along the vertical cylinders were obtained using miniature thermocouples when the cylinders were heated with different power levels resulting in different total wall

Sad Jarall; Antonio Campo

2005-01-01

49

Experimental Investigation of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in the Passages between Vertical Plane Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data are presented for turbulent mixed convection in the passages formed by vertical plates. The electrically heated plates simulated the oil-filled heat exchangers of large transformers which are to be cooled by gentle upward air flows. Each...

R. Winstanley B. P. Axcell

1989-01-01

50

Hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer adjacent to a stretching vertical sheet with prescribed surface heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarity solution for the problem of mixed convection boundary layer flow adjacent to a stretching vertical sheet in\\u000a an incompressible electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is presented. It is assumed\\u000a that the sheet is stretched with a power-law velocity and is subjected to a variable surface heat flux. The governing partial\\u000a differential equations

Fazlina Aman; Anuar Ishak

2010-01-01

51

The conjugate conduction–natural convection heat transfer along a thin vertical plate with non-uniform internal heat generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady state heat transfer characteristics of a thin vertical strip with internal heat generation is studied in this work. The nondimensional temperature distribution in the strip is obtained as a function of the following parameters: (a) the intensity and distribution of the internal heat sources, (b) the aspect ratio of the strip, (c) the longitudinal heat conductance of the

F Méndez; C Treviño

2000-01-01

52

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN VERTICAL PACKED CHANNELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results of mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical packed channel with asymmetric heating of opposing walls are reported in this paper. The experiments were carried out in the range of 2< Pe<2200 and 700vertical packed channel in the mixed convection regime. A

W. L. Pu; P. Cheng; T. S. Zhao

1999-01-01

53

Numerical simulations of natural convection heat transfer along a vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical solution for the problem of steady laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics of viscous incompressible fluid. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – For this purpose a two dimensional code has been developed to simulate the natural convection heat transfer along a vertical cylinder, for four different geometries: from vertical cylinder in infinite

Muhammad Rafique; I. Ahmad; M. Abdul Basit; Romana Begum; Wajid Aziz; Muhammad Farooq; Kamran Rasheed Qureshi

2011-01-01

54

A numerical study of laminar free convection heat transfer between inner sphere and outer vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of height and radius ratio with a Newtonian fluid have been investigated numerically to determine heat transfer by natural convection between the sphere and vertical cylinder with isothermal boundary conditions. The inner sphere and outer vertical cylinder were heated and cooled in a steady change of temperature. Calculations were carried out systematically for a range of the Rayleigh

Wen Ruey Chen

2007-01-01

55

Investigation on air to ground coupled waves and other geophysical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes three geophysical investigations in the Western United States. The first section is an investigation regarding the amplitude of air to ground coupled waves recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array. The waves are modeled as loads propagating with sound speed velocities, and the resulting transfer functions are compared with observations. The results are also in agreement with the current held geological information obtained from shallow refraction profiles. In the second section new heat flow values for several sites in southwest are obtained and interpreted in terms of local and regional geology. The main result is that the Ouachita tectonic front represents an important thermal boundary. A cross section over the front zone suggest heat flow values of 48 mW/m2 in the Fort Worth Basin, 61 mW/m2 exactly in the front zone and then drops to 55 in the interior zone. In addition several other problems are addressed. The third section discusses heat flow patterns in the Yellowstone Lake, and the link between heat flow and structural features. Simple conductive computations suggest average heat flow of 200 mW/m2, while average measured heat flow over the entire lake is estimated at 1200 mW/m 2. Therefore the measured heat loss must be raised by convective heat and Nusselt numbers at least 6 are obtained. The implications for the natural hazard assessment are also discussed.

Negraru, Petru Teodor

56

ANN based estimation of heat generation from multiple protruding heat sources on a vertical plate under conjugate mixed convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverse Heat Transfer Problems (IHTP) are characterized by estimation of unknown quantities by utilizing any given information of the system. In this study, the inverse problem of estimation of heat generation in multiple two dimensional protruding heat sources on a vertical plate, a geometry frequently encountered in the cooling of electronic equipment, is carried out from the information available on

Apurv Kumar; C. Balaji

2011-01-01

57

Prediction of critical heat flux for annular flow in vertical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiempirical model for adiabatic two phase annular flow is extended to predict critical heat flux in a vertical pipe for conditions of interest to boiling water reactors. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of critical heat flux versus steam quality at low steam qualities where it is relatively independent of heat flux distribution. In this region, vaporization of

S. Levy; J. M. Healzer; D. Abdollahian

1980-01-01

58

Buoyancy-induced flows and phase-change heat transfer in a vertical capillary structure with symmetric heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical solution of a buoyancy-induced flow and phase-change heat transfer in a vertical porous channel heated symmetrically along its vertical walls. A multiphase mixture model that accounts for complex, interacting physical phenomena such as phase change, capillary action, buoyancy-induced flow convection in the subcooled liquid and multi-dimensional effects was used. It is found that for both

T. S. Zhao; P. Cheng; C. Y. Wang

2000-01-01

59

Computer simulation of natural convection heat transfer from an assembly of vertical cylinders of PARR2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Computer Code COSINAC (Computer Simulation of Natural Convection from Assembly of vertical Cylinders) has been developed to simulate the natural convection heat transfer from an assembly of vertical cylinders of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2), under the steady state reactor operation. The momentum and energy equations in cylindrical co-ordinates, representing the thermal hydraulic behavior of a typical

M. Abdul Basit; Muhammad Rafique; Imran R. Chughtai; Mansoor H. Inayat

2007-01-01

60

Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Multiple Discrete Heat Sources in a Vertical Channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural convection liquid cooling of simulated electronic components in a vertical channel was investigated. The test surface contained a single column of eight rectangular, protruding heated elements, each simulating a 20 pin dual-in-line package. Temper...

T. D. Willson

1988-01-01

61

Three-dimensional numerical study of natural convection in vertical cylinders partially heated from the side  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional steady and oscillatory flows are simulated in a vertical cylinder partially heated from the side. The vertical wall is heated in a zone at midheight and is insulated above and below this middle zone, while both ends of the cylinder are cooled. The cylinder aspect ratio (A=height?radius) ranges from 2 to 8, whereas a fixed Prandtl number, Pr=0.021, is

D. J. Ma; D. Henry; H. Ben Hadid

2005-01-01

62

Three-dimensional numerical study of natural convection in vertical cylinders partially heated from the side  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional steady and oscillatory flows are simulated in a vertical cylinder partially heated from the side. The vertical wall is heated in a zone at midheight and is insulated above and below this middle zone, while both ends of the cylinder are cooled. The cylinder aspect ratio (A=height\\/radius) ranges from 2 to 8, whereas a fixed Prandtl number, Pr=0.021, is

D. J. Ma; D. Henry; H. Ben Hadid

2005-01-01

63

Heat transfer during condensation in vertical closed thermosiphons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of an experimental investigation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a two-phase layer and of the heat-transfer behavior under characteristic operating conditions of the condensing section of a thermosiphon.

Bezrodnyi, M. K.; Moklyak, V. F.

1986-07-01

64

Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

Bieli?ski, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jaros?aw

2010-10-01

65

Prediction of critical heat flux for annular flow in vertical pipes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed semi-empirical model for adiabatic two-phase annular flow (EPRI-NP-1521) is extended to predict critical heat flux in a vertical pipe for conditions of interest to boiling water reactors. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of critical heat flux versus steam quality at low steam qualities where it is relatively independent of heat flux distribution. In this region,

S. Levy; J. M. Healzer; D. Abdollahian

1980-01-01

66

Forced convection boiling heat transfer of Freon11 in a vertical annular passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forced convection boiling heat transfer coefficient of Freon-11 flowing upward through a vertical annular passage was measured. Heating element was a single inconel heating rod placed in the center of a stainless steel pipe. The range of temperature difference between the rod surface and the saturation temperature of the Freon was 2.2 to 14.5°C, and the range of the experimental

D. H. Kihara; H. C. Chai; A. Jr. Ching

1979-01-01

67

Experimental study of low Prandtl number natural convection in an array of uniformly heated vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program was conducted to study natural convection heat ; transfer in an array of uniformly heated vertical cylinders in mercury. The ; cylinders were arranged in an equilateral triangular pattern, and three bundle ; spacings, P\\/D = 1.5, 1.3, and 1.1, were studied. The heat transfer results are ; presented as local Nusselt number--modified Grashof number correlations. The

J. C. Dutton; J. R. Welty

1975-01-01

68

Instabilities and pattern evolution in a vertically heated annulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The convection in an annular container with heated bottom, cooled top and insulated side walls are studied by both linear instability analysis and direct numerical simulation. The onset of convection is investigated by linear stability analysis and corresponding pattern selection mechanisms are discussed. The nonlinear evolution of different flow patterns and the convective heat transfer are simulated. The transition to oscillatory flow is also given by stability analysis where the base flow is a steady three dimensional flow. The stability predictions are in good agreement with the numerical simulations, including both the growth rate and the dimensionless frequency.

Wang, BoFu; Guo, ZhiWei; Ma, DongJun; Sun, DeJun

2013-02-01

69

Optimum fin spacing of rectangular fins on a vertical base in free convection heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state natural convection heat transfer from aluminum vertical rectangular fins extending perpendicularly from vertical\\u000a rectangular base was investigated experimentally. Thirty different fin configurations were tested. Experiments were performed\\u000a for fin lengths of 250 and 340 mm. Fin thickness was kept fixed at 3 mm. Fin height and fin spacing were varied from 5 to\\u000a 25 mm and 5.75 to 85.5 mm, respectively. Five

B. Yazicioglu; H. Yüncü

2007-01-01

70

Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate

A. Ulke; I. Goldberg

1993-01-01

71

Heat transfer during melting around an isothermal vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on alternative energy resources has intensified during the past few decades as a consequence of the alarming increase in energy cost. Effective thermal energy storage systems have become a true necessity, especially in solar energy applications. Using the phase change of some materials in thermal energy storage systems is advantageous in various ways. For example, the heat capacity of

P. R. Souza Mendes; A. C. Jr. Pinho Brasil

1987-01-01

72

An analytical study of critical heat flux in a vertical channel with countercurrent flow limitation  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative analysis of critical heat flux (CHF) under countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) or flooding was successfully carried out using the existing experimental results for vertical circular, rectangular, and annual channels, applying the criteria, proposed by the author, that the CCFL condition could be determined by maximizing the water mass flux falling down in the vertical channels with respect to the water film thickness and a model of dryout of water filmflow at the CHF point. It was clarified that the analytical results give good predictions of the existing experimental results of vertical channels, identifying the factors determining the CHF under CCFL conditions.

Sudo, Yukio

1995-10-01

73

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

2006-01-01

74

Pool boiling heat transfer from vertical heater array in liquid nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The heat transfer from an array of discrete sources is expected to differ from the behavior of a single heat source due to the interaction between the flow induced by individual heat sources. This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer characteristics from a vertical heater array with flush-mounted heat sources. The lower heaters were found to enhance the heat transfer from upper heaters. The bubble pumped convection due to the lower heaters enhanced the preboiling heat transfer coefficient at the upper heater by as much as 700%. The critical heat flux from the upper heaters was also enhanced up to 15%. Correlations are presented for both these effects. 21 refs.

Chui, C.J.; Sehmbey, M.S.; Chow, L.C.; Hahn, O.J. [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-04-01

75

Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in an Electrical Conducting Power Law Flow over a Heated Vertical Porous Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates convection heat and mass transfer flow in an electrically conducting power law fluid past a vertical porous plate in presence of a transverse magnetic field, thermal radiation, and thermal diffusion. The non–linear partial differential equations governing the flow are transformed into ordinary differential equations using the usual similarity method and the resulting similarity equations are solved numerically

B. I. Olajuwon

2010-01-01

76

Comparison of turbulence models for the natural convection boundary layer along a heated vertical plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical code for solving the boundary-layer equations is used to evaluate the performance of various turbulence models for the natural convection boundary layer along a heated vertical plate. The Cebeci-Smith (1974) model yields wall-heat transfer and turbulent viscosity values that are lower than the experimental values, while the standard k-epsilon model with wall functions for k and epsilon yields high wall-heat transfer values and resonable velocity and temperature profiles. Low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models provide accurate wall-heat transfer results.

Henkes, R. A. W. M.; Hoogendoorn, C. J.

1989-01-01

77

Natural, mixed, and forced convection in a vertical thermosiphon heated with constant flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a mixed-laminar-convective-flow region in a vertical channel is investigated analytically in the case in which the parallel plane walls of the channel are heated with constant but not necessarily equal heat-flux densities. Expressions describing the thermal and dynamical development are derived for forced convection favoring the natural convective flow, and for forced convection opposed to natural convection

F. Penot; A.-M. Dalbert

1983-01-01

78

Effect of vertical heat transfer on thermocapillary convection in an open shallow rectangular cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the effect of the vertical heat transfer on thermocapillary convection characteristics in a differentially\\u000a heated open shallow rectangular cavity, a series of two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out by means\\u000a of the finite volume method. The cavity was filled with the 1cSt silicone oil (Prandtl number Pr = 13.9) and the aspect ratio ranged from 12

You-Rong Li; Hong-Ru Zhang; Chun-Mei Wu; Jin-Liang Xu

79

Vertical heat transports in the ocean and their effect on time-dependent climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, the rate of time-dependent climate change is determined\\u000a jointly by the strength of climate feedbacks and the efficiency of processes which remove heat from the surface into the deep\\u000a ocean. This work examines the vertical heat transport processes in the ocean of the HADCM2 atmosphere–ocean general circulation\\u000a model (AOGCM) in experiments

J. M. Gregory

2000-01-01

80

Free convection in a heat-generating porous medium in a finite vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid currents formed in a fluid-saturated porous medium during convective heat transfer have many important applications, such as oil and gas production, cereal grain storage, geothermal energy, and porous insulation. This investigation considers the numerical solution of the steady-state streamlines and isotherms formed by the convective and conduction heat transfer in an air-solid porous medium in an enclosed, short, vertical

W. E. Jr. Stewart; C. L. G. Dona

1988-01-01

81

Gas hydrate fast nucleation from melting ice and quiescent growth along vertical heat transfer tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the observation of HCFC141b gas hydrate growth processes outside a vertical heat transfer tube, two exciting phenomena\\u000a were found: fast nucleation of gas hydrate from melting ice, and the spontaneous permeation of water into the guest phases\\u000a along the surface of heat transfer tube to form gas hydrate continuously. These two phenomena were explained with Zhou & Sloan’s\\u000a hypothesis

Yingming Xie; Kaihua Guo; Deqing Liang; Shuanshi Fan; Jianming Gu; Jinggui Chen

2005-01-01

82

Experimental study of natural convective heat transfer in a vertical hexagonal sub channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new practices in nuclear reactor safety aspects and optimization of recent nuclear reactors, including the APWR and the PHWR reactors, needs a knowledge on natural convective heat transfer within sub-channels formed among several nuclear fuel rods or heat exchanger tubes. Unfortunately, the currently available empirical correlation equations for such heat transfer modes are limited and researches on convective heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders (especially within the natural convection modes) are scarcely done. Although boundary layers around the heat exchanger cylinders or fuel rods may be dominated by their entry regions, most of available convection correlation equations are for fully developed boundary layers. Recently, an experimental study on natural convective heat transfer in a subchannel formed by several heated parallel cylinders that arranged in a hexagonal configuration has been being done. The study seeks for a new convection correlation for the natural convective heat transfer in the sub-channel formed among the hexagonal vertical cylinders. A new convective heat transfer correlation equation has been obtained from the study and compared to several similar equations in literatures.

Tandian, Nathanael P.; Umar, Efrizon; Hardianto, Toto; Febriyanto, Catur

2012-06-01

83

Experimental study of natural convective heat transfer in a vertical hexagonal sub channel  

SciTech Connect

The development of new practices in nuclear reactor safety aspects and optimization of recent nuclear reactors, including the APWR and the PHWR reactors, needs a knowledge on natural convective heat transfer within sub-channels formed among several nuclear fuel rods or heat exchanger tubes. Unfortunately, the currently available empirical correlation equations for such heat transfer modes are limited and researches on convective heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders (especially within the natural convection modes) are scarcely done. Although boundary layers around the heat exchanger cylinders or fuel rods may be dominated by their entry regions, most of available convection correlation equations are for fully developed boundary layers. Recently, an experimental study on natural convective heat transfer in a subchannel formed by several heated parallel cylinders that arranged in a hexagonal configuration has been being done. The study seeks for a new convection correlation for the natural convective heat transfer in the sub-channel formed among the hexagonal vertical cylinders. A new convective heat transfer correlation equation has been obtained from the study and compared to several similar equations in literatures.

Tandian, Nathanael P.; Umar, Efrizon; Hardianto, Toto; Febriyanto, Catur [Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nuclear Energy Regulation Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

84

Design criterion for the heat-transfer coefficient in opposing flow, mixed convention heat transfer in a vertical tube  

SciTech Connect

Mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical tube with opposing flow (downflow heating) was studied experimentally for Reynolds numbers ranging from about 1,000 to 30,000 at constant Grashof numbers ranging about 1{1/2} orders of magnitude under constant wall temperature (CWT) conditions. Three correlations developed for opposing mixed convection flows in vertical conduits predicted the data reasonably well, except near and into the asymptote region for which these equations were not designed. A critical Reynolds number is developed here, above which these equations can be used for design purposes regardless of the boundary condition. Below Re{sub crit}, the correlations, the asymptote equation should be used for the CWT boundary condition, which is more prevalent in process situations than the uniform heat flux (UHF) boundary condition.

Joye, D.D. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-07-01

85

Investigation of Heat Transfer in Vapor Condensation in Vertical Packed Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the heat transfer process in the condensation of vapor in vertical packed tubes was performed. The first series of experiments were performed for the empty tube in order to check the accuracy of the experimental method. The second seri...

B. G. Bergo T. A. Bystrova K. P. Berezhnaya

1968-01-01

86

MHD free convection flow along a vertical wavy surface with heat generation or absorption effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate the problem of free convection from a vertical wavy surface embedded in a uniform porous medium in the presence of an external magnetic field and internal heat generation or absorption effects. Using the appropriate transformations, the boundary layer equations are reduced to non-linear partial differential equations. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta integration scheme

F. M. Hady; R. A. Mohamed; A. Mahdy

2006-01-01

87

Heat transfer response of MHD free convection flow along a vertical plate to surface temperature oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linearized theory is used to study the heat-transfer response of a laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid along a vertical plate to surface temperature oscillations, when the mean surface temperature varies as a power n of distance from the leading edge in the presence of a variable transverse magnetic field. Three

M. A. Hossain; S. K. Das; I. Pop

1998-01-01

88

Laminar mixed convection from a vertical heated surface in a crossflow  

SciTech Connect

The present study is concerned with mixed convection from a vertical heated surface in a horizontal crossflow. The governing boundary layer equations were solved numerically using an extension of the technique developed by Cebeci and Keller. The combining law of Churchill and Usagi was utilized to develop a correlation for the average Nusselt number. (AIP)

Evans, G.H.; Plumb, O.A.

1982-08-01

89

Radiative heat transport during the vertical Bridgman growth of oxide single crystals: slabs versus cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal radiative heat transport in oxide crystals during their growth via the vertical Bridgman technique is known to promote severely deflected melt\\/crystal interface shapes. These highly curved interfaces are likely to encourage unwanted phenomena such as inhomogeneous distribution of impurities in the solidified crystalline material. Past computational analyses of oxide growth systems have mostly been confined to cylindrical geometries. In

Alexander Virozub; Simon Brandon

1998-01-01

90

Mixed convection along vertical cylinders and needles with uniform surface heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed convection along vertical cylinders and needles with uniform surface heat flux is investigated for the entire mixed convection regime. A single modified buoyancy parameter Ï and a single curvature parameter Î are employed in the analysis such that a smooth transition from pure forced convection (Ï = 1) to pure free convection (Ï = 0) can be accomplished. For

S. L. Lee; T. S. Chen; B. F. Armaly

1987-01-01

91

Natural convection along slender vertical cylinders with variable surface heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer by natural convection along a vertical cylinder has been analyzed rather extensively by many investigators using different solution methods. The major restriction to most of these studies is that the solutions are valid only for cylinders with small surface curvature, that is, for cylinders whose diameters are not small. To data no analysis seems to have been presented

J. J. Heckel; T. S. Chen; B. F. Armaly

1989-01-01

92

Multiple buoyancy driven flows in a vertical cylinder heated from below  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of axisymmetric buoyancy-driven convection in a vertical cylinder heated from below is probed by finite element solution of the Boussinesq equations coupled with computed-implemented perturbation techniques for detecting and tracking multiple flows and for determining flow stability. Results are reported for fluids with Prandtl number of one and for cylinders with aspect ratio (Lambda) (defined as the height

Y. Yamaguchi; C. J. Chang; R. A. Brown

1983-01-01

93

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an enclosed assembly of thin vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady state heat transfer by natural convection was investigated experimentally from an enclosed assembly of thin vertical cylinders at high Rayleigh numbers. The published literature lacks any information regarding such a study in the turbulent boundary layer regime. All the available literature is for the laminar region for an enclosed assembly. The enclosed assembly consisted of a 3 × 3 array of

Muhammad Arshad; Mansoor Hameed Inayat; Imran Rafiq Chughtai

2011-01-01

94

Numerical Simulation of Heat Conduction to Liquids from a Thin Vertical Cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents numerical simulations of heat conduction around a circular vertical cylinder immersed in liquids. A finite volume formulation is used, and the numerical analysis is performed in unsteady state with an explicit scheme. The numerical predictions are compared with experiments performed on liquids to find the temperature inside the cylinder, where a thermocouple is located, and at the

F. Gori; M. G. Serranò

2003-01-01

95

Thermal stratification in direct gain passive heating systems with variable heating of the floor and one vertical wall  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an experimental study that used a 1/4-scale, water-filled test cell to examine the effect of the natural convection flows created by horizontal and vertical heated surfaces upon thermal stratification in a single-zone enclosure. The study covered the range from pure floor heating to pure wall heating, including various levels of combined floor and wall heating. The presence of a cold window or thermal storage surface was simulated by cooling the wall directly opposite the heated vertical wall. Flow visualization studies were carried out to determine the structure of the flow in the test cell. Correlations are reported for heat transfer, temperature distributions, and thermal stratification as a function of the relative amount of heating that was provided to the floor and wall of the test cell. The results of the study can be used to predict the flow patterns, energy transfer, and levels of thermal stratification that occur in direct gain solar systems that are dominated by natural convection.

Anderson, R.S.; Fisher, E.M.; Bohn, M.S.

1985-09-01

96

Thermal performances of different types of underground heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment system with different types of U-vertical ground coupled heat exchanger (UGCHE) in situ was set up, for example, single or double U-pipes with sandstone backfills, and single U-pipe with cement backfills. Experiments on the thermal performance of UGCHE were carried out in different conditions, such as different inlet temperature, flow rate, soil types, backfill materials, number of U-pipes

Xinguo Li; Yan Chen; Zhihao Chen; Jun Zhao

2006-01-01

97

Vertical heat fluxes generated by mesoscale atmospheric flow induced by thermal inhomogeneities in the PBL  

SciTech Connect

An analytical evaluation of the vertical heat fluxes associated with the mesoscale flow generated by thermal inhomogeneities in the PBL in the absence of a synoptic wind is presented. Results show that the mesoscale fluxes are of the same order as the diabatic beat fluxes. In the sea-breeze case, results show that in the lower layer of the atmosphere the heat flux is positive over the land and negative over the sea with an overall positive horizontal average. In the free atmosphere above the PBL, the mesoscale vertical heat flux is negative over the land and over the sea. The mesoscale flow contributes to the weakening of the atmospheric stability within a region that extends a Rossby radius distance from the coastline and up to an altitude larger than twice the depth of the convective PBL. The average momentum flux equals zero. Sinusoidally periodic thermal inhomogeneities induce periodic atmospheric cells of the same horizontal scale. The intensity of mesoscale cells increases for increasing values of the wavenumber, maximizes when the wavelength of the forcing is of the order of the local Rossby radius, and then decreases as the wavelength of the forcing decreases. The intensity of the vertical velocity and vertical fluxes is only a weak function of the wavenumber, at large wavenumber. The intensity of the mesoscale heat flux does not decrease substantially at high wavenumbers; however, the transport of cool air over small heated patches of land may cut off the temperature gradient in the atmosphere between the land and water early in the day, thereby reducing the duration of the mesoscale activity. Horizontal diffusion of heat in the convective boundary layer can significantly weaken horizontal temperature gradients for large wavenumbers. Periodic square-wave thermal inhomogeneities are more effective than sinusoidal waves in generating mesoscale cells. When dealing with low resolution models the mesoscale heat fluxes have to be introduced in a parametric form.

Dalu, G.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) IFA-CNR, Rome (Italy)); Pielke, R.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States))

1993-03-15

98

Study of heat and mass transfer in a vertical-tube evaporative cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporative coolers are three-fluid heat exchangers employed for heat rejection to the environment. A mixture of air and recirculating water is used as the cooling medium. These coolers are considered viable routes for improving thermal efficiencies of power-generating and refrigeration cycles. The heat- and mass-transfer processes taking place in a vertical-tube evaporative cooler are studied. A steady-state, one dimensional model of cooler performance is formulated. This model is validated by experimental measurements, taken in a single-tube exchanger, of the controlling heat- and mass-transfer coefficients. These coefficients occur at the air-water interface. Heat fluxes and enhancement ratios for conditions of interest are measured and calculated, and the results are compared and discussed. The model is found to adequately predict heat-exchanger performance.

Perez-Blanco, H.; Bird, W. A.

1982-11-01

99

Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Micropolar Nanofluid over a Vertical Slender Cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis is carried for the problem of boundary layer steady flow and heat transfer of a micropolar fluid containing nanoparticles over a vertical cylinder. The governing partial differential equations of linear momentum, angular momentum, heat transfer and nano concentration are reduced to nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying the boundary layer approximations and a suitable similarity transformation. These nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, subject to the appropriate boundary conditions, are then solved by using the homotopy analysis method. The effects of the physical parameters on the flow, heat transfer and nanoparticle concentration characteristics of the model are presented through graphs and the salient features are discussed.

Abdul, Rehman; Nadeem, S.

2012-12-01

100

Buoyancy effects on the laminar boundary layer heat transfer along vertically moving cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local similarity method (Lloyd, Sparrow, 1970) is used to study the effects of buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer heat transfer along vertically moving cylinders. Cases of prescribed surface temperature and wall heat flux in power of streamwise distance are analyzed. Local similarity solutions are obtained to show the effects of the transverse curvature of the cylinder surface and buoyancy parameters on the surface friction and heat transfer rate. It is known, however, that the local non-similarity method (Sparrow, Quack, Boerner, 1970) and the finite difference method (Mucoglu, Chen, 1979) would give more accurate results.

Lin, H.-T.; Shih, Y.-P.

1981-01-01

101

Convective heat transfer in single-phase flow in a vertical tube subjected to axial low frequency oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oscillations on the heat transfer in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally. A vertical tube was mounted\\u000a on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical oscillator to provide\\u000a low frequency oscillations. A section of the tube in the middle is subjected to a constant heat flux.

Rajashekhar Pendyala; Sreenivas Jayanti; A. R. Balakrishnan

2008-01-01

102

On cooling behavior of a vertical plate in a phase change material\\/water composite enclosure under pulsating heat load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical and experimental study concerning cooling characteristics of a pulsating heated vertical\\u000a plate sandwiched between a substrate of phase change material (PCM) and an enclosure of water, forming a composite vertical\\u000a rectangular enclosure. The vertical plate is assumed to have a uniform pulsating (on\\/off) volumetric heat source. The PCM\\u000a considered in the present study is n-Octadecane.

C. J. Ho; Y. T. Cheng

1999-01-01

103

Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an JIaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

2010-01-15

104

Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

2013-10-01

105

Free convection heat transfer from arrays of vertically separated horizontal cylinders at low Rayleigh numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady state free convection heat transfer from horizontal isothermal cylinders in vertical arrays of two to eight, at low Rayleigh numbers, is studied, experimentally. Effects of Rayleigh number and cylinder to cylinder separation distance on the heat transfer behavior of the cylinders are investigated. Heat transfer from the bottom cylinder remains the same as that of a single cylinder. However, for other cylinders we may have either reduction or improvement of heat transfer which depends on their location in the array and the geometry of the array. Results show that there is an optimum separation distance for the best overall convection heat transfer of each array. A correlation is presented to calculate the array Nusselt number in terms of Rayleigh number, cylinder spacing to diameter ratio and number of cylinders in the array.

Sadeghipour, M. Sadegh; Asheghi, M.

1994-01-01

106

Unsteady MHD convective heat and mass transfer past a semi-infinite vertical permeable moving plate with heat absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of unsteady, two-dimensional, laminar, boundary-layer flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and heat-absorbing fluid along a semi-infinite vertical permeable moving plate in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal and concentration buoyancy effects is considered. The plate is assumed to move with a constant velocity in the direction of fluid flow while the free

Ali J. Chamkha

2004-01-01

107

Natural convection in a vertical rectangular enclosure with localized heating and cooling zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and numerical studies of natural convection in a single phase, closed thermosyphon were carried out using a vertical, rectangular enclosure model. Only one vertical plate plays the role of heat transfer surface having 100mm height and 100mm width, and others act as the adiabatic wall made of transparent plexi-glass. The heat transfer surface is separated into three horizontal zones with an equal height; top 1/3 and bottom 1/3 of the surface are cooling and heating zones, respectively and intermediate section is an adiabatic zone. Water is used as the working fluid. Variable parameters are distance D between the heat transfer surface and an adiabatic plate opposite to the heat transfer plate, and temperature difference ?T between heating and cooling zones. By changing both D and ?T, three regimes of the natural convection flow; quasi-two-dimensional steady, three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows are observed by means of thermo-sensitive liquid crystal powder and numerically simulated very well by solving a set of governing equations.

Ishihara, I.; Matsumoto, R.; Senoo, A.

108

Heat transfer to water from a vertical tube bundle under natural-circulation conditions. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

The natural circulation heat transfer data for longitudinal flow of water outside a vertical rod bundle are needed for developing correlations which can be used in best estimate computer codes to model thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactor cores under accident or shutdown conditions. The heat transfer coefficient between the fuel rod surface and the coolant is the key parameter required to predict the fuel temperature. Because of the absence of the required heat transfer coefficient data base under natural circulation conditions, experiments have been performed in a natural circulation loop. A seven-tube bundle having a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 was used as a test heat exchanger. A circulating flow was established in the loop, because of buoyancy differences between its two vertical legs. Steady-state and transient heat transfer measurements have been made over as wide a range of thermal conditions as possible with the system. Steady state heat transfer data were correlated in terms of relevant dimensionless parameters. Empirical correlations for the average Nusselt number, in terms of Reynolds number, Rayleigh number and the ratio of Grashof to Reynolds number are given.

Gruszczynski, M.J.; Viskanta, R.

1983-01-01

109

A model for transient natural convection in a vertical cylinder with sidewall heating  

SciTech Connect

A model is needed to predict the fluid velocities and temperature stratification in the crude oil in the more than 50 oil-filled Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns during long-term storage in order to understand processes such as fluid mixing and temperature stratification. A simple two-region model has been developed to predict the transient velocity and temperature distribution in a vertical cylinder with sidewall heating. The two regions are a boundary layer region along the vertical walls and a central core region in the middle. The boundary layer behavior is analyzed by the local similarity method which has been modified to conserve energy and to include turbulence and mixed convection effects. The central core region is broken up into a number of vertical control volumes. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Webb, S.W.

1989-01-01

110

Two-Gradient Convection in a Vertical Slot with Maxwell-Cattaneo Heat Conduction  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of the Maxwell-Cattaneo law of heat conduction (MCHC) on the 1D flow in a vertical slot subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The gravitational acceleration is allowed to oscillate, which provides an opportunity to investigate the quantitative contribution of thermal inertia as epitomized by MCHC. The addition of the time derivative in MCHC increases the order of the system. We use a spectral expansion with Rayleigh's beam functions as the basis set, which is especially suited to fourth order boundary value problems (BVP). We show that the time derivative (relaxation of the thermal flux) has a dissipative nature and leads to the appearance of purely real negative eigenvalues. Yet it also increases the absolute value of the imaginary part and decreases the absolute value of the real part of the complex eigenvalues. Thus, the system has a somewhat more oscillatory behavior than the one based on Fourier's heat conduction law (FHC)

Papanicolaou, N. C. [Department of Computer Science, University of Nicosia, P.O. Box 24005, 1700 Nicosia (Cyprus); Christov, C. I. [Department of Mathematics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-1010 (United States); Jordan, P. M. [Entropy Reversal Consultants (L.L.C), P. O. Box 691, Abita Springs, LA 70420 (United States); Code 7181, Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Ctr., MS 39529 (United States)

2009-10-29

111

Critical heat flux in a vertical tube at low and medium pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental CHF data obtained for vertical up flow in an 8 mm I.D. test section, for a wide range of exit qualities (5–75%) and exit pressures ranging from 5 to 40 bar. The experiments were carried out for heated lengths of 0.75, 1, 1.4, 1.8, 2.5 and 3.5 m. A number of different coordinate systems are used

A. Olekhnovitch; A. Teyssedou; A. Tapucu; P. Champagne; D. C. Groeneveld

1999-01-01

112

Wall heat flux partitioning during subcooled forced flow film boiling of water on a vertical surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcooled flow film boiling experiments were conducted on a vertical flat plate, 30.5cm in height, and 3.175cm wide with forced convective upflow of subcooled water at atmospheric pressure. Data have been obtained for mass fluxes ranging from 0 to 700kg\\/m2s, inlet subcoolings ranging from 0 to 25°C and wall superheats ranging from 200 to 400°C. Correlations for wall heat transfer

Phani K. Meduri; Gopinath R. Warrier; Vijay K. Dhir

2009-01-01

113

Hydromagnetic three-dimensional free convection on a vertical stretching surface with heat generation or absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of steady, laminar, free convection flow over a vertical porous surface in the presence of a magnetic field and heat generation or absorption is considered. The governing three-dimensional partial differential equations for this investigation are transformed into ordinary differential equations using three-dimensional similarity variables. The resulting equations are solved numerically by an accurate, implicit, iterative finite-difference methodology and

Ali J. Chamkha

1999-01-01

114

Steady gas hydrate growth along vertical heat transfer tube without stirring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration characteristics of a quiescent reactor with inner-placed vertical heat transfer tube were researched, the reaction materials were 300ppm sodium dodecyl sulfate water solution and R141b. The growth morphology were described through the photos taken during the growth\\/decomposition processes. The temperatures of two points inside the reactor were also recorded and analyzed. The mass transfer mechanism was explained by

Yingming Xie; Kaihua Guo; Deqing Liang; Shuanshi Fan; Jianming Gu

2005-01-01

115

Multiple Byoyancy-Driven Flows in a Vertical Cylinder Heated from below  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of axisymmetric buoyancy-driven convection in a vertical cylinder heated from below is probed by finite-element solution of the Boussinesq equations coupled with computer-implemented perturbation techniques for detecting and tracking multiple flows and for determining flow stability. Results are reported for fluids with a Prandtl number of one and for cylinders with aspect ratio Lambda (defined as the ratio

Y. Yamaguchi; C. J. Chang; R. A. Brown

1984-01-01

116

On natural convection from a vertical plate with a prescribed surface heat flux in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical and numerical investigation of the natural convection boundary-layer along a vertical surface, which is embedded in a porous medium, when the surface heat flux varies as (1 +x2)µ), where µ is a constant andx is the distance along the surface. It is shown that for µ > -1\\/2 the solution develops from a similarity solution

S. D. Wright; D. B. Ingham; I. Pop

1996-01-01

117

The rate of heat flow through a flat vertical wall due to conjugate heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free convection along both sides of a vertical flat plate is studied within the framework of the laminar boundary-layer theory and for the case where only the temperature of the fluid far away from the wall is prescribed. Corrections to the Pohlhausen solution for the temperature at the plate surface are calculated. It is found that for good thermal conductors,

T. Kranjc; J. Peternelj; J. Kozak

2010-01-01

118

Unsteady mixed convective flow and heat transfer in a vertical corrugated channel with composite porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsteady mixed convective flow and heat transfer in a vertical corrugated channel containing porous and fluid layers are considered. The equations of momentum and energy are solved under appropriate boundary and interface conditions with the assumption that the solution consists of a mean part and a perturbed one. The exact solutions are obtained in the long-wave approximation. Separate solutions are matched at the interface with the use of suitable matching conditions. The effects of pertinent parameters, such as the Grashof number, viscosity ratio, width ratio, conductivity ratio, frequency, and the wave parameter on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are studied.

Umavathi, J. C.; Shekar, M.

2013-07-01

119

Augmentation of heat transfer in a bubble agitated vertical rectangular channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of convective heat transfer between three parallel vertical plates symmetrically spaced with and without bubble agitation to ascertain the degree of augmentation of the heat transfer coefficients due to agitation. The centre plate was electrically heated, while the other side plates were water-cooled forming two successive parallel vertical rectangular channels of dimensions 20 cm × 3.5 cm × 35 cm (length W, gap L, height H) each. At the bottom of the hot and cold plates air spargers were fitted. Water/ethylene glycol (100%) was used to fill the channels. The superficial gas velocity ranged from 0.0016 to 0.01 m/s. Top, bottom and sides of the channels were open to the water/ethylene glycol in the chamber which is the novel aspect of this study. Experimental data have been correlated as under: Natural convective heat transfer: Nu = 0.60 Gr 0.29, r = 0.96, ? = 0.186, 1.17 E6 < Gr < 1.48 E7; Bubble agitated heat transfer: St = 0.11( ReFrPr 2)-0.23, r = 0.82, ? = 0.002, 1.20 E-2 < ( ReFrPr 2) < 1.36 E2.

Mitra, Asish; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Ghosh, Dibyendu Narayan

2012-04-01

120

Aerosol effect on atmospheric heating rates in the Mediterranean region using vertically resolved satellite aerosol data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the main direct effect of aerosols is the cooling of the surface and warming of the atmosphere, which impact atmospheric dynamics via the weakening of convection and the inhibition of cloud forming. In order to be able to fully understand and parameterize this throughout the atmosphere, a detailed vertical profile of the aerosol induced surface cooling and atmospheric heating is required. To get a vertical profile like this, detailed vertically resolved data on aerosol optical properties are required. Such data have now become available from CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO satellite. Its near-nadir viewing geometry allows for viewing curtains of the atmosphere, thereby defining with sufficient accuracy the vertical position of aerosols and clouds. In this study, CALIOP Level 2-Version 3 Layer and Profile data for the Mediterranean region from January 2007 to December 2011 have been used. The Mediterranean region was chosen, as it is an area with a mixture of aerosol types, both natural and anthropogenic, where aerosol radiative effects take large values. Furthermore, it is in the proximity of Sahara desert dust, making the area one with large aerosol load. The original CALIOP data have been regridded at a 1°x1° latitude-longitude resolution and at 160 vertical layers. The use of both Layer and Profile data has enabled the derivation of useful 'climatological' products, like spatial properties of aerosol layers, as well as optical properties of them. A comparison with the recently distributed (December 2011) CALIOP Level 3 data, as well as with other satellite data, is presented. Initial results, in agreement with previous studies, reveal that CALIOP aerosol optical depth (AOD) is biased low by around 20%, when compared to other satellite products, such as MODIS. The regridded data are subsequently used in a spectral radiative transfer model and the vertical profile of direct radiative effect is computed. From that, a vertical heating rate profile due to aerosols is derived for each model grid. The geographical and seasonal variability of these rates are investigated, in relation with the corresponding variability of aerosol optical properties. According to preliminary results, the determination of the cooling/heating rate above the surface and within the atmosphere is not affected by the aforementioned bias of CALIOP AOD. The findings of this study are expected to be particularly useful to future studies that deal with the modelling of the aerosol direct, indirect and semi-direct effects (e.g.. Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate II) while the aerosol induced modification of atmospheric lapse rates will be the basis for further studies of aerosol effects on atmospheric dynamics.

Pappas, Vasileios; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Matsoukas, Christos; Vardavas, Ilias

2013-04-01

121

Influence of fluid-property variation on turbulent convective heat transfer in vertical annular channel flows.  

SciTech Connect

Influence of strongly-varying properties of supercritical-pressure fluids on turbulent convective heat transfer is investigated using direct numerical simulation. We consider thermally-developing upward flows in a vertical annular channel where the inner wall is heated with a constant heat flux and the outer wall is insulated. CO2 is chosen as the working fluid at a pressure to 8 Mpa, and the inlet Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter and the bulk velocity is Re0 = 8900. It is shown that turbulent convective heat transfer characteristics of supercritical flow are significantly different from those of constant-property flow mainly due to spatial and temporal variations of fluid density. Non-uniform density distribution causes fluid particles to be accelerated either by expansion or buoyancy force near the heated wall, while temporal density fluctuations change the transport characteristics of turbulent heat and momentum via the buoyancy production terms arising from the correlations such as p1u1x, p1u1r and p1h1. Among various turbulence statistics, the streamwise turbulent heat flux shows a very peculiar transitional behavior due to the buoyancy effect, changing both in sign and magnitude. Consequently, a non-monotonic temperature distribution is developed in the flow direction, causing severe impairment of heat transfer in supercritical flows.

D. M. McEligot; J. H. Bae; J. Y. Yoo; H. Choi; James R. Wolf

2005-10-01

122

Modeling vertical exchange of heat, salt, and other dissolved substances in the Cariaco Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple 1.5-dimensional model of vertical exchange for heat, salt, and other dissolved substances has been developed for the Cariaco Basin. The model parameters are derived based on the temperature and salinity data collected monthly at a deepwater station in the eastern part of the basin from 1995 through 2007 during the CARIACO time series program. The model describes the processes of turbulent (eddy) diffusion, which includes the integrated effect of diffusive exchange mechanisms acting in the basin, and of vertical advection, which arises following injection of dense water into deep layers following an inflow from the Caribbean Sea. The model takes into account the changes in the horizontal cross-section area of the basin with respect to depth. Temporal variability is an important feature of the hydrography of the Cariaco Basin. To assess profiles of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient and vertical advection velocity, we examined a time series of CTD profiles (potential temperature and salinity). Two distinct time intervals were identified as the result of this examination. During the first period, the thermohaline structure of the basin was apparently influenced by one or more inflows. The second period, in contrast, showed little or no influence of an inflow. The data from the second period, where no inflows were observed, were incorporated into corresponding transfer equations to assess the profile of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient, k(z). Then, the result of this assessment was used with the data from the first period to estimate the profile of the vertical advection velocity, W(z), for a time when the effects of an inflow were evident. For that case, the transfer equations include the terms describing the effect of the inflow. Analysis of the vertical profile of the turbulent diffusion coefficient suggests that, in the upper stratified part of the water column, the diffusion mechanism is mostly associated with transient mixing events, which occur due to shear instability in the field of low frequency internal waves. We speculate that below 400 m bottom friction over the sloping bottom and geothermal heat flux play the decisive role in the vertical exchange. Analysis of the W(z) profiles reveals two layers dominated by the entrainment of the ambient fluid into the down flow of dense water from the Caribbean Sea, and two layers where this down flow breaks down through the formation of isopycnal intrusions.

Samodurov, A. S.; Scranton, M. I.; Astor, Y.; Ivanov, L. I.; Chukharev, A. M.; Belokopytov, V. N.; Globina, L. V.

2013-01-01

123

The vertical eddy-heat flux as a stabilizer of cold accretion disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent vertical structure of cold accretion disks and their thermal stability have been studied with turbulent heat transfer being included. A strong turbulent heat transport enforces a nearly adiabatic stratification and the disk evolves quasi-homologously, although homology is broken by the outer boundary condition. The radiative energy loss scales with the disk's optical depth tau like Q(-~) T_c(4/tau ^m) with T_c the midplane temperature. The disk is only stable if the resulting m fulfills the stability criterion 3+mleft({n/2}-qright ) > 0, with n and q taken from the opacity law kappa ~rho (n) T(q) . For rather cool disks with n=1/3 and q=10 the vertical structure proves to be thermally unstable unless the turbulent Prandtl number (the ratio between the eddy viscosity and turbulent heat conductivity) is less than, say, 0.1. For weaker temperature power-laws of the opacity (smaller q) the disks become more and more stable even without the stabilizing support of the eddy-heat flux. Numerical simulations confirm the quasi-analytically derived stability criterion.

Fröhlich, H.-E.; Rüdiger, G.

1999-03-01

124

A parametrical study on the energetic and exergetic assessment of a solar-assisted vertical ground-source heat pump system used for heating a greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energetic and exergetic modeling of a solar-assisted vertical ground-source heat pump (GSHP) greenhouse heating system (SAGSHPGHS) for system analysis and performance assessment is presented in this study. Energy (heating coefficient of performance ‘COP’) and exergy efficiencies at various reference and entering water temperatures are also determined. The actual thermal data collected are utilized for the model calculations at different

Onder Ozgener; Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

125

Heat Loss to the Interior of a Free Burning Vertical Wall and its Influence on Estimation of Effective Heat of Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conduction heat transfer into a vertical free burning slab was measured as a function of time and distance from the leading edge, and its contribution to the known values of effective heat of gasification was analyzed. The present set of experiments was performed using clear and black PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) samples. The heat conduction into the pyrolyzing surface was deduced from

A. K. KULKARNI; C. I. KIM

1990-01-01

126

Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)

Ghorbani, N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, England (United Kingdom); Taherian, H. [Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Gorji, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran); Mirgolbabaei, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar branch, Jouybar (Iran)

2010-10-15

127

Self Heating Effects of High Power SOI Vertical DMOS Transistor with Lateral Drain Contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self heating effects in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high power Vertical Diffused MOS (VDMOS) transistors have been investigated by electro-thermal simulations. Unlike other conventional VDMOS devices, here we work on a modified VDMOS transistor with drain contacts at the surface. In this work we study two different aspects of this transistor namely: (1) Effect of self heating on the device performance and (2) effect of the elevated temperature on the device characteristics. Our simulation results indicate that the temperature distribution is concentrated at the drift region under the gate area and spreads down toward the drain area. The self heating effect gives a notable effect on our newly proposed VDMOS in the on-state (when Vg > Vt), and the breakdown point decreases. As we increase the ambient temperature the breakdown point decreases further.

Pinardi, Kuntjoro; Heinle, Ulrich; Bengtsson, Stefan; Olsson, Jörgen

128

Natural convection flow along a vertical wavy surface with uniform surface temperature in presence of heat generation\\/absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of internal heat generation\\/absorption on a steady two-dimensional natural convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid along a uniformly heated vertical wavy surface has been investigated. The equations are mapped into the domain of flat vertical plate, and then solved numerically employing the implicit finite difference method, known as Keller-box scheme. Effects of the pertinent parameters, such as the

Lun Shin Yao

2004-01-01

129

Buoyant instabilities in downward flow in a symmetrically heated vertical channel  

SciTech Connect

This study of the downward flow of nitrogen in a tall, partially heated vertical channel (upstream isothermal at T{sub in}*, heated region isothermal at T{sub s}* downstream adiabatic) shows the strong effects of buoyancy even for small temperature differences. Time-dependent oscillations including periodic flow reversals occur along the channel walls. Although the flow and heat transfer are asymmetric, the temperature and axial component of velocity show symmetric reflections at two times that are half a period apart and the lateral component of velocity shows antisymmetric reflections at the two times. There is strong interaction between the downward flow in the central region of the channel and the upward flow along the heated channel walls. At the top of the heated region, the upward buoyant flow turns toward the center of the channel and is incorporated into the downward flow. Along the channel centerline there are nonmonotonic variations of the axial component of velocity and temperature and a large lateral component of velocity that reverses direction periodically. Results are presented for Re = 219.7 and Gr/Re{sup 2} = 1.83, 8.0, and 13.7. The heat transfer and the frequency of the oscillations increases and the flow and temperature fields become more complex as Gr/Re{sup 2} increases. The results have applications to fiber drying, food processing, crystal growth, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic circuits, ventilation, etc.

Evans, G. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Greif, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-07-01

130

Critical heat flux performance of hypervapotrons proposed for use in the ITER divertor vertical target  

SciTech Connect

Task T-222 of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program addresses the manufacturing and testing of permanent components for use in the ITER divertor. Thermalhydraulic and critical heat flux performance of the heat sinks proposed for use in the divertor vertical target are part of subtask T-222.4. As part of this effort, two single channel, medium scale, bare copper alloy, hypervapotron mockups were designed, fabricated, and tested using the EB-1200 electron beam system. The objectives of the effort were to develop the design and manufacturing procedures required for construction of robust high heat flux (HHF) components, verify thermalhydraulic, thermomechanical and critical heat flux (CHF) performance under ITER relevant conditions, and perform analyses of HHF data to identify design guidelines and failure criteria and possibly modify any applicable CHF correlations. The design, fabrication, and finite element modeling of two types of hypervapotrons are described; a common version already in use at the Joint European Torus (JET) and a new attached fin design. HHF test data on the attached fin hypervapotron will be used to compare the CHF performance under uniform heating profiles on long heated lengths with that of localized, highly peaked, off nominal profiles.

Youchison, D.L.; Marshall, T.D.; McDonald, J.M.; Lutz, T.J.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Driemeyer, D.E. Kubik, D.L.; Slattery, K.T.; Hellwig, T.H. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-09-01

131

Free convection boundary layers on a vertical surface in a heat-generating porous medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural convection boundary-layer flow on a solid vertical surface with heat generated within the boundary layer at a rate proportional to (T - T{infty})p (p [?] 1) is considered. The surface is held at the ambient temperature T{infty} except near the leading edge where it is held at a temperature above ambient. The behaviour of the flow as it develops from the leading edge is examined and is seen to become independent of the initial heat input; however, it does depend strongly on the exponent p. For 1 [?] p [?] 2, the local heating eventually dominates at large distances and there is a convective flow driven by this mechanism. For p [?] 4, the local heating does not have a significant effect, the fluid temperature remains relatively small throughout and the heat transfer dies out through a wall jet flow. For 2 < p < 4, the local heating has a significant effect at relatively small distances, with a thermal runaway developing at a finite distance along the surface.

Mealey, L.; Merkin, J. H.

2008-02-01

132

Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.

Fsadni, A.-M.; Ge, Y. T.

2013-04-01

133

Modeling Vertical Structure and Heat Transport within the Oceans of Ice-covered Worlds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indirect observational evidence provides a strong case for liquid oceans beneath the icy crust of Europa and several other frozen moons in the outer solar system. However, little is known about the fluid circulation within these exotic oceans. As a first step toward understanding circulations driven by buoyancy (rather than mechanical forcing from tides), one must understand the typical vertical structure of temperature, salinity, and thus density within the ocean. Following a common approach from terrestrial oceanography, I have built a "single column convection model" for icy world oceans, which describes the density structure of the ocean as a function of depth only: horizontal variations are ignored. On Earth, this approach is of limited utility, because of the strong influence of horizontal wind-driven currents and sea-surface temperature gradients set in concert with the overlying atmosphere. Neither of these confounding issues is present in an icy world's ocean. In the model, mixing of fluid properties via overturning convection is modeled as a strong diffusive process which only acts when the ocean is vertically unstable. "Double diffusive" processes (salt fingering and diffusive layering) are included: these are mixing processes resulting from the unequal molecular diffusivities of heat and salt. Other important processes, such as heating on adiabatic compression, and freshwater fluxes from melting overlying ice, are also included. As a simple test case, I considered an ocean of Europa-like depth (~100 km) and gravity, heated from the seafloor. To simplify matters, I specified an equation of state appropriate to terrestrial seawater, and a simple isothermal ocean as an initial condition. As expected, convection gradually penetrates upward, warming the ocean to an adiabatic, unstratified equilibrium density profile on a timescale of 50 kyr if 4.5 TW of heat are emitted by the silicate interior; the same result is achieved in proportionally more/less time for weaker/stronger internal heating. Unlike Earth's oceans, I predict that since icy worlds' oceans are heated from below, they will generally be unstratified, with constant potential density from top to bottom. There will be no pycnocline as on Earth, so global ocean currents supported by large-scale density gradients seem unlikely. However, icy world oceans may be "weird" in ways which are unheard-of in terrestrial oceanography The density of sulfate brine has a very different equation of state than chloride brines: does this affect the vertical structure? If the ocean water is very pure, cold water can be less dense than warm. Can this lead to periodic catastrophic overturning, as proposed by other authors? These and other questions are currently being investigated using the single-column convection model as a primary tool.

Goodman, J. C.

2010-12-01

134

Natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal vertical surface to a stable thermally stratified fluid  

SciTech Connect

Natural convection from a isothermal vertical surface to a thermally stratified fluid is studied numerically. A wide range of stratification levels is considered. It is shown that at high levels of ambient thermal stratification, a portion at the top of the plate absorbs heat, while a horizontal plume forms around a location where the plate temperature equals the ambient temperature. The plume is shown to be inherently unsteady, and its transient nature is investigated in detail. The effect of the temperature defect in striating the plume is discussed. Average Nusselt number data are Presented for Pr = 6.0 and 0.7. 22 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Angirasa, D. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Srinivasan, J. (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India))

1992-11-01

135

Radiation Effects on Oscillating Vertical Plate with Uniform Heat and Mass Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal radiation effects on flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat and mass flux is studied. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a nonscattering medium. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters such as the radiation parameter, phase angle, Schmidt number and time. The variation of the skin-friction for different values of the parameters is also shown in a table

Chandrakala, P.; Bhaskar, P. Narayana

2013-08-01

136

Downflow heat transfer in a heated ribbed vertical annulus with a cosine power profile  

SciTech Connect

Experiments designed to investigate downflow heat transfer in a heated, ribbed annulus test section simulating one of the annular coolant channels of a Savannah River Plant production reactor Mark 22 fuel assembly have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The inner surface of the annulus was constructed of aluminum and was electrically heated to provide an axial cosine power profile and a flat azimuthal power shape. Data presented in this report are from the ECS-2c series, which was a follow on series to the ECS-2b series, conducted specifically to provide additional data on the effect of different powers at the same test conditions, for use in evaluation of possible power effects on the aluminum temperature measurements. Electrical powers at 90%, 100%, and 110% of the power required to result in the maximum aluminum temperature at fluid saturation temperature were used at each set of test conditions previously used in the ECS-2b series. The ECS-2b series was conducted in the same test rig as the previous ECS-2b series. Data and experimental description for the ECS-2b series is provided in a previous report. 18 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Anderson, J.L.; Condie, K.G.; Larson, T.K.

1991-10-01

137

Natural, mixed, and forced convection in a vertical thermosiphon heated with constant flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a mixed-laminar-convective-flow region in a vertical channel is investigated analytically in the case in which the parallel plane walls of the channel are heated with constant but not necessarily equal heat-flux densities. Expressions describing the thermal and dynamical development are derived for forced convection favoring the natural convective flow, and for forced convection opposed to natural convection with upward and downward flow. A finite-differences method is employed in the numerical solution of the equations for air with Prandtl number 0.71 and Grashof numbers from 0.1 to 1000, and the results are illustrated graphically. The estimated flow rates and wall temperatures are considered in terms of their implications for flow behavior.

Penot, F.; Dalbert, A.-M.

1983-11-01

138

The CAV program for numerical evaluation of laminar natural convection heat transfer in vertical rectangular cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the laminar natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow distribution in vertical rectangular cavities with or without inner partitions, the personal computer finite difference program entitled CAV is used. The CAV program was tested successfully for slender cavities with aspect ratios as high as R = H/L = 90 and for the Grashof numbers, based on the cavity height, up to GrH = 3x109. To make the CAV program useful for a number of applications, various types of boundary conditions can also be imposed on the program calculations. Presented are program applications dealing with the 2-D numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in very slender window cavities with and without small inner partitions and recommendations are made for window design. Professor, Mechanical Engineering.

Novak, Milos H.; Nowak, Edwin S.

1993-12-01

139

An analytical model for particulate deposition on vertical heat transfer surfaces in a boiling environment  

SciTech Connect

A frequent problem in heat exchange equipment is the deposition of particulates entrained in the working fluid onto heat transfer surfaces. These deposits increase the overall heat transfer resistance and can significantly degrade the performance of the heat exchanger. Accurate prediction of the deposition rate is necessary to ensure that the design and specified operating conditions of the heat exchanger adequately address the effects of this deposit layer. Although the deposition process has been studied in considerable detail, much of the work has focused on investigating individual aspects of the deposition process. This paper consolidates this previous research into a mechanistically based analytical prediction model for particulate deposition from a boiling liquid onto vertical heat transfer surfaces. Consistent with the well known Kern-Seaton approach, the model postulates net particulate accumulation to depend on the relative contributions of deposition and reentrainment processes. Mechanisms for deposition include boiling, momentum, and diffusion effects. Reentrainment is presumed to occur via an intermittent erosion process, with the energy for particle removal being supplied by turbulent flow instabilities. The contributions of these individual mechanisms are integrated to obtain a single equation for the deposit thickness versus time. The validity of the resulting model is demonstrated by comparison with data published in the open literature. Model estimates show good agreement with data obtained over a range of thermal-hydraulic conditions in both flow and pool boiling environments. The utility of the model in performing parametric studies (e.g. to determine the effect of flow velocity on net deposition) is also demonstrated. The initial success of the model suggests that it could prove useful in establishing a range of heat exchanger. operating conditions to minimize deposition.

Keefer, R.H.; Rider, J.L.; Waldman, L.A.

1993-10-01

140

Numerical study of natural convection drying of coffee grains contained in a vertical channel with constant heat flux on walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a numerical study of the drying by natural convection of coffee grains contained between two vertical walls subjected to a uniform heat flux. The coffee grains bed is assumed to be in a porous medium, heat and mass transfers which are described by the classical natural convection equations and the Darcy-Brinkman momentum equation. The discretisation of these equations

J. Bathiebo; M. Daguenet; B. Zeghmati; C. MBow

2003-01-01

141

Heat transfer between a vertical tube bundle and fine particles in a CFB downcomer with and without circulation of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental data on the heat transfer between an electrically heated vertical finned tube bundle and cracking catalyst, fluidized with air in the downcomer of a circulating fluidized bed system. The effects of the air fluidizing velocity, bed temperature and external recirculation of solids were investigated. We were particularly interested in low gas velocities in the downcomer. Up

S. Ouyang; X.-G. Li; G. Davies; O. E. Potter

1996-01-01

142

Experimental analysis and numerical modelling of inward solidification on a finned vertical tube for a latent heat storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of heat transfer in a thermal storage system consisting of a cylindrical vertical tube with internal longitudinal fin arrangement is discussed in this paper. This configuration that forms a V-shaped enclosure for the phase change material (PCM) gives maximum benefit to the fin arrangement. A theoretical model that also accounts for the circumferential heat flow through the tube

R. Velraj; R. V. Seeniraj; B. Hafner; C. Faber; K. Schwarzer

1997-01-01

143

Melting of a solid adjacent to a heated vertical cylinder with or without subcooling of the solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to provide quantitative heat transfer data corresponding to the problem of melting about a heated vertical cylinder embedded in a solid phase change material. The phase change material employed was 99 percent pure n-eicosane paraffin having an experimentally determined melting point of 36.4 C. Experiments were conducted with the solid phase either at the melting point or

R. G. Kemink

1981-01-01

144

Explicit formulas for laminar natural convection heat transfer along vertical cylinders with power-law wall temperature distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convection heat transfer coefficients for vertical cylinders with variable surface temperature distribution must be found by complex numerical integration of the corresponding system of governing differential equations. Its evaluation for practical heat transfer calculations is always based on more or less complex correlations fitted to numerical or experimental results. This paper presents alternative approximate formulas for the calculation of

José L. Muñoz-Cobo; José M. Corberán; Sergio Chiva

2003-01-01

145

Radiative heating characteristics of Earth's cloudy atmosphere from vertically resolved active sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract High <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolution CloudSat radar measurements, supplemented with cloud boundaries and aerosol information from the CALIPSO lidar, are used to examine radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> features in the atmosphere that have not previously been characterized by passive sensors. The monthly and annual mean radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span>/cooling structure for a 4 year period between 2006 and 2010 is derived. The mean atmospheric radiative cooling rate from CloudSat/CALIPSO is 0.98 K d-1 (1.34 K d-1 between 150 and 950 hPa) and is largely a reflection of the Earth's mean water vapor distribution, with sharp <span class="hlt">vertical</span> gradients introduced by clouds. It is found that there is a minimum in cooling in the tropical lower to middle troposphere, a cooling maximum in the upper-boundary layer of the Southern Hemisphere poleward of -10° latitude, and a minimum in cooling in the lower boundary layer in the middle to high latitudes of both hemispheres. Clouds tops tend to strongly cool the upper-boundary layer all year in the midlatitudes to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (where peak seasonal mean winter cooling is 3.4 K d-1), but this cooling is largely absent in the corresponding parts of the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, resulting in a hemispheric asymmetry in cloud radiative cooling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haynes, John M.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Henderson, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhFl...25h4108B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instability of mixed convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous channel with uniform wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mixed convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plane channel filled with a saturated porous medium is investigated. The boundary planes are considered as subject to symmetric uniform <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, resulting into a net fluid <span class="hlt">heating</span> or cooling. Either upflow or downflow conditions are considered, thus exhibiting two distinct regimes: buoyancy-assisted and buoyancy-opposed. A basic stationary and parallel flow directed <span class="hlt">vertically</span> along the channel is examined. The linear stability of this basic solution is developed through the standard normal-mode analysis. The solution of the eigenvalue problem for neutral stability is carried out numerically for the general oblique modes. An analytical solution is provided for the longitudinal modes, with a horizontal wave vector having a direction parallel to the boundary planes. An asymptotic analytical solution is also allowed for oblique modes with either a vanishingly small Péclet number or a vanishingly small wave number. The longitudinal modes are the most unstable, displaying their parametric domain of instability under buoyancy-opposed regime. In this regime, the longitudinal modes with sufficiently small wave numbers are always unstable. This conclusion suggests that conditions of flow reversal or crossing of parametric singularities, characteristic of the parallel flow solution under buoyancy-opposed regime, are unlikely to be observed in an experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barletta, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIC.tmp...30L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixed Convection with Conduction and Surface Radiation from a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Channel with Discrete <span class="hlt">Heating</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical investigation into fluid flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for the geometry of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> parallel plate channel subjected to conjugate mixed convection with radiation is attempted here. The channel considered has three identical flush-mounted discrete <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources in its left wall, while the right wall that does not contain any <span class="hlt">heat</span> source acts as a sink. Air, assumed to be a radiatively non-participating and having constant thermophysical properties subject to the Boussinesq approximation, is the cooling agent. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated in the left wall gets conducted along it and is later dissipated by mixed convection and radiation. The governing equations, considered in their full strength sans the boundary layer approximations, are converted into vorticity-stream function form and are then normalized. These equations along with pertinent boundary conditions are solved through finite volume method coupled with Gauss-Seidel iterative technique. The effects of modified Richardson number, surface emissivity, thermal conductivity and aspect ratio on local temperature distribution along the channel, maximum channel temperature and relative contributions of mixed convection and radiation have been thoroughly studied. The prominence of radiation in the present problem has been highlighted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Londhe, S. D.; Rao, C. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49710276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on the characteristics and mechanisms of unusual <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of supercritical pressure water in <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-upward tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-upward optimized internally-ribbed tube was investigated experimentally to study the mechanisms of unusual <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of supercritical pressure water in the so-called large specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> region. The experimental parameters were as follows. The pressure at the inlet of the test section ranged from 22.5 to 29.0MPa, and the mass flux</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jianguo Wang; Huixiong Li; Shuiqing Yu; Tingkuan Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26949845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer and Fluid Flow of Turbulent Natural Convection Along a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Flat Plate with a Backward-Facing Step</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer and fluid flow of turbulent natural convection along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flat plate with a backward-facing step were investigated experimentally. The effect of step height on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer was classified through a series of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer measurements. The wall temperature and fluid flow were then visualized using a liquid-crystal sheet and water-soluble fluorescent paint in order to investigate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terumi Inagaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/d40679q454up3821.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unsteady MHD natural convection from a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate in a micropolar fluid with Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span>, chemical reaction and radiation effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of Joule-<span class="hlt">heating</span>, chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD natural convection from a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span>\\u000a porous plate in a micropolar fluid are analyzed. The partial differential equations governing the flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer\\u000a have been solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme. The case corresponding to vanishing of the anti-symmetric\\u000a part of the stress tensor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali J. Chamkha; R. A. Mohamed; Sameh E. Ahmed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20104840"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger design software for commercial applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In previous work, the authors compared a number of commercially available programs for the design of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> borehole <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (BHEx) in residential applications. The objective of this paper is to compare four BHEx design programs and a benchmark simulation for a commercial application. An energy use model of an elementary school served by geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps was calibrated with site-collected data to form the benchmark; the school's operation was then simulated for a typical meteorological year at the site, and the outputs from the simulation were used as inputs to the four design programs. Since loads at the school are dominated by <span class="hlt">heating</span>, the programs were exercised to design borefields with minimum inlet water temperatures of 30 F ({minus}1.1 C), 35 F (1.7 C), and 40 F (4.4 C). On average, the depths predicted by the design programs agreed with the depths predicted by the benchmark program to within about {+-} 14%. Three of the programs were found to provide relatively consistent results: their design lengths varied from the benchmark lengths by {minus}7% to +12%, while designs from the other program varied by about 16% from the benchmark lengths. This is consistent with the results obtained for the residential comparison.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shonder, J.A.; Baxter, V.D.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThCFD..27...89P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear dynamics between two differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates in the presence of stratification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the numerical simulation of the flow between infinite, differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates with positive stratification. We use a two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation, with periodic boundary conditions in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> direction. The relative stratification parameter {?=(1/4Ra S)^{1/4}} , where Ra is the Rayleigh number and S the adimensional stratification, is kept constant and equal to 8. The Prandtl number is 0.71. We derive a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation from the equations of motion. Coefficients are computed analytically, but we find that the domain of validity of these coefficients is small and rely on the numerical simulation to adjust the coefficients over a wider range of Rayleigh numbers. We show that the Ginzburg-Landau equation is able to accurately predict the characteristics of the periodic solution at moderate Rayleigh numbers. Above the primary bifurcation at Ra = 1.63 × 105, the Ginzburg-Landau model is found to be Benjamin-Feir unstable and to be characterized by modulated traveling waves and phase-defect chaos, which is supported by evidence from the DNS. As the Rayleigh number is increased beyond Ra = 2.7 × 105, nonlinearities become strong and the flow is characterized by cnoidal waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Podvin, Bérengère; Le Quéré, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..DFD.GK005W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytic solutions for convective regime flow in a differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> slot with variable mass flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, K. Buehler (2000) reported special solutions for free convection in a differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> slot with varible mass flux through the gap. The variable mass flux can be achieved in practice by placing porous endcaps on the top and bottom of the slot. In this manner one can move continuously from flow through and open slot to flow throug a slot with rigid capped endwalls. We extend Buehler's work for conduction regime flow to convection regime flow by using an empirical relation due to Elder (1965) for the uniform temperature gradient that develops in large aspect ratio cavities. Various features of the solution will be presented, including a criterion for backflow through the slot as a function of the mass flux parameter and the Grashof number.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weidman, P. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates to the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, <span class="hlt">vertically</span> resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate profiles. These measurement-based <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate profiles provide useful data for <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Simulation of the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Upward Flow of Water in a <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Tube at Supercritical Pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upward flow of water in a <span class="hlt">heated</span> tube at supercritical pressure is numerically simulated by a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code. The IAPWS-95 formulation is used to obtain the water properties, which vary substantially at supercritical condition. To match the simulation with the experiment performed by Yamagata et al. (Int. J. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Mass Transfer, Vol. 15, 1972), the mass velocity is set to be 1260 kg/m{sup 2}xs and the wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes 233, 465, 698, and 930 kW/m{sup 2}. To examine the reliability of the turbulence model at the supercritical flow, a series of simulations are performed with turbulence models: several Low- Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models, k-{omega} model, SST k-{omega}model, standard k-{epsilon} model, RNG k-{epsilon} model, and realizable k-{epsilon} model. For the last three turbulence models, the standard wall function and the enhanced wall treatment are used as wall boundary conditions. It is found that the predicted wall temperature is sensitive to the height of the grid next to the wall when the bulk enthalpy is around the pseudo-critical point. When the standard wall function is used, results from the RNG k-{epsilon} model and the standard k-{epsilon} model are identical, and the wall temperature predictions are lower than the experiment. Conversely, the predicted wall temperature is higher in the simulations with Low- Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models. The temperature difference between the predictions and the experiment becomes larger as the wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux increases. Low-Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models result in extremely higher wall temperature than the experiment at the highest wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux. Low turbulence kinetic energy resulting from the Low-Reynolds k-{epsilon} models reduces the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and causes higher wall temperature than the experiment. The mean flow fields and turbulence properties from each turbulence model are examined. It seems that the acceleration, which is caused by the density reduction as the bulk temperature increases, and the buoyancy lead to the inadequate prediction. Modification of the turbulence transport equation may be required to overcome these effects on the prediction of the wall temperature. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seong Hoon, Kim; Young In, Kim; Yoon Yeong, Bae; Bong Hyun, Cho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.S1037L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A three-dimensional architecture of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned multilayer graphene facilitates <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation across joint solid surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low operation temperature and efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation are important for device life and speed in current electronic and photonic technologies. Being ultra-high thermally conductive, graphene is a promising material candidate for <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation improvement in devices. In the application, graphene is expected to be <span class="hlt">vertically</span> stacked between contact solid surfaces in order to facilitate efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation and reduced interfacial thermal resistance across contact solid surfaces. However, as an ultra-thin membrane-like material, graphene is susceptible to Van der Waals forces and usually tends to be recumbent on substrates. Thereby, direct growth of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned free-standing graphene on solid substrates in large scale is difficult and rarely available in current studies, bringing significant barriers in graphene's application as thermal conductive media between joint solid surfaces. In this work, a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned multi-layer graphene architecture is constructed between contacted Silicon/Silicon surfaces with pure Indium as a metallic medium. Significantly higher equivalent thermal conductivity and lower contact thermal resistance of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned multilayer graphene are obtained, compared with those of their recumbent counterpart. This finding provides knowledge of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned graphene architectures, which may not only facilitate current demanding thermal management but also promote graphene's widespread applications such as electrodes for energy storage devices, polymeric anisotropic conductive adhesives, etc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Qizhen; Yao, Xuxia; Wang, Wei; Wong, C. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59030867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photographic study and modeling of critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in horizontal flow and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow boiling with inlet vapor void</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explores the mechanism of flow boiling critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) in a 2.5 mm x 5 mm rectangular channel that is <span class="hlt">heated</span> along one of its walls for horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow configurations. Using FC-72 as working fluid, experiments were performed with mass velocities ranging from 185-1600 kg\\/m2s. A key objective of this study is to assess the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chirag Rajan Kharangate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/~gelfgat/documents/Gelfgat_Ref27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple states, stability and bifurcations of natural convection in a rectangular cavity with partially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiplicity, stability and bifurcations of low-Prandtl-number steady natural convection in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity with partially and symmetrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls are studied numerically. The problem represents a simple model of a set-up in which the height of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> element is less than the height of the molten zone. The calculations are carried out by the global spectral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. E R ENBURG; P. Z. B AR-YOSEPH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26341269"> <span id="translatedtitle">A direct numerical simulation of natural convection between two infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> walls scaling laws and wall functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A direct numerical simulation has been performed for the case of a natural convection flow between two differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls for a range of Rayleigh numbers (5.4×105<Ra<5.0×106). The simulation data are compared with experimental data of Dafa’Alla and Betts [Experimental study of turbulent natural convection in a tall cavity, Exp. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer 9 (1996) 165–194] and the agreement is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. A. M. Versteegh; F. T. M. Nieuwstadt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5914801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control-volume finite-element method as applied to transient laminar-free convection between parallel <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The control-volume finite-element method is applied to transient laminar free convection between <span class="hlt">vertical</span> parallel <span class="hlt">heated</span> plates. The results are compared with those obtained from the alternating direction implicit method and the up-wind finite difference method. <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-transfer characteristics are evaluated in terms of Nusselt number. The peculiar velocity profile inside the channel as reported by Kettleborough is verified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Dijk, H.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26965446"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of free convection induced by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wavy surface with <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a porous enclosure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Study of natural convection in porous enclosures is of great importance in several scientific and engineering applications such as nuclear waste management, transpiration cooling, building thermal insulators, geothermal power plants, grain storage, and so on. Here, free convection induced by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wavy surface with uniform <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a porous enclosure has been analyzed numerically using the finite element</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. V. Rathish Kumar; B. V. R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48910742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermobaric deep convection, baroclinic instability, and their roles in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport around Maud Rise in the Weddell Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical experiments with two- and three-dimensional nonhydrostatic models in a rotating frame have been executed to investigate thermobaric deep convection, subsequent baroclinic instability, and their roles in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport, using hydrographic data around Maud Rise in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Overturning of the water column due to thermobaric convection is apt to occur on the southern and northern flanks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazunori Akitomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57466759"> <span id="translatedtitle">MHD FREE CONVECTION FLOW OF A NANOFLUID PAST A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> PLATE IN THE PRESENCE OF <span class="hlt">HEAT</span> GENERATION OR ABSORPTION EFFECTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work is focused on the numerical solution of steady natural convection boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid consisting of a pure fluid with nanoparticles along a permeable <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate in the presence of magnetic field, <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation or absorption, and suction or injection effects. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Chamkha; A. M. Aly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26598360"> <span id="translatedtitle">Film boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder in forced flow of liquids under saturated and subcooled conditions at pressures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forced convection film boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> 3-mm diameter and 180-mm length platinum test cylinder located in the center of the 40-mm inner diameter test channel was measured. Saturated water, and saturated and subcooled R113 were used as the test liquids that flowed upward along the cylinder in the test channel. Flow velocities ranged from 0 to 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Shiotsu; K. Hama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49388584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modeling of natural convection in an open cavity with two <span class="hlt">vertical</span> thin <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources subjected to a nanofluid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection cooling of two <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources <span class="hlt">vertically</span> attached to horizontal walls of a cavity. The right opening boundary is subjected to the copper–water nanofluid at constant low temperature and pressure, while the other boundaries are assumed to be adiabatic. The governing equations have been solved using the finite volume approach, using SIMPLE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amir Houshang Mahmoudi; Mina Shahi; Abed Moheb Shahedin; Neda Hemati</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50119740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Least-material optimization of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pin-fin, plate-fin, and triangular-fin <span class="hlt">heat</span> sinks in natural convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A least-material optimization of pin-fin, plate-fin, and triangular-fin array geometries is performed, by extending the use of least-material single fin analysis to multiple fin arrays. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation from <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fin arrays in natural convection is calculated using the Nusselt number correlation by Aihara et al. (Int. J. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Transfer vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1223-32, 1990) for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madhusudan Iyengar; Avram Bar-Cohen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JFM...453...39P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boundary layer development on a semi-infinite suddenly <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The flow resulting from suddenly <span class="hlt">heating</span> a semi-infinite, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall immersed in a stationary fluid has been described in the following way: at any fixed position on the plate, the flow is initially described as one-dimensional and unsteady, as though the plate is doubly infinite; at some later time, which depends on the position, a transition occurs in the flow, known as the leading-edge effect (LEE), and the flow becomes two-dimensional and steady. The transition is characterized by the presence of oscillatory behaviour in the flow parameters, and moves with a speed greater than the maximum fluid velocities present in the boundary layer. A stability analysis of the one-dimensional boundary layer flow performed by Armfield & Patterson (1992) showed that the arrival times of the LEE determined by numerical experiment were predicted well by the speed of the fastest travelling waves arising from a perturbation of the initial one-dimensional flow. In this paper, we describe an experimental investigation of the transient behaviour of the boundary layer on a suddenly <span class="hlt">heated</span> semi-infinite plate for a range of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. The experimental results confirm that the arrival times of the LEE at specific locations along the plate, relatively close to the leading edge, are predicted well by the Armfield & Patterson theory. Further, the periods of the oscillations observed following the LEE are consistent with the period of the maximally amplified waves calculated from the stability result. The experiments also confirm the presence of an alternative mechanism for the transition from one-dimensional to two-dimensional flow, which occurs in advance of the arrival of the LEE at positions further from the leading edge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patterson, John C.; Graham, Tasman; Schöpf, Wolfgang; Armfield, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Tectp.401..119M"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data from the immediate vicinity of the Kola super-deep borehole: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow confirmed and attributed to advection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present new <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow values and other geothermal data in the upper crystalline crust in the immediate vicinity of the 12.4-km deep Kola super-deep borehole, NW Russia. Our results show a systematic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> increase in geothermal gradient and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density as deep as we could measure (1.6 km). Our results confirm earlier results on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow trends of in the uppermost part of the Kola super-deep hole, and imply that the thermal regime is not in steady-state conductive conditions. In an area of 3-km × 5-km measurements were performed in 1 2-km deep boreholes surrounding the Kola super-deep hole and on core samples from these holes. Temperature logs are available from 36 holes. Core data exists from 23 boreholes with a total length of 11.5 km at a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> resolution of 10 m. We carried out a very detailed study on thermal conductivity with regard to anisotropy, inhomogeneity and temperature dependence. Tensor components of thermal conductivity were determined on 1375 core samples from 21 boreholes in 3400 measurements. Additionally, we measured specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity, <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation rate, density, porosity, and permeability on selected subsets of core samples. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flow from 19 boreholes varies between 31 and 45 mW m-2 with an average value of 38 mW m-2. In most boreholes the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow profiles show a considerable variation with depth. This is consistent with observations in the upper part of the Kola super-deep borehole. We conclude that this variation is not caused by technical operations but reflects a natural process. It is considered to be due to a combination of advective, structural and paleoclimatic effects. Preliminary 3-D numerical modeling of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and flow in the study area provides an indication of relative contributions of each of these factors: advective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer turns out to have a major influence on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow, although transient changes in surface temperature may also cause a significant variation. Heterogeneity of the rocks in the study area is less important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottaghy, D.; Schellschmidt, R.; Popov, Y. A.; Clauser, C.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Nover, G.; Milanovsky, S.; Romushkevich, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24032927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transition to chaos of natural convection between two infinite differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural convection of air between two infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> plates is studied analytically in two dimensions (2D) and numerically in two and three dimensions (3D) for Rayleigh numbers Ra up to 3 times the critical value Ra(c)=5708. The first instability is a supercritical circle pitchfork bifurcation leading to steady 2D corotating rolls. A Ginzburg-Landau equation is derived analytically for the flow around this first bifurcation and compared with results from direct numerical simulation (DNS). In two dimensions, DNS shows that the rolls become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation. As Ra is further increased, the flow becomes quasiperiodic, and then temporally chaotic for a limited range of Rayleigh numbers, beyond which the flow returns to a steady state through a spatial modulation instability. In three dimensions, the rolls instead undergo another pitchfork bifurcation to 3D structures, which consist of transverse rolls connected by counter-rotating vorticity braids. The flow then becomes time dependent through a Hopf bifurcation, as exchanges of energy occur between the rolls and the braids. Chaotic behavior subsequently occurs through two competing mechanisms: a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to intermittency or a spatial pattern modulation reminiscent of the Eckhaus instability. PMID:24032927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Zhenlan; Sergent, Anne; Podvin, Berengere; Xin, Shihe; Le Quéré, Patrick; Tuckerman, Laurette S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of confinement and pressure on critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux during natural convective boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study has been carried out for the critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) during the natural convective boiling of R-113 at various pressures in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel. The pressure ranges from 1 to 3 bar and the channel gap-size from 0.3 mm to 2.5 mm as its height is kept constant. Data for pool boiling are also obtained. At all pressures investigated, the CHF decreases as the gap-size is reduced. On the other hand, for this pressure range, an increase in CHF is observed with increasing pressure. On the other hand, for this pressure range, an increase in CHF is observed with increasing pressure. Nevertheless, one has to notice that this last trend is not so pronounced for narrow as for wide channels. The effect of pressure cannot compensate the decrease in CHF due to the channel gap-size reduction. A previously published correlation for the CHF in such systems is modified so as to take into account the influence of pressure. It is in good agreement with the experimental data since its accuracy is always better than 5%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonjour, J.; Lallemand, M. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThEng..60..355M"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange of liquid metal during flow in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube with non-uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> in the transverse magnetic field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of experimental investigations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange during the downflow of liquid metal in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube with non-uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> in the transverse magnetic field are presented. The experiment was more realistic in terms of conditions of the blanket of a fusion reactor of the tokamak type. Profiles of the average temperature, distribution of local and mean <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients (Nusselt numbers), and the intensities and spectra of temperature pulsations have been measured. On certain combinations of operating parameters in the strong magnetic field low-frequency temperature pulsations with abnormal intensity were found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mel'nikov, I. A.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V.; Shestakov, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11312119C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variability of the sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> and carbon dioxide budgets in the atmospheric surface layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variability of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric surface layer are studied by analyzing measurements from a 213 m tower in Cabauw (Netherlands). Observations of thermodynamic variables and CO2 mixing ratio as well as <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profiles of the turbulent fluxes are used to retrieve the contribution of the budget terms in the scalar conservation equation. On the basis of the daytime evolution of turbulent fluxes, we calculate the budget terms by assuming that turbulent fluxes follow a linear profile with height. This assumption is carefully tested and the deviation from linearity is quantified. The budget calculation allows us to assess the importance of advection of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and CO2 during day hours for three selected days. It is found that, under nonadvective conditions, the diurnal variability of temperature and CO2 is well reproduced from the flux divergence measurements. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport due to the turbulent flux plays a major role in the daytime evolution of both scalars and the advection is a relatively small contribution. During the analyzed days with a strong contribution of advection of either <span class="hlt">heat</span> or carbon dioxide, the flux divergence is still an important contribution to the budget. For <span class="hlt">heat</span>, the quantification of the advection contribution is in close agreement with results from a numerical model. For carbon dioxide, we qualitatively corroborate the results with a Lagrangian transport model. Our estimation of advection is compared with traditional estimations based on the Net Ecosystem-atmosphere Exchange (NEE).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Casso-Torralba, Pau; Vilã-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Bosveld, Fred; Soler, Maria Rosa; Vermeulen, Alex; Werner, Cindy; Moors, Eddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on air window collector having a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> blind for active solar <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, an air window collector having <span class="hlt">vertical</span> black blinds was investigated experimentally under actual outdoor conditions. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> blind was installed between two 120 x 80 cm glass panes. It can rotate about the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis. The fully open position makes a 90{degree} angle with the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plane. A commercially available blind made of cloth and coated with black paint was tested. The air circulation in the system is provided by a fan parallel to the blinds. Various parameters were measured and recorded using a data acquisition system. The effect of these parameters on the thermal performance of the system were determined experimentally. 8 refs., 9 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onur, N.; Sivrioglu, M.; Turgut, O. [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/522711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of practical <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of five practical <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26110421"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixed convection near a non-orthogonal stagnation point flow on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with uniform surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  The interaction of a buoyancy induced mixed convection flow and a free stream impinging at some angle of incidence on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>\\u000a flat plate with a prescribed surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is studied in this paper. The similarity equations are numerically solved for\\u000a some values of the governing parameters. It is found that the buoyancy force and non-orthogonal mechanisms act to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Y. Lok; N. Amin; I. Pop</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20028522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective Growth of <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Aligned Single, Double, and Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Radiation-<span class="hlt">Heated</span> Chemical Vapor Deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The synthesis of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT), and triple-walled carbon nanotube (TWCNT) films has been achieved by a combination of radiation-<span class="hlt">heated</span> chemical vapor deposition (RHCVD) and long-throw sputtering. The proportions of specific walled CNTs\\/as-grown CNTs are as follows: SWCNT\\/CNT ratio of 87%, DWCNT\\/CNT ratio of 83%, and TWCNT\\/CNT ratio of 62%. When the population</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yusuke Taki; Makiko Kikuchi; Kiyoaki Shinohara; Akira Tanaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26096574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of mass transfer on flow past an impulsively started infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and chemical reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An exact solution to the flow due to impulsive motion of an infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate in its own plane in the presence of i)\\u000a species concentration ii) constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux at the plate iii) chemical reaction of first order, has been derived by the Laplace-transform\\u000a technique. Velocity and concentration profiles are shown on graphs. It is observed that due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. N. Das; R. Deka; V. M. Soundalgekar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26600181"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of forced convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of supercritical pressure water in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> upward internally ribbed tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present paper, the forced convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of water in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> upward internally ribbed tube at supercritical pressures were investigated experimentally. The six-head internally ribbed tube is made of SA-213T12 steel with an outer diameter of 31.8mm and a wall thickness of 6mm and the mean inside diameter of the tube is measured to be 17.6mm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jianguo Wang; Huixiong Li; Bin Guo; Shuiqing Yu; Yuqian Zhang; Tingkuan Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26331212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Buoyancy-assisted flow reversal and convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in entrance region of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular duct</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, predictions of buoyancy-assisted flow reversal and convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the entrance region of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular duct are reported for the first time. In line with the current trend toward the use of computationally efficient numerical methods, the present study is based on the use of a three-dimensional parabolic, boundary-layer model and the FLARE approximation. Physical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chin-Hsiang Cheng; Chun-Jen Weng; Win Aung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26203566"> <span id="translatedtitle">Onset of unsteady axi-symmetric laminar natural convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure <span class="hlt">heated</span> at the wall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study laminar transition to oscillatory convection of fluids having different Prandtl numbers in a laterally\\u000a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure for different aspect ratios (melt height to crucible radius) of 2–4 is investigated\\u000a numerically for 0.01 ? Pr ? 10. Numerical solution to two-dimensional axisymmetric transient Navier Stokes equations and energy equation were solved\\u000a by finite volume method using SIMPLE algorithm. Numerical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amitesh Kumar; Mitesh Vegad; Subhransu Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/tv67263782404262.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of laminar natural convection in a laterally <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure: application to crystal growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laminar natural convection has been studied in a laterally <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure with a free insulated surface\\u000a and a centrally located constant temperature wall at the top. These conditions are a simplification of the conditions existing\\u000a in a Czochralski crystal pulling system. The laminar, axisymmetric flow of a Newtonian, constant physical properties fluid\\u000a under Boussinesq’s approximation has been considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subhransu Roy; Abhra Roy; R. C. Arora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26966072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rayleigh-Bénard-Marangoni Instabilities of Low-Prandtl-Number Fluid in a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Cylinder with Lateral <span class="hlt">Heating</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stability analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard-Marangoni flow of a low-Prandtl-number fluid in an open <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder is presented. The cylinder is <span class="hlt">heated</span> laterally and cooled at the free surface by radiation. The governing equations are solved for axisymmetric base flow using a high-order finite-difference scheme. Small perturbations are applied to the base flow to determine the critical Marangoni number and Grashof</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Xu; X. Ai; B. Q. Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BoLMe.148..541L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Turbulent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux Limit in Stable Conditions with a Local Equilibrium, Turbulence Closure Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assuming that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> turbulent <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux vanishes at extremely stable conditions, one should expect its maximal absolute value to occur somewhere at moderate stability, between a neutral and extremely stable equilibrium. Consequently, in some situations duality of solutions may be encountered (e.g. two different values of temperature difference associated with the same values of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and wind speed). A quantitative analysis of this feature with a local equilibrium Reynolds-stress model is presented. The fixed-wind / fixed-shear maximum has been identified both in the bulk and in single-point flux-gradient relationships (that is, in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature gradient and wind-shear parameter domain). The value of the Richardson number corresponding to this maximum is derived from the model equations. To study the possible feedback in strongly stable conditions, weak and intense cooling scenarios have been simulated with a one-dimensional numerical, high-resolution atmospheric boundary-layer model. Despite the rapid cooling, flow decoupling at the surface has not been observed; instead, a stability-limited <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is maintained, with a gradual increase of the Richardson number towards the top of the turbulent layer, with some signs of oscillatory behaviour at intermediate heights. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> changes of wind shear and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency display a remarkably non-monotonic character, with some signs of a gradually developing instability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">?obocki, Lech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166688"> <span id="translatedtitle">MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with Newtonian <span class="hlt">heating</span> boundary condition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian <span class="hlt">heating</span> boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian <span class="hlt">heating</span> on the flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer increase as Newtonian <span class="hlt">heating</span> parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian <span class="hlt">heating</span> parameter. The results of the reduced <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rate is compared for convective <span class="hlt">heating</span> boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal location of <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall with natural convection through genetic algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Passive cooling of electronic components by natural convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is the least expensive, quietest and most reliable method of <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection. However, some characteristics intrinsic to the phenomenon, such as a non-linear interaction between <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources difficult its practical application. The objective of this work is to study the natural convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer optimization through genetic algorithms. Four cases</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tito Dias; Luiz Fernando Milanez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006HMT....42..187R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of laminar natural convection in a laterally <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure: application to crystal growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laminar natural convection has been studied in a laterally <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure with a free insulated surface and a centrally located constant temperature wall at the top. These conditions are a simplification of the conditions existing in a Czochralski crystal pulling system. The laminar, axisymmetric flow of a Newtonian, constant physical properties fluid under Boussinesq’s approximation has been considered. Governing equations in primitive variable form are solved numerically by control volume method. SIMPLE algorithm due to Patankar has been used for the numerical simulation. The effects of the constant wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux boundary condition at the side wall have been investigated whereas the bottom wall is considered to be insulated. Streamlines and isotherms are presented for various Rayleigh numbers and Prandtl numbers. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux vectors through the melt are plotted for selected cases. The axial velocity and temperature variations at different horizontal sections of the crucible have been presented graphically to explain the transport processes inside the crucible. It has been observed that in case of low Pr and high Ra, flow separation occurs at the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall of the crucible which leads to an oscillatory flow as Ra increases. The investigation has been extended to the oscillatory regime of flow in the zone of supercritical Rayleigh numbers and some unsteady results are also presented. Finally a <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer correlation has been developed for steady-state case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roy, Subhransu; Roy, Abhra; Arora, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhDT........46K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melting of a solid adjacent to a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder with or without subcooling of the solid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were performed to provide quantitative <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer data corresponding to the problem of melting about a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder embedded in a solid phase change material. The phase change material employed was 99 percent pure n-eicosane paraffin having an experimentally determined melting point of 36.4 C. Experiments were conducted with the solid phase either at the melting point or subcooled by 14.4 C. Measured transient cylinder wall temperatures demonstrate that the present melting problem is characterized by a conduction <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer regime at early times followed by a transition to a natural convection dominated regime. During the later stages of the natural convection regime, the cylinder wall temperatures reach a steady state condition. The steady state regime was defined to exist once the measured <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient had attained values within five percent of the final value. The correlations for the nonsubcooling tests are in good agreement with others corresponding to natural convection in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> spaces. The correlations for the subcooling tests are not in good agreement indicating the presence of other participating transfer processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kemink, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6781299"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equipment for the emplacement of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes. [Horizontal vs <span class="hlt">vertical</span> emplacement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emplacement of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20000032790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieved <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Using TRMM Rainfall Products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper represents the first attempt to use TRMM rainfall information to estimate the four dimensional latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> structure over the global tropics for February 1998. The mean latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles over six oceanic regions (TOGA COARE IFA, Centra...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. K. Tao S. Lang W. S. Olson R. Meneghini S. Yang J. Simpson C. Kummerow E. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26651957"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer to boiling liquids in a single <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube thermosiphon reboiler</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental investigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to boiling liquids has been carried out on a single tube natural circulation reboiler. Experiments were performed with distilled water, methanol, benzene, toluene, and ethylene glycol to cover a wide range of boiling points and thermophysical properties. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer section consisted of an electrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> stainless steel tube 25.56 mm I.D. and 1900</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. S. Alam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaporation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and friction characteristics of R-134a flowing downward in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> corrugated tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differently from most previous studies, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and friction characteristics of the pure refrigerant HFC-134a during evaporation inside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> corrugated tube are experimentally investigated. The double tube test sections are 0.5 m long with refrigerant flowing in the inner tube and <span class="hlt">heating</span> water flowing in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and two corrugated tubes, which are constructed from smooth copper tube of 8.7 mm inner diameter. The test runs are performed at evaporating temperatures of 10, 15, and 20 C, <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes of 20, 25, and 30 kW/m{sup 2}, and mass fluxes of 200, 300, and 400 kg/m{sup 2} s. The quality of the refrigerant in the test section is calculated using the temperature and pressure obtained from the experiment. The pressure drop across the test section is measured directly by a differential pressure transducer. The effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, mass flux, and evaporation temperature on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and two-phase friction factor are also discussed. It is found that the percentage increases of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and the two-phase friction factor of the corrugated tubes compared with those of the smooth tube are approximately 0-10% and 70-140%, respectively. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aroonrat, Kanit; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24181851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of air-<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupling</span> using seismo-acoustic cross-spectral analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Air-ground and ground-air coupling are key processes in the rapidly developing field of seismo-acoustics and are particularly relevant in volcano geophysics. Volcanic eruptions often simultaneously generate sustained seismic and infrasonic signals, e.g., by fluid flow simultaneously occurring in the subsurface and atmosphere. Building upon recent work by Ichihara etal. (2012), we show that cross correlation, coherence, and cross-phase spectra between waveforms from nearly collocated seismic and infrasonic sensors provide new information about air-ground and ground-air coupling. Combining this method with infrasound array processing can provide insight into the geophysical processes generating a range of seismo-acoustic signals. For example, we show that seismic tremor recorded during an eruption at Mount St. Helens is dominated by air-<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupled</span> infrasound between 5 and 15 Hz. We anticipate that cross-spectral analysis and similar techniques will have wide applicability to arbitrary seismo-acoustic sources and in exploiting the growing volume of seismo-acoustic data. Ichihara et al. (2012), "Monitoring volcanic activity using correlation patterns between infrasound and ground motion," Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L04304, doi:10.1029/2011GL050542. PMID:24181851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matoza, Robin S; Fee, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd1006/2009JD012907/2009JD012907.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate to the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the aerosol <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution on the solar radiation profiles for idealized and measured profiles of extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP) is investigated using the rapid radiative transfer model shortwave code. Calculated profiles of downwelling and upwelling solar flux density during the AIOP are compared with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong Guan; Beat Schmid; Anthony Bucholtz; Robert Bergstrom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21223040"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forced convective flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of upward cocurrent air-water slug flow in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plain and swirl tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performances. Empirical <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT........29K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer in free convection and forced, laminar flow in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes, considering temperature dependent medium characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and average <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients in the laminar flow in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes, which are significantly better than in the case of horizontal flow, were calculated. The numerical calculation was performed for a <span class="hlt">heated</span> upward flow and a cooled downward flow. Navier-Stokes equations, energy equation, continuity equation, medium characteristics functions and the simplified equation system with boundary conditions are deduced. The similarity theory was applied to obtain the required set of characteristic values. The numerical method and the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg time integration are outlined. The correlations of the analytical boundary solutions concord with other analytical solutions and with experimental data. The systematic, but acceptable errors are partly due to insufficient discretization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kessler, Hans-Jochen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rain.atmos.colostate.edu/research/pubs/tao2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieved <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Using TRMM Rainfall Products for February 1998</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper represents the first attempt to use Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> structure over the global Tropics for one month (February 1998). The mean latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles over six oceanic regions [Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) Intensive Flux Array (IFA), central Pacific, South Pacific Convergence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W.-K. Tao; S. Lang; W. S. Olson; R. Meneghini; S. Yang; J. Simpson; C. Kummerow; E. Smith; J. Halverson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51691546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulent combined forced and free convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube flow of supercritical fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical analysis of combined forced and free convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for turbulent flow is presented, with emphasis given to supercritical fluids. Free convection and other effects caused by the large property variations associated with <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to supercritical fluids are accounted for in this surface renewal based formulation. Based on this analysis, the buoyancy force has been found to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. R. Kakarala; L. C. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3071414"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of a closed loop <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps (GSHPs), also known as geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps, are a promising new technology that has been used for the last three years in the Turkish market. The main objective of the present study, which was performed for the first time in Turkey at the university level, is to investigate the performance characteristics of a GSHP system with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arif Hepbasli; Ozay Akdemir; Ebru Hancioglu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...492...63E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple states, stability and bifurcations of natural convection in a rectangular cavity with partially <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiplicity, stability and bifurcations of low-Prandtl-number steady natural convection in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity with partially and symmetrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls are studied numerically. The problem represents a simple model of a set-up in which the height of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> element is less than the height of the molten zone. The calculations are carried out by the global spectral Galerkin method. Linear stability analysis with respect to two-dimensional perturbations, a weakly nonlinear approximation of slightly supercritical states and the arclength path-continuation technique are implemented. The symmetry-breaking and Hopf bifurcations of the flow are studied for aspect ratio (height/length) varying from 1 to 6. It is found that, with increasing Grashof number, the flow undergoes a series of turning-point bifurcations. Folding of the solution branches leads to a multiplicity of steady (and, possibly, oscillatory) states that sometimes reaches more than a dozen distinct steady solutions. The stability of each branch is studied separately. Stability and bifurcation diagrams, patterns of steady and oscillatory flows, and patterns of the most dangerous perturbations are reported. Separated stable steady-state branches are found at certain values of the governing parameters. The appearance of the complicated multiplicity is explained by the development of the stably and unstably stratified regions, where the damping and the Rayleigh Bénard instability mechanisms compete with the primary buoyancy force localized near the <span class="hlt">heated</span> parts of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> boundaries. The study is carried out for a low-Prandtl-number fluid with Pr {=} 0.021. It is shown that the observed phenomena also occur at larger Prandtl numbers, which is illustrated for Pr {=} 10. Similar three-dimensional instabilities that occur in a cylinder with a partially <span class="hlt">heated</span> sidewall are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erenburg, V.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.; Kit, E.; Bar-Yoseph, P. Z.; Solan, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://olympic.atmos.colostate.edu/pdf/DeMott-TCVertStruct2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Structure of TOGA COARE Convection. Part II: Modulating Influences and Implications for Diabatic <span class="hlt">Heating</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temporal variability of western Pacific warm pool convection, especially its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure, is examined in this study. Distributions of convective echo top heights and 30-dBZ contour heights have been produced from shipboard radar data collected during Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Elevation and suppression of convective heights was primarily influenced by the phase of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charlotte A. DeMott; Steven A. Rutledge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26232467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation or absorption on thermophoretic free convection boundary layer from a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flat plate embedded in a porous medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is focused on the study of coupled <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer by boundary-layer free convection over a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoretic particle deposition and <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation or absorption effects. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using special transformations. The resulting similarity equations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali J. Chamkha; Ali F. Al-Mudhaf; Ioan Pop</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56467266"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Return Loop Flow Rate on Stratification in a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Hot Water Storage Tank Connected to a <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pump Water Heater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A temperature-controlled hot water <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was simulated using <span class="hlt">heating</span> in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Meyer; P. J. A. Raubenheimer; E. Krueger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PEPI..188....9K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal studies of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and palaeoclimatic implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed geothermal studies of deep drill holes provide insights to <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer processes in the crust, and allow separation of different factors involved, such as palaeoclimatic and structural conductive effects as well as advective fluid flow effects. We present high resolution geothermal results of the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole in eastern Finland drilled in 2004-2005 into a Palaeoproterozoic formation with metasedimentary rocks, ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks and pegmatitic granite. The down-hole temperatures have been logged five times after end of drilling and extend to day 948 after drilling. The hole is completely cored (79% core coverage) and thermal conductivity measurements were done at 1 m intervals. The geothermal results on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density yield an exceptionally detailed data set and indicate a significant <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variation in gradient and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flow density increases from about 28 - 32 mW m -2 in the uppermost 1000 m to 40-45 mW m -2 at depths exceeding 2000 m. The estimated undisturbed surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow value is 42 mW m -2. We present results on forward and inverse transient conductive models which suggest that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow can mostly be attributed to a palaeoclimatic effect due to ground surface temperature (GST) variations during the last 100,000 years. The modeling suggests that the average GST was about -3 to -4 °C during the Weichselian glaciation. Holocene GST values are within ±2° from the present average GST in Outokumpu (5 °C). The topographic hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity of crystalline rocks are low which suggests that advective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the formation is not significant. The slow replacement of fresh flushing water by saline formation fluids is observed in the hole, but it does not generate significant thermal disturbances in the logs. On the other hand, free sluggish thermal convection is present in the large diameter (22 cm) borehole, and temperature variations in the range of few mK to 0.01 K occur over times of minutes to tens of minutes. Theory suggests that convection cells are about as tall as the drill hole diameter, and thus the free convection is expected to generate only local thermal 'noise' not affecting the general geothermal results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Rath, Volker; Kivekäs, Liisa; Šafanda, Jan; ?ermak, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6942K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal Studies of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and palaeoclimatic implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed geothermal studies of deep drill holes provide insights to <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer processes in the crust, and allow separation of different factors involved, such as palaeoclimatic and structural conductive effects as well as advective fluid flow effects. We present high resolution geothermal results of the 2,516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole in eastern Finland drilled in 2004-2005 into a Palaeoproterozoic formation with metasedimentary rocks, ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks and pegmatitic granite. The down-hole temperatures have been logged five times after end of drilling and extend to day 948 after drilling. The hole is completely cored (79% core coverage) and thermal conductivity measurements were done at 1 m intervals. The geothermal results on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density yield an exceptionally detailed data set and indicate a significant <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variation in gradient and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flow density increases from about 28-32 mW m-2 in the uppermost 1000 m to 40-45 mW m-2 at depths exceeding 2000 m. The estimated undisturbed surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow value is 42 mWm-2. We present results on forward and inverse transient conductive models which suggest that the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow can mostly be attributed to a palaeoclimatic effect due to ground surface temperature (GST) variations during the last 100,000 years. The modelling suggests that the average GST was about -3…-4°C during the Weichselian glaciation. Holocene GST values are within ±2 degree from the present average GST in Outokumpu (5°C). The topographic hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity of crystalline rocks are low which suggests that advective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the formation is not significant. The slow replacement of fresh flushing water by saline formation fluids is observed in the hole, but it does not generate significant thermal disturbances in the logs. On the other hand, free sluggish thermal convection is present in the large diameter (22 cm) borehole, and temperature variations in the range of few mK to 0.01 K occur over times of minutes to tens of minutes. Theory suggests that convection cells are about as tall as the drill hole diameter, and thus the free convection is expected to generate only local thermal 'noise'not affecting the general geothermal results. Reference: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 188 (2011) 9-25 (doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.002)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kukkonen, I. T.; Rath, V.; Kivekäs, L.; Šafanda, J.; ?ermak, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H13F1054R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boundary Layer Flow and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer near <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Boreholes in Water-Saturated Rock: An Approach to the THMCB Experiment at DUSEL Homestake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some major goals of the DUSEL THMCB experiment are to: (a) understand advective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and reactive transport in natural fractured rock settings, (b) determine rate constants for mineral dissolution and precipitation as a function of temperature in fractured rock, (c) provide an environment with large thermal gradients to understand links between microbial activity, nutrient supply and temperature, (d), quantify how thermal stresses and mineral dissolution/precipitation affect permeability in naturally fractured rock. One approach to developing such an experiment is to drill a set of internally <span class="hlt">heated</span>, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> boreholes approximately 100 m deep in the proposed experimental site at the 4850 ft level, primarily in the Poorman Formation, and investigate the resulting convective flow near the borehole array. If the permeability is large enough circulation will occur in a thin boundary layer near the borehole walls. We assume the temperature at the borehole interface is 100°C and use steady-state boundary layer theory in homogeneous water-saturated rock to estimate the thickness, flow rate, and temperature distribution in the boundary layer as a function of permeability. The calculations show that the boundary layer approach is valid provided the rock permeability is ? 10-13m2; but for the experiment to reach steady state in ~ one year, the permeability should be ? 10-11m2. Preliminary mapping suggests that proposed site is highly fractured and may provide the required permeability. Stresses associated with drilling the boreholes, or thermal stresses generated during the initial <span class="hlt">heating</span> stages could also enhance the existing permeability near the boreholes. The thermal conduction time between the boreholes suggests that boreholes spaced ~ 10 m apart will approximate a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall in ~ one year after <span class="hlt">heating</span> begins. More detailed modeling analysis of these processes is needed to determine the ultimate viability of this approach to the THMCB experiment at DUSEL Homestake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rumiantsev, N.; Lowell, R. P.; Germanovich, L. N.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Uzunlar, N.; Elsworth, D.; Mailloux, B. J.; Maher, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9132447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence Models for Natural Convection Flows Along a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Plane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The state of development of turbulent models is reviewed which are currently used in the computation of turbulent free convection flows along <span class="hlt">heated</span> plane surfaces. Some experimental results recently obtained are also compared with corresponding computati...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. D. Papailiou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2005850142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixed Convection <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer Experiments in Smooth and Rough <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Tubes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mixed convection regime is a transitional <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer regime between forced convection and natural convection, where both the forced component of flow, and the buoyancy induced component are important. Aiding flow is when buoyancy forces act in the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Symolon W. Neuhaus R. Odell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60574765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Test Tube Material on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux in Short <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u = 4.0 to 13.3 m\\/s), the inlet subcooling (T{sub sub,in} = 48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P{sub in} = 735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing <span class="hlt">heat</span> input (Q exp(t\\/t), t = 10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koichi Hata; Masahiro Shiotsu; Nobuaki Noda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21072759"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Thermal Stratification of Coolant in a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a vessel type low power research reactor having <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fuel plates, while circulating pump is switched off, coolant (light water) would flow by natural convection. By using conservation equations, taking into account simplifying assumptions, coolant mass flow rate through the channel can be obtained. Due to the thermal stratification effect, coolant mass flow rate through the channel is shown to decrease. The present study shows that, assuming a linear thermal stratification, the variations of coolant mass flow rate versus stratification parameter behave in a non-linear manner. The aforementioned variations decrease down to 41%. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abolghasem Zare Shahneh [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, End of North Karegar Av., Tehran 14155-1339 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60670743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and pressure drop tests with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow of water in a 20-rod bundle of 0. 695-inch diameter rods. [LWBR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Steady state and flow coastdown transient critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) tests and steady-state pressure drop tests were conducted with a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow of water in a 20-rod bundle with a 94-inch <span class="hlt">heated</span> length. Data were obtained at pressures of 1200, 1600, and 2000 psia and at average mass velocities from 0.1 x 10 to 2.0 x 10 lbm\\/hr-ft². The <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coeling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PApGe.138..115S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> motion and diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> over the Indian monsoon region during the Bay of Bengal depression of 5 8 July, 1979</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity, ?, and the diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> were computed at 800, 600, 400 and 200 mb surfaces using the Omega equation. The highest contribution to ? is from the diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> produced by condensation associated with the precipitations appearing to be the main source of diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The net radiative cooling and the thermal advection in the upper troposphere over the warm anticyclone result in diabatic cooling over the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal and adjoining northern and eastern regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, U. S.; Singh, R. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux performance for flow boiling of R-134a in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> smooth tube and rifled tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present paper, critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) experiments for flow boiling of R-134a were performed to investigate the CHF characteristics of four-head and six-head rifled tubes in comparison with a smooth tube. Both of rifled tubes having different head geometry have the maximum inner diameter of 17.04mm while the smooth tube has the average inner diameter of 17.04mm. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang Ho Kim; In Cheol Bang; Soon Heung Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/449569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of subcooled critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux correlations using the PU-BTPFL CHF database for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow of water in a uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> round tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple methodology for assessing the predictive ability of critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) correlations applicable to subcooled flow boiling in a uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube is developed. Popular correlations published in handbooks and review articles as well as the most recent correlations are analyzed with the PU-BTPFL CHF database, which contains 29,718 CHF data points. This database is the largest collection of CHF data (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow of water in a uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> round tube) ever cited in the world literature. The parametric ranges of the CHF database are diameters from 0.3 to 45 mm, length-to-diameter ratios from 2 to 2484, mass velocities from 0.01 {times} 10{sup 3} to 138 {times} 10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s, pressures from 1 to 223 bars, inlet subcoolings from 0 to 347 C, inlet qualities from {minus}2.63 to 0.00, outlet subcoolings from 0 to 305 C, outlet qualities from {minus}2.13 to 1.00, and CHFs from 0.05 {times} 10{sup 6} to 276 {times} 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2}. The database contains 4,357 data points having a subcooled outlet condition at CHF. A correlation published elsewhere is the most accurate in both low- and high-mass velocity regions, having been developed with a larger database than most correlations. In general, CHF correlations developed from data covering a limited range of flow conditions cannot be extended to other flow conditions without much uncertainty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, D.D.; Mudawar, I. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suppression of buoyancy-driven vortex flow resulting from a low speed jet impinging onto a <span class="hlt">heated</span> disk in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder by cylinder top tilting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Buoyancy-driven vortex flow resulting from a low speed round gas jet impinging <span class="hlt">vertically</span> downwards onto a <span class="hlt">heated</span> horizontal circular disk confined in an adiabatic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical chamber can be strong and even unstable as the buoyancy-to-inertia ratio exceeds certain critical level. An experiment combining flow visualization and temperature measurement is conducted in the present study to explore the suppression of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Hsieh; C. W. Cheng; T. F. Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24316244"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drying Corn Grains Contained in a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Channel with Constant <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux on Walls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previous report developed a numerical model to study the influence of thermal and mass Rayleigh numbers as well as Darcy and Lewis numbers on <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer during the drying by natural convection of coffee grains which are treated as a porous medium. The code uses the Darcy-Brinkman momentum equation and the classical natural convection equations. In this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Bathiebo; M. Daguenet; B. Zeghmati; M. Tolley; M. Fodé; A. Ouédraogo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREGCR2647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux Experiments Under Low Flow Conditions in a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Annulus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study was performed on critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Mishima M. Ishii</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26652482"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer measurements on ammonia forced convection boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper tackles a subject of present interest. It contributes to the promotion of small capacity refrigerating systems working with ammonia – an ecologically and highly efficient refrigerant – as an alternative to the traditional commercial refrigeration, <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps and air-conditioning systems working with CFC refrigerants.Since a literature survey showed that available theoretical methods have not been sufficiently experimentally validated,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calin Zamfirescu; Florea Chiriac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAME..18..329C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Chemical Reaction on MHD Flow Past an Impulsively Started Infinite <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Plate with Uniform <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Finite difference solutions of the unsteady MHD flow past an impulsively started infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with uniform <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass flux are presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by an efficient, more accurate, unconditionally stable and fast converging implicit scheme. The effects of velocity, temperature and concentration for different parameters such as chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number, Prandtl number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time are studied. It is observed that due to the presence of a first order chemical reaction, the velocity increases during the generative reaction and decreases in the destructive reaction. It is observed that the velocity decreases in the presence of the magnetic field, as compared to its absence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chandrakala, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997HMT....33..101H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-Darcy free convection in a thermally stratified porous medium along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with variable <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Free convection along an impermeable <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate embedded in a thermally stratified, fluid-saturated porous medium is analyzed. The wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is varied in a power-law form. The non-Darcian effects, such as solid-boundary viscous resistances, high-flow-rate inertia forces, near wall nonuniform porosity distribution and thermal dispersion, have been considered in the present study. Due to the variation of porosity in the near wall region, the stagnant thermal conductivity also varies accordingly. The nonsimilar system of transformed equations is solved with Keller's Box method. It is shown that the thermal stratification effect and the higher value of the exponent m can increase the local Nusselt number. Also the non-Darcian and thermal dispersion effects significantly influence the velocity and temperature profiles and local Nusselt number.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hung, C.-I.; Chen, C.-B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18887976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma <span class="hlt">heating</span> effects on divertor flow <span class="hlt">vertical</span> asymmetries in the Uragan-3M torsatron</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the l = 3\\/m = 9 Uragan-3M (U-3M) torsatron (R0 = 1 m, abar; ap 12 m, Bphgr = 0.7 T, igr(abar)\\/2pgr ap 0.4), an open helical divertor has been realized. Recently, under RF plasma production and <span class="hlt">heating</span> conditions, a strong up-down asymmetry of diverted plasma flow has been observed as a result of measurements of distributions of this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. V. Chechkin; L. I. Grigor'eva; E. L. Sorokovoy; M. S. Smirnova; A. S. Slavnyj; E. D. Volkov; N. I. Nazarov; S. A. Tsybenko; A. V. Lozin; A. P. Litvinov; V. G. Konovalov; V. N. Bondarenko; A. N. Shapoval; A. Ye. Kulaga; Yu. K. Mironov; T. Mizuuchi; S. Masuzaki; K. Yamazaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11012225"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite line-source model for borehole <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers: effect of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A solution to the three-dimensional finite line-source (FLS) model for borehole <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (BHEs) that takes into account the prevailing geothermal gradient and allows arbitrary ground surface temperature changes is presented. Analytical expressions for the average ground temperature are derived by integrating the exact solution over the line-source depth. A self-consistent procedure to evaluate the in situ thermal response test</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tatyana V. Bandos; Álvaro Montero; Esther Fernández; Juan Luis G. Santander; José María Isidro; Jezabel Pérez; Pedro J. Fernández de Córdoba; Javier F. Urchueguía</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HMT...tmp..158K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of dynamic structure and <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent (Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group k - in model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.122...31M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure from cloud and precipitation Profiles—Part I: Warm rain processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An exploratory study on physical based latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> (LH) retrieval algorithm is conducted by parameterizing the physical linkages of hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water. Specifically, rain events are segregated into three rain types: warm, convective, and stratiform, based on their dynamical and thermodynamical characteristics. As the first of the series, only the warm rain LH algorithm is presented and evaluated here. The major microphysical processes of condensation and evaporation for warm rain are parameterized through traditional rain growth theory, with the aid of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations. The evaluation or the self-consistency tests indicate that the physical based retrievals capture the fundamental LH processes associated with the warm rain life cycle. There is no significant systematic bias in terms of convection strength, illustrated by the month-long CRM simulation as the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) experience from initial, mature, to decay stages. The overall monthly-mean LH comparison showed that the total LH, as well as condensation <span class="hlt">heating</span> and evaporation cooling components, agree with the CRM simulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Min, Qilong; Li, Rui; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yunfei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..20...29Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Study on a Performance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system with a water-embedded-trpe ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure and compactness. However, the water-embedded-type ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the solidification rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in a previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we eexamined the performance of a faling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with pratical size, having <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger plates. The ice making performance coefficient, ?, increases with time, and it becomes am aximum value of 2.5, after that, it decreases gradually. In order to make ice efficiently, it is necessary to set a flow rate of refrigerant properly and to adjust a difference between the evaporating temperature of refrigerant and the freezing point of water so that the refrigerant evaporates in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger plates overall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshimura, Kenji; Sasaguchi, Kengo; Fukuda, Toshihito; Koyama, Shigeru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/215437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux of comparatively low-velocity upward-saturated two-phase flow in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantitative analysis of critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) in both <span class="hlt">vertical</span> circular tubes and rectangular channels under about 0.1 to 14 MPa was successfully carried out by application of the completely separated two-phase flow model to the comparatively low-velocity, upward-saturated two-phase flow, based on an existing model of vapor blanket over the thin liquid sublayer on the <span class="hlt">heated</span> walls at the CHF point, which was originally proposed by Haramura and Katto. Over 1,000 experimental CHF data were compared with analytical results and it was clarified that the analytical results gave good predictions of the existing experimental results of circular tubes of 3.0 to 7.8 mm in diameter and 0.15 to 0.6 m in length at 0 to 300 K and rectangular channels of 1.03 to 12.7 mm in channel gap and 0.15 to 0.94 m in channel length at 4 to 328 K of inlet subcooling. The differences in characteristics of CHF between circular tubes and rectangular channels in upward-saturated two-phase flow were also identified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6003253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study of unsteady flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical container</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different approximate methods have been used to calculate the temperature stratification in containers when <span class="hlt">heat</span> is applied externally. These methods are based on provisional separation of the total volume into different flow structure zones. The equations defining the problem are then simplified and solved separately in each region. To take the features of the flow field more completely into account, we consider the numerical solution of the unsteady equations of thermal convection in terms of the velocity, pressure, and temperature, where no a priori assumptions are made about the flow structure. We use the control volume method. The temperature and velocity fields are calculated for the case of turbulent convection without the use of additional empirical information and the results are valid for sufficiently large values of the time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bachev, N.L.; Kozlov, A.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/865726193g937493.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span>, torques and stabilities in forcing the radial-<span class="hlt">vertical</span> circulation within cyclones part ii: case study of extratropical and tropical cyclones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Utilizing Eliassen's concepts, the forcing of the isentropic azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial-<span class="hlt">vertical</span> circulation\\u000a by diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> and torques within an extratropical cyclone and a typhoon was studied through numerical simulations based\\u000a on the linear diagnostic equation derived previously. The structure of the forcing associated with diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> and torques\\u000a was determined from quasi-Lagrangian diagnostic analyses of actual case studies. The two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhuojian Yuan; Donald R. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26525404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improvement in the on\\/off ratio of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-type metal-base organic transistor by <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment in air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The on\\/off ratio of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-type metal-base organic transistor was significantly improved by subjecting it to <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment in air. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of the collector layer and the base electrode reduced the off current that is mainly due to leakage current between the base and the collector, resulting in a considerable decrease in the off current. As a result,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ken-ichi Nakayama; Shin-ya Fujimoto; Masaaki Yokoyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26233064"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of chemical reaction and <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation or absorption on double-diffusive convection from a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> truncated cone in porous media with variable viscosity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work is focused on the study of combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer on double-diffusive convection near a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> truncated cone in a fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation or absorption with variable viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be an inverse linear function of the temperature. A boundary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Mahdy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HMT....49..285A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe: an experimental and statistical study of the thermal performance in the presence of low-frequency vibrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New experimental results present the effects of low-frequency vibrations in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe. The thermal resistance was investigated under different <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rates, filling ratios and frequencies, increase of which improved the thermal performance. The vibrations were effective 33.83 % on the performance, and the best performance was estimated using the L16 array of Taguchi method, and it was achieved with the thermal resistance 0.064 K/W in the frequency 30 Hz.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alaei, Amir; Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Rahimi, Shahab Kashani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9289"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Correlation of Coupled <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Falling Film Absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller?s capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keyhani, M.; Miller, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in horizontal tube bundles in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> crossflow of R113</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) on a single tube in a horizontal bundle subject to an upward crossflow of R113 has been studied in three bundle geometries. Effects of local quality, mass flux, pressure, and bundle geometry on the CHF were investigated. The shapes of the CHF-quality curves display three distinct patterns, which progress from one to another as mass flux increases. At low mass fluxes, the CHF data monotonically decreased with increasing quality. At intermediate mass fluxes with increasing quality, the CHF data initially decreased to a relative minimum, then increased to a relative maximum, and finally began to decrease again as the higher qualities were reached. At high mass fluxes, as quality increased, the CHF rose gradually from the zero quality value to a maximum and then began to decrease. For all mass fluxes, the zero-quality CHF points clustered around an average value, which varied slightly with test section geometry. Mechanisms for the CHF condition are suggested.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leroux, K.M.; Jensen, M.K. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1547..390Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and two-phase frictional pressure drop characteristics of glycol-water solution in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous surface tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although much research has been conducted on investigating the flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of low saturation temperature refrigerants, there are few experimental data and theory about the flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of high saturation temperature organic mixture which exists widely in the petrochemical industry. To investigate the characteristics of flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of high saturation temperature organic mixture, experiments of glycol-water solution flow boiling in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous surface tube and a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> smooth tube are conducted. Test tubes are uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> by electrical current with a <span class="hlt">heated</span> length of 2,000 mm. The mass flux in the experiment ranges from 500 to 1,500t.h-1 and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux on test tubes ranges from 10 to 40 kW.m-2. The flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients and two-phase frictional pressure drops of the two types of tubes are obtained and compared. The results indicate that: the flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient in the porous surface tube is 3.8~5.7 times of that in smooth tube and the pressure drop of the porous surface tube is 0.99~1.007 times of that in the smooth tube. The physical mechanisms of the enhanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of flow boiling in the porous surface tube are analyzed. By the regression analysis of the experimental data, correlations predicting the flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and pressure drop of glycol-water solution within the error range of +/-20% are established. The experimental results can be used to guide the design of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange equipment using the porous surface tube as <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer elements under these test conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiao, Shouxu; Wang, Haijun; Gu, Hongfang; Luo, Yushan; Zhang, Lei; Xiong, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study of mixed convection around a sphere rotating about its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis in a Newtonian fluid at rest and subject to a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors study numerically the steady state laminar mixed convection around a sphere <span class="hlt">heated</span> by a nonuniform flux in a Newtonian fluid. The sphere rotates around its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis. The governing transfer equations in this three-dimensional problem are solved by using the method of Cebeci-Keller. Three types of convection are considered: pure rotation, pure natural convection, and mixed convection. The profiles of the coefficients of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and local friction, as well as the profiles of temperature, will be determined for various distributions of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux. In the case of a two-dimensional problem, the results agree with those in the literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatem, N.; Philippe, C.; Mbow, C.; Kabdi, Z.; Najoua, S.; Daguenet, M. [Univ. de Perpignan (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Energetique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6590861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of advanced-<span class="hlt">heat</span>-pump developments for space conditioning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A survey of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump projects with special emphasis on those supported by DOE, EPRI, and the Gas Research Institute is presented. Some historical notes on <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump development are discussed. Market and equipment trends, well water and <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps, <span class="hlt">heat</span>-actuated <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump development, and international interest in <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps are also discussed. 30 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fairchild, P.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMT....46..421K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Onset of unsteady axi-symmetric laminar natural convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure <span class="hlt">heated</span> at the wall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study laminar transition to oscillatory convection of fluids having different Prandtl numbers in a laterally <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical enclosure for different aspect ratios (melt height to crucible radius) of 2-4 is investigated numerically for 0.01 ? Pr ? 10. Numerical solution to two-dimensional axisymmetric transient Navier Stokes equations and energy equation were solved by finite volume method using SIMPLE algorithm. Numerical results illustrate that there exists a critical Rayleigh number for each Prandtl number beyond which sustained laminar oscillatory flow sets in. The oscillatory regime was characterised by the oscillation of the average kinetic energy and average thermal energy of the melt. For a given aspect ratio, critical Rayleigh number increases with Pr upto 1 and then flattens. It was observed that for low Prandtl number fluids, Pr < 1.0, critical Rayleigh number is found to increase with increase in aspect ratio while for high Prandtl number fluids, Pr ? 1.0, it is found to decrease with increase in aspect ratio. The influence of aspect ratio on the transient behaviour of the melt volume below and above the critical Rayleigh number was studied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Amitesh; Vegad, Mitesh; Roy, Subhransu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27128412"> <span id="translatedtitle">ITPE technique applications to time-varying three-dimensional <span class="hlt">ground-coupling</span> problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximate analytical solutions for the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between slab-on-grade floors and rectangular basements under steady-periodic conditions are developed using the Interzone Temperature Profile Estimation (ITPE) method. The slab-on-grade solution is the first analytical slab-on-grade solution is the first analytical solution of the time-dependent three-dimensional problem for basements. Solutions are given for the temperature field and expressions are derived for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Krarti; J. F. Kreider; D. E. Claridge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21116053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of CO{sub 2} at supercritical pressures in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mini tube at relatively low reynolds numbers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of CO{sub 2} at supercritical pressures in a 0.27 mm diameter <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mini tube was investigated experimentally and numerically for upward and downward flows at relatively low inlet Reynolds numbers (2900 and 1900). The effects of inlet temperature, pressure, mass flow rate, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, flow direction, buoyancy and flow acceleration on the convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer were investigated. For inlet Reynolds numbers less than 2.9 x 10{sup 3}, the local wall temperature varies non-linearly for both flow directions at high <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes (113 kW/m{sup 2}). For the mini tube used in the current study, the buoyancy effect is normally low even when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> is relatively strong, while the flow acceleration due to <span class="hlt">heating</span> can strongly influence the turbulence and reduce the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for high <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. For relatively low Reynolds numbers (Re{sub in} {<=} 2.9 x 10{sup 3}) and the low <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (30.0 kW/m{sup 2}) the predicted values using the LB low Reynolds number correspond well with the measured data. However, for the high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (113 kW/m{sup 2}), the predicted values do not correspond well with the measured data due to the influence of the flow acceleration on the turbulence. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Pei-Xue; Zhang, Yu.; Zhao, Chen-Ru; Shi, Run-Fu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..11...47O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer Mechanism of a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Wall Inside a Two-Phase Closed Thermosiphon Evaporator and Its Estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inside <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient, overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow rate at the <span class="hlt">heating</span> section of the thermosiphon were determined for each <span class="hlt">heating</span> method. In order to observe the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism in the evaporator, a thermosiphon unit made of glass was assembled and conducted separately. The results of these experiments with these two units are summarized as follows. (1) Nucleate boiling due to the internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism improves the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of the thermosiphon unit. Under the specific <span class="hlt">heating</span> conditions with dropwise condensation, there are two types of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism occur in the evaporator accompanying nucleate boiling, i. e. latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. (2) In the case of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, the inside <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient has an upper limit which can be used as a criterion to determine the type of internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O-Uchi, Masaki; Hirose, Koichi; Saito, Futami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HMT....49.1231C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of forced convection condensation of ethanol-water vapor mixtures on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mini-tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of ethanol-water vapor mixtures on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mini-<span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube with 1.221 mm outside diameter were investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed at different velocities and pressures over a wide range of ethanol mass fractions in vapor. The test results indicated that, with respect to the change of the vapor-to-surface temperature difference, the condensation curves of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients revealed nonlinear characteristics, and had peak values. At 2 % ethanol mass fraction in vapor, the condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient value of the ethanol-water vapor mixture was found to have a maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of 50 kW m-2 K-1, which was 3-4 times than that of pure steam. The condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients decreased with increased ethanol mass fraction in vapor. The vapor pressure and vapor velocity had a positive effect on the condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients of ethanol-water vapor mixtures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Xiping; Chong, Daotong; Wang, Jinshi; Huang, Ronghai; Yan, Junjie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.258...16J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ground-coupled</span> acoustic airwaves from Mount St. Helens provide constraints on the May 18, 1980 eruption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption perturbed the atmosphere and generated atmosphere-to-<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupled</span> airwaves, which were recorded on at least 35 seismometers operated by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN). From 102 distinct travel time picks we identify coherent airwaves crossing Washington State primarily to the north and east of the volcano. The travel time curves provide evidence for both stratospheric refractions (at 200 to 300 km from the volcano) as well as probable thermospheric refractions (at 100 to 350 km). The very few first-hand reports of audible volcano sounds within about 80 km of the volcano coincide with a general absence of <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> acoustic arrivals registered within about 100 km and are attributed to upward refraction of sound waves. From the coherent refracted airwave arrivals, we identify at least four distinct sources which we infer to originate 10 s, 114 s, ˜ 180 s and 319 s after the onset of an 8:32:11 PDT landslide. The first of these sources is attributed to resultant depressurization and explosion of the cryptodome. Most of the subsequent arrivals also appear to be coincident with a source located at or near the presumed volcanic conduit, but at least one of the later arrivals suggests an epicenter displaced about 9 km to the northwest of the vent. This dislocation is compatible with the direction of the sector collapse and lateral blast. We speculate that this concussion corresponds to a northern explosion event associated with hot cryptodome entering the Toutle River Valley.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Malone, Stephen D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20075640"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of return loop flow rate on stratification in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hot water storage tank connected to a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump water heater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A temperature-controlled hot water <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was simulated using <span class="hlt">heating</span> in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage tank. The return temperature is a function of the length of the loop, insulation, and ambient conditions. Temperatures were measured as a function of time at different <span class="hlt">vertical</span> locations on the centerline of the storage tank. The temperature distributions in the tank were compared for different return flow rates. A return flow rate of three tank volumes per day was identified as preferable, although good results were also obtained for less than three tank volumes per day.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, J.P.; Raubenheimer, P.J.A.; Krueger, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26342356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of flow obstacles on the critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube cooled with upward flow of R-134a</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a summary of a 4-year investigation into the effect of flow obstacles on critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF). The investigation was performed using a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> 6.92 mm tube, cooled with R-134a. The tests covered a pressure range from 0.96 to 2.39 MPa, a mass flux range from 500 to 3000 kgm?2s?1, and an outlet (critical) quality range from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. L. Pioro; D. C. Groeneveld; S. S. Doerffer; Y. Guo; S. C. Cheng; A. Vasi?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26964817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Various Computational Conditions of Oscillatory Natural Convection of Zero Prandtl Number Fluid in AN Open Boat <span class="hlt">Heated</span> and Cooled from Opposing <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Walls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The finite-difference computational scheme is developed for two-dimensional oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat <span class="hlt">heated</span> and cooled from opposing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls. Various computational conditions are tested, such as the initial condition, time step length, finite-difference width, and finite-difference scheme. Instantaneous contour maps and velocity vectors in oscillatory states are presented in a series of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazuto Okada; Hiroyuki Ozoe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTAM...42...53O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convection <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Transfer in a Power Law Fluid with Non Constant Relaxation Time Past a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Porous Plate in the Presence of Thermo and Thermal Diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper investigates convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer in power law fluid flow with non relaxation time past a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate in presence of a chemical reaction, <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation, thermo diffu- sion and thermal diffusion. The non - linear partial differential equations governing the flow are transformed into ordinary differential equations using the usual similarity method. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta shooting method. The results are presented as velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for pseudo plastic fluids and for different values of parameters governing the prob- lem. The skin friction, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and mass transfer rates are presented numerically in tabular form. The results show that these parameters have significant effects on the flow, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and mass transfer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olajuwon, B. I.; Oyelakin, I. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE92003259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Downflow <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a <span class="hlt">heated</span> ribbed <span class="hlt">vertical</span> annulus with a cosine power profile. Results from test series ECS-2c.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments designed to investigate downflow <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a <span class="hlt">heated</span>, ribbed annulus test section simulating one of the annular coolant channels of a Savannah River Plant production reactor Mark 22 fuel assembly have been conducted at the Idaho National...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Anderson K. G. Condie T. K. Larson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002CRMec.330..181D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convection naturelle transitoire le long d'une surface verticale soumise à une densité de flux périodiqueTransient free convection along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface subjected to a periodical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux density</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an investigation on laminar transient free convection along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface subjected to a periodical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux density. Numerical analysis show that <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is improved when the over-<span class="hlt">heating</span> period is inferior to the under-<span class="hlt">heating</span> one and if the flow has reached its new steady state. To cite this article: T. de Lorenzo, C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 181-184.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Lorenzo, Thierry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ru31k373048168r6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laminar free convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of a viscous incompressible <span class="hlt">heat</span> generating fluid-flow past a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate in the presence of free-stream oscillations. I</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The title problem has been analysed with a view to estimate the effect of the temperature dependent <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources (sinks) on the oscillatory flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. The governing equations have been reduced to two non-linear ordinary differential equations which have been solved approximately subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The flow- and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer characteristics have been found to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Vajravelu; K. S. Sastri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26597793"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer modeling in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes of the passive containment cooling system of the simplified boiling water reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long term containment cooling of GE's passive BWR design is based on a new safety system called PCCS (passive containment cooling system). Performance of this system relies on the pressure difference between the drywell and wetwell in case of an accident and on the condensation of steam moving downward inside <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes fully submerged in a water pool initially</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luis E. Herranz; José L. Muñoz-Cobo; G. Verdú</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5869733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Various computational conditions of oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat <span class="hlt">heated</span> and cooled from opposing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The finite-difference computational scheme is developed for two-dimensional oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat <span class="hlt">heated</span> and cooled from opposing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls. Various computational conditions are tested, such as the initial condition, time step length, finite-difference width, and finite-difference scheme. Instantaneous contour maps and velocity vectors in oscillatory states are presented in a series of maps to represent the fluctuating characteristics of two-dimensional roll cells. The physical conditions are for a boat with aspect ratio A = 3[minus]5 at Pr = 0 and Gr = 14,000-40,000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okada, Kazuto (Kyushu Univ., Kasuga (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science); Ozoe, Hiroyuki (Kyushu Univ., Kasuga (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Material Study)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HMT....47..813L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation and experimental analysis of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer through the neck tube into <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cryogenic insulated cylinders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neck tube is an important support structure in cryogenic insulated cylinders. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux from the outside environment through the neck tube into the cryogenic liquid occupies a great proportion of the total <span class="hlt">heat</span> leak and can be more than half of the total <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads. In this paper, conjugate convective-conductive <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model between wall and the cold vapor in conditions of natural discharge is numerically investigated. Also a liquid nitrogen boil-off method was adopted in experiments to validate the result of numerical simulation. Experimental results indicate more favorable agreement with conjugate <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer (CHT) model compared with simple solid <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction (SSHC) model by ANSYS software. And the convection between the wall and vapor is also calculated. The research and results can provide reference in design for neck tube of the cryogenic cylinder.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yang; Wang, Caili; Wang, Rongshun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55719383"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer, pressure drop and void fraction in two- phase, two-component flow in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are very few data existing in two-phase, two- component flow where <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, pressure drop and void fraction have all been measured under the same conditions. Such data are very valuable for two-phase <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer model development and for testing existing <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer models or correlations requiring frictional pressure drop (or wall shear stress) and\\/or void fraction. An experiment was performed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manit Sujumnong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/energy_studies/content/docs/FINAL_PAPERS/4A-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Ground Loop <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. BACKGROUND The ability to predict the short-term behavior of ground loop <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump (GSHP) systems. Thermal load profiles vary significantly from building to building - GLHE designs can be dominated by long-term <span class="hlt">heat</span> build-up or short-term peak loads. In some extreme cases, where the GLHE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaowei Xu; Jeffrey D. Spitler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1547..442Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental studies on the enhanced flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop of organic fluid with high saturation temperature in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous coated tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characteristics of flow boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop of organic fluid with high saturation temperature in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous coated tube are experimentally studied in this paper. The experiments are performed at evaporation pressure of 0.16-0.31MPa, mass flux of 390-790kg/m2s, and vapor quality of 0.06-0.58. The variations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and pressure drop with vapor quality are measured and compared to the results of smooth tube. Boiling curves are generated at mass flux of 482 and 675kg/m2s. The experimental results indicate that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients of the porous tube are 1.8-3.5 times those of smooth tube, and that the frictional pressure drops of the porous tube are 1.1-2.9 times those of smooth tube. The correlations for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop are derived, in which the effect of fluid molecular weight is included. The experiments show that significant <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer enhancement is accompanied by a little pressure drop penalty, the application of the porous coated tube is promising in the process industries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEPT...86..431R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass transfer effects on the unsteady mhd radiative- convective flow of a micropolar fluid past a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate with variable <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass fluxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of unsteady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible micropolar fluid past a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation with variable <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass fluxes is considered. The free stream velocity is subjected to exponentially increasing or decreasing small perturbations. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to a porous surface where a micropolar fluid is absorbed with a suction velocity varying with time. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the limit of optically thick fluids. The effects of the flow parameters and thermophysical properties on the velocity and temperature fields across the boundary layer are investigated. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, microrotation velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are given graphically, and the values of the skin friction and couple stress coefficients are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, M. Gnaneswara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48274635"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer enhancement through liquid film evaporation into countercurrent moist air flow in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal process from hot channel plate through liquid film evaporation into a countercurrent air flow. The influences of the wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, the inlet Reynolds number of liquid film and the inlet Reynolds number of moist air on the transfer characteristics are investigated detailedly. The Results show that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. L. Tsay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26600677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes of subcooled water flow boiling in a short <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube at high liquid Reynolds number</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steady state critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes (CHFs) and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of the subcooled water flow boiling for the flow velocities (u=17.2–42.4m\\/s), the inlet subcoolings (?Tsub,in=80.9–147.6K), the inlet pressures (Pin=812.1–1181.5kPa) and the exponentially increasing <span class="hlt">heat</span> input (Q0exp(t\\/?), ?=8.5s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a new multi-stage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koichi Hata; Suguru Masuzaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21137946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure flowing <span class="hlt">vertically</span> upward in tubes and an annular channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Super-Critical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) has been chosen by the Generation IV International Forum as one of the candidates for the next generation nuclear reactors. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer to water from a fuel assembly may deteriorate at certain supercritical pressure flow conditions and its estimation at degraded conditions as well as in normal conditions is very important to the design of a safe and reliable reactor core. Extensive experiments on a <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> upward flowing CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure in tubes and an annular channel have been performed. The geometries of the test sections include tubes of an internal diameter (ID) of 4.4 and 9.0 mm and an annular channel (8 x 10 mm). The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient (HTC) and Nusselt numbers were derived from the inner wall temperature converted by using the outer wall temperature measured by adhesive K-type thermocouples and a direct (tube) or indirect (annular channel) electric <span class="hlt">heating</span> power. From the test results, a correlation, which covers both a deteriorated and a normal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer regime, was developed. The developed correlation takes different forms in each interval divided by the value of parameter Bu. The parameter Bu (referred to as Bu hereafter), a function of the Grashof number, the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number, was introduced since it is known to be a controlling factor for the occurrence of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer deterioration due to a buoyancy effect. The developed correlation predicted the HTCs for water and HCFC-22 fairly well. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511465S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of hyperbolic signatures from small discontinuities using an UWB <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> radar: FDTD simulations and field experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a well-known non-destructive technique based on electromagnetic wave propagation that is able to detect by reflection or scattering of waves dielectric discontinuities in the underground. Our application is mainly concerned with civil engineering to perform supervision, inventory, and soil characterization. Because the air-coupled radar suffers from a significant reflection at the ground interface that reduces energy transfer of electromagnetic radiation in the sub-surface and penetration depth, we have developed an ultra-wide band (UWB) <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> radar made of a pair of partially shielded compact planar bowtie slot antennas. As the antenna dimension (36*23 cm2) is close to the A4 sheet size, the maturity of the microstrip technology has allowed to design a particular geometry on the FR4 substrate (h=1.5 mm) which is able to operate at frequencies from 460 MHz to beyond 4 GHz in air. Contrary to a commercial GPR where details on antenna design are not available, it appears here possible to know and control the radiation characteristics and develop full-wave FDTD modeling that can represent field experiments for comparisons and analyses. The objective of this work is to improve, by means of a parametric study, the knowledge of physical phenomena involved in dielectric polarization when waves interact with buried discontinuities and particularly cracks, pipes, delaminations that can be distinguished by their shape, size, dielectric contrast with the surrounding medium, orientation relative to the electric field… Thus, we have first characterized by FDTD modeling and field measurements in a wet sand the radar link in two perpendicular polarizations (parallel and mirror) in the presence of a common soil (epsilon'=5.5, sigma=0.01 S/m) considering variable offsets. Afterwards, we have studied and analyzed the hyperbola signatures generated by the presence of buried canonical objects (pipes, strips) with several dielectric properties (dielectric and conductive) in a wet sand with a small lateral dimension (less than 20 mm) in both polarizations. Comparisons with FDTD simulations including the detailed structure of the antennas appear promising as they have allowed to interpret the measurements and take advantage of signal polarization to extract information associated with the discontinuities. After cluster removal using classical data processing (SVD, median value substraction…), the analytical model based on the ray theory and including the antenna size has allowed to first analyze the hyperbola responses. This study is supposed to prepare the development of data processing associated with B-scans to extract quantitative information from the electromagnetic probing of the subsurface in a very large frequency band.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sagnard, Florence; Tebchrany, Elias; Baltazart, Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forced and mixed convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">vertically</span> flowing in a uniformly-<span class="hlt">heated</span> circular tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experiment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to CO{sub 2}, which flows upward and downward in a circular tube with an inner diameter of 6.32 mm, was carried out with mass flux of 285-1200 kg/m{sup 2} s and <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux of 30-170 kW/m{sup 2} at pressures of 7.75 and 8.12 MPa, respectively. The corresponding Reynolds number at the tube test section inlet ranges from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 3.8 x 10{sup 5}. The tube inner diameter corresponds to the equivalent hydraulic diameter of the fuel assembly sub-channel, which is being studied at KAERI. Among the tested correlations, the Bishop correlation predicted the experimental data most accurately, but only 66.9% of normal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer data were predicted within {+-}30% error range. The Watts and Chou correlation, which is claimed to be valid for both the normal and deteriorated <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer regime, showed unsatisfactory performance. A significant decrease in Nusselt number was observed in the range of 10{sup -6}<Gr{sub b}/Re{sub b}{sup 2.7}<2 x 10{sup -5} before entering a serious <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer deterioration regime. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer deteriorated when the value of the buoyancy parameter Gr{sub b}/Re{sub b}{sup 2.7} exceeded 2.0 x 10{sup -5} close to the Jackson and Hall's criterion. As soon as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer deteriorated, it entered a new regime and did not return to a normal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer regime, although the value of buoyancy parameter Gr{sub b}/Re{sub b}{sup 2.7} reduced below the deterioration criterion 2.0 x 10{sup -5}. It may justify the requirement of developing separate correlations for the normal and deterioration regimes, as proposed in this paper. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea); Kang, Deog-Ji [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., 216 Kori, Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan 619-711 (Korea)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343859"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and mass transfer for liquid film evaporation along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate covered with a thin porous layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this work is to evaluate the <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass enhancement of liquid film evaporation by covering a porous layer on the plate. Liquid and gas streams are approached by two coupled laminar boundary layers incorporated with non-Darcian modes. The numerical solution is obtained by utilizing a fully implicit finite difference method and examined in detail for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jin-Sheng Leu; Jiin-Yuh Jang; Yin Chou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60664915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of axially varying nonequilibrium in post-critical-<span class="hlt">heat</span>-flux boiling in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube. Volume 2. Appendix E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tabulated are 579 sets of data obtained from 118 experimental runs with quench fronts propagating slowly up into a tubular test sections. Data include wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, wall temperature, and nonequilibrium vapor temperature. Also given are data on mass flowrate, inlet quality, test section pressure, and void fraction. (LEW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Evans; S. W. Webb; J. C. Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26642222"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of <span class="hlt">heat</span> charge\\/discharge of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and magnesium chloride hexahydrate mixture to a single <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube for a latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors focused on a mixture of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate as a base material and magnesium chloride hexahydrate as an additive to store and utilize urban waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> from emerged co-generation systems, typically available at temperatures of 60–90 °C. The second paper revealed that this mixture has good thermal characteristics as a PCM for latent thermal energy storage. In this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K Nagano; K Ogawa; T Mochida; K Hayashi; H Ogoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27128805"> <span id="translatedtitle">New CHF correlation scheme proposed for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular channels <span class="hlt">heated</span> from both sides in nuclear research reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, an investigation was carried out to identify the important parameters affecting critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) in rectangular channels, focusing on the effects of flow direction, channel inlet subcooling from 1 to 213 K, the channel outlet condition extending from subcooling of 0-74 K to quality of 0-1.0, pressure of 0.1 to 4 MPa, water mass flux of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Sudo; M. Kaminaga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27806430"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple duopoly model is used to show the advantage to a manufacturer of se lling his product through an independent retailer (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> separatio n) rather than directly to consumers (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration). <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> separation is profitable insofar as it induces more friendly behavio r from the rival manufacturer. The authors consider the case where fr anchise fees can be used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giacomo Bonanno; John Vickers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26346334"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new model and analytical solutions for borehole and pile ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump (GCHP) systems have been identified as one of the best sustainable energy technologies for space <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling in buildings. While the foundation piles of buildings are used to partly take the place of boreholes in the ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger (GHE) in recent years, the classical approaches of the line <span class="hlt">heat</span> source model and the “hollow”</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi Man; Hongxing Yang; Nairen Diao; Junhong Liu; Zhaohong Fang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5898123"> <span id="translatedtitle">New CHF correlation scheme proposed for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular channels <span class="hlt">heated</span> from both sides in nuclear research reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, an investigation was carried out to identify the important parameters affecting critical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (CHF) in rectangular channels, focusing on the effects of flow direction, channel inlet subcooling from 1 to 213 K, the channel outlet condition extending from subcooling of 0-74 K to quality of 0-1.0, pressure of 0.1 to 4 MPa, water mass flux of [minus]25,800 to +6250 kg/m[sup 2]s, and channel configuration. In particular, the effect of the outlet subcooling in upflow and downflow on the CHF was quantitatively investigated. As a result of this study, a new CHF scheme covering downflow, countercurrent flow, and upflow was established in the rectangular channels within the ranges of parameters investigated in this study. 17 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sudo, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai (Japan)); Kaminaga, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.122...47L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure from cloud and precipitation profiles—Part II: Deep convective and stratiform rain processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An exploratory study on physical based latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> (LH) retrieval algorithm is conducted by parameterizing the physical linkages between observed cloud and precipitation profiles to the major processes of phase change of atmospheric water. Specifically, rain is segregated into three rain types: warm, convective, and stratiform rain, based on their dynamical and thermodynamical characteristics. As the second of series, both convective and stratiform rain LH algorithms are presented and evaluated here. For convective and stratiform rain, the major LH-related microphysical processes including condensation, deposition, evaporation, sublimation, and freezing-melting are parameterized with the aid of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations. The condensation and deposition processes are parameterized in terms of rain formation processes through the precipitation formation theory. LH associated with the freezing-melting process is relatively small and is assumed to be a fraction of total condensation and deposition LH. The evaporation and sublimation processes are parameterized for three unsaturated scenarios: rain out of the cloud body, clouds at cloud boundary and clouds and rain in downdraft region. The evaluation or self-consistency test indicates the retrievals capture the major features of LH profiles and reproduce the double peaks at right altitudes. The LH products are applicable at various stages of cloud system life cycle for high-resolution models, as well as for large-scale climate models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Rui; Min, Qilong; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yunfei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps. Progress report FY 1997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger loops in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> geothermal (<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupled</span>, ground source, GeoExchange) <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems. The grout provides a <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer medium between the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allan, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26286923"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of solar aided <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems with seasonal thermal energy storage in surface tanks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Annual periodic performance of a solar assisted <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump space <span class="hlt">heating</span> system with seasonal energy storage in a hemispherical surface tank is investigated using analytical and computational methods. The system investigated employs solar energy collection and dumping into a seasonal surface tank throughout the whole year with extraction of thermal energy from the tank for space <span class="hlt">heating</span> during the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Yumruta?; M. Ünsal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1557..594T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steady MHD free convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer flow about a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous surface with thermal diffusion and induced magnetic field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study the thermal diffusion effect on the steady laminar free convection flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of viscous incompressible MHD electrically conducting fluid above a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous surface is considered under the influence of an induced magnetic field. The governing non-dimensional equations relevant to the problem, containing the partial differential equations, are transformed by usual similarity transformations into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and will be solved analytically by using the perturbation technique. On introducing the non-dimensional concept and applying Boussinesq's approximation, the solutions for velocity field, temperature distribution and induced magnetic field to the second order approximations are obtained for large suction with different selected values of the established dimensionless parameters. The influences of these various establish parameters on the velocity and temperature fields and on the induced magnetic fields are exhibited under certain assumptions and are studied graphically in the present analysis. It is observed that the effects of thermal-diffusion and large suction have great importance on the velocity, temperature and induced magnetic fields and mass concentration for several fluids considered, so that their effects should be taken into account with other useful parameters associated. It is also found that the dimensionless Prandtl number, Grashof number, Modified Grashof number and magnetic parameter have an appreciable influence on the concerned independent variables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Touhid Hossain, M. M.; Afruz-Zaman, Md.; Rahman, Fouzia; Hossain, M. Arif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26590012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical analysis of thermal response tests with a groundwater flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Kelvin line-source equation, used to analyze thermal response tests, describes conductive <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a homogeneous medium with a constant temperature at infinite boundaries. The equation is based on assumptions that are valid for most <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump environments with the exception of geological settings where there is significant groundwater flow, heterogeneous distribution of subsurface properties, a high geothermal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Raymond; R. Therrien; L. Gosselin; R. Lefebvre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15793463"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> mammaplasty.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current criticisms regarding <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mammaplasty include problems with poor immediate postoperative appearance, nipple-areola complex malposition, and excessive lower pole length. These problems can be avoided by proper patient selection, by utilizing correct concepts of skin design, and by observing correct glandular resection and closure concepts. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> mammaplasty also can result in other problems, such as hypertrophic circumareolar scars and lower pole deformities, including notching, boxy shape, infra-areolar depression, and flatness. These problems are also largely avoidable by using correct technique. Several basic concepts described previously have not proven necessary to achieve good results. Abandoning some of these principles has contributed to the ability to establish an aesthetically ideal breast shape intraoperatively as well as to a decrease in morbidity. This includes eliminating liposuction as a major integral component of the procedure, eliminating suturing the gland to the pectoralis muscle, not undermining the lower pole skin, and avoiding overly wide skin resection and tight wound closure that produces significant lower pole distortion in the early postoperative period. An important concept that has proven reliable is to use a "closed" design that does not predetermine the areolar opening whenever circumstances permit. When this is not possible, a modification that utilizes the smallest possible circumference as an open design is better than a large "mosque." These alternatives allow greater flexibility in determining final nipple position and also reduce the risk of hypertrophic circumareolar scars. Important glandular resection concepts include creating pillars that are attached to both the skin and the chest wall; making them of adequate dimension to avoid postoperative lower pole shape problems, such as flattening; resecting closer to the skin lateral to the pillars to avoid a boxy breast shape; and using a drain both to assist in accurately determining the endpoint of resection and to avoid postoperative seromas. Key closure concepts include approximation of the superior surfaces of the pillars at their base to maintain <span class="hlt">vertical</span> height and thereby prevent lower pole flattening; approximation of the inferior surfaces of the pillars to the base of the breast to prevent notching; and proper management of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> incision by restricting the purse-string suture effect to only the inferior portion of the incision, where there may be skin excess present. Inclusion of these concepts leads to predictable and improved aesthetic results in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mammaplasty. This allows full realization of the purported advantages of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mammaplasty and allows this method to be utilized with a level of confidence similar to that seen with inverted-T techniques. PMID:15793463</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hidalgo, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60162026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solid\\/liquid phase-change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer around two horizontal, <span class="hlt">vertically</span> spaced cylinders -- An experimental study on the effect of density inversion of water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solid\\/liquid phase-change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer around cylinders occurs in many systems including latent-<span class="hlt">heat</span> thermal-energy storage systems. In such systems, interactions of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer around the cylinders is often observed. Although several studies have reported on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer around a single cylinder and two or more cylinders, there have been no systematic studies to examine the effect of initial water</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kengo Sasaguchi; Koji Kusano; Hideaki Kitagawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41899006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free convection and mass transfer in the hydromagnetic oscillatory flow past an infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate with internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation due to radiation absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">the influence of radiation absorption on the flow-field of an unsteady laminar boundary layer due to free convection is considered. The flow is that of an incompressible viscous dissipative and electrically conducting fluid past an infinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> porous plate, when the flow is subjected to the action of a transverse magnetic field and the mainstream is oscillating around a mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Stogianidis; P. D. Georgiou; G. A. Georgantopoulos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26253206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Hall currents and chemical reaction on hydromagnetic flow of a stretching <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface with internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation\\/absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of steady, laminar, hydromagnetic, simultaneous <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer by laminar flow of a Newtonian, viscous, electrically conducting and <span class="hlt">heat</span> generating\\/absorbing fluid over a continuously stretching surface in the presence of the combined effect of Hall currents and mass diffusion of chemical species with first and higher order reactions is investigated. The fluid is permeated by a strong</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmed M. Salem; Mohamed Abd El-Aziz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE92019763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection between a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single <span class="hlt">heated</span>, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was v...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. M. McEligot J. E. O'Brien C. M. Stoots T. K. Larson W. A. Christenson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27127159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freezing in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fundamental <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer experiments were performed for freezing of an initially superheated or nonsuperheated liquid in a cooled <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube. Measurements were made which yielded information about the freezing front and the frozen mass, about the various energy components extracted from the tube, and about the decay of the initial liquid superheat. Four component energies were identified and evaluated from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. M. Sparrow; J. A. Broadbent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61195835"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF LOCAL BOILING ON <span class="hlt">HEAT</span> TRANSFER RATES INSIDE A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> ANNULUS WITH COOLANT MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS UNDER LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW CONDITIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design and optimum operation of cooling jackets for liquid-cooled ; aircraft engines and rocket motors require an understanding of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer ; characteristics of different types of coolant under various operating conditions. ; Because of the impracticability of obtaining fundamental <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer data by ; the use of actual full-scale engines, a bench-rig apparatus designed for the ; simulation of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26340652"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical analysis of solid-liquid phase change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer around a single and two horizontal, <span class="hlt">vertically</span> spaced cylinders in a rectangular cavity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, a new numerical model is proposed to analyze solid-liquid phase change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a complicated geometry. The present model can treat the solid\\/liquid phase change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer with\\/without porous media, as well as conventional transient natural convection with\\/without porous media. Solidification calculations of pure water (without porous media) around a single cylinder and two cylinders</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Viskanta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.........9K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon placed in porous media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary focus of this work is an assessment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon imbedded in porous media. The interest in this study is the improvement of underground thermal energy storage (UTES) system performance with an innovative <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupling</span> using an array of reversible (pump-assisted) thermosiphons for air conditioning or space cooling applications. The dominant mechanisms, including the potential for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer enhancement due to natural convection, of seasonal storage of "cold" in water-saturated porous media is evaluated experimentally and numerically. Winter and summer modes of operation are studied. A set of 6 experiments are reported that describe the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in both fine and coarse sand in a 0.32 cubic meter circular tank, saturated with water, under freezing (due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction) and thawing (due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> injection) conditions, driven by the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to or from the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> thermosiphon in the center of the tank. It was found that moderate to strong natural convection was induced at Rayleigh numbers of 30 or higher. Also, near water freezing temperatures (0°C-10°C), due to higher viscosity of water at lower temperatures, almost no natural convection was observed. A commercial <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer code, ANSYS FLUENT, was used to simulate both the <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling conditions, including liquid/solid phase change. The numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction from different permeability and temperature water-saturated porous media showed that enhancement to <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer by convection becomes significant only under conditions where the Rayleigh number is in the range of 100 or above. Those conditions would be found only for <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage applications with higher temperatures of water (thus, its lower viscosity) and large temperature gradients at the beginning of <span class="hlt">heat</span> injection (or removal) into (from) soil. For "cold" storage applications, the contribution of natural convection to <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in water-saturated soils would be negligible. Thus, the dominant <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism for air conditioning applications of UTES can be assumed to be conduction. An evaluation of the potential for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer enhancement in air-saturated media is also reported. It was found that natural convection in soils with high permeability and air saturations near 1 becomes more important as temperatures drop significantly below freezing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kekelia, Bidzina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18198525"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> distributions of uranium, thorium and potassium and of volumetric <span class="hlt">heat</span> production rates in the sediments of the São Francisco Basin, Central Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uranium, thorium and potassium measurements and volumetric <span class="hlt">heat</span> production rate calculations were made in Bambu?? Group Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks from the São Francisco Basin, central Brazil. The measurements were made from drilling cuttings from two deep wells drilled near the cities of Alvorada do Norte, northeast Goiás State, and Montalvânia, north of Minas Gerais State. The obtained results allowed the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernando Brenha Ribeiro; Arnaldo Roque</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21035889"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Launch Third Harmonic Electron Cyclotron Resonance <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of H-mode on TCV and Access to Quasi-Stationary ELM-free H-mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) is equipped with three 480 kW gyrotrons operating at 118 GHz. Radiation is launched in the extraordinary mode allowing plasma <span class="hlt">heating</span> using third harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">heating</span> (ECRH) at density up to 11x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Power is transmitted to the tokamak along 3 evacuated waveguides and is projected onto one plasma facing mirror that can be translated radially, between shots, and rotated poloidally during a shot. Linear ray-tracing is adequate tool for estimating the X3 coupled power in H-mode plasma and all estimates of X3 coupled power presented in this paper have been obtained using ray tracing. Experiments were performed to <span class="hlt">heat</span> H-mode using X3. The target was an ohmic H-mode. Up to 90% of the launched X3 power was coupled to the plasma so that the total <span class="hlt">heating</span> power (1.3 MW) was about much greater than the ohmic H-mode threshold power (500 kW). This level of coupled power was maintained even in the presence of significant perturbations to the plasma; ELMS. The radiated power was 300 kW during the X3 <span class="hlt">heated</span> phase. The X3 <span class="hlt">heated</span> H-mode discharges often transited into an ELM free H-mode regime with constant electron density and stored energy. During the X3 phase the stored energy and {beta}{sub tor} both doubled ({beta}{sub N} = 2). The maximum, achieved {beta}{sub tor} was 2.5% while the ideal {beta}-limit for these discharges was 3.5%. The recycling light level was high compared to the baseline ohmic H-mode level and the fluctuations in the recycling light level were correlated with core MHD. The confinement time for these discharges was found to be as high as 30 ms (HIPB(y,2) = 1.7). Measurements of carbon ion temperature profiles and carbon rotation velocity using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy showed that the ion temperature, near mid radius, increased from 500 eV to 1 keV during the quiescent phase. The plasma rotation increased also from 5 kms{sup -1} to 5 kms{sup -1} in the direction of plasma current.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porte, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL, Association EURATOM--Confederation Suisse, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60363863"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heating</span> fireplace and <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger for a <span class="hlt">heating</span> fireplace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The floor of the furnace space (fire chamber) of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> fireplace is constituted by a horizontal, flat part and the rear wall of the furnace space is constituted in part by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, flat part of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger serving for <span class="hlt">heating</span> water for a hot water heater. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> is transferred to the water on the sides of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. A. Burger; W. Gehrig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20997061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rewetting of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Hot Surface in a Centrally <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Annulus and a 6 x 6 Rod Bundle Geometry During Reflood Phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of bottom reflood tests were carried out to investigate thermal-hydraulic characteristics during the reflood phase. This paper includes descriptions of three related groups of reflood tests categorized by the geometry of a flow channel and an electric power shape of heater rods. A centrally-<span class="hlt">heated</span> annular geometry with an outer-visualizing tube was adopted for the first two groups of tests (group-A and -B), and a 6 x 6 rod bundle geometry for the other group of tests (group-C). The ranges of experimental parameters are 2{approx}8 cm/s of flooding velocity, 20{approx}80 deg. C of inlet subcooling temperature, and 500{approx}700 deg. C of initial wall temperature. In the single rod annular flow channel reflood test, quench front behavior can be easily observed through the visualizing window and a dominant flow regime near downstream of quench front is inverted annular film boiling regardless of the flooding velocity. For the case of the 6 x 6 rod bundle experiments, on the other hand, the dominant flow regime is dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB), and therefore the thermal hydraulic behavior becomes more complicated and chaotic due to the interaction between liquid phase such as droplet and liquid film and vapor phase generated from liquid-wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seok Cho; Sang-Ki Moon; Ki-Yong Choi; Se-Young Chun; Moon-Ki Chung; Won-Pil Baek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 7, Daedok Science Town, Daejun 302-353 (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v084/iB11/JB084iB11p06121/JB084iB11p06121.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convective Instabilities in <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Fractures and Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural convection of water contained in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fracture or fault in which the temperature increases with depth is strongly influenced by the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport processes not only within the water itself but also by the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transferred to and from the surrounding rock mass. The results of a linear stability analysis indicate that the critical Rayleigh number R* is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hugh D. Murphy; Geosciences Division</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51672664"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquid-metal buoyant convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder with a strong <span class="hlt">vertical</span> magnetic field and with a nonaxisymmetric temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper the buoyant convection of a liquid metal in a circular cylinder with a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis and with electrically insulating walls is treated. There is an externally applied, uniform, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> magnetic field. A nonaxisymmetric <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux at the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall of the cylinder produces a nonaxisymmetric temperature, which drives a nonaxisymmetric liquid motion. The magnetic field is sufficiently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nancy Ma; John S. Walker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAG....81..106D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field observations and numerical models of GPR response from <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pavement cracks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High resolution <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> GPR is useful for determining thickness, deterioration, jointing and cracks in pavements. Although only millimetres in width, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cracks can present a significant target in reflection profiles. On composite pavements, consisting of asphalt over concrete, we have observed responses at locations above joints in the underlying concrete that we attribute to cracks within the asphalt layer. On some asphalt pavement, we observed significantly stronger diffraction and waveguide effects responses at a 250 MHz centre frequency rather than at 1000 MHz, despite the small crack apertures. Using numerical modelling we show the importance of crack filling material, crack aperture, crack height, asphalt conductivity and the GPR centre frequency on the observed response. Our observations and models clearly show the potential of GPR to detect and characterise <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cracks. We recommend a multi-frequency approach to GPR surveys of pavement: high frequency for crack characterisation and lower frequency for crack detection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diamanti, Nectaria; Redman, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6890048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solr assisted <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump research and development program in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of the historical progress and current status of the solar assisted <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump research and development, supported by the United States Department of Energy, is presented. Much of this work has had as its focus the need for a better source of auxiliary or backup <span class="hlt">heat</span> than the electric resistance which has generally been assumed in computer simulations of these systems. The two leading candidates are the use of the ground as an alternate <span class="hlt">heat</span> source/sink or storage element (<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupling</span>) and the use of fossil fuel burned on site (the bivalent system). The United States program has emphasized <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">coupling</span>. Much of the analytical work and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump development is applicable to bivalent systems, and some results of this work are discussed. Project descriptions and technical accomplishments for the currently active projects are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, J W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADD019507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Array Beamformer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advanced <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array beamformer signal processor accomplishes acoustic beamforming of an underwater <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array used in shallow water utilizing matched beam processing to suppress generated noise and/or ship radiated noise thereby increasing the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. C. Yang J. A. Mobbs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer study of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage container with a phase change material. (Part 2. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer in the melting process in a cylindrical <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage container)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcium chloride hexahydrate as a latent-<span class="hlt">heat</span> storage material is placed in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage container, and a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> single pipe for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer purpose is also inserted in the container. In this setup, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rates during melting of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage material is largely influenced by natural convection at the melting liquid layer section. Also, regarding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michio Yanadori; Takashi Masuda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=compressor&id=EJ264868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Map Storage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the superiority of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> filing of maps in compressor-style <span class="hlt">vertical</span> units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perry, Joanne M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AmJPh..75.1009C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> bounce of two <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned balls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected <span class="hlt">vertically</span> at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cross, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484679"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span>, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process <span class="hlt">heat</span>, drying, district <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump technology and economics, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l6q7m6263013ux25.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interlayer cooling potential in <span class="hlt">vertically</span> integrated packages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">heat</span>-removal capability of area-interconnect-compatible interlayer cooling in <span class="hlt">vertically</span> integrated, high-performance\\u000a chip stacks was characterized with de-ionized water as coolant. Correlation-based predictions and computational fluid dynamic\\u000a modeling of cross-flow <span class="hlt">heat</span>-removal structures show that the coolant temperature increase due to sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> absorption\\u000a limits the cooling performance at hydraulic diameters ?200 ?m. An experimental investigation with uniform and double-side\\u000a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Brunschwiler; B. Michel; H. Rothuizen; U. Kloter; B. Wunderle; H. Oppermann; H. Reichl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26282844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimum design of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular fin arrays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this analysis has been the search for the optimal configuration for a finned plate (with rectangular and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fins) to be cooled in natural convection. Utilizing a simplified relation of the fins <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange some simple expressions for the determination of the optimum value of the fins spacing have been developed as a function of the parameters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea de Lieto Vollaro; Stefano Grignaffini; Franco Gugliermetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61348792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy conservation practices - <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube foam evaporation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube foam evaporation (VTFE) of aqueous liquids which reduces energy requirements by enhancing the evaporation coefficient, which permits the use of a lower temperature difference, to drive the evaporation process. The VTFE method relies on imposing a foamy mode of flow of the evaporating liquid over the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer surface or tube-side wall. This mode</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sephton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hunger enhances <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hunger was found to facilitate visually induced illusory upward and downward self-motions (<span class="hlt">vertical</span> vection), but not illusory self-motion in depth (vection in depth). We propose that the origin of this hunger effect lies in the possibility that <span class="hlt">vertical</span> self-motions (both real and illusory) are more likely to induce changes in visceral state. PMID:23362680</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji; Palmisano, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/IHpersonnel/feary/files/aa_paper99.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aiding <span class="hlt">vertical</span> guidance understanding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to evaluate training and displays for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> guidance system of a modern glass cockpit airliner. The experiment consisted of a complete flight performed in a fixed-base simulator with airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate a new flight mode annunciator display and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> navigation training. Results showed improved pilot performance with training and significant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Everett Palmer; Martin Alkin; Peter Polson; Daniel McCrobie; Lance Sherry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413437E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities associated with large scale dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apart from some exceptions (e.g. certain convection movements, small scale turbulence, or surface gravity wave), <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities in the ocean are generally too weak to be measured. In particular, that is the case of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> movements associated to the large scale (basin wide) dynamics. This prevents any accurate assessment of the thermohaline circulation return flow and the thermocline <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ventilation (mass, <span class="hlt">heat</span>, oxygen and carbon fluxes). A 24 year averaged global run is used to assess the domain of validity of the linear vorticity balance (LVB). In this data set <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities are mainly controlled by the large scale LVB dynamics at subtropical and tropical latitudes. Therefore it should be possible to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity field by integrating <span class="hlt">vertically</span> the LVB with an appropriate boundary condition. Various conditions have been tested and it turns out that the condition of no <span class="hlt">vertical</span> motion at 1000 m is the most promising for applying the same methodology to climatological observations ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Estrade, P.; Lazar, A.; Ndoye, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52047826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection between a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single <span class="hlt">heated</span>, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. M. McEligot; J. E. Obrien; C. M. Stoots; T. K. Larson; W. A. Christenson; D. C. Mecham; W. G. Lussie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60628153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of transport processes in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder epitaxy reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical method employing a marching integration, finite difference method is used to determine the momentum, temperature, and component molar concentration profiles in the tapered annulus of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder epitaxy reactor for silicon deposition from SiCl in H. Results of the study contribute to the understanding of momentum, <span class="hlt">heat</span>, and mass transfer in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder reactor. The numerical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. W. Manke; L. F. Donaghey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/VerticalLineTest/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Line Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test. If the points can't be made to pass the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA098150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Distribution of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Shear.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial variations in small scale <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear in the upper ocean are described, relationships between small scale <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear and density stratification are investigated, and the potential for predicting mean <span class="hlt">vertical</span> shear from measurements of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. L. Patterson F. C. Newman D. M. Rubenstein R. B. Lambert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD760172"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Multijunction Solar Cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical analysis of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> multijunction (VMJ) solar cell was performed which indicated that using silicon certain configurations could be fabricated to satisfy the program objectives. Results indicate that initial AMO efficiencies of 15% can ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. M. Stella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a theoretical model for predicting the thermal performance characteristics of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pin-fin array <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink under combined forced and natural convection with impinging flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study was carried out on the thermal performance of a pin-fin <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink. A theoretical model was formulated that has the capability of predicting the influence of various geometrical, thermal, and flow parameters on the effective thermal resistance of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink. An experimental technique was developed for measuring the thermal performance of the <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Kobus; T. Oshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3315S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> structuring of gigantic jets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gigantic Jets (GJs) are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud discharges whose upward-directed leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top and propagate up to the ionosphere. The speed at which leaders propagate is limited by the air <span class="hlt">heating</span> of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. In this letter, we discuss the dependence of the leader speed on current density in the leader stem, and we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that includes the effects of the expansion of the streamer zone adjacent to the leader head. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27128106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction electrohydrodynamic pump in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> configuration: Part 1 - Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An induction electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump in an axisymmetric, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> configuration is studied theoretically. The model includes the effect of entrance conditions, buoyancy effects, secondary flow, and Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Primarily the forward (cooled wall) and to a lesser extent the backward (<span class="hlt">heated</span> wall) modes are investigated. A finite difference technique is used to obtain the numerical solutions. A set of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Seyed-Yagoobi; J. C. Chato; J. M. Crowley; P. T. Krein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24476213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of transport processes in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder epitaxy reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Momentum, <span class="hlt">heat</span>, and mass transfer processes were studied in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder reactor for the epitaxial growth of Si from SiClâ in Hâ by chemical vapor deposition. An analytical solution to the problems of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer in a tapered annulus based on constant transport properties and fully developed laminar flow is presented. The mean gas-phase temperature and deposition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. W. Manke; L. F. Donaghey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5667213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> down-flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> down-flow. For three size uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); McAssey, E. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States)); Qureshi, Z. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10132990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> down-flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> down-flow. For three size uniformly <span class="hlt">heated</span> test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); McAssey, E. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States); Qureshi, Z. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA006245"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Bargraph Display.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The program involves the generation of an advance approach to electronic aircraft instrumentation. The display media is a twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TN LCD). The instrument was designed as a one-for-one replacement for the existing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Aftergut G. M. Gozeba C. R. Stein R. L. Skovholt W. W. Thurlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spaeth&pg=3&id=EJ215300"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Differentiation among Occupations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|It is reported that research on the socioeconomic achievement process has begun to generate anomalous findings, many of which involve occupational status as conventionally measured. The author proposes a theory of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> occupational differentiation based on the role activities of occupational incumbents. (Author/RLV)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spaeth, Joe L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48897723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determining long-term effective groundwater recharge by analyzing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> soil temperature profiles at meteorological stations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> water seepage in soils results in convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport that modifies the temperature profiles and their variations with time; consequently, there is a relationship between temperature profile variations with time and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Darcy velocity associated with the seepage. Considering the annual sinusoidal time variation of the temperature at the soil surface, it can be shown that convective <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruno Cheviron; Roger Guérin; Alain Tabbagh; Hocine Bendjoudi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26950032"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation into the Thermal Performance Characteristics of a Staggered <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Pin Fin Array <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Sink with Assisting Mixed Convection in External and InDuct Flow Configurations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical and experimental study was carried out on the thermal performance of a pin fin array <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink. A theoretical model was utilized based on the success of prior research that has the capability of predicting the influence of various geometrical, thermal, and flow parameters on the effective thermal resistance of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink. An experimental investigation was carried</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Kobus; T. Oshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60074306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissivity measurements in support of experiments on natural convection between a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental measurements of surface emissivities of three metallic samples have been obtained in support of an experiment aimed at determining natural convection and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder surrounded by an array of cooled <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes. In some cases, the <span class="hlt">heated</span> stainless steel cylinder was shrouded by a perforated aluminum outer cylinder. The surrounding cooled tubes were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3706P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities using in situ measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use a conceptional backward trajectory approach to reconstruct water vapor and ozone mixing ratios in various diabatic or kinematic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity scenarios to validate <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities in the upper TTL. Therefore, backward trajectories are initialized along the flight tracks of the tropical SCOUT-O3 campaign in Northern Australia/2005 and are calculated in either a diabatic or a kinematic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity scenario. Here, diabatic denotes a scenario with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate potential temperature and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cross-isentropic motion deduced from diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates (radiative or total). Kinematic denotes a scenario with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate pressure and pressure tendency as <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocity. First, we find a large sensitivity of certain transport characteristics, like timescales, dispersion and subsidence in the upper TTL, to the choice of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities. The kinematic trajectories show much higher dispersion and frequent regions of subsidence, compared to the diabatic trajectories. The different fractions of subsiding versus ascending trajectories above the maritime continent in the kinematic and diabatic scenario cause differences in the reconstructed water vapor and ozone mixing ratios. Finally, by comparing to high-resolution in situ measurements from SCOUT-O3 we validate the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> velocities, quantify their impact on tracer reconstructions and try to answer the question, whether a diabatic or a kinematic scenario represents the real atmosphere best.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ploeger, Felix; Konopka, Paul; Schiller, Cornelius; Günther, Gebhard; Grooss, Jens-Uwe; Müller, Rolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61395690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast reactor power plant design having <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer therebetween. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented, penetrating the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60022670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast reactor power plant design having <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer therebetween. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented, penetrating the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARL13007B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jamming in <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARW13012B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jamming in <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DPS....4541506S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vortex Formation in <span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Stratified Protoplanetary Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A central problem of planet formation is how to form large planetesimals in a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Recent work suggests that MRI turbulence would excite such large velocities that the planetesimals would collisionally fragment rather than grow. The structure of chondritic meteorites indicates a gentle nebular environment where chondrules are sorted by size and cemented together rapidly. Although it is well established that anticyclones can concentrate particles that are weakly coupled to the gas in protoplanetary disks, the conditions required for the formation and long-time stability of anticyclones in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> stratified disk are still highly uncertain. Fully three dimensional fluid dynamic simulations of protoplanetary disks are computationally expensive when one requires a computational domain that is large compared to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> scale height of the disk. An alternative simulation approach is to use potential temperature as the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate so that the equations of motion resemble the shallow water equations (Dowling et al. 1998). We have therefore modified a multilayer shallow water simulation code to model the formation of vortices in a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> stratified protoplanetary disk with a radial entropy gradient. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> stratification of the disk is modeled by using multiple layers, where each layer has a different constant value of the entropy. By forcing a slope in the interfaces between the layers, we impose a radial entropy gradient in the disk. Radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling causes <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mass exchange between adjacent constant entropy layers according to a Newton cooling formula. We find that the formation of anticyclones is robust, and that these vortices actively excite density waves, which in turn, transport angular momentum through the disk. Our simulations therefore yield new insights on how the dusty dead zones of protoplanetary disks can transport angular momentum through the disk by purely hydrodynamic processes. Support from NASA’s Origins of Solar Systems program is gratefully acknowledged.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, Glen R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60017210"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> axis wind turbine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine is provided based on the co-pending application ser. No. 890,998, filed Mar. 28, 1978, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,204,805. In this improved system the centrifugal forces of rotation produce no bending moments in the air foil spars. Also, the center of mass, the center of useful aerodynamic pressure and the center of main bearing supported</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60365365"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heating</span> apparatus having improved combustion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A wood-burning <span class="hlt">heating</span> apparatus, used as a parlor stove, and providing a significant <span class="hlt">heat</span> output is disclosed. The stove has primary and secondary combustion chambers and a baffling arrangement for directing flue gases along a circuitous path to the exit aperture whereby a significant proportion of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of said gases is given up to the apparatus. A <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Syme</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52542426"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer characteristics of two-phase thermosyphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe. I - Boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer correlation in <span class="hlt">heating</span> section</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A correlation for the boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient in the <span class="hlt">heating</span> section of a two-phase thermosyphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe is developed in comparison with experimental data. The experiments are conducted for a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented thermosyphon pipe using three kinds of working fluid, water, Feron R 113, and ethanol, at a wide pressure range of 0.1 to 20 bar and a fill</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fumito Kaminaga; Yoshizo Okamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6841126"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> moored platform anchoring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An improved system is disclosed for anchoring a floating vessel which is anchored only by parallel and essentially <span class="hlt">vertical</span> conduits. The anchoring load is carried by units of concentric pipes including an outer riser pipe and inner strings of casing. Drilling wells and/or production of oil and gas or like operations are conducted through these casings. The tension of the inner casing string is transmitted to the floating vessel through the upper end of the outer riser pipe. The system prevents excessive buildup of stresses in the upper end of the inner casing due to the bending caused by excursions caused by the waves, the wind and the current.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blenkarn, K.A.; Beynet, P.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8797162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Torsional nystagmus during <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined three patients with cavernous angioma within the middle cerebellar peduncle. Each patient had an unusual ocular motor finding: the appearance of a strong torsional nystagmus during <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit. The uncalled-for torsion changed direction when <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit changed direction. In one patient, we recorded eye movements with the magnetic field technique using a combined direction and torsion eye coil. The slow-phase velocity of the inappropriate torsional nystagmus was linearly related to the slow-phase velocity of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> smooth pursuit, and changed direction when <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit changed direction. This torsional nystagmus also appeared during fixation suppression of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), but was minimal during <span class="hlt">vertical</span> head rotation when fixing a stationary target in the light. We suggest that inappropriately directed eye movements during pursuit might be another ocular motor sign of cerebellar dysfunction. Furthermore, we speculate that the signals used for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> smooth pursuit are, at some stage, encoded in a semicircular canal VOR coordinate framework. To illustrate, for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> semicircular canals, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> and torsional motion are combined on the same cells, with the anterior semicircular canals mediating upward movements and the posterior semicircular canals mediating downward movements. For the right labyrinth, however, both <span class="hlt">vertical</span> semicircular canals produce clockwise slow phases (ipsilateral eye intorts, contralateral eye extorts). The opposite is true for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> semicircular canals in the left labyrinth; counterclockwise slow phases are produced. Hence, to generate a pure <span class="hlt">vertical</span> VOR, the anterior or posterior semicircular canals on both sides of the head must be excited so that opposite-directed torsional components cancel. Thus, if pursuit were organized in a way similar to the VOR, pure <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit would require that oppositely-directed torsional components cancel in normals. If this did not happen, a residual torsional nystagmus could appear during attempted <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuit. PMID:8797162</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">FitzGibbon, E J; Calvert, P C; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T; Zee, D S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE92012321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissivity measurements in support of experiments on natural convection between a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder and a surrounding array.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental measurements of surface emissivities of three metallic samples have been obtained in support of an experiment aimed at determining natural convection and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder surrounded by an array of cooled vert...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. O'Brien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of picometer <span class="hlt">vertical</span> emittance with a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> undulator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> undulator, picometer <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel <span class="hlt">vertical</span> emittance diagnostic. PMID:23215388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wootton, K P; Boland, M J; Dowd, R; Tan, Y-R E; Cowie, B C C; Papaphilippou, Y; Taylor, G N; Rassool, R P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109s4801W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Picometer <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Emittance with a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Undulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> undulator, picometer <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel <span class="hlt">vertical</span> emittance diagnostic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Dowd, R.; Tan, Y.-R. E.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Taylor, G. N.; Rassool, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/twiki/pub/PolyPEDAL/PolypedalPublications/Autumn_JEB_06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of geckos running <span class="hlt">vertically</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geckos with adhesive toe pads rapidly climb even smooth <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surfaces. We challenged geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii) to climb up a smooth <span class="hlt">vertical</span> track that contained a force platform. Geckos climbed <span class="hlt">vertically</span> at up to 77·cm·s -1 with a stride frequency of 15·Hz using a trotting gait. During each step, whole body fore-aft, lateral and normal forces all decreased to zero</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Autumn; S. T. Hsieh; D. M. Dudek; J. Chen; C. Chitaphan; R. J. Full</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/672013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupled resonator <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13606083"> <span id="translatedtitle">30.VERTIGO AND <span class="hlt">VERTICALITY</span> IN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension is crucial to Super Monkey Ball on all levels1, and invites us to meditate on vertigo and <span class="hlt">verticality</span>, falling and failing in the construc- tion of space and game-play in this game and in comput- er-games as such. In Super Monkey Ball, the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension should be mastered (landing on tiny islands with the ball glider), avoided</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troels Degn Johansson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26344357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stabilities of combined radiation and Rayleigh–Bénard–Marangoni convection in an open <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies the combined radiation and natural convection in an open <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder. The cylinder is <span class="hlt">heated</span> through its sidewall at a constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and cooled at the top surface via radiation. The high order finite difference method is used to simulate the fluid flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer inside the cylinder and the internal radiation is solved using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Xu; X. Ai; B. Q. Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2685.photos.142474p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">4. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> turning lathe ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">4. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h4440726140826j5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A parametric model of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> eddy fluxes in the atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scheme for the representation of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> eddy fluxes of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, momentum and water vapour in a forecast model is presented. An important feature of the scheme is the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the static stability of the atmosphere. Two tests are presented, using the scheme in a one-dimensional model: the simulation of the diurnal cycle, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jean-François Louis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26699429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection in a long <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder under gravity modulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of convection in differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> cylinders under gravity modulation is examined, with special consideration given to the case of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinder of infinite length, when a negative temperature gradient is maintained in the upward direction. The effect of modulation on the stability limits given by linear theory in the standard steady case is analyzed. A method based</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Wadih; B. Roux</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/VerticalLineTest/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functions and <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Line Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is designed to introduce students to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24828357"> <span id="translatedtitle">The anterior <span class="hlt">vertical</span> SMAS lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With minimal skin and SMAS undermining, as well as a rotation point that is closest to the nasolabial folds and jowls, the “anterior <span class="hlt">vertical</span> SMAS lift” reduces the risk of hematoma while optimizing direct pull on those surface features that require improvement. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rotation enhances the malar region and decreases preauricular skin excision. Further, the author has found this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert W. Bernard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/474107"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mining using diffsets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mining algorithms have been proposed recently for association mining, which have shown to be very effective and usually outperform horizontal approaches. The main advantage of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> format is support for fast frequency counting via intersection operations on transaction ids (tids) and automatic pruning of irrelevant data. The main problem with these approaches is when intermediate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Karam Gouda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23155739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emotional sounds influence <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While viewing a large <span class="hlt">vertically</span> moving sinusoidal luminance grating, the perception of upward self-motion (vection) was modulated by positive sounds (e.g., a baby's laughter). This may be because positive emotion and the spatial metaphor of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> directions were unified in the mind. PMID:23155739</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sasaki, Kyoshiro; Seno, Takeharu; Yamada, Yuki; Miura, Kayo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48895940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing in a shallow lake with submersed macrophytes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> turbulent diffusion and stratification in a shallow lake with submersed macrophytes is formulated on the basis of a one-dimensional equation for production, transport, and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, coupled with a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer equation. Numerical solutions of the coupled equations allow simulation of the hourly variation of water temperature profiles in a shallow lake</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William R. Herb; Heinz G. Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=COM7100125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rotating Deep Annulus Convection. Part 2. Wave Instabilities, <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Stratification, and Associated Theories.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The baroclinic instability theories which are relevant to the differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span>, rotating annulus are reviewed and recalculated in a way which brings out the importance of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stratification of the fluid. Experimental measurements of the wave...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. C. Kaiser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56112750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polar <span class="hlt">heating</span> in Saturn's thermosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general <span class="hlt">heat</span> source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. G. A. Smith; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller; I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6156837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modular tube bundle <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An improved ground source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system is described, comprising: an in-ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and a building <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger coupled via conduits for refrigerant to at least one compressor and at least one expander, the compressor having at least one intake line and at least one discharge line, the compressor and the expander being coupled to the conduits such that the refrigerant is circulated in the conduits through pressure changes and corresponding temperature changes in the refrigerant, the in-ground <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger comprising at least one modular tube bundle comprising a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented subterranean tubes, buried in a substantially planar <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array for installation along substantially <span class="hlt">vertical</span> walls of at least one that is backfilled for setting the array in thermal engagement with the earth, said at least one bundle having a top and bottom displaced <span class="hlt">vertically</span> from one another, and the refrigerant being subjected to phase change in the conduits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galiyano, M.J.; Wiggs, B.R.; Aspacher, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.2419O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of water evaporation inside <span class="hlt">vertical</span> circular tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper the results of simplified numerical analysis of water evaporation in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> circular tubes are presented. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in fluid domain (water or wet steam) and solid domain (tube wall) is analyzed. For the fluid domain the temperature field is calculated solving energy equation using the Control Volume Method and for the solid domain using the Finite Element Method. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between fluid and solid domains is conjugated using the value of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient from evaporating liquid to the tube wall. It is determined using the analytical Steiner-Taborek correlation. The pressure changes in fluid are computed using Friedel model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oc?o?, Pawe?; Nowak, Marzena; Majewski, Karol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-pipe Earth.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..907W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insights into the importance of cloud <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure in climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-year surface and satellite observations of cloud amounts have been combined to estimate the full three-dimensional structure of clouds for a three-layer atmosphere. This analysis provides new insight into the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of clouds and the interactions with atmospheric radiation. For instance, a simple <span class="hlt">vertical</span> overlap parameter has been derived which is very consistent with general climatology. In addition radiative transfer model calculations show that both the mean net <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates within the atmosphere and the perturbations of cloud radiative forcing at the top are very sensitive to variations in the overlap parameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weare, Bryan C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> axis wind turbine airfoil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be <span class="hlt">vertically</span> disposed and can rotate about a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8032425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mated <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Ground Vibration Test.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mated <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the pred...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Ivey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47858671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal Inequity and <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Redistribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/960312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground-source <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a <span class="hlt">ground-coupling</span> system, a conventional water-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source during winter operation and a <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling costs are important. Ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump applications. Ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump technology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ArTh...34....3K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of two-phase flow patterns and local void fraction in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> rectangular minichannel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technology advancements entail a necessity to remove huge amounts of <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by today's electronic devices based on highly integrated circuits, major generators of <span class="hlt">heat</span>. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer to boiling liquid flowing through narrow minichannels is a modern solution to the problem of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer enhancement. The study was conducted for FC-72 boiling in a rectangular, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> and asymmetrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> minichannel that had depths of 0.5-1.5 mm, a width of 20 mm and a length of 360 mm. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux increased and decreased within the range of 58.3-132.0 kWm-2, the absolute pressure ranged from 0.116 to 0.184 MPa and the mass flux was 185-1139.2 kgm-2s-1. The boiling process took place on a flat <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> surface made of Haynes-230 0.1 mm thick acid-proof rolled plate with the surface roughness of 121 ?m.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaniowski, Robert; Poniewski, Mieczys?aw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESD.....3...19P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> and horizontal processes in the global atmosphere and the maximum entropy production conjecture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this paper is to reconsider the Maximum Entropy Production conjecture (MEP) in the context of a very simple two-dimensional zonal-<span class="hlt">vertical</span> climate model able to represent the total material entropy production due at the same time to both horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. MEP is applied first to a simple four-box model of climate which accounts for both horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> material <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. It is shown that, under condition of fixed insolation, a MEP solution is found with reasonably realistic temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, thus generalising results from independent two-box horizontal or <span class="hlt">vertical</span> models. It is also shown that the meridional and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> entropy production terms are independently involved in the maximisation and thus MEP can be applied to each subsystem with fixed boundary conditions. We then extend the four-box model by increasing its resolution, and compare it with GCM output. A MEP solution is found which is fairly realistic as far as the horizontal large scale organisation of the climate is concerned whereas the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure looks to be unrealistic and presents seriously unstable features. This study suggest that the thermal meridional structure of the atmosphere is predicted fairly well by MEP once the insolation is given but the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of the atmosphere cannot be predicted satisfactorily by MEP unless constraints are imposed to represent the determination of longwave absorption by water vapour and clouds as a function of the state of the climate. Furthermore an order-of-magnitude estimate of contributions to the material entropy production due to horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> processes within the climate system is provided by using two different methods. In both cases we found that approximately 40 mW m-2 K-1 of material entropy production is due to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport and 5-7 mW m-2 K-1 to horizontal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pascale, S.; Gregory, J. M.; Ambaum, M. H. P.; Tailleux, R.; Lucarini, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAME..18..899S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Vibrations on the Onset of Binary Convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present work the linear stability analysis of double diffusive convection in a binary fluid layer is performed. The major intention of this study is to investigate the influence of time-periodic <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vibrations on the onset threshold. A regular perturbation method is used to compute the critical Rayleigh number and wave number. A closed form expression for the shift in the critical Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of frequency of modulation, the solute Rayleigh number, Lewis number, and Prandtl number. These parameters are found to have a significant influence on the onset criterion; therefore the effective control of convection is achieved by proper tuning of these parameters. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> vibrations are found to enhance the stability of a binary fluid layer <span class="hlt">heated</span> and salted from below. The results of this study are useful in the areas of crystal growth in micro-gravity conditions and also in material processing industries where <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vibrations are involved</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swamy, M. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6701354"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Slot Convection: A linear study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and [alpha] are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr [approximately] 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> equation are of roughly the same size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAllister, A. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Steinolfson, R. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Tajima, T. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10132760"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Slot Convection: A linear study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and {alpha} are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr {approximately} 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> equation are of roughly the same size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAllister, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Steinolfson, R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009A%26A...505.1269T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> structure of debris discs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context: The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> thickness of debris discs is often used as a measure of these systems' dynamical excitation, and as clues to the presence of hidden massive perturbers such as planetary embryos. However, this argument might be flawed because the observed dust should be naturally placed on inclined orbits by the combined effect of radiation pressure and mutual collisions. Aims: We critically reinvestigate this issue and numerically estimate the “natural” <span class="hlt">vertical</span> thickness of a collisionally evolving disc, in the absence of any additional perturbing body. Methods: We use a deterministic collisional code, to follow the dynamical evolution of a population of indestructible test grains suffering mutual inelastic impacts. Grain differential sizes as well as the effect of radiation pressure are taken into account. Results: We find that, under the coupled effect of radiation pressure and collisions, grains naturally acquire inclinations of a few degrees. The disc is stratified with respect to grain sizes, the smallest grains having the largest <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dispersion and the largest being clustered closer to the midplane. Conclusions: Debris discs should have a minimum “natural” observed aspect ratio hmin ~ 0.04±0.02 from visible to mid-IR wavelengths, where the flux is dominated by the smallest bound grains. These values are comparable to the estimated thicknesses of several <span class="hlt">vertically</span> resolved debris discs, as illustrated by the specific example of AU Mic. For all systems with h ~ hmin, the presence (or absence) of embedded perturbing bodies cannot be inferred from the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dispersion of the disc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thébault, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> structure of recent Arctic warming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003QJRMS.129.3305V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adjustment to <span class="hlt">heating</span>, potential vorticity and cyclogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solutions of an isentropic coordinate model of the atmosphere, permitting acoustic waves and inertial gravity waves, demonstrate that a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> symmetric <span class="hlt">heat</span> source in the troposphere usually induces a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> asymmetric dipole anomaly in the potential vorticity (PV), with an intense, tall and thin positive (cyclonic) anomaly below a less intense, flat and broad negative (anticyclonic) anomaly. The emergence of this asymmetry is associated with the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> gradient of the PV,which is an important factor in the local PV budget, even when this gradient is zero initially. The degree of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> asymmetry of the response to <span class="hlt">heating</span> depends on the 'thickness' (in K) of the <span class="hlt">heated</span> layer relative to the total <span class="hlt">heat</span> added. The adjusted balanced state shows little sensitivity to the <span class="hlt">heating</span> intensity (i.e. the time-scale within which the <span class="hlt">heat</span> is added), in spite of the existence of large-amplitude waves when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> is applied very abruptly relative to the adiabatic adjustment time-scale. The surrounding (non-<span class="hlt">heated</span>) region shows little permanent change due to the process of adjustment as far as PV substance and mass is concerned, and only functions as a transmitter of acoustic waves and inertial gravity waves. The balanced state is sensitive to variations in the horizontal scale of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> source. The response to <span class="hlt">heating</span> within a PV stratified region (for example, in the region of the tropopause) is quite subtle. For example, it is shown that a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source in the tropopause region induces a predominantly anticyclonic wind anomaly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Delden, Aarnout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797119"> <span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The RHIC <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ac dipole and the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26693165"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF NATURAL CONVECTION ON STABILITY OF FLOW IN A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> PIPE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">If water is <span class="hlt">heated</span> or cooled while flowing through a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pipe with ; a laminar motion, the velocity profile will differ from the parabolic shape for ; isothermal flow due to density variations in the fluid. If a constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux ; is used at the wall and if the changes in temperature affect only the density ; appearing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George F. Scheele; Thomas J. Hanratty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://homepages.vub.ac.be/~batelaan/publications/Anibas2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient or steady-state? Using <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature profiles to quantify groundwater-surface water exchange</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> is recognized as a natural tracer to identify the exchange of water between the groundwater and surface water compartment. One-dimensional (1D) <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport models have the ability to obtain quantitative estimates of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fluxes through the sediment matrix. Input to these models can come from temperatures observed in the surface water and in the bed material of rivers and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christian Anibas; Jan H. Fleckenstein; Nina Volze; Kerst Buis; Ronny Verhoeven; Patrick Meire; Okke Batelaan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23164774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal transportation simulation of a susceptor structure with ring groove for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> MOCVD reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new susceptor structure with a ring groove on the conventional column-shaped graphite susceptor is proposed for the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> and induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> MOCVD reactor, aimed at dividing the inner <span class="hlt">heat</span> of susceptor into two parts, one of which accumulates on the upside and the other downside of the groove. The shape of the ring groove that changes the directions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. M. Li; Y. Hao; J. C. Zhang; L. A. Yang; S. R. Xu; Y. M. Chang; Z. W. Bi; X. W. Zhou; J. Y. Ni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24288525"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE ROLE OF NATURAL CONVECTION DURING MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION OF PCM IN A <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> CYLINDER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer during melting and solidfkation of n-eicosane and rt-hexadecane were performed in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders with two different lengths and diameters. Radial temperature distibutions were measured with lime at different heights in all the tests. To evaluate the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> charged and discharged from the cylinder at different heights, the data were recorded and processed directly usinj;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MOHAMMED FARID; YONGSIK KIM; TAKUYA HONDA; ATSUSHI KANZAWA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP41E..04V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are <span class="hlt">heat</span>, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the velocity and scalar fields, respectively. To study sediment transport, an additional step is needed. Idealized sediment grains are manufactured, again using fluoropolymers. This allows the sediment and fluid phase to be resolved simultaneously, and the velocities of each to be determined independently of the other. The use of fluoropolymers means that the laboratory imaging techniques do not suffer from blockage during laser light delivery or during image capture by digital cameras. Cameras are paired and run in stereoscopic mode to allow three-dimensional velocities to be determined. This is important given the 3D nature of flow through vegetation. Current results from ongoing laboratory, field, and modeling efforts will be discussed, as well as the upcoming steps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Variano, E. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26202758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugate <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in enclosures with openings for ventilation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conjugate <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer by natural convection and conduction in enclosures with openings has been studied by a numerical method. The enclosure contained a chimney consisting of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> solid wall, which was insulated on one side and a constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux applied on the other. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> boundaries with openings were isothermal and horizontal boundaries adiabatic. These problems are encountered in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Bilgen; T. Yamane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar Vcb <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar Vub <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar at BaBar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar Vub <span class="hlt">vertical</span> bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18833567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing natural convection with thermal creep in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> microchannel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal creep occurs in anisothermal gas microflow. It is highly desirable to understand the creep effect on the flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics for developing natural convective microflow. In this study, we investigate the steady developing natural convective flow in an open-ended <span class="hlt">vertical</span> parallel-plate microchannel with asymmetric wall temperature distributions. The boundary-layer equations subject to the boundary conditions with respect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cha'o-Kuang Chen; Huei Chu Weng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JCrGr..97..173C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of crystal growth in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Bridgman furnace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The method of global calculation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is applied to the numerical simulation of crystal growth in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> Bridgman furnace. Specific consideration is given to the Mellen electrodynamic gradient furnace, where a large number of <span class="hlt">heating</span> elements make it possible to generate arbitrary temperature fields within the load. By means of the global analysis, it is possible to obtain a full description of the temperature field in terms of a limited number of parameters. Also shown is the importance of a precise measurement of material parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crochet, M. J.; Dupret, F.; Ryckmans, Y.; Geyling, F. T.; Monberg, E. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/P/cd/d12a/d1231.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Integration: Networks, and Markets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The organization of supply relations varies across industries. This paper builds a theoretical framework to compare three alternative supply structures: <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration, networks, and markets. The analysis considers the relationship between uncertainty in demand for specific inputs, investment costs, and industrial structure. It shows that network structures are more likely when productive assets are expensive and firms experience large idiosyncratic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rachel E. Kranton; Deborah F. Minehart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60266369"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> tube liquid pollutant separators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A plurality of elongated hollow, circular, foraminous substantially <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tubes contiguously stacked transversely to the direction flowing liquid such as waste water containing foreign matter, I.E., settable solids and free oil, in a coalescer-separator apparatus provide a filter body providing for significant surface area contact by the liquid on both inside and outside surfaces of the tubes to entrap the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/881267"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> integration in group learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is mainly concerned with the teaching of Computer Science to first year (freshman) students. The method outlined is an attempt to change their generally 'convergent' attitudes into a more 'divergent' way of tackling problems. One of the most wasteful features of modern education is the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> separation of students, so that the collective wisdom acquired by one generation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. D. Parslow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6863803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> polarized glare.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reflected glare often interferes with vision. Since such glare is usually polarized it can be controlled with polarizers. The use of polarized filters to eliminate <span class="hlt">vertically</span> polarized glare from blackboards and glossy printed material is presented. Practical means for the construction of such filters are discussed. PMID:6863803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peli, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/972595"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Instability at IPNS RCS.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 <span class="hlt">vertical</span> beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our <span class="hlt">vertical</span> instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5463055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum well <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes an apparatus which comprises: quantum well laser <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity structure for lasing in a direction non-parallel to the major dimensions of a quantum well, such laser consisting essentially of an active element containing one or two quantum wells and a cavity dependent upon reflectance as between two distributed feedback mirrors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, R.F.; Jewell, J.L.; McCall, S.L. Jr.; Tai, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52713356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation on condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop of R134a in a plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of R134a in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger was investigated experimentally. The local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients are determined by means of the measured local wall temperatures. A differential energy balance model is developed for data evaluation. It is found that the correlation proposed by Shah using Psi and Z factors is suitable for condensation in plate <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z.-Y. Shi; J.-P. Chen; V. Grabenstein; S. Kabelac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic Fitting of Detached <span class="hlt">Vertices</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached <span class="hlt">vertices</span> of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached <span class="hlt">vertices</span> correctly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Mattione</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985960"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Integrated Circuits at Fermilab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The exploration of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JOM....53e..39B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Next generation <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electrode cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> electrode cell (VEC) for aluminum electrowinning is presented with reference to current research. Low-temperature electrolysis allows nonconsumable metal-alloy anodes to show ongoing promise in laboratory tests. The economic and environmental advantages of the VEC are surveyed. The unique challenges of bringing VEC technology into practice are discussed. The current status of laboratory research is summarized. New results presented show that commercial purity aluminum can be produced with promisingly high current efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Craig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bimanual-<span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Hand Movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make <span class="hlt">vertical</span> movements they have right–left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed <span class="hlt">vertically</span> in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together <span class="hlt">vertically</span> and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial “where” asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwon, Jay C.; Cohen, Matthew L.; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26341016"> <span id="translatedtitle">An experimental investigation of bubble growth and detachment in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow and downflow boiling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A visual study of vapor bubble growth and departure in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> upflow and downflow forced convection boiling is presented. A <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flow boiling facility was constructed with a transparent, electrically-<span class="hlt">heated</span> test section in which the ebullition process could be observed. High-speed digital images of flow boiling phenomena were obtained, which were used to measure bubble growth, departure diameters, and lift-off</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. E. Thorncroft; J. F. Klausner; R. Mei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB80155229"> <span id="translatedtitle">The TIROS-N Operational <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Sounder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">TIROS-N is the first of a new series of operational polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. Aboard each spacecraft is a third-generation complement of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> sounding instruments capable of providing complete global coverage of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature da...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. L. Smith H. M. Woolf C. M. Hayden D. W. Wark L. M. McMillin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcSci...5..351P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-integrated or <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-averaged ocean temperature?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed upper Ocean <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Content (OHC), the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> average of temperature. In the simplest version, dubbed T<span style="border-top:1px solid">100, the averaging is from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing by a category 3 hurricane. OHC and T<span style="border-top:1px solid">100 are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, ?75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ?50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean regions, ?26°C. OHC and T<span style="border-top:1px solid">100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T<span style="border-top:1px solid">100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative. In so far as the ocean thermal field alone is concerned, these warm, shallow continental shelves would appear to be as favorable for hurricane intensification as are warm, deep ocean regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcScD...6..909P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-integrated or <span class="hlt">vertically</span>-averaged ocean temperature?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Content (OHC), the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T<span style="border-top: 1px solid #000; color: #000;">100, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC?75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ?50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ?26°C. OHC and T<span style="border-top: 1px solid #000; color: #000;">100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T<span style="border-top: 1px solid #000; color: #000;">100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60569094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project Plan for <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Lift Machine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Lift Machine is a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellsworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55073826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modernizing <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Datums in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and maintains the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). Additionally, NGS has a definitive role in providing direct access to the NSRS. An important aspect of the NSRS is the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> datum, to which geodetic control of elevations is referred. The current official <span class="hlt">vertical</span> datum for the United States is the North American <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Datum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. B. Zilkoski; D. A. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DFD.MS001S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory scale simulation of spontaneous <span class="hlt">vertical</span> convective vortex generation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new mechanism of spontaneous <span class="hlt">vertical</span> vortex generation in stratified fluid is under consideration. This phenomenon was discovered in the framework of experimental attempt [1] to proof the hypothesis of universal character of bifurcation curve formulated in [2]. The experiment with slow cubic cell inclination from bottom <span class="hlt">heating</span> position was performed. The theoretically predicted curve form had been proved; but in the transition process from abnormal convection flow to normal one during bifurcation curve crossing the unexpected spontaneous <span class="hlt">vertical</span> convective vortex motion has been discovered. Possibility of spontaneous <span class="hlt">vertical</span> convective vortex generation application to atmospheric behavior explanation and to Earth's mantle one is discussed. New non-local hurricane generation mechanism and observed oceanic volcano archipelago's form explanation attempt are formulated and speculated. [1] AN Sharifulin, AN Poludnitsin, AS Kravchuk Laboratory Scale Simulation of Nonlocal Generation of a Tropical Cyclone. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 2008, V.107, No.6, p.1090. [2] AI Nikitin, AN Sharifulin, Concerning the bifurcations of steady-state thermal convection regimes in a closed cavity due to the Whitney folding-type singularity. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer -- Soviet Research, v.21, no.2, 1989, p.213.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharifulin, Albert; Poludnitsin, Anatoly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=865713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast reactor power plant design having <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer therebetween. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe, extended over most of the length of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer medium between the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe and U-tube walls, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer medium moving within the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe primarily transversely between these walls.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983htee.proc...13B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermosyphon boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from the channel walls. Experimental results for wall temperature as a function of axial location, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, and plate spacing are presented. The finding that the wall superheat at constant imposed <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux decreases as the channel is narrowed is explained with the aid of a boiling thermosiphon analysis which yields the mass flux through the channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bar-Cohen, A.; Schweitzer, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60535643"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heating</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for recovering waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> from <span class="hlt">heating</span> system exhaust gas is described. In a <span class="hlt">heating</span> system located in a furnace room and including a furnace and an air blower for delivering air to the furnace via an inlet stack and <span class="hlt">heating</span> pipes for the delivery of <span class="hlt">heated</span> air from the furnace to the areas to be <span class="hlt">heated</span>, the improvement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anable</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.xbzhu.cn/jlq/upfile/upattachment/2009-4/20094209535.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The choice of organizational form: <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> financial ownership versus other methods of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> integration is a fundamental corporate strategy of interest to the fields of strategic management and organizational economics. This paper synthesizes theoretical arguments and empirical findings from this literature to identify the underlying advantages and disadvantages of choosing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> financial ownership relative to <span class="hlt">vertical</span> contracts. It then suggests that in the absence of agency and transaction costs, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> financial ownership</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph T. Mahoney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984asme.meetR....C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> plate fin with conjugated forced convection-conduction turbulent flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical calculations of local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients are presented for steady turbulent forced convection flow over a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate fin. The local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient is solved with the convective boundary layer equations of fluid and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction equation of fin, simultaneously. The eddy-diffusivity formulas used by Cebeci and Smith (1974) are utilized to model the Reynolds stresses. An inplicit finite difference method is employed. The results of local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and local <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux are found to be irregular near the transition region. The overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rate, the local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient, the local <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and the fin temperature are presented for Pr=0.7 (air) and various values of Nc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, C.-K.; Cleaver, J. W.; Lien, F.-S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6162325"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> dynamics of marine risers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values under all operating modes including hangoff, by increasing compliance at the riser vessel interface. Finally, recommendations for the design of heave compensation equipment intended to limit the dynamic force amplitude on riser-load systems hanging in deeper waters and harsher environments are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apiazu, W.R.; Nguyen, V.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystalline beams: The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> zigzag</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6269034"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heating</span> of postflare loops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">heating</span> of postflare loops by slow MHD shocks is considered. Although such loops were once thought to represent the dying remnant of a two-ribbon flare, it is now realized that they are the main part of such an event and begin very early on. It is shown that, if the local temperature of a loop, its local angle of inclination to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, and ambient coronal conditions are known from observations, then simple analytical formulae give the rise speed of the shocks and the magnitude of the evaporative flow incident upon them. The formulae are applied as an example to the 1973 July 29 and 1980 May 21 two-ribbon flares, and reasonable agreement with rise-speed observations is found. It is therefore claimed that shock <span class="hlt">heating</span> is a viable method for <span class="hlt">heating</span> postflare loops for the long times observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cargill, P.J.; Priest, E.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/100700"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Commonwealth Building: Groundbreaking history with a groundwater <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1946, following a wartime moratorium on the construction of commercial buildings, a savings and loan in Portland, Oregon, was granted the first permit to build a new commercial office building. The Equitable Building -- known today as the Commonwealth Building -- was subsequently designed and constructed, incorporating many other ``firsts`` in the architectural, mechanical, and electrical design of commercial buildings. For example, the groundwater <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump plant, designed by J. Donald Kroeker, has become known as the first major commercial installation of a central <span class="hlt">ground-coupled</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump in the US. In addition to being the first large commercial groundwater source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump installation, the Commonwealth Building was the first building designed in an architectural style that was to become the standard for many decades. The architect, Pietro Belluschi, was a nationally recognized Portland architect. The building has become something of a legend in its use of innovative building systems technology. Throughout the intervening years, the Commonwealth Building has received credit as: (1) The first building to use a central <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system, coupled to the earth, in the form of well water, for both <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling. (2) The first building in the United States to be constructed with fixed double-paned glazing. (3) The first building to recover <span class="hlt">heat</span> from toilet exhaust for use in pre-<span class="hlt">heating</span> fresh air. (4) The first building to use an exterior building system composed of aluminum sheathing. (5) The first building to make significant use of cold cathode fluorescent lighting for flexibility in tenant space layout. Within the building engineering community, the central, well-coupled <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system in the Commonwealth Building has received the greatest acclaim. The building was recognized by the ASME as a National Historical Mechanical Engineering Landmark in 1980. The central <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump plant has many unique features and an intriguing operational history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatten, M.J.; Morrison, W.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51127238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon nano partitions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We fabricated carbon nano-partitions (CNPs) which <span class="hlt">vertically</span> standing on the metal substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for dissipating <span class="hlt">heat</span> applications. Considerable enhancement of the conductive <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer has been confirmed and the enhancement depends on the spacing density of nano partitions. The optimum nano-porous density could enhanced the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer when the lower density CNP was made. In our experiments,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leon C. J. Kuo; Jeff T. H. Tsai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60382734"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-transfer characteristics of two-phase thermosiphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe. Part 1: Boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer correlation in <span class="hlt">heating</span> section</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A correlation for the boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer coefficient in the <span class="hlt">heating</span> section of a two-phase thermosiphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe is developed in comparison with experimental data. The experiments were conducted for a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> oriented thermosiphon pipe using three kinds of working fluid, water, Freon R-113, and ethanol, over a wide pressure range of 0.1 to 20 bar and a fill charge rate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fumito Kaminaga; Yoshizo Okamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55268294"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermosyphon boiling in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Bar-Cohen; H. Schweitzer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21030260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental natural convection on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different <span class="hlt">heating</span> modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> PV modules. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the <span class="hlt">heated</span> section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different <span class="hlt">heating</span> configurations are analyzed, including the uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and <span class="hlt">heating</span> configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fossa, M. [Diptem, Universita di Genova, Via Opera Pia 15a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL UMR 5008, CNRS-INSA Lyon - Universite Lyon 1), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Leonardi, E. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA262667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interactions between Short-Term <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Phoria Adaptation and Nonconjugate Adaptation of <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Pursuits. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have demonstrated that short-term <span class="hlt">vertical</span> position-specific phoria adaptation contributes to nonconjugate adaptation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> pursuits, but not to nonconjugate adaptation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> saccades. Binocular adaptation to multiple stationary <span class="hlt">vertical</span> di...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. M. Schor G. Gleason R. Lunn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9718439G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sampling errors in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fluxes of potential temperature and moisture measured by aircraft during FIFE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was carried out over a 15 × 15 km area in central Kansas [Sellers et al., this issue]. The site size was constrained by land use characteristics, topography, and, importantly, the ability to field a reasonable network of surface observations of plant physiology, soil moisture, and radiative characteristics as well as surface observations of meteorological observations, including <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fluxes of sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> and moisture. As described by Kelly [this issue], aircraft flying within the atmospheric boundary layer over the FIFE site played an important role: they provided direct measurements of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> fluxes of sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> and moisture above the FIFE site. Potential temperature flux and sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux differ by the constant ?dcp, where ?d is the dry air density (which is nearly constant in the atmospheric boundary layer) and cp is the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of dry air at constant pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grossman, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HMT....44..607L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on the condensation of ethanol-water mixtures on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of the ethanol-water mixtures on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> tube over a wide range of ethanol concentrations was investigated. The condensation curves of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients revealed nonlinear characteristics and had peak values, with respect to the change of the vapor-to-surface temperature difference. This characteristic applies to all ethanol concentrations under all experimental conditions. With the decrease of the ethanol concentrations, the condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient increased notably, especially when the ethanol concentration was very low. The maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of the vapor mixtures increased to 9 times as compared with that of pure steam at ethanol vapor mass concentration of 1%. With the increase of the ethanol concentrations, the condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient decreased accordingly. When the ethanol concentration reached 50%, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient was smaller than that of the pure steam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yang; Yan, Junjie; Qiao, Lei; Hu, Shenhua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22292357"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension in removable complete dentures].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In removable complete dentures, the occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension is an important factor for patients' satisfaction with aesthetics. An excessively reduced occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension is especially likely to lead to complaints about aesthetics, whereas an increased occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension may lead to discomfort and a decision not to wear the complete dentures. There are various methods for determining the occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension in complete dentures, based on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension in the rest position of the mandible or on phonetics. However, none of the methods have proven to be clearly superior, in terms of reliability, than the others. The assessment of the occlusal <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dimension will become more reliable if several methods are used simultaneously. Moreover, knowledge of the characteristics of the ageing face is essential. PMID:22292357</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">den Haan, R; Witter, D J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1641808"> <span id="translatedtitle">Micromachined widely tunable <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser diodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wavelength tunable <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are potentially useful for future optical communications. Traditionally, the emission wavelength of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser was tuned by modulating the active region temperature. However, thermal tuning is slow, and the realized tuning range is quite limited. Micromachined tunable VCSELs (Mi-T-VCSELs) combine the traditional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser structure with a monolithically micromachined deformable membrane,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fredy Sugihwo; Michael C. Larson; James S. Harris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986nps..reptQ....P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer from an array of <span class="hlt">heated</span> cylindrical elements of an adiabatic channel wall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis describes an experimental study of the fluid dynamics and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of Laminar air flow across cylindrical elements mounted on one wall of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> adiabatic channel. Various combinations of approach velocity and channel widths were employed and the variations of the row by row <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients between elements of the array and the air stream were determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piatt, James D., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26642319"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exergoeconomic analysis of a solar assisted ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump greenhouse <span class="hlt">heating</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">EXCEM analysis may prove useful to investigators in engineering and other disciplines due to the methodology are being based on the quantities exergy, cost, energy and mass. The main objective of the present study is to investigate between capital costs and thermodynamic losses for devices in solar assisted ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump greenhouse <span class="hlt">heating</span> system (SAGSHPGHS) with a 50 m <span class="hlt">vertical</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onder Ozgener; Arif Hepbasli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2337/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground-water flow and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ground-water flow and effective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity of sediments was evaluated at three field sites by use of a model that numerically solves the partial differential equation governing simultaneous <span class="hlt">vertical</span> flow of fluid and <span class="hlt">heat</span> in the Earth. The field sites are located in Hardwick and New Braintree, Mass., and in Dover, N.J. In New England, stream temperature varies from about 0 to 25 ?C (degrees Celsius) during the year. This stream-temperature fluctuation causes ground-water temperatures beneath streams to fluctuate by more than 0.1 ?C during a year to a depth of about 35 ft (feet) in fine-grained sediments and to a depth of about 50 ft in coarse-grained sediments, if ground-water velocity is 0 ft/d (foot per day). Upward flow decreases the depth affected by stream-temperature fluctuation, and downward flow increases the depth. At the site in Hardwick, Mass., ground-water flow was upward at a rate of less than 0.01 ft/d. The maximum effective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site is 0.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the site in New Braintree, Mass., where ground water discharges naturally from the underlying aquifer to the Ware River, ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 ft/d upward. The effective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.4 to 17.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the Dover, N.J., site, where infiltration from the Rockaway River into the underlying sediments occurs because of pumping, were 1.5 ft/d downward. The effective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.2 to 2.5 ft/d. Independent estimates of velocity at two of the three sites are in general agreement with the velocities determined using temperature profiles. The estimates of velocities and conductivities derived from the temperature measurements generally fall within the ranges of expected rates of flow in, and conductivities of, the sediments encountered at the test sites. Application of the method at the three test sites demonstrates the feasibility of using the method to determine the rate of ground-water flow between a stream and underlying sediments and the effective <span class="hlt">vertical</span> hydraulic conductivity of the sediments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lapham, Wayne W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5899697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction electrohydrodynamic pump in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> configuration: Part 1 - Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An induction electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump in an axisymmetric, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> configuration is studied theoretically. The model includes the effect of entrance conditions, buoyancy effects, secondary flow, and Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Primarily the forward (cooled wall) and to a lesser extent the backward (<span class="hlt">heated</span> wall) modes are investigated. A finite difference technique is used to obtain the numerical solutions. A set of these solutions is presented to show the influence of the controlling factors of operating an induction EHD pump. The results indicate that the entrance temperature profile plays an important role in the operation of the pump because steeper profiles produce higher velocities. The pump must be operated at an optimum frequency, wavelength, and electric conductivity level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seyed-Yagoobi, J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Chato, J.C.; Crowley, J.M.; Krein, P.T. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HMT....48.1125S"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the modeling of aiding mixed convection in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims at showing that to prescribe a flow rate at the inlet section of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel with <span class="hlt">heated</span> walls leads to surprising and counterintuitive physical solutions, especially when the problem is modeled as elliptical. Such an approach can give rise to the onset of recirculation cells in the entry region while the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is slightly increased under the influence of the buoyancy force. We suggest an alternative model based on more realistic boundary conditions based on a prescribed total pressure at the inlet and a fixed pressure at the outlet sections. In this case, the pressure and buoyancy forces act effectively in the same direction and, the concept of buoyancy aiding convection makes sense. The numerical results emphasize the large differences between solutions based on prescribed inlet velocity and those obtained with the present pressure-based boundary conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Hua; Li, Ru; Chénier, Eric; Lauriat, Guy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9119606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> Moving Visual Stimuli and <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Vection: A Tool Against Space Motion Sickness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> vection is a motion illusion that can be elicited by <span class="hlt">vertical</span> optokinetic stimulation with gaze fixation. Overruling the otolithic and all other sensory canals visual information leads to the perception of lift or pitch vection in a stationary su...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Mueller G. Wiest L. Deecke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26343036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steady natural convection in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical envelope with adiabatic lateral wall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The natural convection <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical envelope with constant but different temperatures of the two end surfaces and an adiabatic lateral wall was numerically investigated. Apart from some other applications, it serves as a simplified model of the pulse tube of a pulse tube refrigerator. The simulation was conducted for two end wall temperature</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. L He; W. Q Tao; Z. G Qu; Z. Q Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26340882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and numerical study on natural convection from <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates with horizontal rectangular grooves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural convection from two-dimensional <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plates with horizontal rectangular grooves was studied experimentally and numerically. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in the experiment and the local Nusselt numbers at each groove surface (outer, bottom, inner, and top surfaces) were measured quantitatively from the interferograms. In some cases (grooves of some aspect ratios with low Rayleigh number), the total <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. E. Kwak; T. H. Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49342980"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> greening systems and the effect on air flow and temperature on the building envelope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> greening has an important impact on the thermal performance of buildings and on the effect of the urban environment as well, both in summer and winter. Plants are functioning as a solar filter and prevent the adsorption of <span class="hlt">heat</span> radiation of building materials extensively. Applying green façades is not a new concept; however it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katia Perini; Marc Ottelé; A. L. A. Fraaij; E. M. Haas; Rossana Raiteri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geog.ubc.ca/%7Eian/ELEVATED%20OZONE%20LAYERS%20AND%20VERTICAL%20DOWN-MIXING%20OVER%20THE%20LOWER%20FRASER%20VALLEY,%20BC.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevated ozone layers and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> down-mixing over the Lower Fraser Valley, BC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> profiling data, including lidar, are used to illustrate elevated layer development during two days of the Pacific '93 field study. Results indicate that multiple processes may produce layers. The “chimney effect”, where pollutants are vented along the <span class="hlt">heated</span> sidewalls of the valley, is shown to be important, while evidence is also shown for “convective debris” contributing to elevated layer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. G. McKendry; D. G. Steyn; J. Lundgren; R. M. Hoff; W. Strapp; K. Anlauf; F. Froude; J. B. Martin; R. M. Banta; L. D. Olivier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26226201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solidification of phase change material on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical surface in holdup air bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solidification of phase change material around a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylindrical surface was studied to investigate the performance of ice storage system and stored thermal energy. Air bubbles were generated in the phase change material at various air flow rate as a gas holdup to enhance the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rate and accelerate the ice layer growth at the solid–liquid interface. The test</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mousa M. Mohamed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24286983"> <span id="translatedtitle">AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MELTING <span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> ICE CYLINDERS IN COLD WATER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short <span class="hlt">vertical</span> ice cylinders were melted in quiescent ambient cold fresh water to visualize the melting and the resulting convective motions. Melting rates and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer parameters were also determined. The cylinder penetrated the water surface, to model the melting of floating surface ice. Melting experiments over the ambient medium temperature range, t ?, from 2 to 7°C covered the whole</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BENJAMIN GEBHART; T. WANG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26962828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of natural convection in the space between concentric <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders of different height and diameter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The considered analysis is concerned with the natural convection flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the enclosed space between two <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders, with the special feature that the inner cylinder is not only smaller in diameter but also of lesser height than the outer cylinder. The two cylinders are concentric. The surface of the inner cylinder is maintained isothermal at a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Charmchi; E. M. Sparrow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://climate.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/fulltext/acpd-7-4481_p.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile of cloud droplet e ective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cloud-aerosol interaction is no longer simply a radiative problem, but one a ecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and tem- poral distribution of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> release. Information on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, 5 can be correlated with details of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Vanderlei Martins; A. Marshak; L. A. Remer; D. Rosenfeld; Y. J. Kaufman; R. Fernandez-Borda; I. Koren; V. Zubko; P. Artaxo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53742429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> release. Information on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. V. Martins; A. Marshak; L. A. Remer; D. Rosenfeld; Y. J. Kaufman; R. Fernandez-Borda; I. Koren; A. L. Correia; V. Zubko; P. Artaxo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20064516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cloud-aerosol interaction is no longer simply a radiative problem, but one affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> release. Information on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Vanderlei Martins; A. Marshak; L. A. Remer; D. Rosenfeld; Y. J. Kaufman; R. Fernandez-Borda; I. Koren; V. Zubko; P. Artaxo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA484849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multichip <span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: A Coherent Power Scaling Scheme (Postprint).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose an efficient coherent power scaling scheme, the multichip <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL), in which the waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated in the active region is distributed on multi-VECSEL chips such that the pump level at the ther...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. R. Zakharian J. Hader J. V. Moloney L. Fan M. Fallahi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26202828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large eddy simulation of natural convection along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> isothermal surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large eddy simulations of natural convection along a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> isothermal surface have been carried out using a parallel CFD code SMAFS (Smoke Movement And Flame Spread) developed by the first author to study the dynamics of the natural convection flow and the associated convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, with sub-grid scale turbulence modeled using the Smagorinsky model. In the computation, the filtered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. H. Yan; E. E. A. Nilsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23417940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics of lift tube technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An innovative <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport tube system has been developed to enhance <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between fluidized beds and axial solids circulation within a fluidized bed reactor. <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> lift tubes pick up particles from the bottom of the reactor, carry them through a fluidized bed burner before discharging them above the reactor bed surface. A full-scale experimental setup was designed to test</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Jacobson; Cedric Briens; Franco Berruti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BoLMe.145..383K"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Well Can We Measure the <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Wind Speed? Implications for Fluxes of Energy and Mass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sonic anemometers are capable of measuring the wind speed in all three dimensions at high frequencies (10-50 Hz), and are relied upon to estimate eddy-covariance-based fluxes of mass and energy over a wide variety of surfaces and ecosystems. In this study, wind-velocity measurement errors from a three-dimensional sonic anemometer with a non-orthogonal transducer orientation were estimated for over 100 combinations of angle-of-attack and wind direction using a novel technique to measure the true angle-of-attack and wind speed within the turbulent atmospheric surface layer. Corrections to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind speed varied from -5 to 37% for all angles-of-attack and wind directions examined. When applied to eddy-covariance data from three NOAA flux sites, the wind-velocity corrections increased the magnitude of CO2 fluxes, sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, and latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes by ?11%, with the actual magnitude of flux corrections dependent upon sonic anemometer, surface type, and scalar. A sonic anemometer that uses <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned transducers to measure the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind speed was also tested at four angles-of-attack, and corrections to the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind speed measured using this anemometer were within ±1% of zero. Sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes over a forest canopy measured using this anemometer were 15% greater than sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes measured using a sonic anemometer with a non-orthogonal transducer orientation. These results indicate that sensors with a non-orthogonal transducer orientation, which includes the majority of the research-grade three-dimensional sonic anemometers currently in use, should be redesigned to minimize sine errors by measuring the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind speed using one pair of <span class="hlt">vertically</span> aligned transducers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kochendorfer, John; Meyers, Tilden P.; Frank, John; Massman, William J.; Heuer, Mark W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10730378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinate and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> coordinate and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George R. Halliwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19246392"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of transmission of <span class="hlt">heat</span> by waves is reviewed and interpreted. The notion of an effective thermal conductivity, an effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity, and relaxation functions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> and energy is introduced along lines used recently to describe the elastic response of viscous liquids. An annotated bibliography of the literature on <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves, from the beginning until now, gives a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. D. Joseph; Luigi Preziosi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60111132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control system for a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis windmill</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated <span class="hlt">vertical</span> blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brulle; Robert V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40535961"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> concept of power MOSFETs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One major goal in power device research is the reduction of power losses while keeping high breakdown voltages. Commonly used power devices, e.g. DMOS™, use a combination of lateral channel and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> drift zone. This involves power losses that can be reduced by a device concept with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> channel and drift zone. We will discuss the classical DMOS™ structure in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C Tolksdorf; C Fink; J Schulze; S Sedlmaier; W Hansch; W Werner; W Kanert; I Eisele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_38/issue_1/0070.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral mechanisms controlling <span class="hlt">vertical</span> migration in Daphnia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used infrared video monitoring to study cladoceran <span class="hlt">vertical</span> migration in laboratory tanks exposed to natural and simulated daylight cycles. There are changes in the behavior patterns at different times of the year, with both Daphnia magna and Daphnia longispina showing increased <span class="hlt">vertical</span> migration and greater average depth later in the year. This change in behavior pattern is due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">STEPHEN YOUNG; PENELOPE WATT</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41155346"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> profiles of aeolian sand mass flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> profiles of the horizontal mass flux of blown sand are investigated experimentally using a passive <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array in a wind tunnel. Considering lower sampling efficiency of the sand trap in the near-bed region, this investigation is complemented by the measurements of the longitudinal profiles of mass flux made using a horizontal sand trap. The experiments were conducted with two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R Ni; Z. S Li; C Mendoza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4065717"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> supported two-directional comb drive</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">vertically</span> supported comb drive with the feasibility of actuation in two perpendicular directions utilizing electrostatic force from interdigitated comb-shape electrodes has been demonstrated. The prototype microstructures are made of 2 µm thick polysilicon by a standard surface micromachining process. They are <span class="hlt">vertically</span> lifted after the final sacrificial layer releasing process and are fixed on the substrate with the assistance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ki Bang Lee; Liwei Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45461592"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Economies of Scope in Dairy Farming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the exception of Azzam and Skinner (2007), the economic literature on farm structure has largely neglected issues of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> organization of the farm. In this article we estimate a multi-stage, multi-output cost function in order to measure <span class="hlt">vertical</span> economies of scope in organic and conventional dairy farms. In particular, we model the integration of production of grains and forages</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph V. Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58016232"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">VERTICAL</span> INTEGRATION IN AGRICULTURE AND CONTRACT FARMING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been widely argued recently that agriculture is undergoing a process of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration with allied industries. One of the worldwide ways of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration in agriculture is contract farming. Contract farming is a continually evolving process. Worldwide applications of contract farming have shown that the terms of contracts are shaped by their own conditions and varied from product</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erkan Rehber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51915538"> <span id="translatedtitle">An inexpensive <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-displacement indentation tester</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A displacement transducer is used to follow the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> movements of an indenter tip, which is forced into the material specimen under a selected dead weight load. Measurement of indentation depth under load and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> recovery following load removal allows both plastic and elastic characteristics of the material to be evaluated. The equipment gives consistent results, is readily portable, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. P. White; M. E. Aulton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+monopoly&id=ED318406"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how <span class="hlt">vertical</span> integration affects those…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brennan, Timothy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/37787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arthropod <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stratification in temperate deciduous forests ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/">Treesearch</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Description: Studies on the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution patterns of arthropods in ... age, season, time of day); (2) forest structure (height, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> foliage complexity, plant ... (7) logistics (dispersal abilities, proximity to emergence sites, open flight zones) . ... of canopy arthropod taxa associated with standing or suspended dead wood,  ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://airsea.ucsd.edu/papers/zhou%20d,%20chan%20es,%20melville%20wk%20-%20applied%20ocean%20research%2013%20-%201991.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave impact pressures on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory measurements of the pressure distributions on surface-piercing <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cylinders due to breaking waves are presented. Breaking waves are generated in a repeatable fashion under program control, and both <span class="hlt">vertical</span> and azimuthal distributions of pressures were measured over many repeats of the experiments. Despite the repeatability of the controllable experimental conditions, it is found that the highest impact pressures are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Zhou; E. S. Chan; W. K. Melville</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57772576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jump measurement devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> jump height is thought to provide a valuable index of muscular power, which is an important factor in sports performance and for assessing the mobility and functional capacity of injured or aged individuals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the criterion validity of four popular devices for measuring <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jump height. A belt mat, contact mat,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthew Buckthorpe; John Morris; Jonathan P. Folland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57778917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jump measurement devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> jump height is thought to provide a valuable index of muscular power, which is an important factor in sports performance and for assessing the mobility and functional capacity of injured or aged individuals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the criterion validity of four popular devices for measuring <span class="hlt">vertical</span> jump height. A belt mat, contact mat,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthew Buckthorpe; John Morris; Jonathan P. Folland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~ackerman/Articles/mcfarlane_2006JD008290.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of tropical radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles: A comparison of models and observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> distribution of radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> in the atmosphere is an important driver of atmospheric circulation, especially in the tropics. Evaluation of model simulations of the Earth's radiation balance typically focus on performance at the top of the atmosphere or at the surface. This study compares the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of clouds and radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates calculated from observations at the Department</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sally A. McFarlane; James H. Mather; Thomas P. Ackerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48916912"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of tropical radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles: A comparison of models and observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> in the atmosphere is an important driver of atmospheric circulation. Evaluation of model simulations of the Earth's radiation budget typically focus only on performance at the top of the atmosphere or at the surface. In this study, we compare the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> distribution of cloud properties and radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates calculated from observations at the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sally A. McFarlane; James H. Mather; Thomas P. Ackerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26230324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of melting <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer with regard to different geometric arrangements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, melting experiments performed with different geometric test configurations are reported. The investigation encompasses the melting process adjacent to a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface and inside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> as well as horizontal <span class="hlt">heated</span> cylinder. All studied processes show common features and can be described by two-regime models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bureiss; H. Beer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5084914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of melting <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer with regard to different geometric arrangements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, melting experiments performed with different geometric test configurations are reported. The investigation encompasses the melting process adjacent to a <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface and inside a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> as well as horizontal <span class="hlt">heated</span> cylinder. All studied processes show common features and can be described by two-regime models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bureiss, M.; Beer, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21116047"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and experimental study of nucleate boiling on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal plain tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of nucleate boiling on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal plain tubes is presented in this paper. Experiments were performed with refrigerant R123 at reduced pressures varying from 0.022 to 0.64, tube pitch to diameter ratios of 1.32, 1.53 and 2.00, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes from 0.5 to 40 kW/m{sup 2}. Brass tubes with external diameters of 19.05 mm and average roughness of 0.12 {mu}m were used in the experiments. The effect of the tube spacing on the local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient along the tube array was negligible within the present range of experimental conditions. For partial nucleate boiling, characterized by low <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, and low reduced pressures, the tube positioning shows a remarkable effect on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient. Based on these data, a general correlation for the prediction of the nucleate boiling <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient on a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> array of horizontal tubes under flooded conditions was proposed. According to this correlation, the ratio between the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients of a given tube and the lowest tube in the array depends only on the tube row number, the reduced pressure and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux. By using the proposed correlation, most of the experimental <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients obtained in the present study were predicted within {+-}15%. The new correlation compares reasonably well with independent data from the literature. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribatski, Gherhardt [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador SanCarlense 400, Centro, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Saiz Jabardo, Jose M. [Escola Politecnica Superior, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); da Silva, Evandro Fockink [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais - CEFETMG, Unidade Divinopolis, R. Monte Santo, 319, Divinopolis, MG (Brazil)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002vsel.book.....W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span>-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength <span class="hlt">vertical</span>-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52569247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dynamical <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes on model climate sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the meridional and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridonal (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux parameterization into a two-zone (flow latitude 0°-30°N and high latitude 30°-90°N) version of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> radiative-convective</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v089/iD03/JD089iD03p04699/JD089iD03p04699.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Dynamical <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Fluxes on Model Climate Sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the meridional and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> dynamical <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridional (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux parameterization into a two-zone (low latitude 0ø-30øN and high latitude 30ø-90øN) version of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> radiative-convective</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1662299"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer from square pin-fin <span class="hlt">heat</span> sinks using air impingement cooling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental and numerical results are presented for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from a C4 mounted organic land grid array (OLGA) thermal test chip cooled by air impingement. Five <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink geometries were investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from 9,000 to 26,000. The dimensionless nozzle-to-<span class="hlt">heat</span> sink <span class="hlt">vertical</span> spacing z\\/D was varied between 2 and 12. In this study, we investigate the interactions between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jim G. Maveety; Henry H. Jung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990qnde....9..511W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flying laser spot thermal wave IR imaging of horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cracks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 'Flying-Spot' laser-source/IR-detector camera has been developed in which the focal point of an unmodulated <span class="hlt">heating</span> laser is moved at constant velocity across the sample while the image point of an IR detector is scanned at the same speed at a point just behind the laser beam. The detector is thus looking at the 'thermal wake' of the <span class="hlt">heated</span> spot. The time delay between <span class="hlt">heating</span> and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this distance can be made arbitrarily small, the camera can make thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. Also, because the <span class="hlt">heat</span> source is a very small spot, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow is fully 3D. This makes the camera system sensitive to features like tightly closed <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cracks which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Y. Q.; Kuo, P. K.; Favro, L. D.; Thomas, R. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2605R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ascent rates, dehydration and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> diffusion in the tropical tropopause region and lower stratosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transport of water vapour and short lived tropospheric species into the stratospheric overworld is determined by processes in the tropical tropopause region. The interaction between horizontal and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport through this region of the atmosphere determines the amount of water vapour that is transported into the stratosphere and the timescale for chemical processing of tropospheric species before they reach the stratosphere. We have developed approaches to quantify <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport rates from (a) meteorological fields from assimilation models throughout the upper TTL and lower tropical stratosphere, and (b) from ozone profile data in the lower stratosphere. We show that the quantification of ascent rates from assimilation data usually suffers from excessive noise in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> wind fields. This results in <span class="hlt">vertical</span> diffusion rates that are several orders of magnitude larger than those derived from measurements. Also, net <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport rates are often significantly too large if based on <span class="hlt">vertical</span> winds. We have used an approach to base the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> motion in a lagrangian transport model on calculated diabatic <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates, either directly on isentropic surfaces or by solving the thermodynamic equation in pressure coordinates. We show that both approaches agree well and result in values for <span class="hlt">vertical</span> diffusion and net transport that are close to values derived from measurements. A multiannual time series of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> transport rates and corresponding residence times in the upper TTL and lower tropical stratosphere will be presented. Geographical distribuions of the Langrangian Cold Points (CLPs), conditions in these and corresponding water vapour transport will be shown. The results are compared with two Chemical Climate Models. The interannual variability and the impact of the QBO will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rex, Markus; Lehmann, Ralph; Wohltmann, Ingo; Kremser, Stefanie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v088/iB08/JB088iB08p06415/JB088iB08p06415.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculated temperatures in overthrust terrains and possible combinations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources responsible for the tertiary granites in the greater Himalaya</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are three obvious sources of <span class="hlt">heat</span> that affect the temperature in a region of thrust faulting: <span class="hlt">heat</span> supplied from below the lower thrust plate, radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> within the crusts of both the upper and, especially, the lower plates, and frictional <span class="hlt">heating</span> along the fault. We assume that <span class="hlt">heat</span> is conducted primarily in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> direction and that solutions to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Molnar; Wang-Ping Chen; Elaine Padovani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60267802"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pump system utilizable for air conditioner, water supply air conditioner, water supply apparatus and the like</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system according to the present invention, a plurality of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers are arranged in sequence in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> direction in a tank for storing a <span class="hlt">heat</span> medium therein, and these <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers are connected in series to a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger arranged outside the tank to construct a cooling medium circulating passage. A by-passing passage by-passing the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinoshita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16093206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection at a <span class="hlt">heated</span> semiinfinite <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate with temperature dependent <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources or sinks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical results are presented for the transient and steady-state velocity field and the temperature field. These results\\u000a were obtained by solving the partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy by an\\u000a explicit finite-difference method in time dependent form. It has been observed that the velocity componentsu, v (absolute) and the temperature0 have larger values in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Vajravelu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48894471"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical evaluation of subsurface soil water evaporation derived from sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recently introduced measurement approach allows in situ determination of subsurface soil water evaporation by means of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pulse probes (HPP). The latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> component of subsurface evaporation is estimated from the residual of the sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance. This <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance method requires measurement of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> soil temperature and estimates of thermal properties for soil water evaporation determination. Our objective was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaru Sakai; Scott B. Jones; Markus Tuller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55227490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquid-fluidized-bed <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger flow distribution models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Liquid-fluidized-bed shell-and-tube <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers for geothermal applications are considered. Sand fluidized by geothermal water on the shell side prevents scaling and increases <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients over conventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. Tests conducted on two instrumented fluidized-bed <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger models, constructed primarily of plexiglass, which differ in tube bundle orientation are described. Plexiglass construction allowed visual observation of flow patterns. The <span class="hlt">vertical</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. T. Cole; C. A. Allen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1653819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and optimization of a natural draft <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical solution for a system consisting of a <span class="hlt">vertical</span>, parallel-plate, isothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink, and a chimney is presented. The result is applied to problems in which the size of the overall system is constrained. A ridge of maximum total <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is observed with respect to the plate spacing and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-sink height. The ridge suggests that <span class="hlt">heat</span>-sink height may</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timothy S. Fisher; Kenneth E. Torrance; Kamal K. Sikka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5924422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulent energy losses during orchard <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a <span class="hlt">heated</span> orchard floor, sampled wind component in the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bland, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6967659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boiler having improved <span class="hlt">heat</span> absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is described of improving boiler efficiency wherein the boiler includes a casing, a <span class="hlt">heating</span> chamber defined in the casing, a flue in communication with the <span class="hlt">heating</span> chamber, and a bank of coils connected in series surrounding the <span class="hlt">heating</span> chamber concentric with a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> axis extending through the boiler. The bank of coils includes an inner coil surrounding the <span class="hlt">heating</span> chamber, an intermediate coil surrounding the inner coil, and an outer coil surrounding the intermediate coil. The method comprises: introducing fluid into the outer coil, communicating the fluid from the outer coil to the inner coil, communicating the fluid from the inner coil to the intermediate coil, and communicating the fluid from the intermediate coil to an outlet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McInerney, M.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a style="font-weight: bold;">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/650276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite resonator <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser diode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54957292"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exchange in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-supply zone of two-phase thermosiphons for small degrees of filling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reports results of an experimental study of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-supply zone of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> two-phase copper thermosiphons with inside diameters in the range 6-24 mm, length 250-700 mm, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux density 0.16-50 kW\\/sq m, slope of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transmitting element 5-90 deg to the plane of the horizontal, and for degrees of filling of the supply zone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. G. Semens; Iu. F. Kiselev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMT....46.1177S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation on condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop of R134a in a plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of R134a in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger was investigated experimentally. The local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients are determined by means of the measured local wall temperatures. A differential energy balance model is developed for data evaluation. It is found that the correlation proposed by Shah using ? and Z factors is suitable for condensation in plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers and is adopted to fit the measured data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Z.-Y.; Chen, J.-P.; Grabenstein, V.; Kabelac, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26481163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance analysis of a solar-assisted ground-source <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system for greenhouse <span class="hlt">heating</span>: an experimental study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the performance characteristics of a solar-assisted ground-source (geothermal) <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system (SAGSHPS) for greenhouse <span class="hlt">heating</span> with a 50m <span class="hlt">vertical</span> 32mm nominal diameter U-bend ground <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exchanger. This system was designed and installed in the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Izmir (568 degree days cooling, base: 22°C, 1226 degree days <span class="hlt">heating</span>, base: 18°C), Turkey. Based upon the measurements made</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onder Ozgener; Arif Hepbasli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26226518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental thermal performance study of an inclined <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger operating in high humid tropical HVAC systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an earlier paper [Y.H. Yau, Application of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger to dehumidification enhancement in tropical HVAC systems – a baseline performance characteristics study, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 46 (2) (2007) 164–171], the author had established the baseline performance characteristics of the eight-row wickless <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger (HPHX) for a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> configuration under a range of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. H. Yau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7j5u080k2214r3n6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation on condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop of R134a in a plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Condensation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of R134a in a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger was investigated experimentally. The local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer\\u000a coefficients are determined by means of the measured local wall temperatures. A differential energy balance model is developed\\u000a for data evaluation. It is found that the correlation proposed by Shah using ? and Z factors is suitable for condensation in plate <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z.-Y. Shi; J.-P. Chen; V. Grabenstein; S. Kabelac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhLA..372.2355I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface embedded in a thermally stratified porous medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mixed convection boundary layer flow through a stable stratified porous medium bounded by a <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface is investigated. The external velocity and the surface temperature are assumed to vary as x, where x is measured from the leading edge of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> surface and m is a constant. Numerical solutions for the governing Darcy and energy equations are obtained. The results indicate that the thermal stratification significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, besides delays the boundary layer separation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ASSL...96..519M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial refraction and <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature gradient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An assessment of the techniques and accuracy of current observations of coefficient of terrestrial refraction, including its diurnal and seasonal variations, is presented. One methodology has employed 1924 measurements of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> angles between two geodetic stations with either one-way or line refraction techniques. The stations were 15 km apart and at heights of 177 and 361 m. Additional data has been gathered from adjustments of trigonometric leveling traverses with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> angle capability, using stations 4 km apart. Another network featured lines of 4-23 km, with measurements repeated 12-60 hours sequentially. Mention is also given to measuring light attenuation and evaluation of the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> refraction angle from the variance of the angle of arrival fluctuations. Formulas for modeling the <span class="hlt">vertical</span> temperature gradient are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mavridis, L. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">469</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7528938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Flash Evaporator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various process cycles for the conventional horizontal flash evaporator are discussed along with the flow characteristics of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> risers. Other topics discussed include the experimental determination of the process properties of a flash-down stage, ma...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Klaren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">470</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD690794"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Profiles of Horizontal Ocean Currents.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data collected from moored current meters at a single site (Site D) in the western North Atlantic are used to define <span class="hlt">vertical</span> profiles of steady and time-dependent horizontal ocean currents. The mean velocity profile shows currents systematically flowing ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Webster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">471</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA143647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the Radar <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Coverage Diagram.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Algorithms are described for the calculation and plotting of radar <span class="hlt">vertical</span> coverage diagrams. Two contour VCD algorithms are presented, with a brief discussion on the problem of numerical stability, and the effects of ship motion and frequency agility. (...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. R. Battaglia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">472</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE97003848"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineering high-performance <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity lasers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cw and high-speed performance of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. L. Lear H. Q. Hou V. M. Hietala K. D. Choquette R. P. Schneider</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">473</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD730737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foundation Precompression with <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Sand Drains.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The precompression technique combined with <span class="hlt">vertical</span> sand drains is often applicable where structure loads are reasonably uniform and do not include heavy concentrated loadings and where earth fills for highways do not exceed 40 to 50 ft, although this lim...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">474</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB252516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Handicapped and Elderly <span class="hlt">Vertical</span> Movement Assessment Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report discusses the selection and assessment of seven (7) types of <span class="hlt">vertical</span> movement devices for potential use in older types of fixed rail urban mass transit facilities. The potential utilization of these devices is directed towards an increased usa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Kangas R. Mann D. Glater C. Cofield J. Bottari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">475</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=862980"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vertically</span> stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention provides a <span class="hlt">vertically</span> stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is <span class="hlt">vertically</span> elongated, while maintaining <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, <span class="hlt">vertical</span> stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">476</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61255991"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> removal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies on <span class="hlt">heat</span>-removal technology in fusion reactors are being made at laboratories of universities and at JAERI. Activities at universities involve fundamental studies related to fluid flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the MCF as well as in the ICF blanket. Activities at the JAERI involve experimental <span class="hlt">heat</span> technology developments in the JT-60 program and fusion reactor development program. A figure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Inove; H. Madarame; T. Tone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">477</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=863465"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exchanger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div>